Psychiatric Status Rating Scales: Standardized procedures utilizing rating scales or interview schedules carried out by health personnel for evaluating the degree of mental illness.Mental Disorders: Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale: A scale comprising 18 symptom constructs chosen to represent relatively independent dimensions of manifest psychopathology. The initial intended use was to provide more efficient assessment of treatment response in clinical psychopharmacology research; however, the scale was readily adapted to other uses. (From Hersen, M. and Bellack, A.S., Dictionary of Behavioral Assessment Techniques, p. 87)Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Psychometrics: Assessment of psychological variables by the application of mathematical procedures.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Pain Measurement: Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Health Status: The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.Nutritional Status: State of the body in relation to the consumption and utilization of nutrients.Depressive Disorder, Major: Marked depression appearing in the involution period and characterized by hallucinations, delusions, paranoia, and agitation.Parkinson Disease: A progressive, degenerative neurologic disease characterized by a TREMOR that is maximal at rest, retropulsion (i.e. a tendency to fall backwards), rigidity, stooped posture, slowness of voluntary movements, and a masklike facial expression. Pathologic features include loss of melanin containing neurons in the substantia nigra and other pigmented nuclei of the brainstem. LEWY BODIES are present in the substantia nigra and locus coeruleus but may also be found in a related condition (LEWY BODY DISEASE, DIFFUSE) characterized by dementia in combination with varying degrees of parkinsonism. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1059, pp1067-75)Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Disability Evaluation: Determination of the degree of a physical, mental, or emotional handicap. The diagnosis is applied to legal qualification for benefits and income under disability insurance and to eligibility for Social Security and workmen's compensation benefits.Neuropsychological Tests: Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.Depression: Depressive states usually of moderate intensity in contrast with major depression present in neurotic and psychotic disorders.Depressive Disorder: An affective disorder manifested by either a dysphoric mood or loss of interest or pleasure in usual activities. The mood disturbance is prominent and relatively persistent.Activities of Daily Living: The performance of the basic activities of self care, such as dressing, ambulation, or eating.Quality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.Antidepressive Agents: Mood-stimulating drugs used primarily in the treatment of affective disorders and related conditions. Several MONOAMINE OXIDASE INHIBITORS are useful as antidepressants apparently as a long-term consequence of their modulation of catecholamine levels. The tricyclic compounds useful as antidepressive agents (ANTIDEPRESSIVE AGENTS, TRICYCLIC) also appear to act through brain catecholamine systems. A third group (ANTIDEPRESSIVE AGENTS, SECOND-GENERATION) is a diverse group of drugs including some that act specifically on serotonergic systems.Antiparkinson Agents: Agents used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease. The most commonly used drugs act on the dopaminergic system in the striatum and basal ganglia or are centrally acting muscarinic antagonists.Observer Variation: The failure by the observer to measure or identify a phenomenon accurately, which results in an error. Sources for this may be due to the observer's missing an abnormality, or to faulty technique resulting in incorrect test measurement, or to misinterpretation of the data. Two varieties are inter-observer variation (the amount observers vary from one another when reporting on the same material) and intra-observer variation (the amount one observer varies between observations when reporting more than once on the same material).Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Cognition Disorders: Disturbances in mental processes related to learning, thinking, reasoning, and judgment.Pain: An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity: A behavior disorder originating in childhood in which the essential features are signs of developmentally inappropriate inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity. Although most individuals have symptoms of both inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity, one or the other pattern may be predominant. The disorder is more frequent in males than females. Onset is in childhood. Symptoms often attenuate during late adolescence although a minority experience the full complement of symptoms into mid-adulthood. (From DSM-V)Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Factor Analysis, Statistical: A set of statistical methods for analyzing the correlations among several variables in order to estimate the number of fundamental dimensions that underlie the observed data and to describe and measure those dimensions. It is used frequently in the development of scoring systems for rating scales and questionnaires.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Health Status Indicators: The measurement of the health status for a given population using a variety of indices, including morbidity, mortality, and available health resources.Neurologic Examination: Assessment of sensory and motor responses and reflexes that is used to determine impairment of the nervous system.Status Epilepticus: A prolonged seizure or seizures repeated frequently enough to prevent recovery between episodes occurring over a period of 20-30 minutes. The most common subtype is generalized tonic-clonic status epilepticus, a potentially fatal condition associated with neuronal injury and respiratory and metabolic dysfunction. Nonconvulsive forms include petit mal status and complex partial status, which may manifest as behavioral disturbances. Simple partial status epilepticus consists of persistent motor, sensory, or autonomic seizures that do not impair cognition (see also EPILEPSIA PARTIALIS CONTINUA). Subclinical status epilepticus generally refers to seizures occurring in an unresponsive or comatose individual in the absence of overt signs of seizure activity. (From N Engl J Med 1998 Apr 2;338(14):970-6; Neurologia 1997 Dec;12 Suppl 6:25-30)Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Bipolar Disorder: A major affective disorder marked by severe mood swings (manic or major depressive episodes) and a tendency to remission and recurrence.Personality Inventory: Check list, usually to be filled out by a person about himself, consisting of many statements about personal characteristics which the subject checks.Antidepressive Agents, Second-Generation: A structurally and mechanistically diverse group of drugs that are not tricyclics or monoamine oxidase inhibitors. The most clinically important appear to act selectively on serotonergic systems, especially by inhibiting serotonin reuptake.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Dementia: An acquired organic mental disorder with loss of intellectual abilities of sufficient severity to interfere with social or occupational functioning. The dysfunction is multifaceted and involves memory, behavior, personality, judgment, attention, spatial relations, language, abstract thought, and other executive functions. The intellectual decline is usually progressive, and initially spares the level of consciousness.Pilot Projects: Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.Affect: The feeling-tone accompaniment of an idea or mental representation. It is the most direct psychic derivative of instinct and the psychic representative of the various bodily changes by means of which instincts manifest themselves.Outcome Assessment (Health Care): Research aimed at assessing the quality and effectiveness of health care as measured by the attainment of a specified end result or outcome. Measures include parameters such as improved health, lowered morbidity or mortality, and improvement of abnormal states (such as elevated blood pressure).Patient Satisfaction: The degree to which the individual regards the health care service or product or the manner in which it is delivered by the provider as useful, effective, or beneficial.Educational Status: Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.Levodopa: The naturally occurring form of DIHYDROXYPHENYLALANINE and the immediate precursor of DOPAMINE. Unlike dopamine itself, it can be taken orally and crosses the blood-brain barrier. It is rapidly taken up by dopaminergic neurons and converted to DOPAMINE. It is used for the treatment of PARKINSONIAN DISORDERS and is usually given with agents that inhibit its conversion to dopamine outside of the central nervous system.Hypokinesia: Slow or diminished movement of body musculature. It may be associated with BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES; MENTAL DISORDERS; prolonged inactivity due to illness; and other conditions.Antipsychotic Agents: Agents that control agitated psychotic behavior, alleviate acute psychotic states, reduce psychotic symptoms, and exert a quieting effect. They are used in SCHIZOPHRENIA; senile dementia; transient psychosis following surgery; or MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; etc. These drugs are often referred to as neuroleptics alluding to the tendency to produce neurological side effects, but not all antipsychotics are likely to produce such effects. Many of these drugs may also be effective against nausea, emesis, and pruritus.Citalopram: A furancarbonitrile that is one of the SEROTONIN UPTAKE INHIBITORS used as an antidepressant. The drug is also effective in reducing ethanol uptake in alcoholics and is used in depressed patients who also suffer from tardive dyskinesia in preference to tricyclic antidepressants, which aggravate this condition.Anxiety: Feeling or emotion of dread, apprehension, and impending disaster but not disabling as with ANXIETY DISORDERS.Placebos: Any dummy medication or treatment. Although placebos originally were medicinal preparations having no specific pharmacological activity against a targeted condition, the concept has been extended to include treatments or procedures, especially those administered to control groups in clinical trials in order to provide baseline measurements for the experimental protocol.Cognition: Intellectual or mental process whereby an organism obtains knowledge.Psychological Tests: Standardized tests designed to measure abilities, as in intelligence, aptitude, and achievement tests, or to evaluate personality traits.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Mental Status Schedule: Standardized clinical interview used to assess current psychopathology by scaling patient responses to the questions.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Serotonin Uptake Inhibitors: Compounds that specifically inhibit the reuptake of serotonin in the brain.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Self Report: Method for obtaining information through verbal responses, written or oral, from subjects.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Torticollis: A symptom, not a disease, of a twisted neck. In most instances, the head is tipped toward one side and the chin rotated toward the other. The involuntary muscle contractions in the neck region of patients with torticollis can be due to congenital defects, trauma, inflammation, tumors, and neurological or other factors.Deep Brain Stimulation: Therapy for MOVEMENT DISORDERS, especially PARKINSON DISEASE, that applies electricity via stereotactic implantation of ELECTRODES in specific areas of the BRAIN such as the THALAMUS. The electrodes are attached to a neurostimulator placed subcutaneously.Schizophrenic Psychology: Study of mental processes and behavior of schizophrenics.Single-Blind Method: A method in which either the observer(s) or the subject(s) is kept ignorant of the group to which the subjects are assigned.Methylphenidate: A central nervous system stimulant used most commonly in the treatment of ATTENTION DEFICIT DISORDER in children and for NARCOLEPSY. Its mechanisms appear to be similar to those of DEXTROAMPHETAMINE. The d-isomer of this drug is referred to as DEXMETHYLPHENIDATE HYDROCHLORIDE.Schizophrenia: A severe emotional disorder of psychotic depth characteristically marked by a retreat from reality with delusion formation, HALLUCINATIONS, emotional disharmony, and regressive behavior.