Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Risk: The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.Proportional Hazards Models: Statistical models used in survival analysis that assert that the effect of the study factors on the hazard rate in the study population is multiplicative and does not change over time.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Postoperative Complications: Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Recurrence: The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Body Mass Index: An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)Odds Ratio: The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Statistics, Nonparametric: A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)France: A country in western Europe bordered by the Atlantic Ocean, the English Channel, the Mediterranean Sea, and the countries of Belgium, Germany, Italy, Spain, Switzerland, the principalities of Andorra and Monaco, and by the duchy of Luxembourg. Its capital is Paris.Chi-Square Distribution: A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.JapanSurvival Analysis: A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.United StatesConfidence Intervals: A range of values for a variable of interest, e.g., a rate, constructed so that this range has a specified probability of including the true value of the variable.ROC Curve: A graphic means for assessing the ability of a screening test to discriminate between healthy and diseased persons; may also be used in other studies, e.g., distinguishing stimuli responses as to a faint stimuli or nonstimuli.Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Postoperative Period: The period following a surgical operation.Cardiovascular Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Alcohol Drinking: Behaviors associated with the ingesting of alcoholic beverages, including social drinking.Quality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.Coronary Disease: An imbalance between myocardial functional requirements and the capacity of the CORONARY VESSELS to supply sufficient blood flow. It is a form of MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA (insufficient blood supply to the heart muscle) caused by a decreased capacity of the coronary vessels.Preoperative Care: Care given during the period prior to undergoing surgery when psychological and physical preparations are made according to the special needs of the individual patient. This period spans the time between admission to the hospital to the time the surgery begins. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Stroke: A group of pathological conditions characterized by sudden, non-convulsive loss of neurological function due to BRAIN ISCHEMIA or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Stroke is classified by the type of tissue NECROSIS, such as the anatomic location, vasculature involved, etiology, age of the affected individual, and hemorrhagic vs. non-hemorrhagic nature. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp777-810)Ultrasonography: The visualization of deep structures of the body by recording the reflections or echoes of ultrasonic pulses directed into the tissues. Use of ultrasound for imaging or diagnostic purposes employs frequencies ranging from 1.6 to 10 megahertz.Epidemiologic Methods: Research techniques that focus on study designs and data gathering methods in human and animal populations.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Survival Rate: The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.Comorbidity: The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)C-Reactive Protein: A plasma protein that circulates in increased amounts during inflammation and after tissue damage.Pain Measurement: Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.Great BritainAnalysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Gestational Age: The age of the conceptus, beginning from the time of FERTILIZATION. In clinical obstetrics, the gestational age is often estimated as the time from the last day of the last MENSTRUATION which is about 2 weeks before OVULATION and fertilization.Vegetables: A food group comprised of EDIBLE PLANTS or their parts.Cause of Death: Factors which produce cessation of all vital bodily functions. They can be analyzed from an epidemiologic viewpoint.Pilot Projects: Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.NorwayAge Distribution: The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Biopsy: Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.Ultrasonography, Doppler, Color: Ultrasonography applying the Doppler effect, with the superposition of flow information as colors on a gray scale in a real-time image. This type of ultrasonography is well-suited to identifying the location of high-velocity flow (such as in a stenosis) or of mapping the extent of flow in a certain region.SwedenIndiaPostmenopause: The physiological period following the MENOPAUSE, the permanent cessation of the menstrual life.ParisHospitalization: The confinement of a patient in a hospital.Cerebrovascular Disorders: A spectrum of pathological conditions of impaired blood flow in the brain. They can involve vessels (ARTERIES or VEINS) in the CEREBRUM, the CEREBELLUM, and the BRAIN STEM. Major categories include INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATIONS; BRAIN ISCHEMIA; CEREBRAL HEMORRHAGE; and others.Linear Models: Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Length of Stay: The period of confinement of a patient to a hospital or other health facility.Coffee: A beverage made from ground COFFEA beans (SEEDS) infused in hot water. It generally contains CAFFEINE and THEOPHYLLINE unless it is decaffeinated.Pregnancy Outcome: Results of conception and ensuing pregnancy, including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; SPONTANEOUS ABORTION; INDUCED ABORTION. The outcome may follow natural or artificial insemination or any of the various ASSISTED REPRODUCTIVE TECHNIQUES, such as EMBRYO TRANSFER or FERTILIZATION IN VITRO.Neoplasm Staging: Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.Stress, Psychological: Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.Ultrasonography, Prenatal: The visualization of tissues during pregnancy through recording of the echoes of ultrasonic waves directed into the body. The procedure may be applied with reference to the mother or the fetus and with reference to organs or the detection of maternal or fetal disease.DenmarkPain: An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Endoscopy: Procedures of applying ENDOSCOPES for disease diagnosis and treatment. Endoscopy involves passing an optical instrument through a small incision in the skin i.e., percutaneous; or through a natural orifice and along natural body pathways such as the digestive tract; and/or through an incision in the wall of a tubular structure or organ, i.e. transluminal, to examine or perform surgery on the interior parts of the body.Feasibility Studies: Studies to determine the advantages or disadvantages, practicability, or capability of accomplishing a projected plan, study, or project.Recovery of Function: A partial or complete return to the normal or proper physiologic activity of an organ or part following disease or trauma.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Fever: An abnormal elevation of body temperature, usually as a result of a pathologic process.Depression: Depressive states usually of moderate intensity in contrast with major depression present in neurotic and psychotic disorders.Sex Distribution: The number of males and females in a given population. The distribution may refer to how many men or women or what proportion of either in the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome: A syndrome that is characterized by the triad of severe PEPTIC ULCER, hypersecretion of GASTRIC ACID, and GASTRIN-producing tumors of the PANCREAS or other tissue (GASTRINOMA). This syndrome may be sporadic or be associated with MULTIPLE ENDOCRINE NEOPLASIA TYPE 1.China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.Anthropometry: The technique that deals with the measurement of the size, weight, and proportions of the human or other primate body.Athletic Injuries: Injuries incurred during participation in competitive or non-competitive sports.Abdomen: That portion of the body that lies between the THORAX and the PELVIS.EnglandProbability: The study of chance processes or the relative frequency characterizing a chance process.Fruit: The fleshy or dry ripened ovary of a plant, enclosing the seed or seeds.Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2: A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Colorectal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the COLON or the RECTUM or both. Risk factors for colorectal cancer include chronic ULCERATIVE COLITIS; FAMILIAL POLYPOSIS COLI; exposure to ASBESTOS; and irradiation of the CERVIX UTERI.Radiopharmaceuticals: Compounds that are used in medicine as sources of radiation for radiotherapy and for diagnostic purposes. They have numerous uses in research and industry. (Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1161)Postoperative Care: The period of care beginning when the patient is removed from surgery and aimed at meeting the patient's psychological and physical needs directly after surgery. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Confounding Factors (Epidemiology): Factors that can cause or prevent the outcome of interest, are not intermediate variables, and are not associated with the factor(s) under investigation. They give rise to situations in which the effects of two processes are not separated, or the contribution of causal factors cannot be separated, or the measure of the effect of exposure or risk is distorted because of its association with other factors influencing the outcome of the study.Blood Sedimentation: Measurement of rate of settling of erythrocytes in anticoagulated blood.Patient Satisfaction: The degree to which the individual regards the health care service or product or the manner in which it is delivered by the provider as useful, effective, or beneficial.Lumbar Vertebrae: VERTEBRAE in the region of the lower BACK below the THORACIC VERTEBRAE and above the SACRAL VERTEBRAE.Hypertension: Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.FinlandAnti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Nurses: Professionals qualified by graduation from an accredited school of nursing and by passage of a national licensing examination to practice nursing. They provide services to patients requiring assistance in recovering or maintaining their physical or mental health.Ultrasonography, Doppler: Ultrasonography applying the Doppler effect, with frequency-shifted ultrasound reflections produced by moving targets (usually red blood cells) in the bloodstream along the ultrasound axis in direct proportion to the velocity of movement of the targets, to determine both direction and velocity of blood flow. (Stedman, 25th ed)Hip Fractures: Fractures of the FEMUR HEAD; the FEMUR NECK; (FEMORAL NECK FRACTURES); the trochanters; or the inter- or subtrochanteric region. Excludes fractures of the acetabulum and fractures of the femoral shaft below the subtrochanteric region (FEMORAL FRACTURES).Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Life Style: Typical way of life or manner of living characteristic of an individual or group. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)Parity: The number of offspring a female has borne. It is contrasted with GRAVIDITY, which refers to the number of pregnancies, regardless of outcome.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Occupational Diseases: Diseases caused by factors involved in one's employment.Netherlands: Country located in EUROPE. It is bordered by the NORTH SEA, BELGIUM, and GERMANY. Constituent areas are Aruba, Curacao, Sint Maarten, formerly included in the NETHERLANDS ANTILLES.Fractures, Bone: Breaks in bones.Lung Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.Kaplan-Meier Estimate: A nonparametric method of compiling LIFE TABLES or survival tables. It combines calculated probabilities of survival and estimates to allow for observations occurring beyond a measurement threshold, which are assumed to occur randomly. Time intervals are defined as ending each time an event occurs and are therefore unequal. