Problem-Based Learning: Instructional use of examples or cases to teach using problem-solving skills and critical thinking.Curriculum: A course of study offered by an educational institution.Education, Medical, Undergraduate: The period of medical education in a medical school. In the United States it follows the baccalaureate degree and precedes the granting of the M.D.Education, Medical: Use for general articles concerning medical education.Teaching: The educational process of instructing.Programmed Instruction as Topic: Instruction in which learners progress at their own rate using workbooks, textbooks, or electromechanical devices that provide information in discrete steps, test learning at each step, and provide immediate feedback about achievement. (ERIC, Thesaurus of ERIC Descriptors, 1996).Educational Measurement: The assessing of academic or educational achievement. It includes all aspects of testing and test construction.Group Processes: The procedures through which a group approaches, attacks, and solves a common problem.Models, Educational: Theoretical models which propose methods of learning or teaching as a basis or adjunct to changes in attitude or behavior. These educational interventions are usually applied in the fields of health and patient education but are not restricted to patient care.Education, Dental: Use for articles concerning dental education in general.Students, Medical: Individuals enrolled in a school of medicine or a formal educational program in medicine.Thinking: Mental activity, not predominantly perceptual, by which one apprehends some aspect of an object or situation based on past learning and experience.Schools, Medical: Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of medicine.Physiology: The biological science concerned with the life-supporting properties, functions, and processes of living organisms or their parts.Science: The study of natural phenomena by observation, measurement, and experimentation.Students, Pharmacy: Individuals enrolled in a school of pharmacy or a formal educational program leading to a degree in pharmacy.Problem Solving: A learning situation involving more than one alternative from which a selection is made in order to attain a specific goal.Education, Pharmacy: Formal instruction, learning, or training in the preparation, dispensing, and proper utilization of drugs in the field of medicine.Computer-Assisted Instruction: A self-learning technique, usually online, involving interaction of the student with programmed instructional materials.Schools, Dental: Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of dentistry.Education, Nursing, Graduate: Those educational activities engaged in by holders of a bachelor's degree in nursing, which are primarily designed to prepare them for entrance into a specific field of nursing, and may lead to board certification or a more advanced degree.Occupational Health Nursing: The practice of nursing in the work environment.Students, Dental: Individuals enrolled a school of dentistry or a formal educational program in leading to a degree in dentistry.Libraries, DentalSecularism: Indifference to, or rejection of, RELIGION or religious considerations. (From Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)Clinical Competence: The capability to perform acceptably those duties directly related to patient care.Mentors: Senior professionals who provide guidance, direction and support to those persons desirous of improvement in academic positions, administrative positions or other career development situations.Pharmacology: The study of the origin, nature, properties, and actions of drugs and their effects on living organisms.Learning: Relatively permanent change in behavior that is the result of past experience or practice. The concept includes the acquisition of knowledge.Program Evaluation: Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.Teaching Materials: Instructional materials used in teaching.Endocrinology: A subspecialty of internal medicine concerned with the metabolism, physiology, and disorders of the ENDOCRINE SYSTEM.Faculty, Medical: The teaching staff and members of the administrative staff having academic rank in a medical school.Technology: The application of scientific knowledge to practical purposes in any field. It includes methods, techniques, and instrumentation.New MexicoEducation, Distance: Education via communication media (correspondence, radio, television, computer networks) with little or no in-person face-to-face contact between students and teachers. (ERIC Thesaurus, 1997)Pharmacology, Clinical: The branch of pharmacology that deals directly with the effectiveness and safety of drugs in humans.Faculty: The teaching staff and members of the administrative staff having academic rank in an educational institution.Education, Pharmacy, Graduate: Educational programs for pharmacists who have a bachelor's degree or a Doctor of Pharmacy degree entering a specific field of pharmacy. They may lead to an advanced degree.IndianaEndodontics: A dental specialty concerned with the maintenance of the dental pulp in a state of health and the treatment of the pulp cavity (pulp chamber and pulp canal).Faculty, Dental: The teaching staff and members of the administrative staff having academic rank in a dental school.Education, Medical, Continuing: Educational programs designed to inform physicians of recent advances in their field.Competency-Based Education: Educational programs designed to ensure that students attain prespecified levels of competence in a given field or training activity. Emphasis is on achievement or specified objectives.Libraries, MedicalAchievement: Success in bringing an effort to the desired end; the degree or level of success attained in some specified area (esp. scholastic) or in general.Personal Satisfaction: The individual's experience of a sense of fulfillment of a need or want and the quality or state of being satisfied.Maze Learning: Learning the correct route through a maze to obtain reinforcement. It is used for human or animal populations. (Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 6th ed)Biochemistry: The study of the composition, chemical structures, and chemical reactions of living things.