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: Categorical classification of MENTAL DISORDERS based on criteria sets with defining features. It is produced by the American Psychiatric Association. (DSM-IV, page xxii)Pain, Postoperative: Pain during the period after surgery.Videotape Recording: Recording of visual and sometimes sound signals on magnetic tape.Nortriptyline: A metabolite of AMITRIPTYLINE that is also used as an antidepressive agent. Nortriptyline is used in major depression, dysthymia, and atypical depressions.Movement Disorders: Syndromes which feature DYSKINESIAS as a cardinal manifestation of the disease process. Included in this category are degenerative, hereditary, post-infectious, medication-induced, post-inflammatory, and post-traumatic conditions.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Statistics, Nonparametric: A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)United StatesSertraline: A selective serotonin uptake inhibitor that is used in the treatment of depression.Anxiety Disorders: Persistent and disabling ANXIETY.Translations: Products resulting from the conversion of one language to another.Geriatric Assessment: Evaluation of the level of physical, physiological, or mental functioning in the older population group.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Psychomotor Agitation: A feeling of restlessness associated with increased motor activity. This may occur as a manifestation of nervous system drug toxicity or other conditions.Dyskinesias: Abnormal involuntary movements which primarily affect the extremities, trunk, or jaw that occur as a manifestation of an underlying disease process. Conditions which feature recurrent or persistent episodes of dyskinesia as a primary manifestation of disease may be referred to as dyskinesia syndromes (see MOVEMENT DISORDERS). Dyskinesias are also a relatively common manifestation of BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES.Comorbidity: The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.Marital Status: A demographic parameter indicating a person's status with respect to marriage, divorce, widowhood, singleness, etc.Cross-Over Studies: Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Linear Models: Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.Subthalamic Nucleus: Lens-shaped structure on the inner aspect of the INTERNAL CAPSULE. The SUBTHALAMIC NUCLEUS and pathways traversing this region are concerned with the integration of somatic motor function.Sickness Impact Profile: A quality-of-life scale developed in the United States in 1972 as a measure of health status or dysfunction generated by a disease. It is a behaviorally based questionnaire for patients and addresses activities such as sleep and rest, mobility, recreation, home management, emotional behavior, social interaction, and the like. It measures the patient's perceived health status and is sensitive enough to detect changes or differences in health status occurring over time or between groups. (From Medical Care, vol.xix, no.8, August 1981, p.787-805)Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Antimanic Agents: Agents that are used to treat bipolar disorders or mania associated with other affective disorders.Pain Management: A form of therapy that employs a coordinated and interdisciplinary approach for easing the suffering and improving the quality of life of those experiencing pain.Risperidone: A selective blocker of DOPAMINE D2 RECEPTORS and SEROTONIN 5-HT2 RECEPTORS that acts as an atypical antipsychotic agent. It has been shown to improve both positive and negative symptoms in the treatment of SCHIZOPHRENIA.Fatigue: The state of weariness following a period of exertion, mental or physical, characterized by a decreased capacity for work and reduced efficiency to respond to stimuli.Hallucinations: Subjectively experienced sensations in the absence of an appropriate stimulus, but which are regarded by the individual as real. They may be of organic origin or associated with MENTAL DISORDERS.Psychotic Disorders: Disorders in which there is a loss of ego boundaries or a gross impairment in reality testing with delusions or prominent hallucinations. (From DSM-IV, 1994)Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Recovery of Function: A partial or complete return to the normal or proper physiologic activity of an organ or part following disease or trauma.Cognitive Therapy: A direct form of psychotherapy based on the interpretation of situations (cognitive structure of experiences) that determine how an individual feels and behaves. It is based on the premise that cognition, the process of acquiring knowledge and forming beliefs, is a primary determinant of mood and behavior. The therapy uses behavioral and verbal techniques to identify and correct negative thinking that is at the root of the aberrant behavior.Homes for the Aged: Geriatric long-term care facilities which provide supervision and assistance in activities of daily living with medical and nursing services when required.Statistics as Topic: The science and art of collecting, summarizing, and analyzing data that are subject to random variation. The term is also applied to the data themselves and to the summarization of the data.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Tremor: Cyclical movement of a body part that can represent either a physiologic process or a manifestation of disease. Intention or action tremor, a common manifestation of CEREBELLAR DISEASES, is aggravated by movement. In contrast, resting tremor is maximal when there is no attempt at voluntary movement, and occurs as a relatively frequent manifestation of PARKINSON DISEASE.Depressive Disorder, Treatment-Resistant: Failure to respond to two or more trials of antidepressant monotherapy or failure to respond to four or more trials of different antidepressant therapies. (Campbell's Psychiatric Dictionary, 9th ed.)Parents: Persons functioning as natural, adoptive, or substitute parents. The heading includes the concept of parenthood as well as preparation for becoming a parent.Electroconvulsive Therapy: Electrically induced CONVULSIONS primarily used in the treatment of severe AFFECTIVE DISORDERS and SCHIZOPHRENIA.Low Back Pain: Acute or chronic pain in the lumbar or sacral regions, which may be associated with musculo-ligamentous SPRAINS AND STRAINS; INTERVERTEBRAL DISK DISPLACEMENT; and other conditions.Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Alzheimer Disease: A degenerative disease of the BRAIN characterized by the insidious onset of DEMENTIA. Impairment of MEMORY, judgment, attention span, and problem solving skills are followed by severe APRAXIAS and a global loss of cognitive abilities. The condition primarily occurs after age 60, and is marked pathologically by severe cortical atrophy and the triad of SENILE PLAQUES; NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES; and NEUROPIL THREADS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1049-57)Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Apathy: Lack of emotion or emotional expression; a disorder of motivation that persists over time.Weights and Measures: Measuring and weighing systems and processes.Globus Pallidus: The representation of the phylogenetically oldest part of the corpus striatum called the paleostriatum. It forms the smaller, more medial part of the lentiform nucleus.Sialorrhea: Increased salivary flow.Research Design: A plan for collecting and utilizing data so that desired information can be obtained with sufficient precision or so that an hypothesis can be tested properly.Wechsler Scales: Tests designed to measure intellectual functioning in children and adults.Language: A verbal or nonverbal means of communicating ideas or feelings.ROC Curve: A graphic means for assessing the ability of a screening test to discriminate between healthy and diseased persons; may also be used in other studies, e.g., distinguishing stimuli responses as to a faint stimuli or nonstimuli.Cyclohexanols: Monohydroxy derivatives of cyclohexanes that contain the general formula R-C6H11O. They have a camphorlike odor and are used in making soaps, insecticides, germicides, dry cleaning, and plasticizers.Delusions: A false belief regarding the self or persons or objects outside the self that persists despite the facts, and is not considered tenable by one's associates.Clinical Competence: The capability to perform acceptably those duties directly related to patient care.Self Concept: A person's view of himself.Gait Ataxia: Impairment of the ability to coordinate the movements required for normal ambulation (WALKING) which may result from impairments of motor function or sensory feedback. This condition may be associated with BRAIN DISEASES (including CEREBELLAR DISEASES and BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES); SPINAL CORD DISEASES; or PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES.Psychotherapeutic Processes: Experiential, attitudinal, emotional, or behavioral phenomena occurring during the course of treatment. They apply to the patient or therapist (i.e., nurse, doctor, etc.) individually or to their interaction. (American Psychological Association: Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 1994)Psychotherapy: A generic term for the treatment of mental illness or emotional disturbances primarily by verbal or nonverbal communication.Central Nervous System Stimulants: A loosely defined group of drugs that tend to increase behavioral alertness, agitation, or excitation. They work by a variety of mechanisms, but usually not by direct excitation of neurons. The many drugs that have such actions as side effects to their main therapeutic use are not included here.Cross-Cultural Comparison: Comparison of various psychological, sociological, or cultural factors in order to assess the similarities or diversities occurring in two or more different cultures or societies.Patient Simulation: The use of persons coached to feign symptoms or conditions of real diseases in a life-like manner in order to teach or evaluate medical personnel.Emotions: Those affective states which can be experienced and have arousing and motivational properties.Injections, Epidural: The injection of drugs, most often analgesics, into the spinal canal without puncturing the dura mater.Paroxetine: A serotonin uptake inhibitor that is effective in the treatment of depression.Perception: The process by which the nature and meaning of sensory stimuli are recognized and interpreted.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Translating: Conversion from one language to another language.Child Behavior: Any observable response or action of a child from 24 months through 12 years of age. For neonates or children younger than 24 months, INFANT BEHAVIOR is available.Stress, Psychological: Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.Dyskinesia, Drug-Induced: Abnormal movements, including HYPERKINESIS; HYPOKINESIA; TREMOR; and DYSTONIA, associated with the use of certain medications or drugs. Muscles of the face, trunk, neck, and extremities are most commonly affected. Tardive dyskinesia refers to abnormal hyperkinetic movements of the muscles of the face, tongue, and neck associated with the use of neuroleptic agents (see ANTIPSYCHOTIC AGENTS). (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1199)Outpatients: Persons who receive ambulatory care at an outpatient department or clinic without room and board being provided.Behavioral Symptoms: Observable manifestations of impaired psychological functioning.

