PrisonersGame Theory: Theoretical construct used in applied mathematics to analyze certain situations in which there is an interplay between parties that may have similar, opposed, or mixed interests. In a typical game, decision-making "players," who each have their own goals, try to gain advantage over the other parties by anticipating each other's decisions; the game is finally resolved as a consequence of the players' decisions.Prisoners of War: Members held prisoner of the armed forces, members of militias of such armed forces, members of other militias, members of other volunteer corps, and organized resistance movements. (Geneva Convention of 1929 and 1949)Tattooing: The indelible marking of TISSUES, primarily SKIN, by pricking it with NEEDLES to imbed various COLORING AGENTS. Tattooing of the CORNEA is done to colorize LEUKOMA spots.Forensic Psychiatry: Psychiatry in its legal aspects. This includes criminology, penology, commitment of mentally ill, the psychiatrist's role in compensation cases, the problems of releasing information to the court, and of expert testimony.Cooperative Behavior: The interaction of two or more persons or organizations directed toward a common goal which is mutually beneficial. An act or instance of working or acting together for a common purpose or benefit, i.e., joint action. (From Random House Dictionary Unabridged, 2d ed)Aspirations (Psychology): Strong desires to accomplish something. This usually pertains to greater values or high ideals.Torture: The intentional infliction of physical or mental suffering upon an individual or individuals, including the torture of animals.Crime: A violation of the criminal law, i.e., a breach of the conduct code specifically sanctioned by the state, which through its administrative agencies prosecutes offenders and imposes and administers punishments. The concept includes unacceptable actions whether prosecuted or going unpunished.Social Determinants of Health: The circumstances in which people are born, grow up, live, work, and age, as well as the systems put in place to deal with illness. These circumstances are in turn shaped by a wider set of forces: economics, social policies, and politics (http://www.cdc.gov/socialdeterminants/).Mandatory Testing: Testing or screening required by federal, state, or local law or other agencies for the diagnosis of specified conditions. It is usually limited to specific populations such as categories of health care providers, members of the military, and prisoners or to specific situations such as premarital examinations or donor screening.Criminal Law: A branch of law that defines criminal offenses, regulates the apprehension, charging and trial of suspected persons, and fixes the penalties and modes of treatment applicable to convicted offenders.Punishment: The application of an unpleasant stimulus or penalty for the purpose of eliminating or correcting undesirable behavior.Criminals: Persons who have committed a crime or have been convicted of a crime.Altruism: Consideration and concern for others, as opposed to self-love or egoism, which can be a motivating influence.Concentration Camps: Facilities in which WARFARE or political prisoners are confined.Human Rights: The rights of the individual to cultural, social, economic, and educational opportunities as provided by society, e.g., right to work, right to education, and right to social security.Games, Experimental: Games designed to provide information on hypotheses, policies, procedures, or strategies.New South Wales: A state in southeastern Australia. Its capital is Sydney. It was discovered by Captain Cook in 1770 and first settled at Botany Bay by marines and convicts in 1788. It was named by Captain Cook who thought its coastline resembled that of South Wales. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p840 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p377)Substance-Related Disorders: Disorders related to substance abuse.Military Medicine: The practice of medicine as applied to special circumstances associated with military operations.Buddhism: The teaching ascribed to Gautama Buddha (ca. 483 B.C.) holding that suffering is inherent in life and that one can escape it into nirvana by mental and moral self-purification. (Webster, 3d ed)Mental Disorders: Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.World War II: Global conflict involving countries of Europe, Africa, Asia, and North America that occurred between 1939 and 1945.Substance Abuse, Intravenous: Abuse, overuse, or misuse of a substance by its injection into a vein.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Human Experimentation: The use of humans as investigational subjects.Methadone: A synthetic opioid that is used as the hydrochloride. It is an opioid analgesic that is primarily a mu-opioid agonist. It has actions and uses similar to those of MORPHINE. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1082-3)Korean War: An armed conflict between Communist and non-Communist forces in Korea from June 25, 1950, to July 27, 1953. The parties included United Nations forces from 15 member nations under United States command against military from North Korea and the Peoples Republic of China.Harm Reduction: The application of methods designed to reduce the risk of harm associated with certain behaviors without reduction in frequency of those behaviors. The risk-associated behaviors include ongoing and active addictive behaviors.War: Hostile conflict between organized groups of people.Antisocial Personality Disorder: A personality disorder whose essential feature is a pervasive pattern of disregard for, and violation of, the rights of others that begins in childhood or early adolescence and continues into adulthood. The individual must be at least age 18 and must have a history of some symptoms of CONDUCT DISORDER before age 15. (From DSM-IV, 1994)Democratic People's Republic of Korea: A country located on the Korean Peninsula whose capital is Pyongyang. The country was established September 9, 1948.Queensland: A state in northeastern Australia. Its capital is Brisbane. Its coast was first visited by Captain Cook in 1770 and its first settlement (penal) was located on Moreton Bay in 1824. The name Cooksland was first proposed but honor to Queen Victoria prevailed. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p996 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p441)Mentally Ill Persons: Persons with psychiatric illnesses or diseases, particularly psychotic and severe mood disorders.Heroin Dependence: Strong dependence, both physiological and emotional, upon heroin.HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Ethics, Medical: The principles of professional conduct concerning the rights and duties of the physician, relations with patients and fellow practitioners, as well as actions of the physician in patient care and interpersonal relations with patient families.National Socialism: The doctrines and policies of the Nazis or the National Social German Workers party, which ruled Germany under Adolf Hitler from 1933-1945. These doctrines and policies included racist nationalism, expansionism, and state control of the economy. (from Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. and American Heritage College Dictionary, 3d ed.)Holocaust: A massive slaughter, especially the systematic mass extermination of European Jews in Nazi concentration camps prior to and during World War II.Vulnerable Populations: Groups of persons whose range of options is severely limited, who are frequently subjected to COERCION in their DECISION MAKING, or who may be compromised in their ability to give INFORMED CONSENT.Police: Agents of the law charged with the responsibility of maintaining and enforcing law and order among the citizenry.Capital Punishment: The use of the death penalty for certain crimes.England