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Professional Competence: The capability to perform the duties of one's profession generally, or to perform a particular professional task, with skill of an acceptable quality.Education, Medical, Graduate: Educational programs for medical graduates entering a specialty. They include formal specialty training as well as academic work in the clinical and basic medical sciences, and may lead to board certification or an advanced medical degree.Students: Individuals enrolled in a school or formal educational program.Attitude: An enduring, learned predisposition to behave in a consistent way toward a given class of objects, or a persistent mental and/or neural state of readiness to react to a certain class of objects, not as they are but as they are conceived to be.Cooperative Behavior: The interaction of two or more persons or organizations directed toward a common goal which is mutually beneficial. An act or instance of working or acting together for a common purpose or benefit, i.e., joint action. (From Random House Dictionary Unabridged, 2d ed)Program Development: The process of formulating, improving, and expanding educational, managerial, or service-oriented work plans (excluding computer program development).Feedback: A mechanism of communication within a system in that the input signal generates an output response which returns to influence the continued activity or productivity of that system.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Motivation: Those factors which cause an organism to behave or act in either a goal-seeking or satisfying manner. They may be influenced by physiological drives or by external stimuli.Discrimination Learning: Learning that is manifested in the ability to respond differentially to various stimuli.Avoidance Learning: A response to a cue that is instrumental in avoiding a noxious experience.Attitude of Health Personnel: Attitudes of personnel toward their patients, other professionals, toward the medical care system, etc.Verbal Learning: Learning to respond verbally to a verbal stimulus cue.Reversal Learning: Any situation where an animal or human is trained to respond differentially to two stimuli (e.g., approach and avoidance) under reward and punishment conditions and subsequently trained under reversed reward values (i.e., the approach which was previously rewarded is punished and vice versa).Anatomy: A branch of biology dealing with the structure of organisms.Reference Books, Medical: Books in the field of medicine intended primarily for consultation.Serial Learning: Learning to make a series of responses in exact order.
Graphic facilitation: Graphic Facilitation is the use of large scale imagery to lead groups and individuals towards a goal. The method is used in various processes such as meetings, seminars, workshops and conferences.Syllabus: A syllabus (pl. syllabi) is an outline and summary of topics to be covered in an education or training course.Peer-led Team Learning: Peer-led Team Learning, (PLTL), is a model of teaching undergraduate science, math, and engineering courses that introduces peer-led workshops as an integral part of a course.Gosser,D.DJ College of Dental Sciences and Research: Divya Jyoti (DJ) College of Dental Sciences and Research is a dental college located in Modinagar in the nagar panchayat of Niwari in Ghaziabad district in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. The founder and chairman is Ajit Singh Jassar.Leiden International Medical Student ConferenceThe Art of Negative Thinking: The Art of Negative Thinking (Norwegian: Kunsten å tenke negativt) is a 2006 Norwegian black comedy film directed and written by Bård Breien. The storyline revolves around a man (played by Fridtjov Såheim) who is adjusting to life in a wheelchair, and the socializing group he is made to join.List of medical schools in the United KingdomAlexander Walker (physiologist): Alexander Walker (1779—1852) was a Scottish physiologist, aesthetician, encyclopaedist, translator, novelist, and journalist.The Republican War on Science: The Republican War on Science is a 2005 book by Chris C. Mooney, an American journalist who focuses on the politics of science policy.Kiten (program)Dental Schools Council: The Dental Schools Council represents the interests of UK dental schools as it relates to national health, wealth, knowledge acquisition through teaching, research, and the profession of dentistry.Universities UK http://www.Ravindran Chetambath: Dr. Ravindran Chetambath was the Principal(Dean) of Calicut Medical College since July 2009 .VII Photo Agency: VII is an international photo agency wholly owned and governed by its membership.Standard evaluation frameworkEndocrine Research: Endocrine Research is a peer-reviewed medical journal that covers endocrinology in the broadest context. Subjects of interest include: receptors and mechanism of action of hormones, methodological advances in the detection and measurement of hormones; structure and chemical properties of hormones.General Medicine Faculty of RostGMU (Rostov State Medical University): Rostov State Medical University, Faculty of General Medicine - Located in Rostov city center with 20 departments, each departments has its own clinics with numbers of beds.Medical sign: A medical sign is an objective indication of some medical fact or characteristic that may be detected by a physician during a physical examination of a patient. For example, whereas paresthesia is a symptom (only the person experiencing it can directly observe their own tingling feeling), erythema is a sign (anyone can confirm that the skin is redder than usual).Albuquerque IsotopesAtlantic University: Atlantic University is private, distance education institution of higher and continuing education in Virginia Beach, Virginia. It is associated with Edgar Cayce's Association for Research and Enlightenment (A.European Association for Clinical Pharmacology and TherapeuticsKamaladalamIndiana University School of Dentistry: The Indiana University School of Dentistry (IUSD) is the dental school of Indiana University. It is located on the Indiana University – Purdue University Indianapolis campus in downtown Indianapolis.Journal of Endodontics: The Journal of Endodontics is the official journal of the American Association of Endodontists and is published by Elsevier. It is a monthly journal that was established in 1975 and publishes scientific articles, case reports, and studies comparing