*  "Can familial factors account for the association of body mass index with poor mental health in men or women" by Ellen...

Psychiatric Status Rating Scales; Stress, Psychological ... Kathryn M. Godfrey, San Diego State University/University of ... Adult; *Body Mass Index; Cholestasis; Cross-Sectional Studies; Depression; Female; Health Status; Humans; Male; Mental ...
https://works.bepress.com/sherry_pagoto/98/

*  Comorbid psychiatric disorders associated with Asperger syndrome/high-functioning autism: a community- and clinic-based study.

The present study identifies the prevalence and types of comorbid psychiatric disorders associated with Asperger syndrome (AS)/ ... Psychiatric Status Rating Scales. Sex Factors. Tic Disorders / complications, diagnosis, psychology. From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a ... The present study identifies the prevalence and types of comorbid psychiatric disorders associated with Asperger syndrome (AS)/ ... The level of functioning was estimated using the Children's Global Assessment Scale. The results support common (prevalence 74 ...
biomedsearch.com/nih/Comorbid-Psychiatric-Disorders-Associated-with/20177765.html

*  Birth order and the severity of illness in schizophrenia.

Psychiatric Status Rating Scales. Psychotic Disorders / diagnosis, genetics*, psychology. Quality of Life / psychology. Rh ... Previous Document: MMPI-2 profiles of Australian and Singaporean psychiatric patients.. Next Document: Bovine babesiosis: anti- ...
biomedsearch.com/nih/Birth-order-severity-illness-in/17292486.html

*  Attachment classifications among 18-month-old children of adolescent mothers.

