Private Practice: Practice of a health profession by an individual, offering services on a person-to-person basis, as opposed to group or partnership practice.Private Sector: That distinct portion of the institutional, industrial, or economic structure of a country that is controlled or owned by non-governmental, private interests.Remuneration: Payment for a service or for a commodity such as a body part.Family Practice: A medical specialty concerned with the provision of continuing, comprehensive primary health care for the entire family.Practice Management, Dental: The organization and operation of the business aspects of a dental practice.Hospitals, Private: A class of hospitals that includes profit or not-for-profit hospitals that are controlled by a legal entity other than a government agency. (Hospital Administration Terminology, AHA, 2d ed)Physician's Practice Patterns: Patterns of practice related to diagnosis and treatment as especially influenced by cost of the service requested and provided.Economics, Dental: Economic aspects of the dental profession and dental care.Public Health Dentistry: A dental specialty concerned with the prevention of disease and the maintenance of oral health through promoting organized dental health programs at a community, state, or federal level.Professional Practice: The use of one's knowledge in a particular profession. It includes, in the case of the field of biomedicine, professional activities related to health care and the actual performance of the duties related to the provision of health care.Salaries and Fringe Benefits: The remuneration paid or benefits granted to an employee.Practice Management, Medical: The organization and operation of the business aspects of a physician's practice.Dental Clinics: Facilities where dental care is provided to patients.Fees, Dental: Amounts charged to the patient as payer for dental services.Dental Auxiliaries: Personnel whose work is prescribed and supervised by the dentist.General Practice, Dental: Nonspecialized dental practice which is concerned with providing primary and continuing dental care.Dentists: Individuals licensed to practice DENTISTRY.Group Practice, Dental: Any group of three or more full-time dentists, organized in a legally recognized entity for the provision of dental care, sharing space, equipment, personnel and records for both patient care and business management, and who have a predetermined arrangement for the distribution of income.Specialties, Dental: Various branches of dental practice limited to specialized areas.Education, Dental, Graduate: Educational programs for dental graduates entering a specialty. They include formal specialty training as well as academic work in the clinical and basic dental sciences, and may lead to board certification or an advanced dental degree.Physicians: Individuals licensed to practice medicine.Attitude of Health Personnel: Attitudes of personnel toward their patients, other professionals, toward the medical care system, etc.Practice Guidelines as Topic: Directions or principles presenting current or future rules of policy for assisting health care practitioners in patient care decisions regarding diagnosis, therapy, or related clinical circumstances. The guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by the convening of expert panels. The guidelines form a basis for the evaluation of all aspects of health care and delivery.Dentist's Practice Patterns: Patterns of practice in dentistry related to diagnosis and treatment.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.United StatesPatient Credit and Collection: Accounting procedures for determining credit status and methods of obtaining payment.Education, Dental: Use for articles concerning dental education in general.Occlusal Adjustment: Selective grinding of occlusal surfaces of the teeth in an effort to eliminate premature contacts and occlusal interferences; to establish optimal masticatory effectiveness, stable occlusal relationships, direction of main occlusal forces, and efficient multidirectional patterns, to improve functional relations and to induce physiologic stimulation of the masticatory system; to eliminate occlusal trauma; to eliminate abnormal muscle tension; to aid in the stabilization of orthodontic results; to treat periodontal and temporomandibular joint problems; and in restorative procedures. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)Gift Giving: The bestowing of tangible or intangible benefits, voluntarily and usually without expectation of anything in return. However, gift giving may be motivated by feelings of ALTRUISM or gratitude, by a sense of obligation, or by the hope of receiving something in return.Schools, Dental: Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of dentistry.Refusal to Treat: Refusal of the health professional to initiate or continue treatment of a patient or group of patients. The refusal can be based on any reason. The concept is differentiated from PATIENT REFUSAL OF TREATMENT see TREATMENT REFUSAL which originates with the patient and not the health professional.Public Sector: The area of a nation's economy that is tax-supported and under government control.Pediatrics: A medical specialty concerned with maintaining health and providing medical care to children from birth to adolescence.Health Care Surveys: Statistical measures of utilization and other aspects of the provision of health care services including hospitalization and ambulatory care.American Dental Association: Professional society representing the field of dentistry.General Practice: Patient-based medical care provided across age and gender or specialty boundaries.Faculty, Dental: The teaching staff and members of the administrative staff having academic rank in a dental school.Quality of Health Care: The levels of excellence which characterize the health service or health care provided based on accepted standards of quality.Yukon Territory: A territory of northwest Canada, bounded on the north by the Arctic Ocean, on the south by British Columbia, and on the west by Alaska. Its capital is Whitehorse. It takes its name from the Yukon River, the Indian yu-kun-ah, meaning big river. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1367 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p608)Dental Research: The study of laws, theories, and hypotheses through a systematic examination of pertinent facts and their interpretation in the field of dentistry. (From Jablonski, Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry, 1982, p674)Pediatric Dentistry: The practice of dentistry concerned with the dental problems of children, proper maintenance, and treatment. The dental care may include the services provided by dental specialists.Urology: A surgical specialty concerned with the study, diagnosis, and treatment of diseases of the urinary tract in both sexes, and the genital tract in the male. Common urological problems include urinary obstruction, URINARY INCONTINENCE, infections, and UROGENITAL NEOPLASMS.Fees and Charges: Amounts charged to the patient as payer for health care services.Primary Health Care: Care which provides integrated, accessible health care services by clinicians who are accountable for addressing a large majority of personal health care needs, developing a sustained partnership with patients, and practicing in the context of family and community. (JAMA 1995;273(3):192)Capitation Fee: A method of payment for health services in which an individual or institutional provider is paid a fixed, per capita amount without regard to the actual number or nature of services provided to each patient.Reimbursement Mechanisms: Processes or methods of reimbursement for services rendered or equipment.Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.Students, Dental: Individuals enrolled a school of dentistry or a formal educational program in leading to a degree in dentistry.Medicine: The art and science of studying, performing research on, preventing, diagnosing, and treating disease, as well as the maintenance of health.Fee-for-Service Plans: Method of charging whereby a physician or other practitioner bills for each encounter or service rendered. In addition to physicians, other health care professionals are reimbursed via this mechanism. Fee-for-service plans contrast with salary, per capita, and prepayment systems, where the payment does not change with the number of services actually used or if none are used. (From Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, 1976)SwitzerlandDental Hygienists: Persons trained in an accredited school or dental college and licensed by the state in which they reside to provide dental prophylaxis under the direction of a licensed dentist.Fees, Medical: Amounts charged to the patient as payer for medical services.Personnel Selection: The process of choosing employees for specific types of employment. The concept includes recruitment.Clinical Competence: The capability to perform acceptably those duties directly related to patient care.Insurance, Dental: Insurance providing coverage for dental care.Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).General Practitioners: Physicians whose practice is not restricted to a specific field of MEDICINE.Dental Care: The total of dental diagnostic, preventive, and restorative services provided to meet the needs of a patient (from Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry, 1982).Referral and Consultation: The practice of sending a patient to another program or practitioner for services or advice which the referring source is not prepared to provide.Guideline Adherence: Conformity in fulfilling or following official, recognized, or institutional requirements, guidelines, recommendations, protocols, pathways, or other standards.Gynecology: A medical-surgical specialty concerned with the physiology and disorders primarily of the female genital tract, as well as female endocrinology and reproductive physiology.Health Services Accessibility: The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Ambulatory Care: Health care services provided to patients on an ambulatory basis, rather than by admission to a hospital or other health care facility. The services may be a part of a hospital, augmenting its inpatient services, or may be provided at a free-standing facility.Specialization: An occupation limited in scope to a subsection of a broader field.Career Choice: Selection of a type of occupation or profession.Quality Assurance, Health Care: Activities and programs intended to assure or improve the quality of care in either a defined medical setting or a program. The concept includes the assessment or evaluation of the quality of care; identification of problems or shortcomings in the delivery of care; designing activities to overcome these deficiencies; and follow-up monitoring to ensure effectiveness of corrective steps.Injections, Epidural: The injection of drugs, most often analgesics, into the spinal canal without puncturing the dura mater.Physician-Patient Relations: The interactions between physician and patient.Delivery of Health Care: The concept concerned with all aspects of providing and distributing health services to a patient population.Online Systems: Systems where the input data enter the computer directly from the point of origin (usually a terminal or workstation) and/or in which output data are transmitted directly to that terminal point of origin. (Sippl, Computer Dictionary, 4th ed)Internship and Residency: Programs of training in medicine and medical specialties offered by hospitals for graduates of medicine to meet the requirements established by accrediting authorities.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.GermanyInternal Medicine: A medical specialty concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the internal organ systems of adults.Patient Satisfaction: The degree to which the individual regards the health care service or product or the manner in which it is delivered by the provider as useful, effective, or beneficial.Practice (Psychology): Performance of an act one or more times, with a view to its fixation or improvement; any performance of an act or behavior that leads to learning.Decision Making: The process of making a selective intellectual judgment when presented with several complex alternatives consisting of several variables, and usually defining a course of action or an idea.Teaching: The educational process of instructing.Job Satisfaction: Personal satisfaction relative to the work situation.Privatization: Process of shifting publicly controlled services and/or facilities to the private sector.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Patient Education as Topic: The teaching or training of patients concerning their own health needs.Evidence-Based Practice: A way of providing health care that is guided by a thoughtful integration of the best available scientific knowledge with clinical expertise. This approach allows the practitioner to critically assess research data, clinical guidelines, and other information resources in order to correctly identify the clinical problem, apply the most high-quality intervention, and re-evaluate the outcome for future improvement.Professional Practice Location: Geographic area in which a professional person practices; includes primarily physicians and dentists.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Physical Therapy Modalities: Therapeutic modalities frequently used in PHYSICAL THERAPY SPECIALTY by PHYSICAL THERAPISTS or physiotherapists to promote, maintain, or restore the physical and physiological well-being of an individual.Hospitals, Public: Hospitals controlled by various types of government, i.e., city, county, district, state or federal.Insurance, Health: Insurance providing coverage of medical, surgical, or hospital care in general or for which there is no specific heading.Practice Management: Business management of medical, dental and veterinary practices that may include capital financing, utilization management, and arrangement of capitation agreements with other parties.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.EnglandGreat BritainPartnership Practice: A voluntary contract between two or more doctors who may or may not share responsibility for the care of patients, with proportional sharing of profits and losses.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Evidence-Based Medicine: An approach of practicing medicine with the goal to improve and evaluate patient care. It requires the judicious integration of best research evidence with the patient's values to make decisions about medical care. This method is to help physicians make proper diagnosis, devise best testing plan, choose best treatment and methods of disease prevention, as well as develop guidelines for large groups of patients with the same disease. (from JAMA 296 (9), 2006)Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Physicians, Family: Those physicians who have completed the education requirements specified by the American Academy of Family Physicians.Public-Private Sector Partnerships: An organizational enterprise between a public sector agency, federal, state or local, and a private sector entity. Skills and assets of each sector are shared to deliver a service or facility for the benefit or use of the general public.Anesthetics, Local: Drugs that block nerve conduction when applied locally to nerve tissue in appropriate concentrations. They act on any part of the nervous system and on every type of nerve fiber. In contact with a nerve trunk, these anesthetics can cause both sensory and motor paralysis in the innervated area. Their action is completely reversible. (From Gilman AG, et. al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed) Nearly all local anesthetics act by reducing the tendency of voltage-dependent sodium channels to activate.