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1995)Pregnancy Complications: Conditions or pathological processes associated with pregnancy. They can occur during or after pregnancy, and range from minor discomforts to serious diseases that require medical interventions. They include diseases in pregnant females, and pregnancies in females with diseases.Myocardial Infarction: NECROSIS of the MYOCARDIUM caused by an obstruction of the blood supply to the heart (CORONARY CIRCULATION).Drug Therapy, Combination: Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.Patient Selection: Criteria and standards used for the determination of the appropriateness of the inclusion of patients with specific conditions in proposed treatment plans and the criteria used for the inclusion of subjects in various clinical trials and other research protocols.Combined Modality Therapy: The treatment of a disease or condition by several different means simultaneously or sequentially. Chemoimmunotherapy, RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY, chemoradiotherapy, cryochemotherapy, and SALVAGE THERAPY are seen most frequently, but their combinations with each other and surgery are also used.Fluorodeoxyglucose F18: The compound is given by intravenous injection to do POSITRON-EMISSION TOMOGRAPHY for the assessment of cerebral and myocardial glucose metabolism in various physiological or pathological states including stroke and myocardial ischemia. It is also employed for the detection of malignant tumors including those of the brain, liver, and thyroid gland. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1162)Kidney Failure, Chronic: The end-stage of CHRONIC RENAL INSUFFICIENCY. It is characterized by the severe irreversible kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA) and the reduction in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE to less than 15 ml per min (Kidney Foundation: Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative, 2002). These patients generally require HEMODIALYSIS or KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION.Pregnancy Trimester, First: The beginning third of a human PREGNANCY, from the first day of the last normal menstrual period (MENSTRUATION) through the completion of 14 weeks (98 days) of gestation.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Bacterial Infections: Infections by bacteria, general or unspecified.Surgical Wound Infection: Infection occurring at the site of a surgical incision.Prostatic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PROSTATE.Observer Variation: The failure by the observer to measure or identify a phenomenon accurately, which results in an error. Sources for this may be due to the observer's missing an abnormality, or to faulty technique resulting in incorrect test measurement, or to misinterpretation of the data. Two varieties are inter-observer variation (the amount observers vary from one another when reporting on the same material) and intra-observer variation (the amount one observer varies between observations when reporting more than once on the same material).Tumor Markers, Biological: Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.Intensive Care Units: Hospital units providing continuous surveillance and care to acutely ill patients.Drug Administration Schedule: Time schedule for administration of a drug in order to achieve optimum effectiveness and convenience.Renal Dialysis: Therapy for the insufficient cleansing of the BLOOD by the kidneys based on dialysis and including hemodialysis, PERITONEAL DIALYSIS, and HEMODIAFILTRATION.Kidney Transplantation: The transference of a kidney from one human or animal to another.Anxiety: Feeling or emotion of dread, apprehension, and impending disaster but not disabling as with ANXIETY DISORDERS.Evaluation Studies as Topic: Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.Diabetes Mellitus: A heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by HYPERGLYCEMIA and GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE.Outcome Assessment (Health Care): Research aimed at assessing the quality and effectiveness of health care as measured by the attainment of a specified end result or outcome. Measures include parameters such as improved health, lowered morbidity or mortality, and improvement of abnormal states (such as elevated blood pressure).HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Ultrasonography, Doppler, Duplex: Ultrasonography applying the Doppler effect combined with real-time imaging. The real-time image is created by rapid movement of the ultrasound beam. A powerful advantage of this technique is the ability to estimate the velocity of flow from the Doppler shift frequency.Health Status: The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.Sepsis: Systemic inflammatory response syndrome with a proven or suspected infectious etiology. When sepsis is associated with organ dysfunction distant from the site of infection, it is called severe sepsis. When sepsis is accompanied by HYPOTENSION despite adequate fluid infusion, it is called SEPTIC SHOCK.GermanyFood Habits: Acquired or learned food preferences.Nutritional Status: State of the body in relation to the consumption and utilization of nutrients.Neurologic Examination: Assessment of sensory and motor responses and reflexes that is used to determine impairment of the nervous system.Reoperation: A repeat operation for the same condition in the same patient due to disease progression or recurrence, or as followup to failed previous surgery.Decompression, Surgical: A surgical operation for the relief of pressure in a body compartment or on a body part. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Blood Glucose: Glucose in blood.Dairy Products: Raw and processed or manufactured milk and milk-derived products. These are usually from cows (bovine) but are also from goats, sheep, reindeer, and water buffalo.Hong Kong: The former British crown colony located off the southeast coast of China, comprised of Hong Kong Island, Kowloon Peninsula, and New Territories. The three sites were ceded to the British by the Chinese respectively in 1841, 1860, and 1898. Hong Kong reverted to China in July 1997. The name represents the Cantonese pronunciation of the Chinese xianggang, fragrant port, from xiang, perfume and gang, port or harbor, with reference to its currents sweetened by fresh water from a river west of it.Spain: Parliamentary democracy located between France on the northeast and Portugual on the west and bordered by the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea.CreatinineMorbidity: The proportion of patients with a particular disease during a given year per given unit of population.Disability Evaluation: Determination of the degree of a physical, mental, or emotional handicap. The diagnosis is applied to legal qualification for benefits and income under disability insurance and to eligibility for Social Security and workmen's compensation benefits.Fertilization in Vitro: An assisted reproductive technique that includes the direct handling and manipulation of oocytes and sperm to achieve fertilization in vitro.Visual Acuity: Clarity or sharpness of OCULAR VISION or the ability of the eye to see fine details. Visual acuity depends on the functions of RETINA, neuronal transmission, and the interpretative ability of the brain. Normal visual acuity is expressed as 20/20 indicating that one can see at 20 feet what should normally be seen at that distance. Visual acuity can also be influenced by brightness, color, and contrast.Radius FracturesPolymyalgia Rheumatica: A syndrome in the elderly characterized by proximal joint and muscle pain, high erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and a self-limiting course. Pain is usually accompanied by evidence of an inflammatory reaction. Women are affected twice as commonly as men and Caucasians more frequently than other groups. The condition is frequently associated with GIANT CELL ARTERITIS and some theories pose the possibility that the two diseases arise from a single etiology or even that they are the same entity.Weight Gain: Increase in BODY WEIGHT over existing weight.Referral and Consultation: The practice of sending a patient to another program or practitioner for services or advice which the referring source is not prepared to provide.Intraoperative Period: The period during a surgical operation.ItalyTreatment Failure: A measure of the quality of health care by assessment of unsuccessful results of management and procedures used in combating disease, in individual cases or series.Patient Compliance: Voluntary cooperation of the patient in following a prescribed regimen.ScotlandBrazilPsychiatric Status Rating Scales: Standardized procedures utilizing rating scales or interview schedules carried out by health personnel for evaluating the degree of mental illness.Mortality: All deaths reported in a given population.Mass Screening: Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.Respiratory Tract Infections: Invasion of the host RESPIRATORY SYSTEM by microorganisms, usually leading to pathological processes or diseases.Trauma Severity Indices: Systems for assessing, classifying, and coding injuries. These systems are used in medical records, surveillance systems, and state and national registries to aid in the collection and reporting of trauma.Pregnancy Rate: The ratio of the number of conceptions (CONCEPTION) including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; and fetal losses, to the mean number of females of reproductive age in a population during a set time period.Sick Leave: An absence from work permitted because of illness or the number of days per year for which an employer agrees to pay employees who are sick. (Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary, 1981)Liver Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.Pain, Postoperative: Pain during the period after surgery.Injury Severity Score: An anatomic severity scale based on the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) and developed specifically to score multiple traumatic injuries. It has been used as a predictor of mortality.Nurses' Aides: Allied health personnel who assist the professional nurse in routine duties.Diet Surveys: Systematic collections of factual data pertaining to the diet of a human population within a given geographic area.Hospitals, University: Hospitals maintained by a university for the teaching of medical students, postgraduate training programs, and clinical research.IowaBody Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Body Height: The distance from the sole to the crown of the head with body standing on a flat surface and fully extended.Accidental Falls: Falls due to slipping or tripping which may result in injury.Range of Motion, Articular: The distance and direction to which a bone joint can be extended. Range of motion is a function of the condition of the joints, muscles, and connective tissues involved. Joint flexibility can be improved through appropriate MUSCLE STRETCHING EXERCISES.Activities of Daily Living: The performance of the basic activities of self care, such as dressing, ambulation, or eating.Disease-Free Survival: Period after successful treatment in which there is no appearance of the symptoms or effects of the disease.False Positive Reactions: Positive test results in subjects who do not possess the attribute for which the test is conducted. The labeling of healthy persons as diseased when screening in the detection of disease. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Monitoring, Intraoperative: The constant checking on the state or condition of a patient during the course of a surgical operation (e.g., checking of vital signs).