Psychiatric Status Rating Scales. Questionnaires. Risk Factors. Self Concept. Social Class. Social Environment. Stress, ... Adolescent mothers also rated their infants as having a higher activity level (P,.05) than infants born to nonadolescent ... Adolescent and nonadolescent mothers show substantial differences in parenting characteristics and in how they rate their ... rating of infant temperament, and the caregiving environment. PARTICIPANTS: Fifty-one adolescent mothers and their 18-month-old ...
biomedsearch.com/nih/Attachment-classifications-among-18-month/11772186.html

*  The predictability of relapses in schizophrenic patients.

Psychiatric Status Rating Scales. Recurrence. Risk Factors. Schizophrenia / genetics, rehabilitation*. Schizophrenic Psychology ...
biomedsearch.com/nih/predictability-relapses-in-schizophrenic-patients/1829006.html

*  Core OCD symptoms: exploration of specificity and relations with psychopathology.

This study used aggregate composite scales representing three core OCD dimensions (Checking, Cleaning, and Rituals), as well as ... Psychiatric Status Rating Scales. Sensitivity and Specificity. Grant Support. ID/Acronym/Agency: R01 MH068472/MH/NIMH NIH HHS; ... and predictive ability of OCD symptom scales. The core OCD scales demonstrated strong patterns of convergent and discriminant ... 24555474 - Subjective caregiver burden: validity of the 10-item short version of the burden scale .... 24903304 - Severity of ...
biomedsearch.com/nih/Core-OCD-symptoms-Exploration-specificity/23026094.html

*  Electrophysiological brain activity and antisaccade performance in schizophrenia patients with first-rank (passivity) symptoms.

Psychiatric Status Rating Scales. Psychomotor Performance / physiology. Reaction Time / physiology. Saccades / physiology*. ... In addition, patients with FRS demonstrated more abnormalities on antisaccade error measures (error rate, self-correction ...
biomedsearch.com/nih/Electrophysiological-brain-activity-antisaccade-performance/19906434.html

*  Empathic abilities in people with schizophrenia.

The nature of empathy deficits in healthy subjects and psychiatric patients is an understudied subject. The perf ... Psychiatric Status Rating Scales / statistics & numerical data. Psychometrics. Schizophrenia / diagnosis*, physiopathology. ... The nature of empathy deficits in healthy subjects and psychiatric patients is an understudied subject. The performances of the ...
biomedsearch.com/nih/Empathic-abilities-in-people-with/18514324.html

*  Antipsychotic combinations vs monotherapy in schizophrenia: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

Psychiatric Status Rating Scales; Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic /statistics & Schizophrenia /drug therapy; ... reduction in score on the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale or the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale, or a categorisation of " ... The primary outcomes were a clinically significant response, dropout rate, and relapse rate. A clinically significant response ... Record Status. This is a critical abstract of a systematic review that meets the criteria for inclusion on DARE. Each critical ...
crd.york.ac.uk/crdweb/ShowRecord.asp?LinkFrom=OAI&ID=12009105422

*  "The Autonomy Over Smoking Scale" by Joseph R. DiFranza, Robert J. Wellman et al.

American Psychiatric Association, 2000) nicotine dependence criteria. Potentially useful features of this new instrument ... The Autonomy Over Smoking Scale was produced through a process involving item generation, focus-group evaluation, testing in ... The final 12-item scale shows excellent reliability (alphas = .91-.97), with a one-factor solution explaining 59% of the ... Psychiatric Status Rating Scales; Questionnaires; Smoking; Smoking Cessation; Tobacco Use Disorder ...
escholarship.umassmed.edu/fmch_articles/156/

*  Analyses of treatment-emergent mania with olanzapine/fluoxetine combination in the treatment of bipolar depression.

Psychiatric Status Rating Scales * Risk Factors * Serotonin Uptake Inhibitors * Severity of Illness Index ... Severity of Mania scale, and adverse events records.Overall rates of study discontinuation due to mania were low and not ... baseline Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale total score , or = 20) were randomly assigned to olanzapine (5-20 mg/day, N ... Treatment-emergent mania was evaluated with the Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS), the Clinical Global Impressions-Bipolar ...
https://vivo.health.unm.edu/display/n868037592

*  Comparative efficacy and safety of atypical and conventional antipsychotic drugs in first-episode psychosis: a randomized,...

Psychiatric Status Rating Scales * Psychotic Disorders * Schizophrenia * Severity of Illness Index * Treatment Outcome ... scales and by the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale but not as measured by the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale ... positive scale and by the Clinical Global Impression severity rating. Olanzapine-treated patients experienced a lower rate of ... subjects had significantly greater decreases in symptom severity as measured by the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale total ...
https://vivo.health.unm.edu/display/n975971824

*  Clozapine in the treatment of refractory psychotic mania.

Patients were evaluated longitudinally over the course of the study with the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS), the Young ... 7%, 56.6%, and 39.1% were seen on the BPRS, Young Mania Rating Scale, and CGI, respectively. Seventeen of the 22 subjects (77.3 ... Mania Rating Scale, and the Clinical Global Impressions (CGI) scale.Fourteen of the 22 subjects in the study continued taking ... Psychiatric Status Rating Scales * Regression Analysis * Sex Factors * Treatment Outcome ©2017 VIVO Project , Terms of Use ...
https://vivo.health.unm.edu/display/n282043954

*  Efficacy of olanzapine in combination with valproate or lithium in the treatment of mania in patients partially nonresponsive...

Psychiatric Status Rating Scales * Treatment Outcome * Valproic Acid ©2017 VIVO Project , Terms of Use ... Simpson-Angus Scale, Barnes Akathisia Scale, Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale) were not significantly changed from baseline ... vs placebo when added to ongoing mood-stabilizer therapy as measured by reductions in Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) scores. ... Olanzapine cotherapy improved 21-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD-21) total scores significantly more than ...
https://vivo.health.unm.edu/display/n467878070

*  "Psychometric properties of the Autonomy over Tobacco Scale in German" by Robert J. Wellman, Joseph R. DiFranza et al.

We investigated the psychometric properties of a German translation of the 12-item Autonomy over Tobacco Scale (AUTOS) among ... Adolescent; Factor Analysis, Statistical; Female; Germany; Humans; Male; Personal Autonomy; Psychiatric Status Rating Scales; ... BACKGROUND/AIMS: We investigated the psychometric properties of a German translation of the 12-item Autonomy over Tobacco Scale ... "Psychometric properties of the Autonomy over Tobacco Scale in German" (2012). Family Medicine and Community Health Publications ...
escholarship.umassmed.edu/fmch_articles/254/

*  A 24-week open-label extension study of olanzapine-fluoxetine combination and olanzapine monotherapy in the treatment of...

Psychiatric Status Rating Scales * Retrospective Studies * Risk Factors * Secondary Prevention * Serotonin Uptake Inhibitors ... The efficacy measures were the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS), Clinical Global Impressions-Bipolar Version, ... and Young Mania Rating Scale. The study was conducted from July 2000 to May 2002.Among patients who started in remission, MADRS ... The overall rate of depressive relapse was 27.4%, and the overall incidence of mania emergence was 5.9%.The present findings ...
https://vivo.health.unm.edu/display/n1602940857

*  HKU Scholars Hub: The influence of life events on the subsequent course of psychotic illness. A prospective follow-up of the...