*  Working with Private Practice Veterinarians

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*  Tonypandy Dental Practice - Private Dentist in Tonypandy - WhatClinic.com

Visit Tonypandy Dental Practice in Tonypandy. See contact details, check prices, read reviews, look at pictures and get ... About Tonypandy Dental Practice This clinic located at Tonypandy in Wales forms part of the Denticare dental group of practices ... Tonypandy Dental Practice. Show Phone Number49-51 Dunraven Street, Tonypandy, Glamorgan, CF40 1ALUK ... The clinic primarily offers NHS dentistry of a high standard and some private dental services. The team at all the clinics run ...

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*  Public Health Dentist Jobs in Washington, DC | Glassdoor

Dentist - Stable Private Practice. National Coalition of Healthcare Recruiters. Washington, DC. Pediatric Dentist - Needed. ... hospitals, community health centers, and private practices who outsource the HR function of their dentist positions. If you… ... do as an Associate Dentist at an Affordable Dentures & Implants affiliated practice. Early-career dentists love practicing with ... Dentist Practice. iBrush Family Dental Care. Oxon Hill, MD. $109k-$193k. General Dentist - Part-Time. Dental Care Alliance. ...

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Private Practice, Salvador, Brazil.. ‡Master of Dentistry Student, Bahian Science Foundation-EPMSP, Salvador, Brazil. ...

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Private Practice. Personal Information Play Therapy Credential:. RPT. Play Therapy Credential Status:. Inactive. ...

*  Toronto ADHD Counsellor - Attention Deficit Counsellor Toronto, Ontario - ADHD Counseling Toronto, Ontario

I am an ADHD Coach in private practice. I coach those in early adulthood who are having difficulty with schooling, transitions ... I am an ADHD Coach in private practice. I coach those in early adulthood who are having difficulty with schooling, transitions ... The bulk of my practice involves helping family members cope with one another's characteristics. These are strategic. I help ... The bulk of my practice involves helping family members cope with one another's characteristics. These are strategic. I help ...