*  Intervention Study to Improve Adherence in Asthma - Tabular View - ClinicalTrials.gov

In 1998 we initiated a randomized, prospective intervention study with per protocol design involving 60 young children re- ... Submit Studies. *Why Should I Register and Submit Results?. *FDAAA 801 Requirements ...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/record/NCT00516633

*  UCSF Dept of Medicine | Faculty Profiles

Depressive symptoms and white blood cell count in coronary heart disease patients: prospective findings from the Heart and Soul ... Selective Cutoff Reporting in Studies of Diagnostic Test Accuracy: A Comparison of Conventional and Individual-Patient-Data ... Lifetime trauma exposure and prospective cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality: findings from the Heart and Soul Study ... Gender differences in the prospective associations of self-reported sleep quality with biomarkers of systemic inflammation and ...
https://dgim.ucsf.edu/faculty/?key=28934487&name=WHOOLEY,MARY A

*  Plus it

... but few prospective studies have examined the specific impact of diabetes on incident disability or how it may act through its ... no prospective studies have assessed the predictors of disability among women with diabetes. Therefore, we used data from the ... Our findings, combined with studies conducted in other populations (6,14,15,16,17,18,19,20,21,25), suggest that this effect may ... RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS-We analyzed data from 8,344 women enrolled in the Study of Osteoporotic Fractures, a prospective ...
care.diabetesjournals.org/content/25/1/61

*  Frontiers | Predicting Reading and Spelling Disorders: A 4-Year Prospective Cohort Study | Psychology

In this 4-year prospective cohort study, children with a reading and spelling disorder, children with a spelling impairment, ... In this 4-year prospective cohort study, children with a reading and spelling disorder, children with a spelling impairment, ... In two previous studies (Pinto et al., 2009, 2012), conceptual knowledge of the writing system was shown to be an important ... We designed a prospective cohort study so as to include all children from the natural population, at-risk and not-at-risk for ...
https://frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpsyg.2016.00337/full

*  Meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies evaluating the association of saturated fat with cardiovascular disease. - PubMed ...

... in prospective epidemiologic studies.. DESIGN: Twenty-one studies identified by searching MEDLINE and EMBASE databases and ... Meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies evaluating the association of saturated fat with cardiovascular disease.. Siri- ... Meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies evaluating the association of saturated fat with cardiovascular disease ... Meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies evaluating the association of saturated fat with cardiovascular disease ...
https://ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20071648?dopt=AbstractPlus

*  Dairy consumption and risk of breast cancer: a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies.

