Programmed Instruction as Topic: Instruction in which learners progress at their own rate using workbooks, textbooks, or electromechanical devices that provide information in discrete steps, test learning at each step, and provide immediate feedback about achievement. (ERIC, Thesaurus of ERIC Descriptors, 1996).Computer-Assisted Instruction: A self-learning technique, usually online, involving interaction of the student with programmed instructional materials.Teaching: The educational process of instructing.Curriculum: A course of study offered by an educational institution.Reinforcement, Verbal: Use of word stimulus to strengthen a response during learning.Patient Education as Topic: The teaching or training of patients concerning their own health needs.Drug Labeling: Use of written, printed, or graphic materials upon or accompanying a drug container or wrapper. It includes contents, indications, effects, dosages, routes, methods, frequency and duration of administration, warnings, hazards, contraindications, side effects, precautions, and other relevant information.Audiovisual Aids: Auditory and visual instructional materials.Generalization (Psychology): The phenomenon of an organism's responding to all situations similar to one in which it has been conditioned.Writing: The act or practice of literary composition, the occupation of writer, or producing or engaging in literary work as a profession.Educational Measurement: The assessing of academic or educational achievement. It includes all aspects of testing and test construction.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Education of Intellectually Disabled: The teaching or training of those individuals with subnormal intellectual functioning.Textbooks as Topic: Books used in the study of a subject that contain a systematic presentation of the principles and vocabulary of a subject.Comprehension: The act or fact of grasping the meaning, nature, or importance of; understanding. (American Heritage Dictionary, 4th ed) Includes understanding by a patient or research subject of information disclosed orally or in writing.Learning: Relatively permanent change in behavior that is the result of past experience or practice. The concept includes the acquisition of knowledge.Programmed InstructionEducation, Medical: Use for general articles concerning medical education.Physiology: The biological science concerned with the life-supporting properties, functions, and processes of living organisms or their parts.Education, Medical, Undergraduate: The period of medical education in a medical school. In the United States it follows the baccalaureate degree and precedes the granting of the M.D.Histology: The study of the structure of various TISSUES of organisms on a microscopic level.Problem-Based Learning: Instructional use of examples or cases to teach using problem-solving skills and critical thinking.Education, Dental: Use for articles concerning dental education in general.ManikinsCongresses as Topic: Conferences, conventions or formal meetings usually attended by delegates representing a special field of interest.Education of Hearing Disabled: The teaching or training of those individuals with hearing disability or impairment.Teaching Materials: Instructional materials used in teaching.Nurses' InstructionClinical Competence: The capability to perform acceptably those duties directly related to patient care.Guidelines as Topic: A systematic statement of policy rules or principles. Guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by convening expert panels. The text may be cursive or in outline form but is generally a comprehensive guide to problems and approaches in any field of activity. For guidelines in the field of health care and clinical medicine, PRACTICE GUIDELINES AS TOPIC is available.ReadingRole Playing: The adopting or performing the role of another significant individual in order to gain insight into the behavior of that person.Videodisc Recording: The storing of visual and usually sound signals on discs for later reproduction on a television screen or monitor.Editorial Policies: The guidelines and policy statements set forth by the editor(s) or editorial board of a publication.Students, Medical: Individuals enrolled in a school of medicine or a formal educational program in medicine.Models, Educational: Theoretical models which propose methods of learning or teaching as a basis or adjunct to changes in attitude or behavior. These educational interventions are usually applied in the fields of health and patient education but are not restricted to patient care.Library Science: Study of the principles and practices of library administration and services.Students, Dental: Individuals enrolled a school of dentistry or a formal educational program in leading to a degree in dentistry.Medical Illustration: The field which deals with illustrative clarification of biomedical concepts, as in the use of diagrams and drawings. The illustration may be produced by hand, photography, computer, or other electronic or mechanical methods.Videotape Recording: Recording of visual and sometimes sound signals on magnetic tape.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Abstracting and Indexing as Topic: Activities performed to identify concepts and aspects of published information and research reports.Universities: Educational institutions providing facilities for teaching and research and authorized to grant academic degrees.Evidence-Based Medicine: An approach of practicing medicine with the goal to improve and evaluate patient care. It requires the judicious integration of best research evidence with the patient's values to make decisions about medical care. This method is to help physicians make proper diagnosis, devise best testing plan, choose best treatment and methods of disease prevention, as well as develop guidelines for large groups of patients with the same disease. (from JAMA 296 (9), 2006)Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Answering Services: Communication services provided by a person or a machine to record and relay the message from the caller.Biology: One of the BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE DISCIPLINES concerned with the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of animals, plants, and microorganisms.Libraries, MedicalFeedback: A mechanism of communication within a system in that the input signal generates an output response which returns to influence the continued activity or productivity of that system.United StatesCommunication: The exchange or transmission of ideas, attitudes, or beliefs between individuals or groups.Dentistry, Operative: That phase of clinical dentistry concerned with the restoration of parts of existing teeth that are defective through disease, trauma, or abnormal development, to the state of normal function, health, and esthetics, including preventive, diagnostic, biological, mechanical, and therapeutic techniques, as well as material and instrument science and application. (Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 2d ed, p237)Education, Distance: Education via communication media (correspondence, radio, television, computer networks) with little or no in-person face-to-face contact between students and teachers. (ERIC Thesaurus, 1997)Terminology as Topic: The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.Review Literature as Topic: Published materials which provide an examination of recent or current literature. Review articles can cover a wide range of subject matter at various levels of completeness and comprehensiveness based on analyses of literature that may include research findings. The review may reflect the state of the art. It also includes reviews as a literary form.Education, Pharmacy: Formal instruction, learning, or training in the preparation, dispensing, and proper utilization of drugs in the field of medicine.Education, Special: Education of the individual who markedly deviates intellectually, physically, socially, or emotionally from those considered to be normal, thus requiring special instruction.Verbal Behavior: Includes both producing and responding to words, either written or spoken.Anatomy: A branch of biology dealing with the structure of organisms.Remedial Teaching: Specialized instruction for students deviating from the expected norm.Authorship: The profession of writing. Also the identity of the writer as the creator of a literary production.Library Services: Services offered to the library user. They include reference and circulation.Interviews as Topic: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.Eye Protective Devices: Personal devices for protection of the eyes from impact, flying objects, glare, liquids, or injurious radiation.CD-ROM: An optical disk storage system for computers on which data can be read or from which data can be retrieved but not entered or modified. A CD-ROM unit is almost identical to the compact disk playback device for home use.Faculty: The teaching staff and members of the administrative staff having academic rank in an educational institution.Science: The study of natural phenomena by observation, measurement, and experimentation.Educational Technology: Systematic identification, development, organization, or utilization of educational resources and the management of these processes. It is occasionally used also in a more limited sense to describe the use of equipment-oriented techniques or audiovisual aids in educational settings. (Thesaurus of ERIC Descriptors, December 1993, p132)Behavior Therapy: The application of modern theories of learning and conditioning in the treatment of behavior disorders.Students: Individuals enrolled in a school or formal educational program.Schools, Medical: Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of medicine.Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic: Works about clinical trials that involve at least one test treatment and one control treatment, concurrent enrollment and follow-up of the test- and control-treated groups, and in which the treatments to be administered are selected by a random process, such as the use of a random-numbers table.Achievement: Success in bringing an effort to the desired end; the degree or level of success attained in some specified area (esp. scholastic) or in general.Exhibits as Topic: Discussions, descriptions or catalogs of public displays or items representative of a given subject.Vocabulary: The sum or the stock of words used by a language, a group, or an individual. (From Webster, 3d ed)Practice Guidelines as Topic: Directions or principles presenting current or future rules of policy for assisting health care practitioners in patient care decisions regarding diagnosis, therapy, or related clinical circumstances. The guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by the convening of expert panels. The guidelines form a basis for the evaluation of all aspects of health care and delivery.Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.Health Education: Education that increases the awareness and favorably influences the attitudes and knowledge relating to the improvement of health on a personal or community basis.Patient Compliance: Voluntary cooperation of the patient in following a prescribed regimen.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Reaction Time: The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.Program Evaluation: Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.Mental Recall: The process whereby a representation of past experience is elicited.Aptitude: The ability to acquire general or special types of knowledge or skill.Problem Solving: A learning situation involving more than one alternative from which a selection is made in order to attain a specific goal.Students, Pharmacy: Individuals enrolled in a school of pharmacy or a formal educational program leading to a degree in pharmacy.Cues: Signals for an action; that specific portion of a perceptual field or pattern of stimuli to which a subject has learned to respond.Goals: The end-result or objective, which may be specified or required in advance.Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).Psychomotor Performance: The coordination of a sensory or ideational (cognitive) process and a motor activity.Schools, Dental: Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of dentistry.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Physics: The study of those aspects of energy and matter in terms of elementary principles and laws. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Set (Psychology): Readiness to think or respond in a predetermined way when confronted with a problem or stimulus situation.Verbal Learning: Learning to respond verbally to a verbal stimulus cue.Internship and Residency: Programs of training in medicine and medical specialties offered by hospitals for graduates of medicine to meet the requirements established by accrediting authorities.Task Performance and Analysis: The detailed examination of observable activity or behavior associated with the execution or completion of a required function or unit of work.Benchmarking: Method of measuring performance against established standards of best practice.Education, Veterinary: Use for general articles concerning veterinary medical education.Nutritional Sciences: The study of NUTRITION PROCESSES as well as the components of food, their actions, interaction, and balance in relation to health and disease.Inservice Training: On the job training programs for personnel carried out within an institution or agency. It includes orientation programs.Attention: Focusing on certain aspects of current experience to the exclusion of others. It is the act of heeding or taking notice or concentrating.Clinical Clerkship: Undergraduate education programs for second- , third- , and fourth-year students in health sciences in which the students receive clinical training and experience in teaching hospitals or affiliated health centers.Prescription Drugs: Drugs that cannot be sold legally without a prescription.Health Literacy: Degree to which individuals have the capacity to obtain, process, and understand basic health information and services needed to make appropriate health decisions.Knowledge: The body of truths or facts accumulated in the course of time, the cumulated sum of information, its volume and nature, in any civilization, period, or country.Publishing: "The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.Pathology, Oral: A dental specialty concerned with pathology of the oral cavity.IllinoisEmergency Medical Service Communication Systems: The use of communication systems, such as telecommunication, to transmit emergency information to appropriate providers of health services.Cooperative Behavior: The interaction of two or more persons or organizations directed toward a common goal which is mutually beneficial. An act or instance of working or acting together for a common purpose or benefit, i.e., joint action. (From Random House Dictionary Unabridged, 2d ed)Evaluation Studies as Topic: Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.ComputersNeuroanatomy: Study of the anatomy of the nervous system as a specialty or discipline.Reinforcement (Psychology): The strengthening of a conditioned response.Video Recording: The storing or preserving of video signals for television to be played back later via a transmitter or receiver. Recordings may be made on magnetic tape or discs (VIDEODISC RECORDING).Journalism, Medical: The collection, writing, and editing of current interest material on topics related to biomedicine for presentation through the mass media, including newspapers, magazines, radio, or television, usually for a public audience such as health care consumers.Concept Formation: A cognitive process involving the formation of ideas generalized from the knowledge of qualities, aspects, and relations of objects.Sign Language: A system of hand gestures used for communication by the deaf or by people speaking different languages.Dental Hygienists: Persons trained in an accredited school or dental college and licensed by the state in which they reside to provide dental prophylaxis under the direction of a licensed dentist.Dentist-Patient Relations: The psychological relations between the dentist and patient.Education, Medical, Graduate: Educational programs for medical graduates entering a specialty. They include formal specialty training as well as academic work in the clinical and basic medical sciences, and may lead to board certification or an advanced medical degree.Ethics, Dental: The principles of proper professional conduct concerning the rights and duties of the dentist, relations with patients and fellow practitioners, as well as actions of the dentist in patient care and interpersonal relations with patient families. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Microcomputers: Small computers using LSI (large-scale integration) microprocessor chips as the CPU (central processing unit) and semiconductor memories for compact, inexpensive storage of program instructions and data. They are smaller and less expensive than minicomputers and are usually built into a dedicated system where they are optimized for a particular application. "Microprocessor" may refer to just the CPU or the entire microcomputer.MEDLARS: A computerized biomedical bibliographic storage and retrieval system operated by the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. MEDLARS stands for Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System, which was first introduced in 1964 and evolved into an online system in 1971 called MEDLINE (MEDLARS Online). As other online databases were developed, MEDLARS became the name of the entire NLM information system while MEDLINE became the name of the premier database. MEDLARS was used to produce the former printed Cumulated Index Medicus, and the printed monthly Index Medicus, until that publication ceased in December 2004.Herbals as Topic: Works about books, articles or other publications on herbs or plants describing their medicinal value.Imitative Behavior: The mimicking of the behavior of one individual by another.Pilot Projects: Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.Multilingualism: The ability to speak, read, or write several languages or many languages with some facility. Bilingualism is the most common form. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Needs Assessment: Systematic identification of a population's needs or the assessment of individuals to determine the proper level of services needed.Multimedia: Materials, frequently computer applications, that combine some or all of text, sound, graphics, animation, and video into integrated packages. (Thesaurus of ERIC Descriptors, 1994)User-Computer Interface: The portion of an interactive computer program that issues messages to and receives commands from a user.Information Storage and Retrieval: Organized activities related to the storage, location, search, and retrieval of information.Linguistics: The science of language, including phonetics, phonology, morphology, syntax, semantics, pragmatics, and historical linguistics. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Consumer Satisfaction: Customer satisfaction or dissatisfaction with a benefit or service received.Nonverbal Communication: Transmission of emotions, ideas, and attitudes between individuals in ways other than the spoken language.