*  Paula K. Friedman | Dental School

Linking postdoctoral general dentistry programs with private practice settings. J. Dent. Ed. 61(3): 305-11. ... Goldman School of Dental Medicine offers state-of-the-art dental care through our teaching clinic and faculty practice. ...

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*  Wiley: Principles and Practice of Cardiac Magnetic Resonance in Congenital Heart Disease: Form, Function and Flow - Mark A....

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*  Eosinophilic Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis (Churg-Strauss Syndrome): Practice Essentials, Pathophysiology, Epidemiology

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*  Magdi Ghali Hilmi Ghali MD | Interventional Cardiologist | West Des Moines, IA | Lifescript.com

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Private healthcareJessie McPherson Private HospitalBrian C. Bialiy: Brian C. Bialiy worked on and appeared in the award-winning documentary The Staten Island Catapult.MFDS: MFDS is the Ministry of Food and Drug Safety, a government department in South Korea. This is former KFDA, Korean Food and Drug Administration.Coronation Dental Specialty GroupPostgraduate training in general dentistry: ==Australia==Samuel Bard (physician): Samuel Bard (April 1, 1742 – May 24, 1821) was an American physician. He founded the first medical school in New York.National Clinical Guideline CentreDentists Act 1984: The Dentists Act 1984 (c. 24) is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom regulating dentistry.Closed-ended question: A closed-ended question is a question format that limits respondents with a list of answer choices from which they must choose to answer the question.Dillman D.List of Parliamentary constituencies in Kent: The ceremonial county of Kent,DJ College of Dental Sciences and Research: Divya Jyoti (DJ) College of Dental Sciences and Research is a dental college located in Modinagar in the nagar panchayat of Niwari in Ghaziabad district in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. The founder and chairman is Ajit Singh Jassar.Gift registry: A gift registry is a particular type of wish list.Dental Schools Council: The Dental Schools Council represents the interests of UK dental schools as it relates to national health, wealth, knowledge acquisition through teaching, research, and the profession of dentistry.Universities UK http://www.British Pediatric Association Classification of Diseases: The British Pediatric Association Classification of Diseases is a system of diagnostic codes used for pediatrics.American Dental Association: The American Dental Association (ADA) is an American professional association established in 1859 which has more than 155,000 members. Based in the American Dental Association Building in the Near North Side of Chicago,"Contact Us.Yukon School of Visual Arts: The Yukon School of Visual Arts (SOVA) is Canada's most northerly post-secondary fine arts school, and it receives its accreditation through the Applied Arts Division of Yukon College. SOVA is located within the traditional territory of the Tr'ondëk Hwëch'in First Nation in Dawson City, Yukon Territory, Canada.International Association for Dental Research: The International Association for Dental Research (IADR) is a professional association that focuses on research in the field of dentistry. The aim of this association by constitution is to promote research in all fields of oral and related sciences, to encourage improvements in methods for the prevention and treatment of oral and dental disease, to improve the oral health of the public through research, and to facilitate cooperation among investigators and the communication of research findings and their implications throughout the world.Department of Urology, University of Virginia: {{Infobox universityHalfdan T. MahlerULTRA (UK agency): ULTRA, the Unrelated Live Transplant Regulatory Authority, was a British agency that regulated organ transplants. According to the official website:Lausanne Marathon: The Lausanne Marathon or Marathon of Lausanne is an annual marathon race held in the Swiss city of Lausanne since 1993. This road running takes place in autumn (October) and the 20 km of Lausanne takes place in spring (April).Utah College of Dental HygieneBehavior change (public health): Behavior change is a central objective in public health interventions,WHO 2002: World Health Report 2002 - Reducing Risks, Promoting Healthy Life Accessed Feb 2015 http://www.who.Dental Procedure Education System: The Dental Procedure Education System (DPES), is a web-based resource containing a collection of procedures from the dental disciplines. The procedures presented in DPES were developed by individual faculty members at the Faculty of Dentistry, University of Toronto, in collaboration with a group of educational media and technology experts.Referral (medicine): In medicine, referral is the transfer of care for a patient from one clinician to another.García Olmos L, Gervas Camacho J, Otero A, Pérez Fernández M.John Studd (gynaecologist): John Winston Studd (born 4 March 1940) is a British gynaecologist and an academic and medical historian.Therapy cap: In 1997 the Balanced Budget Act established annual per-beneficiary Medicare spending limits, or therapy cap, for outpatient therapy services covered under Medicare Part B. Medicare Provisions in Balanced Budget Act of 1997.Becky JamesGlobal Health Delivery ProjectBiological pathway: A biological pathway is a series of actions among molecules in a cell that leads to a certain product or a change in a cell. Such a pathway can trigger the assembly of new molecules, such as a fat or protein.Baden, Lower Saxony: Baden is a town near Bremen, in Lower Saxony, Germany. It is known to Africanists and Phoneticians as the place where Diedrich Hermann Westermann was born and died.American Osteopathic Board of Internal MedicineTower of Babel (M. C. Escher): Tower of Babel is a 1928 woodcut by M. C.The Final Decision: The Final Decision is an episode from season 1 of the animated TV series X-Men Animated Series.Job satisfaction: Job satisfaction or employee satisfaction has been defined in many different ways. Some believe it is simply how content an individual is with his or her job, in other words, whether or not they like the job or individual aspects or facets of jobs, such as nature of work or supervision.Privatization in criminal justice: Privatization in criminal justice refers to a shift to private ownership and control of criminal justice services.Online patient education: Online Patient Education also known as Online Patient Engagement is a method of providing medical information and education to patients using Learning Management Systems delivered through the Internet.Evaluation of bariatric Centers of Excellence Web sites for functionality and efficacy.Select MedicalContraceptive mandate (United States): A contraceptive mandate is a state or federal regulation or law that requires health insurers, or employers that provide their employees with health insurance, to cover some contraceptive costs in their health insurance plans. In 1978, the U.Age adjustment: In epidemiology and demography, age adjustment, also called age standardization, is a technique used to allow populations to be compared when the age profiles of the populations are quite different.Temporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studyingRed Moss, Greater Manchester: Red Moss is a wetland mossland in Greater Manchester, located south of Horwich and east of Blackrod. (Grid Reference ).National Cancer Research Institute: The National Cancer Research Institute (NCRI) is a UK-wide partnership between cancer research funders, which promotes collaboration in cancer research. Its member organizations work together to maximize the value and benefit of cancer research for the benefit of patients and the public.Non-communicable disease: Non-communicable disease (NCD) is a medical condition or disease that is non-infectious or non-transmissible. NCDs can refer to chronic diseases which last for long periods of time and progress slowly.