We performed a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies to examin.. ... A PubMed database search through January 2011 was performed for relevant studies. We included prospective cohort studies that ... We identified 18 prospective cohort studies eligible for analysis, involving 24,187 cases and 1,063,471 participants. The ... We performed a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies to examine the association between diary product consumption and ...
https://omicsonline.org/references/dairy-consumption-and-risk-of-breast-cancer-a-metaanalysis-of-prospective-cohort-studies-1255034.html

*  School of Graduate Studies and Research | Prospective International Students

School of Graduate Studies and Research Prospective International Students ... Graduate Studies News. New Student Convocation And Graduate Student Orientation. Save The Date! Tuesday September 19, 2017 ... The CWU Office of International Studies and Programs has researched the relevant data and breaks down the estimated cost for ... If your recommender prefers to send a letter by mail, forms can be found here: Recommendation for Graduate Studies. 4. Official ...
cwu.edu/masters/prospective-international-students

*  Fructose intake and risk of gout and hyperuricemia: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies | BMJ...

The remaining 24 studies were reviewed in full. A total of two prospective cohort studies met inclusion criteria and qualified ... A total of two prospective cohort studies were included in this analysis.38 ,39 Both of these studies pertained to fructose ... The characteristics of the two prospective cohort studies included in this analysis are presented in table 1. Both studies ... 39 and no prospective studies pertaining to fructose and hyperuricemia. The two studies that assessed gout included a total of ...
bmjopen.bmj.com/content/6/10/e013191.full

*  Prospective, Retrospective, Case-control, Cohort Studies - StatsDirect

Cohort studies Cohort studies are usually but not exclusively prospective, the opposite is true for case-control studies. The ... Most sources of error due to confounding and bias are more common in retrospective studies than in prospective studies. For ... Prospective studies usually have fewer potential sources of bias and confounding than retrospective studies. ... Case-Control studies Case-Control studies are usually but not exclusively retrospective, the opposite is true for cohort ...
https://statsdirect.com/help/content/basics/prospective.htm

*  MA Cities and Global Development - Postgraduate courses - Prospective Taught Postgraduates - Urban Studies and Planning - The...

Urban Studies and Planning. Home , Urban Studies and Planning , Prospective Taught Postgraduates , Postgraduate courses , MA ... There's a range of optional modules and core teaching reflecting the latest debates in urban theory and development studies, ...
https://sheffield.ac.uk/usp/taughtpg/courses/cgd/index

*  SelectedWorks - Lisa Chasan-Taber

Prospective Studies (2) Article Association between dietary glycemic index, glycemic load, and high-sensitivity C-reactive ... ... Although physical activity and psychosocial stress have been considered in previous studies of pregnancy outcome, their ... Although physical activity and psychosocial stress have been considered in previous studies of pregnancy outcome, their ...
https://works.bepress.com/lisa_chasan-taber/

*  G4. Energy Balance - 2008 Advisory Report - health.gov

Prospective Studies. Nine prospective studies were identified that reported on the benefits of physical activity to prevent ... studies (before/after), prospective observational studies, and cross-sectional studies; 3) health outcomes: body weight; and 4 ... studies (before/after); and prospective observational studies; and 3) health outcomes: adiposity measures (e.g., total fat, ... studies included in this review were observational studies and studies of individuals who were randomized at baseline to ...
https://health.gov/PAguidelines/Report/G4_energy.aspx

*  The effect of dairy foods on CHD: a systematic review of prospective cohort studies - Y O U R E A T O P I A

The effect of dairy foods on CHD: a systematic review of prospective cohort studies August 17, 2009. ... The studies and articles found within the References section below are historical in nature pertaining to Blog posts up to 2014 ...
your-eatopia.squarespace.com/references/2009/8/17/the-effect-of-dairy-foods-on-chd-a-systematic-review-of-pros.html

*  Queen's University Academic Palliative Care Rounds

Ottawa's Experience with Methadone Rotation: Retrospective and Prospective Studies. Published Thu May 24/12 3:00pm. ... The article that is the basis for the presentation: Predictors of complicated grief: A systematic review of empirical studies. ...
meds.queensu.ca/programs/palliativecare/queen_s_academic_palliative_care_rounds

*  Natural History of Type 1 Diabetes | Diabetes

PROSPECTIVE STUDIES FROM BIRTH INVESTIGATING THE NATURAL HISTORY OF TYPE 1 DIABETES. The German BABYDIAB study commenced in ... PROSPECTIVE STUDIES FROM BIRTH INVESTIGATING THE NATURAL HISTORY OF TYPE 1 DIABETES ... Prospective studies in at-risk neonates have not demonstrated an increased risk for developing islet autoantibodies in children ... several groups have initiated prospective studies from birth examining the development of islet autoimmunity and diabetes (5-8 ...
diabetes.diabetesjournals.org/content/54/suppl_2/S25?frame=sidebar

*  Quantifying effect of statins on low density lipoprotein cholesterol, ischaemic heart disease, and stroke: systematic review...

Prospective Studies Collaboration. . Cholesterol, diastolic blood pressure and stroke: 13 000 strokes in 450 000 people in 45 ... Nine cohort studies and 58 randomised trials of serum cholesterol and stroke. We identified nine cohort studies of serum ... This can be determined from cohort studies of cholesterol and IHD if cohort studies accurately predicted trial results. ... Nine cohort studies. Figure 2 shows the relative risk of thromboembolic and haemorrhagic stroke for a 1.0 mmol/l decrease in ...
bmj.com/content/326/7404/1423.long

*  "Pain trajectory following spinal fusion for idiopathic scoliosis" by Charmaine...

Prospective Studies, *Repeated Measures, *Visual Analog Scaling, *Human. Published Article/Book Citation ...
https://works.bepress.com/mary_berg/8/

*  "Depressive symptoms, unemployment, and loss of income: The CARDIA Study" by Mary A....

METHODS: We performed a prospective cohort study of 5115 adults aged 18 to 30 years. These participants included approximately ... Participants completed the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale and were considered to have depressive symptoms if ... RESULTS: Thirty-three percent (118/354) of participants with depressive symptoms (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression ... Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale score ,16) reported new unemployment during the subsequent 5 years (odds ...
https://works.bepress.com/catarina_kiefe/104/

*  "Ten-year incidence of elevated blood pressure and its predictors: the CARDIA study. Coronary Artery Risk Development in (Young...

Few prospective studies have examined associations of lifestyle factors or variables in the insulin resistance syndrome ( ... Few prospective studies have examined associations of lifestyle factors or variables in the insulin resistance syndrome ( ... Prospective Studies; Reference Values; Risk Factors; Sex Distribution ... Adult; African Americans; Cohort Studies; European Continental Ancestry Group; Female; Humans; Hypertension; Incidence; Male; ...
https://works.bepress.com/catarina_kiefe/129/

*  "Pain-sensitive temperament and postoperative pain" by Charmaine...