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Biomedical Research: Research that involves the application of the natural sciences, especially biology and physiology, to medicine.Professional Competence: The capability to perform the duties of one's profession generally, or to perform a particular professional task, with skill of an acceptable quality.Clinical Trials as Topic: Works about pre-planned studies of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule (if appropriate) of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. This concept includes clinical trials conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.Persons With Hearing Impairments: Persons with any degree of loss of hearing that has an impact on their activities of daily living or that requires special assistance or intervention.Photic Stimulation: Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.Oral Hygiene: The practice of personal hygiene of the mouth. It includes the maintenance of oral cleanliness, tissue tone, and general preservation of oral health.Product Labeling: Use of written, printed, or graphic materials upon or accompanying a product or its container or wrapper. It includes purpose, effect, description, directions, hazards, warnings, and other relevant information.Psychology, Experimental: The branch of psychology which seeks to learn more about the fundamental causes of behavior by studying various psychologic phenomena in controlled experimental situations.Competency-Based Education: Educational programs designed to ensure that students attain prespecified levels of competence in a given field or training activity. Emphasis is on achievement or specified objectives.Attitude: An enduring, learned predisposition to behave in a consistent way toward a given class of objects, or a persistent mental and/or neural state of readiness to react to a certain class of objects, not as they are but as they are conceived to be.Computer User Training: Process of teaching a person to interact and communicate with a computer.Feedback, Psychological: A mechanism of information stimulus and response that may control subsequent behavior, cognition, perception, or performance. (From APA Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed.)Research: Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)Medication Errors: Errors in prescribing, dispensing, or administering medication with the result that the patient fails to receive the correct drug or the indicated proper drug dosage.Program Development: The process of formulating, improving, and expanding educational, managerial, or service-oriented work plans (excluding computer program development).Faculty, Dental: The teaching staff and members of the administrative staff having academic rank in a dental school.Attitude of Health Personnel: Attitudes of personnel toward their patients, other professionals, toward the medical care system, etc.Medical Informatics: The field of information science concerned with the analysis and dissemination of medical data through the application of computers to various aspects of health care and medicine.Language: A verbal or nonverbal means of communicating ideas or feelings.Biological Science Disciplines: All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.Research Design: A plan for collecting and utilizing data so that desired information can be obtained with sufficient precision or so that an hypothesis can be tested properly.Bookplates as Topic: Labels pasted in books to mark their ownership and sometimes to indicate their location in a library. Private bookplates are often ornate or artistic: simpler and smaller ones bearing merely the owner's name are called "book labels." They are usually pasted on the front endpaper of books. (From Harrod, The Librarians' Glossary and Reference Book, 4th rev ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Broadsides as Topic: Published pieces of paper or other material, usually printed on one side and intended to be read unfolded and usually intended to be posted, publicly distributed, or sold. (From Genre Terms: A Thesaurus for Use in Rare Book and Special Collections Cataloguing, 2d ed)Dental Devices, Home Care: Devices used in the home by persons to maintain dental and periodontal health. The devices include toothbrushes, dental flosses, water irrigators, gingival stimulators, etc.Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations: A private, voluntary, not-for-profit organization which establishes standards for the operation of health facilities and services, conducts surveys, and awards accreditation.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Patient Discharge: The administrative process of discharging the patient, alive or dead, from hospitals or other health facilities.First Aid: Emergency care or treatment given to a person who suddenly becomes ill or injured before full medical services become available.Physical Therapy Modalities: Therapeutic modalities frequently used in PHYSICAL THERAPY SPECIALTY by PHYSICAL THERAPISTS or physiotherapists to promote, maintain, or restore the physical and physiological well-being of an individual.Self-Evaluation Programs: Educational programs structured in such a manner that the participating professionals, physicians, or students develop an increased awareness of their performance, usually on the basis of self-evaluation questionnaires.Education, Continuing: Educational programs designed to inform individuals of recent advances in their particular field of interest. They do not lead to any formal advanced standing.Librarians: Specialists in the management of a library or the services rendered by a library, bringing professional skills to administration, organization of material and personnel, interpretation of bibliothecal rules, the development and maintenance of the library's collection, and the provision of information services.Dental Plaque Index: An index which scores the degree of dental plaque accumulation.Practice (Psychology): Performance of an act one or more times, with a view to its fixation or improvement; any performance of an act or behavior that leads to learning.Group Processes: The procedures through which a group approaches, attacks, and solves a common problem.Education, Nursing: Use for general articles concerning nursing education.Cognition: Intellectual or mental process whereby an organism obtains knowledge.Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation: The artificial substitution of heart and lung action as indicated for HEART ARREST resulting from electric shock, DROWNING, respiratory arrest, or other causes. The two major components of cardiopulmonary resuscitation are artificial ventilation (RESPIRATION, ARTIFICIAL) and closed-chest CARDIAC MASSAGE.Self Care: Performance of activities or tasks traditionally performed by professional health care providers. The concept includes care of oneself or one's family and friends.Communication Barriers: Those factors, such as language or sociocultural relationships, which interfere in the meaningful interpretation and transmission of ideas between individuals or groups.Education: Acquisition of knowledge as a result of instruction in a formal course of study.Play and Playthings: Spontaneous or voluntary recreational activities pursued for enjoyment and accessories or equipment used in the activities; includes games, toys, etc.Emergency Medicine: The branch of medicine concerned with the evaluation and initial treatment of urgent and emergent medical problems, such as those caused by accidents, trauma, sudden illness, poisoning, or disasters. Emergency medical care can be provided at the hospital or at sites outside the medical facility.Faculty, Medical: The teaching staff and members of the administrative staff having academic rank in a medical school.Intellectual Disability: Subnormal intellectual functioning which originates during the developmental period. This has multiple potential etiologies, including genetic defects and perinatal insults. Intelligence quotient (IQ) scores are commonly used to determine whether an individual has an intellectual disability. IQ scores between 70 and 79 are in the borderline range. Scores below 67 are in the disabled range. (from Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch55, p28)Light-Curing of Dental Adhesives: The hardening or polymerization of bonding agents (DENTAL CEMENTS) via exposure to light.MEDLINE: The premier bibliographic database of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. MEDLINE® (MEDLARS Online) is the primary subset of PUBMED and can be searched on NLM's Web site in PubMed or the NLM Gateway. MEDLINE references are indexed with MEDICAL SUBJECT HEADINGS (MeSH).Materials Testing: The testing of materials and devices, especially those used for PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; SUTURES; TISSUE ADHESIVES; etc., for hardness, strength, durability, safety, efficacy, and biocompatibility.Retention (Psychology): The persistence to perform a learned behavior (facts or experiences) after an interval has elapsed in which there has been no performance or practice of the behavior.Manuals as Topic: Books designed to give factual information or instructions.Movement: The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.Mainstreaming (Education): Most frequently refers to the integration of a physically or mentally disabled child into the regular class of normal peers and provision of the appropriately determined educational program.Phonetics: The science or study of speech sounds and their production, transmission, and reception, and their analysis, classification, and transcription. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Webcasts as Topic: Transmission of live or pre-recorded audio or video content via connection or download from the INTERNET.Education, Medical, Continuing: Educational programs designed to inform physicians of recent advances in their field.Peer Group: Group composed of associates of same species, approximately the same age, and usually of similar rank or social status.Online Systems: Systems where the input data enter the computer directly from the point of origin (usually a terminal or workstation) and/or in which output data are transmitted directly to that terminal point of origin. (Sippl, Computer Dictionary, 4th ed)Educational Status: Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.Dentin-Bonding Agents: Cements that act through infiltration and polymerization within the dentinal matrix and are used for dental restoration. They can be adhesive resins themselves, adhesion-promoting monomers, or polymerization initiators that act in concert with other agents to form a dentin-bonding system.Volition: Voluntary activity without external compulsion.Osteopathic Medicine: A medical discipline that is based on the philosophy that all body systems are interrelated and dependent upon one another for good health. This philosophy, developed in 1874 by Dr. Andrew Taylor Still, recognizes the concept of "wellness" and the importance of treating illness within the context of the whole body. Special attention is placed on the MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM.Dyslexia: A cognitive disorder characterized by an impaired ability to comprehend written and printed words or phrases despite intact vision. This condition may be developmental or acquired. Developmental dyslexia is marked by reading achievement that falls substantially below that expected given the individual's chronological age, measured intelligence, and age-appropriate education. The disturbance in reading significantly interferes with academic achievement or with activities of daily living that require reading skills. (From DSM-IV)Education, Graduate: Studies beyond the bachelor's degree at an institution having graduate programs for the purpose of preparing for entrance into a specific field, and obtaining a higher degree.