(1/402) Where do people go for treatment of sexually transmitted diseases?

CONTEXT: Major public health resources are devoted to the prevention of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) through public STD clinics. However, little is known about where people actually receive treatment for STDs. METHODS: As part of the National Health and Social Life Survey, household interviews were performed from February to September 1992 with 3,432 persons aged 18-59. Weighted population estimates and multinomial response methods were used to describe the prevalence of self-reported STDs and patterns of treatment utilization by persons who ever had a bacterial or viral STD. RESULTS: An estimated two million STDs were self-reported in the previous year, and 22 million 18-59-year-olds self-reported lifetime STDs. Bacterial STDs (gonorrhea, chlamydia, nongonococcal urethritis, pelvic inflammatory disease and syphilis) were more common than viral STDs (genital herpes, genital warts, hepatitis and HIV). Genital warts were the most commonly reported STD in the past year, while gonorrhea was the most common ever-reported STD. Almost half of all respondents who had ever had an STD had gone to a private practice for treatment (49%); in comparison, only 5% of respondents had sought treatment at an STD clinic. Respondents with a bacterial STD were seven times more likely to report going to an STD clinic than were respondents with a viral STD--except for chlamydia, which was more likely to be treated at family planning clinics. Men were significantly more likely than women to go to an STD clinic. Young, poor or black respondents were all more likely to use a family planning clinic for STD treatment than older, relatively wealthy or white respondents. Age, sexual history and geographic location did not predict particular types of treatment-seeking. CONCLUSIONS: The health care utilization patterns for STD treatment in the United States are complex. Specific disease diagnosis, gender, race and income status all affect where people will seek treatment. These factors need to be taken into account when STD prevention strategies are being developed.  (+info)

(2/402) Potential savings from generic prescribing and generic substitution in South Africa.