Prospective Studies, *Questionnaires, *Retrospective Studies, *Risk Factors, *Scoliosis/surgery, *Severity of Illness Index, ...
https://works.bepress.com/charmaine_kleiber/34/

*  Preventing Tetanus, Diphtheria, and Pertussis Among Adults: Use of Tetanus Toxoid, Reduced Diphtheria Toxoid and Acellular...

Serosurveys and Prospective Studies In contrast to passively reported cases of pertussis, serosurveys and prospective ... well-controlled studies in pregnant women have been conducted or no animal studies and no adequate and well-controlled studies ... Four prospective, population-based studies estimate the annual incidence of pertussis among adults in the United States (Table ... prospective studies suggest the number of cases of symptomatic pertussis among adults aged 19--64 years could range from ...
https://cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/rr5517a1.htm

*  Plus it

Implications from findings from prospective studies for the measurement of glycemic parameters and prevention of CVD. The ... Implications from findings from prospective studies for the measurement of glycemic parameters and prevention of CVD ... Prospective studies carried out in such subjects have revealed that this abnormality is not only common but that it doubles the ... the results between the studies were conflicting. Now that we have data from the multitude of studies in which recommended ...
care.diabetesjournals.org/content/25/10/1880

*  Systolic Blood Pressure Goal for Patients Aged 60 Years or Older | Annals of Internal Medicine | American College of Physicians

Prospective Studies Collaboration. Age-specific relevance of usual blood pressure to vascular mortality: a meta-analysis of ... In one of the largest epidemiologic studies of blood pressure and CVD, a decrement of 20 mm Hg in SBP in persons aged 70 to 79 ... In the absence of definitive evidence defining the optimum SBP target, observational studies and RCT data that the panel did ... The results from the SHEP trial and HYVET are consistent with epidemiologic studies. ...
annals.org/aim/article/1813288/evidence-supporting-systolic-blood-pressure-goal-less-than-150-mm?resultClick=3

*  Clinical Assessment and Management of Adult Obesity | Circulation

Prospective Studies Collaboration. Body-mass index and cause-specific mortality in 900,000 adults: collaborative analysis of 57 ... However, multiple studies have shown that detection and counseling rates among physicians remain low.3-6 Thus, a gap exists ... National studies have shown that obesity counseling rates remain low among healthcare professionals.4 The reasons vary and ... Population studies have shown that people with large waist circumferences have elevated obesity-related health risk compared ...
circ.ahajournals.org/content/126/24/2870

*  Grapefruit juice alters the systemic bioavailability and cardiac repolarization of terfenadine in poor metabolizers of...

A prospective cohort study was conducted to examine the effects of double-strength grapefruit juice on the pharmacokinetics and ... Prospective Studies. Terfenadine / blood, pharmacokinetics*. Grant Support. ID/Acronym/Agency: FDA 224-88-3006/FD/FDA HHS ... Cohort Studies. Electroencephalography / drug effects. Female. Food-Drug Interactions*. Histamine H1 Antagonists / blood, ... A prospective cohort study was conducted to examine the effects of double-strength grapefruit juice on the pharmacokinetics and ...
biomedsearch.com/nih/Grapefruit-juice-alters-systemic-bioavailability/8728348.html