Psychiatric Status Rating Scales. en_US. dc.subject.mesh. Psychotic Disorders - Epidemiology - Genetics - Psychology. en_US. ...
hub.hku.hk/handle/10722/175702

*  Antipsychotic drug treatment in first-episode mania: a 6-month longitudinal study.

Psychiatric Status Rating Scales * Psychotic Disorders * Treatment Outcome ©2017 VIVO Project , Terms of Use ... and doses of antipsychotics prescribed during and after hospitalization in relation to clinical status.First-episode manic ...
https://vivo.health.unm.edu/display/n296775940

*  Predicting diagnostic change among patients diagnosed with first-episode DSM-IV-TR major depressive disorder with psychotic...

Psychiatric Status Rating Scales * Psychopathology * Psychotic Disorders * Socioeconomic Factors ©2017 VIVO Project , Terms of ... we recruited patients with DSM-IV-TR psychotic MDD from 1989 through 2003 at psychiatric inpatient units in Massachusetts and ...
https://vivo.health.unm.edu/display/n569271209

*  Olanzapine versus placebo in the treatment of acute mania. Olanzapine HGEH Study Group.

Psychiatric Status Rating Scales * Sleep * Treatment Outcome ©2017 VIVO Project , Terms of Use ... Rating Scale total score.The olanzapine group experienced significantly greater mean improvement in Young Mania Rating Scale ... measure in the protocol was defined as a change from baseline to endpoint in total score on the Young Mania Rating Scale. ...
https://vivo.health.unm.edu/display/n1445798244

*  MRI study of cavum septi pellucidi in schizophrenia, affective disorder, and schizotypal personality disorder.

Psychiatric Status Rating Scales * Schizophrenia * Schizotypal Personality Disorder * Septum Pellucidum * Temporal Lobe ... criteria for rating cavum septi pellucidi, which omitted borderline cases with cavum septi pellucidi on three slices, the ...
https://vivo.health.unm.edu/display/n1557991116

*  Family-Focused Treatment for Adolescents With Bipolar Disorder

... on the Adolescent Longitudinal Interval Follow-up Evaluation Psychiatric Status Rating scales (PSR) covering the severity of ... The mood sections of the K-SADS-PL were replaced with the K-SADS Depression and Mania Rating Scales (DRS and MRS23-25), which ... Longitudinal trajectory of Psychiatric Status Ratings (PSR) from the Adolescent Longitudinal Interval Follow-up Evaluation (N= ... American Psychiatric Association . Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. 4th ed. American Psychiatric Press; ...
pubmedcentralcanada.ca/pmcc/articles/PMC2754177/?lang=en-ca

*  Clozapine combined with different antipsychotic drugs for treatment-resistant schizophrenia | Cochrane

... and mental state (Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS): 1 RCT, n = 50, MD -4.00, 95% CI -5.86 to -2.14, low quality evidence ... mean score/change in mental state), clinical response in global state (mean score/change in global state), weight gain, leaving ... global state (CGI - Severity score: 1 RCT, n = 60, MD -0.70, 95% CI -1.18 to -0.22, low quality evidence) and mental state ( ... One study showed a significant benefit of amisulpride over quetiapine in the short term, for both change in global state ( ...
cochrane.org/CD006324/SCHIZ_clozapine-combined-different-antipsychotic-drugs-treatment-resistant-schizophrenia

*  Stress, Anxiety and Depression London | Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) London | Head Injury London

Covering Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) London giving Psychiatric Expert and Opinion London. Expert advice on Head ... State Examination and the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale.. Author of a modification of the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale as. ... Present State Examination and Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale.. (Video Tapes for W.H.O. Meeting, Stockholm 1978). ... Modifications to Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale. W.H.O. Geneva. 1979.. Palmer R., Weller M.P.I. and Hay G. (1982). Sciences ...
malcolmweller.com/curriculum_vitae.php

*  Diagnosis of depression in elderly patients | BJPsych Advances

Åsberg Depression Rating Scale; the Geriatric Mental State Schedule/AGECAT), psychiatric interview and by treatment response ( ... Rating scales. Screening scales are of most use where a condition would otherwise be at risk of being missed. In the case of ... It has been validated in hospitals and nursing homes, against other scales (the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression; the ... Evans Liverpool Depression Rating Scale (ELDRS). The ELDRS has been developed for use in physically ill people, and is designed ...
apt.rcpsych.org/content/6/1/49