Generic prescribing and generic substitution are mechanisms for reducing the cost of drugs. The purpose of this study was to assess the extent to which generic prescribing by private medical practitioners and generic substitution by private pharmacists is practised in South Africa and to estimate the potential savings from these two practices. Prescriptions from 10 pharmacists were collected on four randomly selected days. Computer printouts of all the prescriptions dispensed on these four days together with the original doctor's prescription were priced using a commercially available pharmacy dispensing computer package. A total of 1570 prescriptions with a total number of 4086 items were reviewed. Of the total prescriptions, 45.7% had at least one item for which there was a generic equivalent. Of the 961 drugs which had generic equivalents, 202 (21 %) were prescribed using the generic name of the drug. Only 0.3% of prescribers prohibited generic substitution. The cost of the prescription as dispensed was 1.4% (mean cost: R116.19 vs R117.84) below that of the original doctor's prescriptions, indicating the marginal benefit from the current low substitution rate of 13.9% by pharmacists. About 6.8% of the cost of the original doctor's prescriptions (mean cost: R117.84) could have been saved if total generic substitution (mean cost: R109.65) was practised. The cost of the prescriptions with only brand name items (mean cost: R120.49) would have been 9.9% higher than if generic drugs were used. Current restrictive prescribing and dispensing practices result in marginal cost savings from generic prescribing and generic substitution. Both these practices have a potential to reduce drug costs, if actively encouraged and practised to maximum capacity. It is noteworthy, however, that the potential savings from generic prescribing and substitution are at most 9.9% in the absence of any changes in types of drugs prescribed.  (+info)

(3/402) Regulating the private health care sector: the case of the Indian Consumer Protection Act.

Private medical provision is an important constituent of health care delivery services in India. The quality of care provided by this sector is a critical issue. Professional organizations such as the Medical Council of India and local medical associations have remained ineffective in influencing the behaviour of private providers. The recent decision to bring private medical practice under the Consumer Protection Act (COPRA) 1986 is considered an important step towards regulating the private medical sector. This study surveyed the views of private providers on this legislation. They believe the COPRA will be effective in minimizing malpractice and negligent behaviour, but it does have adverse consequences such as an increase in fees charged by doctors, an increase in the prescription of medicines and diagnostics, an adverse impact on emergency care, etc. The medical associations have also argued that the introduction of COPRA is a step towards expensive, daunting and needless litigation. A number of other concerns have been raised by consumer forums which focus on the lack of standards for private practice, the uncertainty and risks of medicines, the effectiveness of the judiciary system, and the responsibility of proving negligence. How relevant are these concerns? Is the enactment of COPRA really appropriate to the medical sector? The paper argues that while this development is a welcome step, we need to comprehensively look into the various quality concerns. The effective implementation of COPRA presumes certain conditions, the most important being the availability of standards. Besides this, greater involvement of professional organizations is needed to ensure appropriate quality in private practice, since health and medical cases are very different from other goods and services. The paper discusses the results of a mailed survey and interview responses of 130 providers from the city of Ahmedabad, India. The questionnaire study was designed to assess the opinion of providers on various implications of the COPRA. We also analyze the data on cases filed with the Consumer Disputes and Redressal Commission in Gujarat since 1991. Four selected cases filed with the National Commission on Consumers Redressal are discussed in detail to illustrate various issues affecting the implementation of this Act.  (+info)

(4/402) Private health care provision in developing countries: a preliminary analysis of levels and composition.

While the importance of the private sector in providing health services in developing countries is now widely acknowledged, the paucity of data on numbers and types of providers has prevented systematic cross-country comparisons. Using available published and unpublished sources, we have assembled data on the number of public and private health care providers for approximately 40 countries. This paper presents some results of the analysis of this database, looking particularly at the determinants of the size and structure of the private health sector. We consider two different types of dependent variable: the absolute number of private providers (measured here as physicians and hospital beds), and the public-private composition of provision. We examine the relationship between these variables and income and other socioeconomic characteristics, at the national level. We find that while income level is related to the absolute size of the private sector, the public-private mix does not seem to be related to income. After controlling for income, certain socioeconomic characteristics, such as education, population density, and health status are associated with the size of the private sector, though no causal relationship is posited. Further analysis will require more complete data about the size of the private sector, including the extent of dual practice by government-employed physicians. A richer story of the determinants of private sector growth would incorporate more information about the institutional structure of health systems, including provider payment mechanisms, the level and quality of public services, the regulatory structure, and labour and capital market characteristics. Finally, a normative analysis of the size and growth of the private sector will require a better understanding of its impact on key social welfare outcomes.  (+info)

(5/402) The quality of private and public primary health care management of children with diarrhoea and acute respiratory infections in Tlaxcala, Mexico.