*  Full text of "Commencement"

... a Function ol Time Needed to Reach Criterion in a Learning Program Using Programmed Instruction lor Teaching an Algebraic Topic ... Awarded to • • Walter M. Washabaugh George M. Reiley Award to the member of the Flight Instruction Program showing the highest ... Virginia) Education - Industrial Art: An Experiment Using A Visual Method of Instruction Followed by Imita- tion to Teach ... New York) Psychology: Social Penetration Processes: The Effects ol Acquaintance, Topic Intimacy, and Support on Opennes of ...
archive.org/stream/commencement1972univ/commencement1972univ_djvu.txt

*  Hyperlipid: Adipotide and the Bad Fat

... and it is operating as it was genetically formed with the instructions programmed. ... Slightly off-topic: VDRKO mice have very low fat (including visceral) and very high EE. http://endo.endojournals.org/content/ ...
high-fat-nutrition.blogspot.com/2011/11/adipotide-and-bad-fat.html?showComment=1321951745547

*  Molecular technique advances soybean rust resistanc... ( A new tool is available to select fo...)

New molecular robot can be programmed to follow instructions. 9. Molecular mechanism contributing to neuronal circuit formation ... the topic of "Proactive Patient Enrollment Strategies for Clinical Operations Professionals." From tracking enrollment ... ...
bio-medicine.org/biology-news-1/Molecular-technique-advances-soybean-rust-resistance-research-19322-1/

*  Patent US6665687 - Composite user interface and search system for internet and multimedia ... - Google Patents

... and in implementing the search and navigation functions may be performed in whole or in part within the programmed instructions ... 8, a user may search for a channel, program title, program topic e.g. movies, a program theme e.g. comedy, a telephone or fax ... Controller 30 executes preprogrammed instructions constituting an operating system. In executing the instructions, controller ... Automatic generation of hypertext links to multimedia topic objects. US5854630. Jul 1, 1996. Dec 29, 1998. Sun Microsystems, ...
google.com/patents/US6665687?dq=7,752,326

*  Kim's take on Emotional Behavior Disorders: February 2010

Provide direct instruction, programmed learning, and precision teaching lessons. These will build students' self-confidence ... TOPIC 6 PCP AND WRAP-AROUND. Person centered planning (PCP). The process that creates a whole life plan based on the targeted ... Come in go to your area and talk quietly with table partners until instruction begins. 12. How many students in the classroom ... Attention: Does the teacher gain the attention of the students prior to instruction? L M H A consistent and clear attention ...
kimsebd.blogspot.com/2010/02/

*  Patent US7359498 - Systems and methods for arranging a call - Google Patents

... or logic circuits programmed with the instructions to perform the operations. Alternatively, the operations may be performed by ... to receive advice on a particular topic, a predefined category may be selected by a consumer (e.g., which may further identify ... A computer readable medium encoded with instructions that, when executed by a data processing system, will cause the data ... Method for auxiliary software providing instruction for facsimile modem to simulate a telephone communication while connecting ...
google.com/patents/US7359498?dq=7,453,150

*  Books - Medicine - Terkko Navigator

Pharmacokinetics, Pharmaceutical Preparations, Programmed Instruction, sähkökirjat. Spruill, William J;Blouin, Robert A;DiPiro ... Clinical trials, Clinical Trials as Topic, Developing Countries, Hepatitis A Vaccines, Human Experimentation, Pulmonary ... Pharmacy technicians, Pharmaceutical Services, Pharmacists' Aides, Pharmacy, Programmed Instruction, Examinations, Outlines and ... Antineoplastic agents, Cancer, Antineoplastic Agents, Cancer Vaccines, Clinical Trials as Topic, Neoplasms, MEDICAL / ...
https://terkko.helsinki.fi/pharmacology-and-pharmacotherapy/books

*  Content Collection

... programmed instruction, and new school curricula prepared by experts in the disciplines. Now, the slogans are "excellence," " ... Interest in collaborating on a presentation @ SITE 05 on this topic?. *online discussion ... Designing Problem-Driven Instruction with Online Social Media. by Kay Kyeung-Ju Seo & Debra A. Pellegrino (eds.). reviwed by ... its focus is on a minimal level of instruction that will introduce the masses to the ubiquitous computer and enable them to ...
tcrecord.org/ContentCollection.asp?cid=76

*  Essentials of accounting (Book, 1964) [WorldCat.org]

Programmed instructional materials. Programmed instruction. Additional Physical Format:. Online version:. Anthony, Robert N. ( ... schema:name "An Addison-Wesley programed text" ;. .. Topic/ ... schema:genre "Programmed instructional materials"@en ;. schema:inLanguage "en" ;. schema:isPartOf programed_text> ; # An Addison-Wesley programed text. schema: ...
worldcat.org/title/essentials-of-accounting/oclc/254843

*  Spirometry: Pre and Post Beta-Agonist

The results are recorded while the test is being done, and some machines are programmed to review results and suggest ... Your child will be asked to follow instructions given during the test. Cooperation is essential for accurate results. ... MORE ON THIS TOPIC. *Asthma Center. *Definition: Spirometer. *Spirometry. *Asthma Center. *Getting a Spirometry Test (Video) ... can help prepare your child for spirometry pre and post beta-agonist by explaining the importance of following the instructions ...
kidshealth.org/MainLine/en/parents/spirometry-agonist.html

*  Frontiers | Prudence, Emotional State, Personality, and Cognitive Ability | Psychology

At the start of each phase 1 to 3, separate instructions were read aloud. Instructions can be found online in the Data Sheet 1 ... This article is part of the Research Topic Personality and cognition in economic decision making ... The experiment was programmed in Ztree (Fischbacher, 2007). The experiment consisted of four phases. ...
journal.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fpsyg.2016.01688/full?&utm_source=Email_to_authors_&utm_medium=Email&utm_content=T1_11.5e1_author&utm_campaign=Email_publication&field=&journalName=Frontiers_in_Psychology&id=217103

*  New lithium-ion battery design that's 2,0...