Mental disorderBrief Psychiatric Rating Scale: The Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) is rating scale which a clinician or researcher may use to measure psychiatric symptoms such as depression, anxiety, hallucinations and unusual behaviour.Overall JE, Gorham DR (1962).David Budescu: David Budescu is a psychologist and academic. He is the Anne Anastasi Professor of Psychometrics and Quantitative Psychology at Fordham University.Generalizability theory: Generalizability theory, or G Theory, is a statistical framework for conceptualizing, investigating, and designing reliable observations. It is used to determine the reliability (i.Pain scale: A pain scale measures a patient's pain intensity or other features. Pain scales are based on self-report, observational (behavioral), or physiological data.Closed-ended question: A closed-ended question is a question format that limits respondents with a list of answer choices from which they must choose to answer the question.Dillman D.Self-rated health: Self-rated health (also called Self-reported health, Self-assessed health, or perceived health) refers to both a single question such as “in general, would you say that you health is excellent, very good, good, fair, or poor?” and a survey questionnaire in which participants assess different dimensions of their own health.BrexpiprazoleCauses of Parkinson's disease: Parkinson's disease (PD) is a degenerative disorder of the central nervous system. Most people with PD have idiopathic Parkinson's disease (having no specific known cause).Placebo-controlled study: Placebo-controlled studies are a way of testing a medical therapy in which, in addition to a group of subjects that receives the treatment to be evaluated, a separate control group receives a sham "placebo" treatment which is specifically designed to have no real effect. Placebos are most commonly used in blinded trials, where subjects do not know whether they are receiving real or placebo treatment.International Disability and Development Consortium: The International Disability and Development Consortium (IDDC) is a global consortium of disability and development related organisations. The aim of IDDC is to promote inclusive development internationally, with a special focus on promoting human rights for all disabled people living in economically poor communities in lower and middle-income countries.Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status: The Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status is a neuropsychological assessment initially introduced in 1998. It consists of ten subtests which give five scores, one for each of the five domains tested (immediate memory, visuospatial/constructional, language, attention, delayed memory).Rating scales for depression: A depression rating scale is a psychiatric measuring instrument having descriptive words and phrases that indicate the severity of depression for a time period. When used, an observer may make judgements and rate a person at a specified scale level with respect to identified characteristics.Bristol Activities of Daily Living Scale: The Bristol Activities of Daily Living Scale (BADLS) is a 20-item questionnaire designed to measure the ability of someone with dementia to carry out daily activities such as dressing, preparing food and using transport.Time-trade-off: Time-Trade-Off (TTO) is a tool used in health economics to help determine the quality of life of a patient or group. The individual will be presented with a set of directions such as:S32212: S32212 is a drug which is under preclinical investigation as a potential antidepressant medicine. It behaves as a selective, combined 5-HT2C receptor inverse agonist and α2-adrenergic receptor antagonist (at all three subtypes—α2A, α2B, and α2C) with additional 5-HT2A and, to a lesser extent, 5-HT2B receptor antagonistic properties, and lacks any apparent affinity for the monoamine reuptake transporters or for the α1-adrenergic, H1, or mACh receptors.Postoperative cognitive dysfunction: Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is a short-term decline in cognitive function (especially in memory and executive functions) that may last from a few days to a few weeks after surgery. In rare cases, this disorder may persist for several months after major surgery.Cancer pain: Pain in cancer may arise from a tumor compressing or infiltrating nearby body parts; from treatments and diagnostic procedures; or from skin, nerve and other changes caused by a hormone imbalance or immune response. Most chronic (long-lasting) pain is caused by the illness and most acute (short-term) pain is caused by treatment or diagnostic procedures.Adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorderTemporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studyingSoo Ik Lee: Soo Ik Lee, MD (died 1995) was a Korean-born American neurologist and a subspecialist in clinical neurophysiology based at the University of Virginia in Charlottesville, Virginia.Bipolar disorderFamilial British dementia: Familial British dementia is a form of dementia. It was first reported by Cecil Charles Worster-Drought in 1933 and is therefore also known as Worster-Drought syndrome.Bio Base EuropeDopamine dysregulation syndrome: Dopamine dysregulation syndrome (DDS) is a dysfunction of the reward system observed in some individuals taking dopaminergic medications for an extended length of time. It can occur in subjects with Parkinson's disease (PD) due to a long exposure to dopamine replacement therapy (DRT).Hypokinesia: Hypokinesia refers to decreased bodily movement.http://serendip.Atypical antipsychotic: The atypical antipsychotics (AAP; also known as second generation antipsychotics (SGAs)) are a group of antipsychotic drugs (antipsychotic drugs in general are also known as major tranquilisers and neuroleptics, although the latter is usually reserved for the typical antipsychotics) used to treat psychiatric conditions. Some atypical antipsychotics have received regulatory approval (e.DesmethylcitalopramHypervigilance: Hypervigilance is an enhanced state of sensory sensitivity accompanied by an exaggerated intensity of behaviors whose purpose is to detect threats. Hypervigilance is also accompanied by a state of increased anxiety which can cause exhaustion.Cognitive skill: Cognitive functioning is a term referring to a human’s ability to process to (thoughts) that should not deplete on a large scale in healthy individuals. Cognition mainly refers to things like memory, the ability to learn new information, speech, understanding of written material.Psychiatric assessment: A psychiatric assessment, or psychological screening, is a process of gathering information about a person within a psychiatric (or mental health) service, with the purpose of making a diagnosis. The assessment is usually the first stage of a treatment process, but psychiatric assessments may also be used for various legal purposes.Assay sensitivity: Assay sensitivity is a property of a clinical trial defined as the ability of a trial to distinguish an effective treatment from a less effective or ineffective intervention. Without assay sensitivity, a trial is not internally valid and is not capable of comparing the efficacy of two interventions.Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitorAge adjustment: In epidemiology and demography, age adjustment, also called age standardization, is a technique used to allow populations to be compared when the age profiles of the populations are quite different.QRISK: QRISK2 (the most recent version of QRISK) is a prediction algorithm for cardiovascular disease (CVD) that uses traditional risk factors (age, systolic blood pressure, smoking status and ratio of total serum cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) together with body mass index, ethnicity, measures of deprivation, family history, chronic kidney disease, rheumatoid arthritis, atrial fibrillation, diabetes mellitus, and antihypertensive treatment.HyperintensityRegression dilution: Regression dilution, also known as regression attenuation, is the biasing of the regression slope towards zero (or the underestimation of its absolute value), caused by errors in the independent variable.TorticollisNeurostimulationMethylphenidateReligion and schizophrenia: == Background ==SchizophreniaVideo tape tracking: In a video tape recorder, tracking is a calibration adjustment which ensures that the spinning playback head is properly aligned with the helical scan signal written onto the tape.The Movement Disorder SocietyNon-communicable disease: Non-communicable disease (NCD) is a medical condition or disease that is non-infectious or non-transmissible. NCDs can refer to chronic diseases which last for long periods of time and progress slowly.List of Parliamentary constituencies in Kent: The ceremonial county of Kent,SertralineSocial anxiety disorderNested case-control study: A nested case control (NCC) study is a variation of a case-control study in which only a subset of controls from the cohort are compared to the incident cases. In a case-cohort study, all incident cases in the cohort are compared to a random subset of participants who do not develop the disease of interest.Psychomotor agitationHemiballismusComorbidity: In medicine, comorbidity is the presence of one or more additional disorders (or diseases) co-occurring with a primary disease or disorder; or the effect of such additional disorders or diseases. The additional disorder may also be a behavioral or mental disorder.Mood stabilizer: A mood stabilizer is a psychiatric medication used to treat mood disorders characterized by intense and sustained mood shifts, typically bipolar disorder.RisperidoneCancer-related fatigue: Cancer-related fatigue is a subjective symptom of fatigue that is experienced by nearly all cancer patients.Peduncular hallucinosis: Peduncular hallucinosis (PH), or Lhermitte's peduncular hallucinosis, is a rare neurological disorder that causes vivid visual hallucinations that typically occur in dark environments, and last for several minutes. Unlike some other kinds of hallucinations, the hallucinations that patients with PH experience are very realistic, and often involve people and environments that are familiar to the affected individuals.DSM-IV Codes (alphabetical): __FORCETOC__

(1/6977) Predicting delayed anxiety and depression in patients with gastrointestinal cancer.

The aim of this study was to examine the possibility of predicting anxiety and depression 6 months after a cancer diagnosis on the basis of measures of anxiety, depression, coping and subjective distress associated with the diagnosis and to explore the possibility of identifying individual patients with high levels of delayed anxiety and depression associated with the diagnosis. A consecutive series of 159 patients with gastrointestinal cancer were interviewed in connection with the diagnosis, 3 months (non-cured patients only) and 6 months later. The interviews utilized structured questionnaires assessing anxiety and depression [Hospital Anxiety and Depression (HAD) scale], coping [Mental Adjustment to Cancer (MAC) scale] and subjective distress [Impact of Event (IES) scale]. Patient anxiety and depression close to the diagnosis were found to explain approximately 35% of the variance in anxiety and depression that was found 6 months later. The addition of coping and subjective distress measures did little to improve that prediction. A model using (standardized) cut-off scores of moderate to high anxiety, depression (HAD) and intrusive thoughts (IES subscale) close to the diagnosis to identify patients at risk for delayed anxiety and depression achieved a sensitivity of 75% and a specificity of 98%. Levels of anxiety and depression at diagnosis predicted a similar status 6 months later. The results also indicated that the HAD scale in combination with the IES intrusion subscale may be used as a tool for detecting patients at risk of delayed anxiety and depression.  (+info)

(2/6977) Computerised tomography and intellectual impairment in the elderly.