different tools, materials, and methods used in endodontic treatment.University of Sydney Library: The University of Sydney Library is the library system of the University of Sydney. According to its publications, it is the largest academic library in the southern hemisphere (circa 2005), with a print collection of over 5.Positivity offset: Positivity offset is a psychological term referring to two phenomena: People tend to interpret neutral situations as mildly positive, and most people rate their lives as good, most of the time. The positivity offset stands in notable asymmetry to the negativity bias.Learning Plan: A Learning Plan is a document (possibly an interactive or on-line document) that is used to plan learning, usually over an extended period of time.Frank Dickens (biochemist): Frank Dickens FRS (15 December 1899 - 15 June 1986) was a biochemist, best known for his work at the Courtauld Institute of Biochemistry with Edward Charles Dodds on the pentose phosphate pathway which generates NADPH.Peter N.Closed-ended question: A closed-ended question is a question format that limits respondents with a list of answer choices from which they must choose to answer the question.Dillman D.Upsilon Phi Delta: Upsilon Phi Delta (ΥΦΔ) is the national academic honor society for students in healthcare administration in the United States. The organization was formed in 1965 to further the profession of health administration and the professional competence and dedication of its members.Cigarette smoking among college students: The rates of college students smoking in the United States have fluctuated for the past twenty years. Majority of lifelong smokers begin smoking habits before the age of 24, which makes the college years a crucial time in the study of cigarette consumption.Document-centric collaboration: Document-centric collaboration is a new approach to working together on projects online which puts the document and its contents at the centre of the process.Temporal feedbackInternet organizations: This is a list of Internet organizations, or organizations that play or played a key role in the evolution of the Internet by developing recommendations, standards, and technology; deploying infrastructure and services; and addressing other major issues.Avoidance reactionProsection: A prosection is the dissection of a cadaver (human or animal) or part of a cadaver by an experienced anatomist in order to demonstrate for students anatomic structure."Prosection.Drug reference standard: A drug reference standard is a standardized substance which is used as a measurement base for similar substances. Where the exact active substances of a new drug are not known, a reference standard provides a calibrated level of biological effects against which new preparations of the drug can be compared.Sequence learning: In cognitive psychology, sequence learning is inherent to human ability because it is an integrated part of conscious and nonconscious learning as well as activities. Sequences of information or sequences of actions are used in various everyday tasks: "from sequencing sounds in speech, to sequencing movements in typing or playing instruments, to sequencing actions in driving an automobile.
(1/825) Do case studies mislead about the nature of reality?
This paper attempts a partial, critical look at the construction and use of case studies in ethics education. It argues that the authors and users of case studies are often insufficiently aware of the literary nature of these artefacts: this may lead to some confusion between fiction and reality. Issues of the nature of the genre, the fictional, story-constructing aspect of case studies, the nature of authorship, and the purposes and uses of case studies as "texts" are outlined and discussed. The paper concludes with some critical questions that can be applied to the construction and use of case studies in the light of the foregoing analysis. (+info)
(2/825) Application of the problem-based learning model for continuing professional education: a continuing medical education program on managed care issues--Part II.
Physicians must incorporate concepts of practice management and knowledge of managed care into their practices. Managed care presents an immediate and challenging opportunity to providers of continuing medical education to offer effective educational programs for physicians on managed care issues. In this exploratory research, the problem-based learning model was used to develop a continuing medical education program that would offer an interactive and effective method for teaching physicians about managed care. Problem-based learning is a departure from the traditional lecture format of continuing medical education programs because it is designed for small groups of self-directed learners who are guided by a faculty facilitator. Although only a small number of participants participated in this program, the findings offer important considerations for providers of continuing medical education. For example, participants reported increased confidence in their knowledge about managed care issues. Participants also clearly indicated a preference for the small group, interactive format of the problem-based learning model. (+info)
(3/825) An interdisciplinary approach to a day-long palliative care course for undergraduate students.
Although it is desirable that students in the health sciences be educated together to prepare them for interdisciplinary practice, many educational programs remain discipline specific. An undergraduate course in palliative care, originally designed for medical students at McMaster University, Hamilton, Ont., was expanded in 1993 to include students from various health sciences programs in the region. The course introduces students to the components of palliative care and its interdisciplinary nature in a problem-based way and directs students to additional educational resources. The authors describe the planning, content and evaluation of the course material. The observed decline in attendance by medical students, which coincided with the introduction of the interdisciplinary format, warrants further investigation. Future directions of the course are discussed. (+info)
(4/825) Implementing practice guidelines for diabetes care using problem-based learning. A prospective controlled trial using firm systems.