Can I make a topic hidden or private?. You don't want your Scoop.it page to be public: make it private. You can decide to make ... Biology has programmed natural cells, but now engineers are starting to think about how we can program artificial cells. We ... but according to our instructions." ... How do I publish content on my topic?. Easy to do! You can: * ... How can I send a newsletter from my topic?. Distributing your curated content through a newsletter is a great way to nurture ...
scoop.it/t/tracking-the-future/p/4000157426/2013/04/17/new-lithium-ion-battery-design-that-s-2-000-times-more-powerful-recharges-1-000-times-faster

*  How processor, assembler, and programming languages work (for dummies) - CodeProject

What are instructions and how are they used?. As I already mentioned, instructions are very simple tasks that the processor can ... I noticed that when you throw a lot of this stuff at many people who have no prior understanding about the topic, it scares ... Many mobile devices use an architecture called ARM, so if you have programmed these processors in assembler, you would use the ... statement is, however it has a conditional jump instruction: it will jump to another instruction if a condition is true. So ...
https://codeproject.com/Articles/315505/How-processor-assembler-and-programming-languages?fid=1679158&df=90&mpp=10&sort=Position&spc=None&select=4456584

*  Educational Technologies for Precollege Engineering Education

2.1 Direct Instruction. Direct Instruction [ 54] is a deductive teaching method where learning is viewed as a function of ... 5c) can be programmed graphically by manipulating icons in The Scribbler Program Maker GUI. A number of other wheeled and ... The design of Electrical and Computer Systems is a popular topic in precollege engineering education with a variety of software ... the unique advantages that deductive instruction offers to novice learners make it imperative to include Direct Instruction in ...
https://computer.org/csdl/trans/lt/2012/01/tlt2012010020.html

*  Build Your Own Pocket Mini Computer: 13 Steps (with Pictures)

The good news is that the hardware itself can be programmed in C++ (from a PC based editor) so it can also be used as a modern ... does any one have some suggestions as to were i could find instructions on using BASIC? thanks ... Your Pocket Mini Computer can be programmed in C, Spin, and Assembly. To find out more about the processor powering your ...
instructables.com/id/Build-your-own-pocket-mini-computer/

*  DMOZ - Health: Conditions and Diseases: Cancer: Journals

Each issue focuses on a single topic and is presented under the direction of a guest editor. ... Monthly journal oriented to basic and clinically-oriented investigations on programmed cell death. ... Each issue focuses on a single topic and is presented under the direction of a guest editor. ...
dmoztools.net/Health/Conditions_and_Diseases/Cancer/Journals/

*  2006 Newsgroup postings (07/07 - 07/27) Lynn Wheeler

where the standard 801/risc instruction set was extended with some instructions that aided in instruction simulation. the ... for a little topic drift ... past posts referring to early history of pc network server effort ... some of the implementation ... the second or third bug we encountered was passing ascii from the interdata/3 (programmed to emulate 2702 over the channel ... for subset of "supervisor" state instructions, microcode was added to execute the instruction using virtual machine rules (to ...
garlic.com/~lynn/2006n.html

*  Similar - Books on Google Play

Programmed treatment planning, a specific process that guides a clinician through every step for solving even the most complex ... Following the familiar, easy-to-use at a Glance format, each topic is presented as a double-page spread with facts accompanied ... Combines all aspects of sedation with essential theory and instruction Boxes and tables highlight key information and make it ... It describes dental assisting procedures with photographs and clear, step-by-step instructions. Written by Doni Bird and Debbie ...
https://play.google.com/store/books/collection/books_clusters_mrl_7A067213_A947CA0C_931DE1D1

*  Patente US5205132 - Computer-implemented method and system for precise temperature control of a ... - Google Patentes

An AIR FLOW RATE icon is chosen from the calibration menu and follow the on-screen 28 instructions. System 10 will force air at ... Touching an underlined item provides access to a screen topic associated with that item. To exit a help screen, a command CLOSE ... The soak time is typically determined and programmed by a user into system 10 before testing begins to assure accuracy and ... Data transmission rate, handshake mode, and data parity can be programmed from touch screen 28 via a hardware setup screen. The ...
google.es/patents/US5205132

*  Method, device, and kit for maintaining physiological levels of steroid hormone in a subject - Patent application

... instructions for measuring current cyclic steroid hormone levels in the mammalian subject, and one or more instructions for ... In the case of an implant, the testosterone may be administered via a controllable pump, for example, which may be programmed ... descriptions of single topics may span two or more topic headings). Hence, the use of the formal outline headings is not ... instructions including one or more instructions for measuring pre-menopausal cyclic steroid hormone levels or measuring steroid ...
patentsencyclopedia.com/app/20100022489

*  Online procurement of biologically related products/services using interactive context searching of biological information -...

In a related aspect, the search can be absolutely scoped (limited to only certain parts of a site) or scoped to a topic, ... Also, as envisaged by the present invention, a system can be programmed for both word and phrase parsing to make searching more ... means text or embedded comments or instructions within text which may or may not print but which may be viewed and referred to ... Further, with word parsing systems, the computer can be programmed to ignore words such as "the," "of," and, "but," etc. ...
freepatentsonline.com/y2005/0240352.html

*  Biology-Online • View topic - Theories - Origin of Life

If they have a programmed response, they will all respond in the same way and at the same time. Your readouts will be the rate ... If it is meant to be a definition, why not simply "A sequence of instructions that perform a specified task"? (slightly ... I definitely agree with you that the authors know more about this topic than us. However, you will then need to accept these ... Of course, that does not mean that the adaptations are exactly the same ‒ the response is not programmed, as I discussed ...
biology-online.org/biology-forum/about14351.html?p=140888&hilit=Divergence