Sixty-six elderly subjects (mean age 77 years) whose mental state was assessed clinically and by simple psychometric tests have been studied by computerised tomography. The mean maximum ventricular area in the 17 mentally normal subjects was above the upper limit of normal for younger subjects, and there was a broad relationship between increasing ventricular dilatation and increasing intellectual impairment. No such clear relationship was demonstrable for measures of cortical atrophy.  (+info)

(3/6977) Executive function in depression: the role of performance strategies in aiding depressed and non-depressed participants.

OBJECTIVES: Depression has been found to be associated with dysfunction in executive processes, whereas relatively automatic processes are thought to remain intact. Failure to generate or implement adequate performance strategies has been postulated in depressed participants. The present study investigated spontaneous strategy usage in depressed and control participants, and the effectiveness of providing a hint about performance strategies. METHODS: Unipolar depressed participants were compared with matched healthy controls on three tasks sensitive to executive function: memory for categorised words, response suppression, and multiple scheduling. Participants in each group were randomly allocated to strategy aid and no strategy aid conditions. Those in the strategy aid condition were given a hint about the use of an appropriate performance strategy for each task, in addition to the standard instructions given to those in the no strategy aid condition. RESULTS: Depressed participants performed worse than controls on each of the three tasks, and were found to use appropriate performance strategies less often. Provision of strategy hints increased the use of performance strategies in two of the three tasks, memory for categorised words, and response suppression, but did not significantly improve overall performance for either group. CONCLUSIONS: The findings were consistent with the view that depressed participants fail to use appropriate performance strategies spontaneously to the same extent as controls. However, provision of information alone does not seem to be an adequate means of enhancing performance. The role of performance strategies in cognitive impairment in depression is discussed, both in terms of initiating use of such strategies and carrying these out efficiently.  (+info)

(4/6977) Quality of life in chronic heart failure: cilazapril and captopril versus placebo. Cilazapril-Captopril Multicentre Group.

OBJECTIVE: To measure quality of life (QOL) in patients with mild to moderate heart failure treated with angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors cilazapril or captopril. DESIGN: Randomised, double blind, placebo controlled, parallel groups trial. SUBJECTS: 367 patients with New York Heart Association (NYHA) heart failure class II (62%), III (36%) or IV (1%). METHODS: Patients were randomised to receive cilazapril 1 mg daily (n = 191) or captopril 25 mg three times daily (n = 90) for 24 weeks, or placebo for 12 weeks followed by cilazapril 1 mg daily for a further 12 weeks (n = 86). If patients had not responded after four weeks cilazapril was increased to 2.5 mg daily and captopril to 50 mg three times daily. QOL was assessed at baseline, 12, and 24 weeks using the sickness impact profile (SIP), the profile of mood states (POMS), the Mahler index of dyspnoea-fatigue, and a health status index (HSI). RESULTS: The physical dimension of the SIP averaged 7 units at baseline and improved after 12 weeks by 2.24 units in the cilazapril group, 2.38 units in the captopril group, and 1.51 units in the placebo group. The difference between drug and placebo was therefore 0.73 units (95% CI -0.86 to 2.32) for cilazapril, and 0.87 units (95% CI -0.96 to 2.70) for captopril, with small non-significant effect sizes (a statistical method for estimating the importance of a treatment related change) of 0.12 and 0.14. Similar results were observed for the total POMS and HSI scores. Although QOL improved more on the ACE inhibitors than on placebo, the effect sizes were not significant (< or = 0.26). CONCLUSIONS: Improvements in QOL in mild to moderate heart failure were small when treated with cilazapril or captopril compared with placebo.  (+info)

(5/6977) Sustained antidepressant effect of sleep deprivation combined with pindolol in bipolar depression. A placebo-controlled trial.

Total sleep deprivation (TSD) shows powerful but transient clinical effects in patients affected by bipolar depression. Pindolol blocks the serotonergic 5-HT1A autoreceptor, thus improving the antidepressant effect of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. We evaluated the interaction of TSD and pindolol in the treatment of acute episodes of bipolar depression. Forty bipolar depressed inpatients were randomized to receive pindolol 7.5 mg/day or placebo for nine days in combination with three consecutive TSD cycles. Pindolol significantly improved the antidepressant effect of TSD, and prevented the short-term relapse after treatment. The response rate (HDRS scores < 8) at the end of treatment was 15/20 for pindolol, and 3/20 for placebo. Coadministration of pindolol and TSD resulted in a complete response, which could be sustained for six months with lithium salts alone, in 65% of cases. This results suggest a major role for serotonergic transmission in the mechanism of action of TSD, and makes TSD treatment more effective in the treatment of bipolar depression.  (+info)

(6/6977) Plasma anti-serotonin and serotonin anti-idiotypic antibodies are elevated in panic disorder.

The psychoneuroimmunology of panic disorder is relatively unexplored. Alterations within brain stress systems that secondarily influence the immune system have been documented. A recent report indicated elevations of serotonin (5-HT) and ganglioside antibodies in patients with primary fibromyalgia, a condition with documented associations with panic disorder. In line with our interest in dysregulated 5-HT systems in panic disorder (PD), we wished to assess if antibodies directed at the 5-HT system were elevated in patients with PD in comparison to healthy volunteers. Sixty-three patients with panic disorder and 26 healthy volunteers were diagnosed by the SCID. Employing ELISA, we measured anti-5-HT and 5-HT anti-idiotypic antibodies (which are directed at 5-HT receptors). To include all subjects in one experiment, three different batches were run during the ELISA. Plasma serotonin anti-idiotypic antibodies: there was a significant group effect [patients > controls (p = .007)] and batch effect but no interaction. The mean effect size for the three batches was .76. Following Z-score transformation of each separate batch and then combining all scores, patients demonstrated significantly elevated levels of plasma serotonin anti-idiotypic antibodies. Neither sex nor age as covariates affected the significance of the results. There was a strong correlation between anti-serotonin antibody and serotonin anti-idiotypic antibody measures. Plasma anti-serotonin antibodies: there was a significant diagnosis effect [patients > controls (p = .037)]. Mean effect size for the three batches was .52. Upon Z-score transformation, there was a diagnosis effect with antibody elevations in patients. Covaried for sex and age, the result falls below significance to trend levels. The data raise the possibility that psychoimmune dysfunction, specifically related to the 5-HT system, may be present in PD. Potential interruption of 5-HT neurotransmission through autoimmune mechanisms may be of pathophysiologic significance in certain patients with panic disorder. It remains to be demonstrated if the peripheral autoimmunity is representative of CNS 5-HT neuronal alterations. Replication appears warranted.  (+info)

(7/6977) Changes in behavioural characteristics of elderly populations of local authority homes and long-stay hospital wards, 1976-7.