QRISK: QRISK2 (the most recent version of QRISK) is a prediction algorithm for cardiovascular disease (CVD) that uses traditional risk factors (age, systolic blood pressure, smoking status and ratio of total serum cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) together with body mass index, ethnicity, measures of deprivation, family history, chronic kidney disease, rheumatoid arthritis, atrial fibrillation, diabetes mellitus, and antihypertensive treatment.Incidence (epidemiology): Incidence is a measure of the probability of occurrence of a given medical condition in a population within a specified period of time. Although sometimes loosely expressed simply as the number of new cases during some time period, it is better expressed as a proportion or a rate with a denominator.Temporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studyingAssay sensitivity: Assay sensitivity is a property of a clinical trial defined as the ability of a trial to distinguish an effective treatment from a less effective or ineffective intervention. Without assay sensitivity, a trial is not internally valid and is not capable of comparing the efficacy of two interventions.Closed-ended question: A closed-ended question is a question format that limits respondents with a list of answer choices from which they must choose to answer the question.Dillman D.Prenatal nutrition: Nutrition and weight management before and during :pregnancy has a profound effect on the development of infants. This is a rather critical time for healthy fetal development as infants rely heavily on maternal stores and nutrient for optimal growth and health outcome later in life.Age adjustment: In epidemiology and demography, age adjustment, also called age standardization, is a technique used to allow populations to be compared when the age profiles of the populations are quite different.Nested case-control study: A nested case control (NCC) study is a variation of a case-control study in which only a subset of controls from the cohort are compared to the incident cases. In a case-cohort study, all incident cases in the cohort are compared to a random subset of participants who do not develop the disease of interest.Global Risks Report: The Global Risks Report is an annual study published by the World Economic Forum ahead of the Forum’s Annual Meeting in Davos, Switzerland. Based on the work of the Global Risk Network, the report describes changes occurring in the global risks landscape from year to year and identifies the global risks that could play a critical role in the upcoming year.Biomarkers of aging: Biomarkers of aging are biomarkers that better predict functional capacity at a later age than chronological age. Stated another way, biomarkers of aging would give the true "biological age", which may be different from the chronological age.Generalizability theory: Generalizability theory, or G Theory, is a statistical framework for conceptualizing, investigating, and designing reliable observations. It is used to determine the reliability (i.Regression dilution: Regression dilution, also known as regression attenuation, is the biasing of the regression slope towards zero (or the underestimation of its absolute value), caused by errors in the independent variable.Budic II of Brittany: Budic II (; or ; ), formerly known as Budick, was a king of Cornouaille in Brittany in the late 5th and early 6th centuries. He was the father of Hoel Mawr and is probably to be identified with the Emyr Llydaw ("Emperor of Brittany") and King Nentres who appear in Arthurian legend.Niigata UniversityDense artery sign: In medicine, the dense artery sign or hyperdense artery sign is a radiologic sign seen on computer tomography (CT) scans suggestive of early ischemic stroke. In earlier studies of medical imaging in patients with strokes, it was the earliest sign of ischemic stroke in a significant minority of cases.Mayo Clinic Diet: The Mayo Clinic Diet is a diet created by Mayo Clinic. Prior to this, use of that term was generally connected to fad diets which had no association with Mayo Clinic.List of Parliamentary constituencies in Kent: The ceremonial county of Kent,Breast cancer classification: Breast cancer classification divides breast cancer into categories according to different schemes, each based on different criteria and serving a different purpose. The major categories are the histopathological type, the grade of the tumor, the stage of the tumor, and the expression of proteins and genes.HeartScore: HeartScore is a cardiovascular disease risk assessment and management tool developed by the European Society of Cardiology, aimed at supporting clinicians in optimising individual cardiovascular risk reduction.Tumor progression: Tumor progression is the third and last phase in tumor development. This phase is characterised by increased growth speed and invasiveness of the tumor cells.Alcohol and cardiovascular disease: Excessive alcohol intake is associated with an elevated risk of alcoholic liver disease (ALD), heart failure, some cancers, and accidental injury, and is a leading cause of preventable death in industrialized countries. However, extensive research has shown that moderate alcohol intake is associated with health benefits, including less cardiovascular disease, diabetes, hypertension, and lower all-cause mortality.Time-trade-off: Time-Trade-Off (TTO) is a tool used in health economics to help determine the quality of life of a patient or group. The individual will be presented with a set of directions such as:List of kanji by stroke count: This Kanji index method groups together the kanji that are written with the same number of strokes. Currently, there are 2,186 individual kanji listed.Abdominal ultrasonographyEpidemiological method: The science of epidemiology has matured significantly from the times of Hippocrates and John Snow. The techniques for gathering and analyzing epidemiological data vary depending on the type of disease being monitored but each study will have overarching similarities.HyperintensityCancer survival rates: Cancer survival rates vary by the type of cancer, stage at diagnosis, treatment given and many other factors, including country. In general survival rates are improving, although more so for some cancers than others.Comorbidity: In medicine, comorbidity is the presence of one or more additional disorders (or diseases) co-occurring with a primary disease or disorder; or the effect of such additional disorders or diseases. The additional disorder may also be a behavioral or mental disorder.Non-communicable disease: Non-communicable disease (NCD) is a medical condition or disease that is non-infectious or non-transmissible. NCDs can refer to chronic diseases which last for long periods of time and progress slowly.Pain scale: A pain scale measures a patient's pain intensity or other features. Pain scales are based on self-report, observational (behavioral), or physiological data.National Cancer Research Institute: The National Cancer Research Institute (NCRI) is a UK-wide partnership between cancer research funders, which promotes collaboration in cancer research. Its member organizations work together to maximize the value and benefit of cancer research for the benefit of patients and the public.Gestational age: Gestational age (or menstrual age) is a measure of the age of a pregnancy where the origin is the woman's last normal menstrual period (LMP), or the corresponding age as estimated by other methods. Such methods include adding 14 days to a known duration since fertilization (as is possible in in vitro fertilization), or by obstetric ultrasonography.Vegetable juiceBio Base EuropeHospital of Southern Norway: [[Sørlandet Hospital Arendal, seen from the north.|thumb|200px]]Brain biopsyClimate change in Sweden: The issue of climate change has received significant public and political attention in Sweden and the mitigation of its effects has been high on the agenda of the two latest Governments of Sweden, the previous Cabinet of Göran Persson (-2006) and the current Cabinet of Fredrik Reinfeldt (2006-). Sweden aims for an energy supply system with zero net atmospheric greenhouse gas emissions by 2050.Tamil Nadu Dr. M.G.R. Medical UniversityGrand Paris: The Métropole du Grand Paris (, "Metropolis of Greater Paris") is an Établissement public de coopération intercommunale, or public establishment for inter-communal cooperation, an administrative structure for cooperation between the City of Paris and its nearest suburbs. Scheduled to come into existence on January 1, 2016, it includes the City of Paris, plus the communes, or towns of the three departments of the inner suburbs; Hauts-de-Seine, Seine-Saint-Denis and Val-de-Marne; plus seven communes in the outer suburbs, including Argenteuil in Val d'Oise and Paray-Vieille-Poste in Essonne, which were added to include major airports.Silent strokeWhite coffee: White coffee can refer to any of a number of different kinds of coffees or coffee substitutes worldwide.ABCD rating: ABCD rating, also called the Jewett staging system or the Whitmore-Jewett staging system, is a staging system for prostate cancer that uses the letters A, B, C, and D.Stressor: A stressor is a chemical or biological agent, environmental condition, external stimulus or an event that causes stress to an organism.Aarhus Faculty of Health Sciences (Aarhus University): The Aarhus Faculty of Health Sciences is a faculty of Aarhus University. The Aarhus Faculty of Health Sciences became a reality after Aarhus University was divided into four new main academic areas which came into effect on 1 January 2011.Cancer pain: Pain in cancer may arise from a tumor compressing or infiltrating nearby body parts; from treatments and diagnostic procedures; or from skin, nerve and other changes caused by a hormone imbalance or immune response. Most chronic (long-lasting) pain is caused by the illness and most acute (short-term) pain is caused by treatment or diagnostic procedures.Classification of obesity: Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it has an adverse effect on health.WHO 2000 p.Endoscopy unit: An endoscopy unit refers to a dedicated area where medical procedures are performed with endoscopes, which are cameras used to visualize structures within the body, such as the digestive tract and genitourinary system. Endoscopy units may be located within a hospital, incorporated within other medical care centres, or may be stand-alone in nature.Feasibility Study (The Outer Limits): "Feasibility Study" is an episode of The Outer Limits television show. It was first broadcast on 11 July 1997, during the third season.Rabbit feverRating scales for depression: A depression rating scale is a psychiatric measuring instrument having descriptive words and phrases that indicate the severity of depression for a time period. When used, an observer may make judgements and rate a person at a specified scale level with respect to identified characteristics.Layout of the Port of Tianjin: The Port of Tianjin is divided into nine areas: the three core (“Tianjin Xingang”) areas of Beijiang, Nanjiang, and Dongjiang around the Xingang fairway; the Haihe area along the river; the Beitang port area around the Beitangkou estuary; the Dagukou port area in the estuary of the Haihe River; and three areas under construction (Hanggu, Gaoshaling, Nangang).

(1/70469) Hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation for the treatment of severe combined immunodeficiency.