*  Parallel computing - Wikipedia

In this example, instruction 3 cannot be executed before (or even in parallel with) instruction 2, because instruction 3 uses a ... FPGAs can be programmed with hardware description languages such as VHDL or Verilog. However, programming in these languages ... Wikibooks has a book on the topic of: Distributed Systems. Wikiversity has learning resources about Parallel computing. ... If instruction 1B is executed between 1A and 3A, or if instruction 1A is executed between 1B and 3B, the program will produce ...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Parallel_computers

*  Texas Academy of Science getting death threats over Pianka - Pharyngula

Purposive encoding of biochemical instructions.. Notice the leap between these two statements. The two are in no way connected ... Here's a post on this topic that explains some of the background. It's geared toward people who understand computer science a ... I'm ready for the resumption of the regularly programmed American-agriculture-as-socialist-dystopia broadcasts, already. ... While I'm on the topic of skepticism, I might mention that predictions of an imminent overpopulation disaster have been just as ...
scienceblogs.com/pharyngula/2006/04/03/texas-academy-of-science-getti/

*  Computer Science (G400) | Undergraduate Programmes 2017 | The University of Kent

They may take hotspots : brief sessions with the whole class where they explain a technical topic or talk about aspects of ... A microcomputer is programmed in 'C' to generate the spark at the appropriate time. ... Instruction sets and types.. Data storage: Memory hierarchies and associated technologies. Physical and virtual memory. ... Device interfaces: Handshaking, buffering, programmed and interrupt-driven i/o. Direct Memory Access. ...
https://kent.ac.uk/courses/undergraduate/2017/124/computer-science

Kiten (program)Syllabus: A syllabus (pl. syllabi) is an outline and summary of topics to be covered in an education or training course.Reprimand: A reprimand is a severe, formal or official reproof. Reprimanding takes in different forms in different legal systems.Online patient education: Online Patient Education also known as Online Patient Engagement is a method of providing medical information and education to patients using Learning Management Systems delivered through the Internet.Evaluation of bariatric Centers of Excellence Web sites for functionality and efficacy.Universal law of generalization: The universal law of generalization is a theory of cognition originally posited by Roger Shepard. According to it, the probability that a response to one stimulus will be generalized to another will be a function of the distance between the two stimuli.Life writing: Life writing is the recording of selves, memories, and experiences, whether one's own or another's. This applies to many genres and practices, under which can be found autobiography, biography, memoir, diaries, letters, testimonies, personal essays and, more recently, digital forms such as blogs and email.British Journal of Diabetes and Vascular Disease: The British Journal of Diabetes and Vascular Disease is a peer-reviewed academic journal that publishes papers six times a year in the field of Cardiovascular medicine. The journal's editors are Clifford J Bailey (Aston University), Ian Campbell (Victoria Hospital) and Christoph Schindler (Dresden University of Technology).The Oxford Textbook of Medicine: The Oxford Textbook of Medicine Warrell DA, Cox TM, Firth JD. (2010).Slab serif: In typography, a slab serif (also called mechanistic, square serif, antique or Egyptian) typeface is a type of serif typeface characterized by thick, block-like serifs. Serif terminals may be either blunt and angular (Rockwell), or rounded (Courier).Alexander Walker (physiologist): Alexander Walker (1779—1852) was a Scottish physiologist, aesthetician, encyclopaedist, translator, novelist, and journalist.Virtual microscope: The Virtual Microscope project is an initiative to make micromorphology and behavior of some small organisms available online. Images are from Antarctica and the Baltic Sea and available at no cost.Graphic facilitation: Graphic Facilitation is the use of large scale imagery to lead groups and individuals towards a goal. The method is used in various processes such as meetings, seminars, workshops and conferences.DJ College of Dental Sciences and Research: Divya Jyoti (DJ) College of Dental Sciences and Research is a dental college located in Modinagar in the nagar panchayat of Niwari in Ghaziabad district in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. The founder and chairman is Ajit Singh Jassar.LaerdalInternational Congress on Sleep ApneaInternational Deaf Education Association: The International Deaf Education Association (IDEA) is an organization focused on educating the deaf in Bohol, Philippines initiated by the United States Peace Corps, under the leadership of Dennis Drake. The organization is a non-profit establishment that provides education to the impoverished and neglected deaf and blind children in the Philippines.Spalding MethodMurder of Robert Schwartz: The murder of Robert Schwartz occurred on December 8, 2001 in Leesburg, Virginia. The crime was orchestrated by his 20-year-old daughter, Clara Jane Schwartz, as part of a fantasy role-playing game.User operation prohibition: The user operation prohibition (abbreviated UOP) is a form of use restriction used on video DVD discs and Blu-ray discs. Most DVD players and Blu-ray players prohibit the viewer from performing a large majority of actions during sections of a DVD that are protected or restricted by this feature, and will display the no symbol or a message to that effect if any of these actions are attempted.David S. Cafiso: David S. Cafiso (born 18 March 1952) is an American biochemist and a Professor of Chemistry at the University of Virginia.Leiden International Medical Student ConferenceRealia (library science): Realia}}Josse de Corte: [Court Altare S. Maria della Salute.Video tape tracking: In a video tape recorder, tracking is a calibration adjustment which ensures that the spinning playback head is properly aligned with the helical scan signal written onto the tape.Closed-ended question: A closed-ended question is a question format that limits respondents with a list of answer choices from which they must choose to answer the question.Dillman D.Antenor Orrego Private UniversityBestbets: BestBETS (Best Evidence Topic Reports) is a system designed by emergency physicians at Manchester Royal Infirmary, UK. It was conceived as a way of allowing busy clinicians to solve real clinical problems using published evidence.Internet organizations: This is a list of Internet organizations, or organizations that play or played a key role in the evolution of the Internet by developing recommendations, standards, and technology; deploying infrastructure and services; and addressing other major issues.Nencki Institute of Experimental Biology: The Nencki Institute of Experimental Biology is a Polish scientific research organization and a part of Polish Academy of Sciences headquartered in Warsaw, Poland. Founded in 1918, it is a leading institution in the country in the field of neurobiology, molecular biology and biochemistry.University of Sydney Library: The University of Sydney Library is the library system of the University of Sydney. According to its publications, it is the largest academic library in the southern hemisphere (circa 2005), with a print collection of over 5.Temporal feedbackList of Parliamentary constituencies in Kent: The ceremonial county of Kent,History of communication studies: Various aspects of communication have been the subject of study since ancient times, and the approach eventually developed into the academic discipline known today as communication studies.Mexican ironwood carvings: Mexican ironwood carvings is a handcraft that began with the Seri indigenous people of the state of Sonora. The wood comes from Olneya tesota, a Sonora Desert tree commonly called ironwood (palo fierro in Spanish).Atlantic University: Atlantic University is private, distance education institution of higher and continuing education in Virginia Beach, Virginia. It is associated with Edgar Cayce's Association for Research and Enlightenment (A.International Committee on Aeronautical Fatigue and Structural IntegritySpecial education in the United Kingdom: 'Special Educational Needs' is an umbrella term for an aspect of UK school education focusing on students primarily with learning difficulties and/or disability. In school documents, it is abbreviated to 'SEN' / 'SEND' – these abbreviations are also used in Commonwealth countries such as Australia and Singapore.Prosection: A prosection is the dissection of a cadaver (human or animal) or part of a cadaver by an experienced anatomist in order to demonstrate for students anatomic structure."Prosection.Footprints (poem): "Footprints", also known as "Footprints in the Sand", is a popular allegorical text written in prose.Psychiatric interview: The psychiatric interview refers to the set of tools that a mental health worker (most times a psychiatrist or a psychologist but at times social workers or nurses) uses to complete a psychiatric assessment.Rvs Eyewear: RVS Eyewear was launched in 2006 as the first eyewear brand to be based out of Istanbul, Turkey. Its founder, Vidal Erkohen, founded this company with a goal of bringing back the quality and originality that was put into the eyewear of the past.Cassidy Live!KamaladalamThe Republican War on Science: The Republican War on Science is a 2005 book by Chris C. Mooney, an American journalist who focuses on the politics of science policy.ExploreLearning: Explore Learning is a Charlottesville, Virginia-based company which operates a large library of interactive online simulations for mathematics and science education in grades 3–12. These simulations are called Gizmos.Cigarette smoking among college students: The rates of college students smoking in the United States have fluctuated for the past twenty years. Majority of lifelong smokers begin smoking habits before the age of 24, which makes the college years a crucial time in the study of cigarette consumption.List of medical schools in the United KingdomAIP Conference Proceedings: AIP Conference Proceedings is a serial published by the American Institute of Physics since 1970. It publishes the proceedings from various conferences of physics societies.Centinela Freeman Regional Medical Center, Memorial Campus: Centinela Freeman Regional Medical Center, Memorial Campus was a hospital that was located at 333 N. Prairie Ave, Inglewood, California, USA.Vocabulary mismatch: Vocabulary mismatch is a common phenomenon in the usage of natural languages, occurring when different people name the same thing or concept differently.National Clinical Guideline CentreSchool health education: School Health Education see also: Health Promotion is the process of transferring health knowledge during a student's school years (K-12). Its uses are in general classified as Public Health Education and School Health Education.Temporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studyingStandard evaluation frameworkSpaced retrieval: Spaced retrieval, also known as expanded retrieval or uniform retrieval, is a learning technique, which requires users to rehearse information to be learned at different and increasing spaced intervals of time or a set uniform amount of time.Haslam, C.Migratory aptitude: Migratory aptitude is the relative ability of a migrating group to migrate in a rearrangement reaction. This can be affected by the leaving group (whichever gives a more stable carbocation)depends upon the electron density of the migrating group i.Cue stick: A cue stick (or simply cue, more specifically pool cue, snooker cue, or billiards cue), is an item of sporting equipment essential to the games of pool, snooker and carom billiards. It is used to strike a ball, usually the .Reproductive life plan: A reproductive life plan is a plan for whether, when and how to have children. It includes personal goals, and states how to achieve them.Behavior change (public health): Behavior change is a central objective in public health interventions,WHO 2002: World Health Report 2002 - Reducing Risks, Promoting Healthy Life Accessed Feb 2015 http://www.who.Dental Schools Council: The Dental Schools Council represents the interests of UK dental schools as it relates to national health, wealth, knowledge acquisition through teaching, research, and the profession of dentistry.Universities UK http://www.Index of physics articles (J): The index of physics articles is split into multiple pages due to its size.Task switching (psychology): Task switching, or set-shifting, is an executive function and a kind of cognitive flexibility that involves the ability to shift attention between one task and another. This ability allows a person to rapidly and efficiently adapt to different situations.United States Senate Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs: The United States Senate Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs was a select committee of the United States Senate between 1968 and 1977. It was sometimes referred to as the McGovern committee, after its only chairperson, Senator George McGovern of South Dakota.