In Tlaxcala, Mexico, 80% of the children who died from diarrhoea or acute respiratory infections (ARI) in 1992-1993 received medical care; in more than 70% of cases it was provided by a private general practitioner (GP). The present study evaluated the quality of case management by private and public GPs to children under five years of age with diarrhoea and ARI. During the clinical observation, the treatment and counselling given to the mother were assessed with the WHO guidelines as reference standard. A total of 41 private and 40 public GPs were evaluated for the management of diarrhoea, and 59 private and 40 public GPs for the management of ARI. For diarrhoea, half of the private GPs gave inadequate rehydration therapy, 63% gave incorrect advice on diet, 66% and 49% made an incorrect correct decision in the prescription of antimicrobial and symptomatic drugs, respectively. Public GPs generally performed better in diarrhoea management: 7% gave inadequate rehydration therapy, 13% gave wrong advice on diet, 3% made a wrong decision in the prescription of symptomatic drugs and 28% gave a wrong decision in antimicrobial prescription. In the management of ARI, 66% and 58% of private GPs made a wrong decision in the prescription of antimicrobial and symptomatic drugs, respectively, compared to 30% and 20% of public GPs, respectively. Counselling to the mother given by both private and public GPs was considered inadequate in most cases of diarrhoea and ARI. These results clearly show that private doctors, as important providers of medical care, need to be included in the strategies to improve the quality of care of children with diarrhoea and ARI. Future research needs to address the determinants of the clinical practice of private doctors in countries like Mexico.  (+info)

(6/402) How and why public sector doctors engage in private practice in Portuguese-speaking African countries.

OBJECTIVE: To explore the type of private practice supplementary income-generating activities of public sector doctors in the Portuguese-speaking African countries, and also to discover the motivations and the reasons why doctors have not made a complete move out of public service. DESIGN: Cross-sectional qualitative survey. SUBJECTS: In 1996, 28 Angolan doctors, 26 from Guinea-Bissau, 11 from Mozambique and three from S Tome and Principe answered a self-administered questionnaire. RESULTS: All doctors, except one unemployed, were government employees. Forty-three of the 68 doctors that answered the questionnaire reported an income-generating activity other than the one reported as principal. Of all the activities mentioned, the ones of major economic importance were: public sector medical care, private medical care, commercial activities, agricultural activities and university teaching. The two outstanding reasons why they engage in their various side-activities are 'to meet the cost of living' and 'to support the extended family'. Public sector salaries are supplemented by private practice. Interviewees estimated the time a family could survive on their public sector salary at seven days (median value). The public sector salary still provides most of the interviewees income (median 55%) for the rural doctors, but has become marginal for those in the urban areas (median 10%). For the latter, private practice has become of paramount importance (median 65%). For 26 respondents, the median equivalent of one month's public sector salary could be generated by seven hours of private practice. Nevertheless, being a civil servant was important in terms of job security, and credibility as a doctor. The social contacts and public service gave access to power centres and resources, through which other coping strategies could be developed. The expectations regarding the professional future and regarding the health systems future were related mostly to health personnel issues. CONCLUSION: The variable response rate per question reflects some resistance to discuss some of the issues, particularly those related to income. Nevertheless, these studies may provide an indication of what is happening in professional medical circles in response to the inability of the public sector to sustain a credible system of health care delivery. There can be no doubt that for these doctors the notion of a doctor as a full-time civil-servant is a thing of the past. Switching between public and private is now a fact of life.  (+info)

(7/402) Private patients in NHS hospitals: comparison of two sources of information.

BACKGROUND: The use of National Health Service (NHS) hospitals to treat private patients is debatable on the grounds of equity of access. Hospital Episodes Statistics (HES) annual reports are the only routine source of information on the scale of this activity. The accuracy of the information is doubted. This enquiry tested the completeness of HES data against information obtained directly from private patient unit managers. METHOD: Managers of the 71 pay bed units in NHS hospitals in England were asked to supply from local registers and accounts the numbers of in-patients and day cases admitted in 1995-1996. Their reports were matched with the numbers of first consultant episodes for private in-patients and day cases shown for those hospitals in the HES data file for that year. RESULTS: Of the 71 units 62 responded; 53 of these gave usable data. The 53 included, and 18 excluded from the comparison, matched on median and range of bed numbers. Managers identified 16 per cent more total admissions than did HES, 62,572 against 54,131; 13 per cent more in-patient admissions, 39,776 against 35,319; and 21 per cent more day cases, 22,796 against 18,812. More total admissions were reported by managers of 38 pay bed units than were recorded in HES, fewer by 12, and equal numbers by three. Similar sized discrepancies were noted for in-patient admissions and day cases. Reasons for the under-reporting of private patients in HES included the use of separate patient administration systems for private patients with a failure to feed data to HES, and the omission of some provider units altogether by a minority of trusts from the returns made to the Department of Health. CONCLUSION: Overall, HES underestimates the amount of private patient activity reported directly by NHS hospitals. No method of validating private patient data is currently available. An amendment to an existing statistical return would provide a check on numbers. Central guidance on the inclusion of private patient activity in data transmitted by providers to the HES processing agency should be reinforced.  (+info)