*  Kyrgyzstan's Female Prisoners Claim Innocence

Akun said the Ombudsman's Office will help those prisoners who wish to lodge an appeal of their convictions. He said a special ...
https://rferl.org/a/kyrgyzstans_female_prisoners_claim_innocence/2314286.html

*  Myanmar frees more political prisoners - CNN

A prisoner release announced Tuesday by Myanmar authorities includes at least 24 political detainees, a prisoner rights group ... A prisoner release announced Tuesday by Myanmar authorities includes at least 24 political detainees, a prisoner rights group ... The government of President Thein Sein has released hundreds of political prisoners in the past year, part of a series of ... But Bo Kyi, joint secretary of Assistance Association for Political Prisoners (AAPP), said that his organization had so far ...
edition.cnn.com/2012/07/03/world/asia/myanmar-prisoner-release/index.html

*  Prisoners - Wikipedia

Prisoners - film del 1929 diretto da William A. Seiter Prisoners - film del 1975 diretto da William H. Bushnell Prisoners - ... gruppo musicale britannico Prisoners - album dei The Agonist del 2012 Prisoners - singolo di John Denver del 1972 Prisoners - ... singolo dei The Vapors del 1979 Prigionieri (Prisoners) - episodio della seconda stagione di Stargate SG-1 Prisoner. ... film del 1981 diretto da Peter Werner Prisoners - film del 2013 diretto da Denis Villeneuve The Prisoners - ...
https://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prisoners

*  P.O.W.: Prisoners of War - Wikipedia

EN) P.O.W.: Prisoners of War, in Killer List of Videogames, The International Arcade Museum. (EN) P.O.W.: Prisoners of War, in ... P.O.W.: Prisoners of War è un videogioco arcade sviluppato nel 1988 da SNK. Il videogioco ha ricevuto nel 1989 una conversione ... EN) Chris Rasa, P.O.W.: Prisoners of War, su Hardcore Gaming 101, 19 novembre 2015. ( ...
https://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/P.O.W.:_Prisoners_of_War