BACKGROUND: Since 1968 it has been known that bone marrow transplantation can ameliorate severe combined immunodeficiency, but data on the long-term efficacy of this treatment are limited. We prospectively studied immunologic function in 89 consecutive infants with severe combined immunodeficiency who received hematopoietic stem-cell transplants at Duke University Medical Center between May 1982 and September 1998. METHODS: Serum immunoglobulin levels and lymphocyte phenotypes and function were assessed and genetic analyses performed according to standard methods. Bone marrow was depleted of T cells by agglutination with soybean lectin and by sheep-erythrocyte rosetting before transplantation. RESULTS: Seventy-seven of the infants received T-cell-depleted, HLA-haploidentical parental marrow, and 12 received HLA-identical marrow from a related donor; 3 of the recipients of haploidentical marrow also received placental-blood transplants from unrelated donors. Except for two patients who received placental blood, none of the recipients received chemotherapy before transplantation or prophylaxis against graft-versus-host disease. Of the 89 infants, 72 (81 percent) were still alive 3 months to 16.5 years after transplantation, including all of the 12 who received HLA-identical marrow, 60 of the 77 (78 percent) who were given haploidentical marrow, and 2 of the 3 (67 percent) who received both haploidentical marrow and placental blood. T-cell function became normal within two weeks after transplantation in the patients who received unfractionated HLA-identical marrow but usually not until three to four months after transplantation in those who received T-cell-depleted marrow. At the time of the most recent evaluation, all but 4 of the 72 survivors had normal T-cell function, and all the T cells in their blood were of donor origin. B-cell function remained abnormal in many of the recipients of haploidentical marrow. In 26 children (5 recipients of HLA-identical marrow and 21 recipients of haploidentical marrow) between 2 percent and 100 percent of B cells were of donor origin. Forty-five of the 72 children were receiving intravenous immune globulin. CONCLUSIONS: Transplantation of marrow from a related donor is a life-saving and life-sustaining treatment for patients with any type of severe combined immunodeficiency, even when there is no HLA-identical donor.  (+info)

(2/70469) Chemokine mRNA expression in gastric mucosa is associated with Helicobacter pylori cagA positivity and severity of gastritis.

AIM: To investigate the association between the quantity of gastric chemokine mRNA expression, severity of gastritis, and cagA positivity in Helicobacter pylori associated gastritis. METHODS: In 83 dyspeptic patients, antral and corpus biopsies were taken for semiquantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and histological grading of gastritis. Gastritis was evaluated by visual analogue scales. Quantities of chemokine (IL-8, GRO alpha, ENA-78, RANTES, MCP-1) RT-PCR products were compared with G3PDH products. Each sample was also evaluated for the presence of cagA and ureA mRNA by RT-PCR. RESULTS: mRNA expression of all five chemokines was significantly greater in H pylori positive than in H pylori negative mucosa. In H pylori positive patients, in the antrum C-X-C chemokine mRNA expression was significantly greater in cagA positive patients than in cagA negative patients, but there were no significant differences in C-C chemokine mRNA expression. In H pylori positive patients, chemokine mRNA expression in the corpus was less than in the antrum. In contrast to the antrum, only GRO alpha mRNA expression was significantly greater in cagA positive infection. Polymorphonuclear cell infiltration was correlated with C-X-C chemokine mRNA expression. Significant correlations were also found between bacterial density and C-X-C chemokine mRNA expression. CONCLUSIONS: In H pylori infection, C-X-C chemokines may play a primary role in active gastritis. Infection with cagA positive H pylori induces greater gastric chemokine mRNA expression in the antral mucosa, which may be relevant to the increased mucosal damage associated with cagA positive H pylori infection.  (+info)

(3/70469) Reproductive factors and fatal hip fractures. A Norwegian prospective study of 63,000 women.

STUDY OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to investigate the impact of reproductive variables (age at menarche, menopause, first and last birth as well as parity, lactation, and abortions) on hip fracture mortality. DESIGN AND SETTING: A prospective study in Norway with more than 60,000 women followed up for 29 years. A total of 465 deaths as a result of hip fracture were recorded. MAIN RESULTS: Statistically significant linear relations (p < or = 0.02) were found between both age at menarche and length of reproductive period (defined as age at menopause to age at menarche) and the mortality of hip fractures in women aged less than 80. The death rate for women with a late menarche (> or = 17 years) was twice that of the women with relatively early menarche (< or = 13 years). Compared with women with less than 30 years between menopause and menarche, the mortality rate ratio in women with more than 38 reproductive years was 0.5. We also found an inverse relation with age at first birth. CONCLUSIONS: This study supports by hypothesis that an early menarche and a long reproductive period protect against hip fracture mortality. High age at first birth may also be protective.  (+info)

(4/70469) Postoperative tetany in Graves disease: important role of vitamin D metabolites.

OBJECTIVE: To test the authors' hypothesis of the causal mechanism(s) of postoperative tetany in patients with Graves disease. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Previous studies by the authors suggested that postoperative tetany in patients with Graves disease occurs during the period of bone restoration and resulted from continuation of a calcium flux into bone concomitant with transient hypoparathyroidism induced by surgery. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A prospective study was carried out to investigate sequential changes in serum levels of intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH), calcium and other electrolytes, 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD), 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D), and bone metabolic markers in 109 consecutive patients with Graves disease who underwent subtotal thyroidectomy. RESULTS: Preoperative serum iPTH levels negatively correlated with ionized calcium levels and positively correlated with 1,25(OH)2D or 1,25(OH)2D/25OHD. After the operation, there was a significant decline in levels of ionized calcium, magnesium, and iPTH. Serum iPTH was not detected in 15 patients after surgery. Four of these 15 patients, and 1 patient whose iPTH level was below normal, developed tetany. Preoperative serum ionized calcium levels were significantly lower, and iPTH levels were higher, in the 5 patients with tetany than in the 11 patients who did not develop tetany despite undetectable iPTH levels. The tetany group had significantly lower serum 25OHD levels and higher 1,25(OH)2D levels, and had increased 1,25(OH)2D/25OHD as an index of the renal 25OHD-1-hydroxylase activity than those in the nontetany group. These results suggest that patients with a high serum level of iPTH as a result of low serum calcium levels (secondary hyperparathyroidism) are susceptible to tetany under conditions of hypoparathyroid function after surgery. CONCLUSIONS: Postoperative tetany occurs in patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism caused by a relative deficiency in calcium and vitamin D because of their increased demand for bone restoration after preoperative medical therapy concomitant with transient hypoparathyroidism after surgery. Calcium and vitamin D supplements may be recommended before and/or after surgery for patients in whom postoperative tetany is expected to develop.  (+info)

(5/70469) HLA-DR expression and soluble HLA-DR levels in septic patients after trauma.

OBJECTIVE: To determine if cellular and soluble HLA-DR molecules may be relevant in severely injured patients for the development of gram-positive or gram-negative sepsis. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: HLA-DR molecules play a central role in the specific immune response to infection. The reduced HLA-DR expression on monocytes is considered to correlate with infectious complications and the development of sepsis. Data on the role of HLA-DR expression on T cells and soluble HLA-DR molecules are rare. METHODS: HLA-DR expression on monocytes and T cells was measured by flow cytometry. Plasma levels of soluble HLA-DR were studied by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. RESULTS: HLA-DR expression on circulating T cells, calculated as mean fluorescence intensity in channels, was reduced at day 1 after admission in 20 patients with subsequent severe sepsis compared with 46 patients without sepsis. The septic patients immediately after trauma had significantly lower soluble HLA-DR plasma levels than the nonseptic patients. At day 2 after admission, HLA-DR expression on monocytes was significantly lower in the severe sepsis group than in the patients without sepsis, and lasted until day 14 after injury. CONCLUSIONS: In severely injured patients, decreased levels of cellular and soluble HLA-DR appear as early indicators of an immune deviation associated with the development of severe sepsis. Moreover, immune alterations of different cell types may promote distinct kinds of septicemia.  (+info)

(6/70469) Serum triglyceride: a possible risk factor for ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm.