Behavioural characteristics of the elderly populations of seven local authority residential homes and three long-stay hospital wards were assessed in 1976 and 1977 with the Crichton Royal behavioural rating scale. In 1977 the levels of behavioural problems had increased in the residential homes, but declined in the hospital wards. Differences between the homes had decreased as the overall level of problems increased. The findings suggested that the additional burden of caring for increasing numbers of severely disabled elderly people was affecting the balance of institutional care, and a radical reappraisal of present patterns of care may be necessary to meet their future needs.  (+info)

(8/6977) Admission and adjustment of residents in homes for the elderly.

This paper discusses the relationship between psychological variables, a brief cognitive measure and a behavioural rating scale, and the subsequent adjustment of a group of elderly people newly admitted to a social services home for the elderly. It shows that, in this sample, three groups can be identified: a fairly independent group of people who show no apparent deterioration in functioning during the first year of admission; a more dependent group who show loss of functioning during the same period; and a third group who show an immediate negative effect from admission, and who have a poor outcome. We comment on the lack of evidence in support of a general negative relocation effect, and on the value of the procedures used.  (+info)



Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale


  • A clinically significant response was defined as at least a 50% reduction in score on the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale or the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale, or a categorisation of "much better" on the Clinical Global Impressions scale. (york.ac.uk)
  • Patients were evaluated longitudinally over the course of the study with the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS), the Young Mania Rating Scale, and the Clinical Global Impressions (CGI) scale.Fourteen of the 22 subjects in the study continued taking clozapine for at least 10 of the 12 weeks. (unm.edu)

Young Mania


  • Treatment-emergent mania was evaluated with the Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS), the Clinical Global Impressions-Bipolar Edition (CGI-BP) Severity of Mania scale, and adverse events records.Overall rates of study discontinuation due to mania were low and not significantly different among the therapy groups (p = .358). (unm.edu)
  • The efficacy measures were the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS), Clinical Global Impressions-Bipolar Version, and Young Mania Rating Scale. (unm.edu)
  • The primary efficacy measure in the protocol was defined as a change from baseline to endpoint in total score on the Young Mania Rating Scale. (unm.edu)
  • Clinical response was defined a priori as a decrease of 50% or more from baseline in Young Mania Rating Scale total score.The olanzapine group experienced significantly greater mean improvement in Young Mania Rating Scale total score than the placebo group. (unm.edu)

schizophrenia


  • The present study identifies the prevalence and types of comorbid psychiatric disorders associated with Asperger syndrome (AS)/high-functioning autism (HFA) in a combined community- and clinic-based sample of fifty 9- to 16-year-old subjects using the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children, Present and Lifetime Version. (biomedsearch.com)

prognosis


Montgomery-Asber


  • However, in a mixed-model analysis, olanzapine-treated subjects had significantly greater decreases in symptom severity as measured by the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale total score and negative and general scales and by the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale but not as measured by the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale positive scale and by the Clinical Global Impression severity rating. (unm.edu)

diagnosis


  • Finally, the OCD Checking scale was the only significant predictor of OCD diagnosis in logistic regression analyses. (biomedsearch.com)

2000


  • American Psychiatric Association, 2000) nicotine dependence criteria. (umassmed.edu)

olanzapine


  • Olanzapine-treated patients experienced a lower rate of treatment-emergent parkinsonism and akathisia but had significantly more weight gain, compared with the haloperidol-treated patients. (unm.edu)
  • The overall rate of depressive relapse was 27.4%, and the overall incidence of mania emergence was 5.9%.The present findings suggest that long-term treatment with olanzapine-fluoxetine combination may be a useful option for the management of depressive symptoms and carries a low risk of mania emergence. (unm.edu)

Psychological


  • OBJECTIVES: To determine (1) patterns of secure vs insecure attachment relationships in infants of adolescent and nonadolescent mothers and (2) if these patterns are mediated by parenting characteristics, including depression, self-esteem, parenting stress, child abuse potential, psychological distress, rating of infant temperament, and the caregiving environment. (biomedsearch.com)

patients


  • MMPI-2 profiles of Australian and Singaporean psychiatric patients. (biomedsearch.com)
  • In addition, patients with FRS demonstrated more abnormalities on antisaccade error measures (error rate, self-correction latencies) relative to controls. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The nature of empathy deficits in healthy subjects and psychiatric patients is an understudied subject. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Seventeen of the 22 subjects (77.3%) experienced at least a 20% improvement in scores on all three scales.The findings from this open-label study, which are consistent with previous retrospective studies, case reports, and one other open-label prospective study, suggest that clozapine is an effective agent for patients with treatment-refractory psychotic mania. (unm.edu)

baseline


  • 001). Extrapyramidal symptoms (Simpson-Angus Scale, Barnes Akathisia Scale, Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale) were not significantly changed from baseline to end point in either treatment group. (unm.edu)

relapse


  • The primary outcomes were a clinically significant response, dropout rate, and relapse rate. (york.ac.uk)

DiFranza


  • The Autonomy Over Smoking Scale" by Joseph R. DiFranza, Robert J. Wellman et al. (umassmed.edu)
  • Psychometric properties of the Autonomy over Tobacco Scale in German" by Robert J. Wellman, Joseph R. DiFranza et al. (umassmed.edu)

patterns


  • The core OCD scales demonstrated strong patterns of convergent and discriminant validity - suggesting that these dimensions are distinct from other self-reported symptoms - whereas hoarding symptoms correlated just as strongly with OCD and non-OCD symptoms in most analyses. (biomedsearch.com)

subjects


  • To target interventions, routine evaluation of psychiatric comorbidity in subjects with AS/HFA is emphasized. (biomedsearch.com)

study


  • Comorbid psychiatric disorders associated with Asperger syndrome/high-functioning autism: a community- and clinic-based study. (biomedsearch.com)
  • This study used aggregate composite scales representing three core OCD dimensions (Checking, Cleaning, and Rituals), as well as Hoarding, to examine the discriminant validity, diagnostic specificity, and predictive ability of OCD symptom scales. (biomedsearch.com)

among


  • BACKGROUND/AIMS: We investigated the psychometric properties of a German translation of the 12-item Autonomy over Tobacco Scale (AUTOS) among 1,195 eighth-grade students. (umassmed.edu)

measures


  • The Autonomy Over Smoking Scale was produced through a process involving item generation, focus-group evaluation, testing in adults to winnow items, field testing with adults and adolescents, and head-to-head comparisons with other measures. (umassmed.edu)