(1/67) Comparison of two training strategies for essential newborn care in Brazil.

OBJECTIVE: To compare the effectiveness of two training strategies for improving essential newborn care in the state of Pernambuco, Brazil. METHODS: Eight hospitals were selected, divided into two groups of four, and paired by geographical, structural, and functional characteristics. Doctors and nurses working at hospitals in Group 1 were given a conventional 5-day training course. Those in Group 2 were given the same manual used by Group 1 but the training course was organized as self-directed learning, with the participants having 5 weeks to complete the course. Participants' knowledge was tested at baseline, immediately after the course, and 3-6 months later. Participants' practices were observed before training and 3-6 months after training during 20 births and by interviewing 20 mothers before discharge at each hospital. FINDINGS: Not all participants completed all of the tests. The scores on the tests of knowledge improved more among those in Group 2 than those in Group 1 when the answers were classified as right or wrong, but there was no difference between groups when a scoring method was used that classified answers as correct, partially correct, incorrect, or missing. Practices related to thermal control after birth improved among those in Group 2 after training but practices related to thermal control on the ward worsened. The promotion of breastfeeding improved in both groups. CONCLUSION: There was no difference between the two training strategies, although self-directed learning was cheaper than conventional training. Neither strategy brought about the expected improvements in the quality of care. Other interventions in addition to training may be needed to improve care.  (+info)

(2/67) Determinants of cardiac function: simulation of a dynamic cardiac pump for physiology instruction.

A computer model is described that simulates the cardiac cycle of a mammalian heart. The model emphasizes the pressure-volume plot as a teaching tool to explain the behavior of the heart as a pump. It exhibits realistic responses to changes in preload, afterload, contractility, and heart rate while displaying time-dependent changes in pressure and volume in addition to the pressure versus volume plot. It differs from previous models by graphing these parameters on a beat-to-beat basis, allowing visualization of the dynamic adaptation of the pumping heart to various stimuli. A system diagram is also included to further promote student understanding of the physiology of cardiac function. The model is useful for teaching this topic to medical, graduate, or undergraduate students. It may also be used as a self-directed computer laboratory exercise.  (+info)

(3/67) Real-time, evidence-based medicine instruction: a randomized controlled trial in a neonatal intensive care unit.

PURPOSE: The study assesses potential for improving residents' evidence-based medicine searching skills in MEDLINE through real-time librarian instruction. SUBJECTS: Ten residents on a rotation in a neonatal intensive care unit participated. METHODOLOGY: Residents were randomized into an instruction and a non-instruction group. Residents generated questions from rounds and searched MEDLINE for answers. Data were collected through observation, search strategy analysis, and surveys. Librarians observed searches and collected data on questions, searching skills, search problems, and the test group's instruction topics. Participants performed standardized searches before, after, and six-months after intervention and were scored using a search strategy analysis tool (1 representing highest score and 5 representing lowest score). Residents completed pre- and post-intervention surveys to measure opinions about MEDLINE and search satisfaction. RESULTS: Post-intervention, the test group formulated better questions, used limits more effectively, and reported greater confidence in using MEDLINE. The control group expressed less satisfaction with retrieval and demonstrated more errors when limiting. The test and control groups had the following average search scores respectively: 3.0 and 3.5 (pre-intervention), 3.3 and 3.4 (post-intervention), and 2.0 and 3.8 (six-month post-intervention). CONCLUSION: Data suggest that measurable learning outcomes were achieved. Residents receiving instruction improved and retained searching skills six-months after intervention.  (+info)

(4/67) Physical activity intervention: a transtheoretical model-based intervention designed to help sedentary young adults become active.