(8/402) Effectiveness of a prevention program for diabetic ketoacidosis in children. An 8-year study in schools and private practices.

OBJECTIVE: To shorten the period of carbohydrate intolerance preceding the diagnosis of IDDM in children. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: The incidence of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) was studied in newly diagnosed diabetic children aged 6-14 years, in the area of Parma, Italy, 8 years after an information program on DKA was introduced to teachers, students, parents, and pediatricians. Information was provided by displaying a poster with a few practical messages in 177 primary and secondary public schools. The pediatricians working in the same area were given equipment for the measurement of both glycosuria and blood glucose levels, as well as cards listing guidelines for the early diagnosis of diabetes, to be given to patients. A toll-free number was also provided. Clinical and laboratory features of 24 young diabetic patients diagnosed in the Parma area (group 1) were compared with those of 30 patients coming from two nearby areas in which no campaign for the prevention of DKA had been carried out (group 2). RESULTS: From 1 January 1991 to 31 December 1997, DKA was diagnosed in 3 children from group 1 (12.5%) and in 25 children from group 2 (83.0%) (chi 2 = 26.8; P = 0.0001). The three cases of DKA in group 1 were observed in 1991 (n = 1) and in 1992 (n = 2). No patients from the Parma area who had DKA were admitted to our unit after 1992. The duration of symptoms before diagnosis was 5.0 +/- 6.0 and 28.0 +/- 10.0 days (P < 0.0001), in groups 1 and 2, respectively, Metabolic derangements were less severe in patients of group 1 than in those of group 2. Hospitalization for the treatment of overt diabetes and for the teaching of self-management of the disease lasted 5.4 +/- 1.2 days in group 1 and 13.3 +/- 2.4 days in group 2 (P = 0.002). The total cost of the 8-year campaign was $23,470. CONCLUSIONS: The prevention program for DKA in diabetic children aged 6-14 years, carried out in the Parma area during the last 8 years, was successful. Thanks to this program, cumulative frequency of DKA in new-onset IDDM decreased from 78% during 1987-1991 to 12.5% during 1991-1997. None of the newly diagnosed diabetic children aged 6-14 years and from the Parma area were ever admitted to the hospital for DKA after 1992.  (+info)



clinic

  • This clinic located at Tonypandy in Wales forms part of the Denticare dental group of practices. (whatclinic.com)
  • The clinic primarily offers NHS dentistry of a high standard and some private dental services. (whatclinic.com)
  • The clinic belongs to the British dental Association's Good Practice Scheme that reflects its commitment to providing the best quality dentistry and adhering to nationally recognized practice standards. (whatclinic.com)
  • First class dental care with modern equipment is provided in this dental clinic that hosts the practices of Stephen Stern, Mike Macmanus and Neel Saglani. (whatclinic.com)

Group

  • ATMP Consulting Group Launches Service for Private Practice Physicians to Gain Funding and Implement Electronic Medical Record. (bio-medicine.org)
  • ATMP Consulting Group launches a new service to help private practi. (bio-medicine.org)
  • ATMP Consulting Group launches a new service to help private practice physicians select, implement and adapt IT solutions for electronic medical record alignment and compliance. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Ann Arbor, Mich. (PRWEB) October 29, 2009 -- ATMP Consulting Group , a strategic IT company specializing in electronic medical record (EMR) standards, announced today a new service to help private practice physicians select, implement, and adapt IT solutions for electronic medical record alignment and compliance. (bio-medicine.org)
  • To continue reading this article, you must log in with your personal, hospital, or group practice subscription. (uptodate.com)

provides

  • In addition, the selected software must comply with the Certification Commission for Health Information Technology, which is a private, not-for-profit organization that provides EMR certification authority. (bio-medicine.org)