BACKGROUND: We aimed to determine the relationship between ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) and serum concentrations of lipids and apolipoproteins. METHODS: A cohort of 21 520 men, aged 35-64 years, was recruited from men attending the British United Provident Association (BUPA) clinic in London for a routine medical examination in 1975-1982. Smoking habits, weight, height and blood pressure were recorded at entry. Lipids and apolipoproteins were measured in stored serum samples from the 30 men who subsequently died of ruptured AAA and 150 matched controls. RESULTS: Triglyceride was strongly related to risk of ruptured AAA. In univariate analyses the risk in men on the 90th centile of the distribution relative to the risk in men on the 10th (RO10-90) was 12 (95% confidence interval [CI] : 3.8-37) for triglyceride, 5.5 (95% CI: 1.8-17) for apolipoprotein B (apoB) (the protein component of low density lipoprotein [LDL]), 0.15 (95% CI : 0.04-0.56) for apo A1 (the protein component of high density lipoprotein [HDL]), 3.7 (95% CI: 1.4-9.4) for body mass index and 3.0 (95% CI: 1.1-8.5) for systolic blood pressure. Lipoprotein (a) (Lp(a)) was not a significant risk factor (RO10-90 = 1.6, 95% CI: 0.6-3.0). In multivariate analysis triglyceride retained its strong association. CONCLUSION: Triglyceride appears to be a strong risk factor for ruptured AAA, although further studies are required to clarify this. If this and other associations are cause and effect, then changing the distribution of risk factors in the population (by many people stopping smoking and adopting a lower saturated fat diet and by lowering blood pressure) could achieve an important reduction in mortality from ruptured AAA.  (+info)

(7/70469) Respiratory symptoms and long-term risk of death from cardiovascular disease, cancer and other causes in Swedish men.

BACKGROUND: Depressed respiratory function and respiratory symptoms are associated with impaired survival. The present study was undertaken to assess the relation between respiratory symptoms and mortality from cardiovascular causes, cancer and all causes in a large population of middle-aged men. METHODS: Prospective population study of 6442 men aged 51-59 at baseline, free of clinical angina pectoris and prior myocardial infarction. RESULTS: During 16 years there were 1804 deaths (786 from cardiovascular disease, 608 from cancer, 103 from pulmonary disease and 307 from any other cause). Men with effort-related breathlessness had increased risk of dying from all of the examined diseases. After adjustment for age, smoking habit and other risk factors, the relative risk (RR) associated with breathlessness of dying from coronary disease was 1.43 (95% CI : 1.16-1.77), from stroke 1.77 (95% CI: 1.07-2.93), from any cardiovascular disease 1.48 (95% CI : 1.24-1.76), cancer 1.36 (95% CI : 1.11-1.67) and from any cause 1.62 (95% CI: 1.44-1.81). An independent effect of breathlessness on cardiovascular death, cancer death and mortality from all causes was found in life-time non-smokers, and also if men with chest pain not considered to be angina were excluded. An independent effect was also found if all deaths during the first half of the follow-up were excluded. Men with cough and phlegm, without breathlessness, also had an elevated risk of dying from cardiovascular disease and cancer, but after adjustment for smoking and other risk factors this was no longer significant. However, a slightly elevated independent risk of dying from any cause was found (RR = 1.18 [95% CI: 1.02-1.36]). CONCLUSION: A positive response to a simple question about effort related breathlessness predicted subsequent mortality from several causes during a follow-up period of 16 years, independently of smoking and other risk factors.  (+info)

(8/70469) Cardiovascular disease in insulin dependent diabetes mellitus: similar rates but different risk factors in the US compared with Europe.

BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) in insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) has been linked to renal disease. However, little is known concerning international variation in the correlations with hyperglycaemia and standard CVD risk factors. METHODS: A cross-sectional comparison was made of prevalence rates and risk factor associations in two large studies of IDDM subjects: the Pittsburgh Epidemiology of Diabetes Complications Study (EDC) and the EURODIAB IDDM Complications Study from 31 centres in Europe. Subgroups of each were chosen to be comparable by age and duration of diabetes. The EDC population comprises 286 men (mean duration 20.1 years) and 281 women (mean duration 19.9 years); EURODIAB 608 men (mean duration 18.1 years) and 607 women (mean duration 18.9 years). The mean age of both populations was 28 years. Cardiovascular disease was defined by a past medical history of myocardial infarction, angina, and/or the Minnesota ECG codes (1.1-1.3, 4.1-4.3, 5.1-5.3, 7.1). RESULTS: Overall prevalence of CVD was similar in the two populations (i.e. men 8.6% versus 8.0%, women 7.4% versus 8.5%, EURODIAB versus EDC respectively), although EDC women had a higher prevalence of angina (3.9% versus 0.5%, P < 0.001). Multivariate modelling suggests that glycaemic control (HbA1c) is not related to CVD in men. Age and high density lipoprotein cholesterol predict CVD in EURODIAB, while triglycerides and hypertension predict CVD in EDC. For women in both populations, age and hypertension (or renal disease) are independent predictors. HbA1c is also an independent predictor-inversely in EURODIAB women (P < 0.008) and positively in EDC women (P = 0.03). Renal disease was more strongly linked to CVD in EDC than in EURODIAB. CONCLUSIONS: Despite a similar prevalence of CVD, risk factor associations appear to differ in the two study populations. Glycaemic control (HbA1c) does not show a consistent or strong relationship to CVD.  (+info)



cohort


  • 95% CI, 1.06-1.26) intake using data from a large prospective cohort in the United States. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In this 4-year prospective cohort study, children with a reading and spelling disorder, children with a spelling impairment, and children without a reading and/or spelling disorder (control group) in a transparent orthography were identified in third grade, and their emergent literacy performances in kindergarten compared retrospectively. (frontiersin.org)
  • This 4-year prospective cohort study compared, in kindergarten, the early cognitive skills of a sample of spelling-disabled pupils (SD) with those of a sample of reading-and-spelling-disabled pupils (RSD) and with those of a sample of children without a reading and/or spelling disorder (control group). (frontiersin.org)

Please


results


  • The findings corroborated previous results from some case-control studies ( 9 - 13 ) but not others ( 14 - 17 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • 9 Indeed, while the results of most studies show PA during pregnancy to be beneficial overall to the maternal-fetal unit and to prevent the occurrence of maternal disorders such as hypertension, 10 there is no definitive, complete answer regarding the effect of exercise during the total duration of pregnancy on the pregnancy outcome. (bmj.com)