Physical activity levels in young adults are low. Research supports the use of the Transtheoretical Model of behaviour change (TM) in designing physical activity interventions. This study used a pre-post randomized control design to investigate the effectiveness of a self-instructional intervention for helping sedentary young adults to initiate physical activity. Post-intervention, significantly more of the experimental group (80%), in comparison to the control group (68%), improved their exercise stage of change (SOC) from baseline (P < 0.05). Discriminant analyses revealed that discrimination between stage improvement/non-improvement was possible using the processes of change data. Stage improvers scored significantly higher on all of the behavioral and four out of five of the cognitive processes of change. For stage improvers, the processes of self-re-evaluation and self-liberation were most frequently used, whilst social liberation was used significantly more by the experimental than the control group. This inexpensive, self-instructional intervention, based on the TM and the 'active living message', is an effective method of assisting sedentary young adults to progress through the exercise SOC.  (+info)

(5/67) The Modular Resource Center: integrated units for the study of the anatomical sciences in a problem-based curriculum.

The Modular Resource Center (MRC) at the College of Veterinary Medicine at Cornell University was created in 1993 as a way to provide visual resources in support of a newly implemented problem-based curriculum in which the anatomical sciences are taught primarily in the first tutorial-based course, The Animal Body. Over two dozen modules have been created specifically in support of this course, whereas additional modules have been created in support of other basic science courses. The basic unit of organization of the MRC is a module presented in a carrel that provides students a way to study, either alone or in groups, a given topic. The topic is presented through a script and an integrated set of anatomical materials including plastinated dissected specimens, vascular casts, skeletal preparations, models, radiographs, histological slides, and photo- and electron micrographs. The key feature of this resource center is that it is not a museum; rather it is more analogous to an interactive library, that can be used for reference, study, and review, not only by veterinary students but also by faculty, interns, residents, and undergraduates. A unique aspect is that all materials have been made by veterinary students working with faculty during the summer. Although started as a resource in support of a tutorial-based curriculum, the MRC has evolved over a decade into an anatomy resource that would be highly valued in any curricular format.  (+info)

(6/67) Enhancing the dental histology curriculum using computer technology.

The predominant difference between the histology offered to dental students and that taken by other health care professionals is the emphasis placed on the oral tissues. The oral histology component of the dental curriculum is commonly handled in one of three ways, all delivering far more detailed information than the often less than one hour that a typical medical histology course spends on the oral cavity and its component tissues. Overall, three general curricular styles can be defined: 1) dental histology is taught by medical or dental faculty as a separate course, the oral histology component being a separate course taught by either faculty group; 2) medical and dental students take histology together in a single class with the oral histology component taught separately by faculty from either college; and 3) both basic and oral histology is taught within a single semester, the format used at the University of Kentucky College of Dentistry. The oral histology topics are similar in all of the course formats, regardless of whether they occur as a stand-alone course or are merged with basic histology. The main portion of this paper will describe a self-study, non-microscope-based laboratory experience designed to complement this fused topic course. Self-study labs using digital media are becoming more popular across both medical and dental histology curricula, specifically with the oral histology component where the histological skills for preparing these tissues are rapidly disappearing from many schools. This paper describes a typical syllabus for a fused course, outlining the topics for basic and oral histology, and demonstrates how the laboratory portion has been enhanced using digital technology.  (+info)

(7/67) Sonographic training in rheumatology: a self teaching approach.

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate a self teaching approach to be followed by a novice without previous practical experience in musculoskeletal ultrasonography. METHODS: The novice was given short general training (two hours) by an experienced sonographer focusing on the approach to the ultrasound equipment, and asked to obtain the best sonographic images of different anatomical areas as similar as possible to the "gold standard" pictures in the online version of the guidelines for musculoskeletal ultrasonography in rheumatology (free access at http://www.sameint.it/eular/ultrasound). At the end of each scanning session, both novice and tutor scored "blindly" all the images from 0 (the lowest quality) to 10 (the highest quality), with a minimum quality score of 6 considered acceptable for standard clinical use. The tutor then explained how to improve the quality of the pictures. Fourteen consecutive inpatients (seven with rheumatoid arthritis, three with psoriatic arthritis, two with reactive arthritis, and two with osteoarthritis) and five healthy subjects were examined. Ultrasound examinations were performed with a Diasus (Dynamic Imaging Ltd, Livingston, Scotland, UK) using two broadband linear probes of 5-10 and 8-16 MHz frequency. RESULTS: Sonographic training lasted one month and included 30 scanning sessions (24 hours of active scanning). 243 images were taken of the selected anatomical areas. The mean time required to produce each image was 6 minutes (SD 4.2; range 1-30). At the end of the training, the novice scored >/=6 for each standard scan. CONCLUSION: A novice can obtain acceptable sonographic images in 24 non-consecutive hours of active scanning after an intensive self teaching programme.  (+info)

(8/67) PROGRAMMED INSTRUCTION: NEW BOTTLE FOR REDISCOVERED WINE.

Programmed instruction is attracting attention at all educational levels. While this approach is new, the educational principles it incorporates are well established: instructional goals are defined in advance, the content is meticulously organized, active student participation is demanded, immediate feedback is provided to students, and each instructional unit is subjected to testing and revision. With its established effectiveness as a vehicle for introducing new topics, and for providing remedial and supplementary instruction, it can free the medical teacher to devote his time to matters which are more deserving of his attention, such as identifying and responding to individual student needs, exploring complex concepts, and working directly with students to provide a model and critical supervision. A more important potential contribution of programming may be that it has reminded us of sound educational precepts which deserve our attention in all forms of instruction.  (+info)



follow instructions


  • Your child will be asked to follow instructions given during the test. (kidshealth.org)

cell


  • Monthly journal oriented to basic and clinically-oriented investigations on programmed cell death. (dmoztools.net)

BASIC


single


  • Processor is a circuit that is designed to perform single instructions: actually a whole series of them, one by one. (codeproject.com)
  • Each issue focuses on a single topic and is presented under the direction of a guest editor. (dmoztools.net)

given


  • This way, manufactures can create various processors that support a given architecture: they can differ in speed, power consumption, and price, but they all understand the same codes as same instructions. (codeproject.com)

Person


  • You can help prepare your child for spirometry pre and post beta-agonist by explaining the importance of following the instructions of the person administering the test. (kidshealth.org)