OBJECTIVE: A controlled trial with 15-month follow-up was conducted in two outpatient clinics to study the effects of using the problem-based learning technique to implement a diabetes clinical practice guideline. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A total of 144 patients with type 2 diabetes aged 25-65 years in two internal medicine outpatient clinics were enrolled in the study. African-Americans and Hispanics made up > 75% of the patients. Doctors and staff in one of the clinics were trained in the use of a clinical practice guideline based on Staged Diabetes Management. A problem-based learning educational program was instituted to reach consensus on a stepped intensification scheme for glycemic control and to determine the standards of care used in the clinic. HbA1c was obtained at baseline and at 9 and 15 months after enrollment. RESULTS: At 9 months, there was a mean -0.90% within-subject change in HbA1c in the intervention group, with no significant changes in the control group. The 15-month mean within-subject change in HbA1c of -0.62% in the intervention group was also significant. Among intervention patients, those with the poorest glycemic control at baseline realized the greatest benefit in improvement of HbA1c. The intervention group also exhibited significant changes in physician adherence with American Diabetes Association standards of care. CONCLUSIONS: Clinical practice guidelines are an effective way of improving the processes and outcomes of care for patients with diabetes. Problem-based learning is a useful strategy to gain physician support for clinical practice guidelines. More intensive interventions are needed to maintain treatment gains. (+info)
(5/825) Teaching experimental design to biologists.
The teaching of research design and data analysis to our graduate students has been a persistent problem. A course is described in which students, early in their graduate training, obtain extensive practice in designing experiments and interpreting data. Lecture-discussions on the essentials of biostatistics are given, and then these essentials are repeatedly reviewed by illustrating their applications and misapplications in numerous research design problems. Students critique these designs and prepare similar problems for peer evaluation. In most problems the treatments are confounded by extraneous variables, proper controls may be absent, or data analysis may be incorrect. For each problem, students must decide whether the researchers' conclusions are valid and, if not, must identify a fatal experimental flaw. Students learn that an experiment is a well-conceived plan for data collection, analysis, and interpretation. They enjoy the interactive evaluations of research designs and appreciate the repetitive review of common flaws in different experiments. They also benefit from their practice in scientific writing and in critically evaluating their peers' designs. (+info)
(6/825) Challenges of teaching physiology in a PBL school.
A problem-based learning (PBL) curriculum was introduced at McMaster University more than three decades ago. Not many schools have adopted the system despite its distinct advantages. The present paper examines the challenges of teaching physiology in a PBL curriculum and gleans through the literature supporting PBL. It appears that one of the reasons why PBL is not becoming readily acceptable is the lack of concrete reports evaluating the curricular outcomes. The suggestion (R.E. Thomas. Med Educ. 31:320-329, 1997) to standardize and internationalize all components of validated PBL curricula is quite valid. A database needs to be generated that can be easily accessed by traditional institutions to see the rationality and easy implementation of the PBL curriculum. (+info)
(7/825) An inquiry-based teaching tool for understanding arterial blood pressure regulation and cardiovascular function.
Educators are placing a greater emphasis on the development of cooperative laboratory experiences that supplement the traditional lecture format. The new laboratory materials should encourage active learning, problem-solving, and inquiry-based approaches. To address these goals, we developed a laboratory exercise designed to introduce students to the hemodynamic variables (heart rate, stroke volume, total peripheral resistance, and compliance) that alter arterial pressure. For this experience, students are presented with "unknown" chart recordings illustrating pulsatile arterial pressure before and in response to several interventions. Students must analyze and interpret these unknown recordings and match each recording with the appropriate intervention. These active learning procedures help students understand and apply basic science concepts in a challenging and interactive format. Furthermore, laboratory experiences may enhance the students' level of understanding and ability to synthesize and apply information. In conducting this exercise, students are introduced to the joys and excitement of inquiry-based learning through experimentation. (+info)
(8/825) Learning the regulation of peripheral blood flow.
Students can learn a great deal about the peripheral circulation when teaching is based on five building blocks: hemodynamic principles, neurohumoral control, and three elements of local control of blood flow (metabolic, myogenic, and paracrine). Study of a particular special circulation starts with the application of these building blocks in the context of the function of that tissue. For example, control of skin blood flow is largely concerned with regulation of body temperature (neurohumoral control) and the response to injury (paracrine control). Regulation of coronary blood flow is almost entirely a matter of meeting the metabolic needs of the myocardium (metabolic control). By mixing and matching the five building blocks and keeping in mind the special functions of a particular tissue, students can master the peripheral circulation efficiently. (+info)