*  Take No Prisoners - Wikipedia

Take No Prisoners - album di David Byron del 1975 Take No Prisoners - album dei Molly Hatchet del 1981 Take No Prisoners - ... Take No Prisoners) - episodio della quarta stagione di Pianeta Terra - Cronaca di un'invasione Take No Prisoners - videogioco ... Take No Prisoners ("non fate prigionieri" in lingua inglese) può riferirsi a: ... traccia dell'album Rust in Peace dei Megadeth del 1990 Take No Prisoners - album dei The Mahones del 2006 Nessun prigioniero ( ...
https://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/Take_No_Prisoners

*  Eddie Abbot, prisoner of the war on drugs

I am a federal prisoner originally sentenced to 26 1/2 years. At sentencing the judge declared me a "non-villainous criminal" ...
november.org/thewall/cases/abbott-e/abbott-e.html

*  GERMAN PRISONERS OF WAR | The Handbook of Texas Online| Texas State Historical Association (TSHA)

GERMAN PRISONERS OF WAR. GERMAN PRISONERS OF WAR. When the United States went to war in 1941, what to do with enemy prisoners ... Daily life for the prisoners was basically the same at all base camps. Reveille was at 5:45 A.M., and lights were turned off at ... A few prisoners wanted to escape despite the insurmountable odds against success-the vast countryside, the language difference ... Each camp held an average of 3,000 to 4,000 prisoners. In fact, the only real differences between these POW camps and any ...
https://tshaonline.org/handbook/online/articles/qug01

*  Directly Observed Therapy for Community-Released HIV+ Prisoners - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov

The aim of this study is to develop effective interventions for HIV-infected prisoners who are released to the community. The ... Emergency department use by released prisoners with HIV: an observational longitudinal study. PLoS One. 2012;7(8):e42416. doi: ... Directly Observed Therapy for Community-Released HIV+ Prisoners (Connect). This study has been completed. ... Improved HIV and substance abuse treatment outcomes for released HIV-infected prisoners: the impact of buprenorphine treatment ...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00786396?order=363

*  Pakistani Taliban, army exchange prisoners

The Pakistani Taliban and the army exchanged prisoners Wednesday as a confidence building measure ahead of possible peace talks ... The Pakistani Taliban and the army have exchanged prisoners as a confidence building measure ahead of possible peace talks. Two ... DERA ISMAIL KHAN, Pakistan (AP) - The Pakistani Taliban and the army exchanged prisoners Wednesday as a confidence building ...
https://yahoo.com/news/pakistani-taliban-army-exchange-prisoners-124317769.html?ref=gs

*  Prisoners of war honored: Ledbetter didn't give up hope during 19 months as POW - Victoria Advocate - Victoria, TX

Ledbetter, 90, of Victoria, is one of nine former prisoners of war and five widows of former prisoners of war honored at a POW ... Ledbetter fought for five days straight before being taken prisoner.. The prisoners were transported in box cars to a prison ... For dinner, the prisoners were fed one cup of rutabaga soup.. "Sometimes we got two to three potatoes the size of an egg, oleo ... Prisoners of war honored: Ledbetter didn't give up hope during 19 months as POW By BY ERIN PRADIA - EPRADIA@VICAD.COM. Sept. 20 ...
https://victoriaadvocate.com/news/2011/sep/20/ep_pow_092111_152437/

*  The Tupinambá's Treatment of Prisoners of War, anonymous, c. 1630 - Rijksmuseum

The Tupinambá's Treatment of Prisoners of War. Prisoners of the Tupinamba Indians: three scenes ... The Tupinambá's Treatment of Prisoners of War, anonymous, c. 1630 oil on panel, h 33.5cm × w 189.0cm. More details ...
https://rijksmuseum.nl/en/collection/SK-A-4066

*  DRC to Release 2,000 Prisoners in January

About 800 additional prisoners are to be released following pardons granted last week by Kabila to all prisoners over 70 and ... There are political prisoners throughout this country and people who have been detained without any [judicial] decision,' he ... Democratic Republic of Congo will release about 2,000 prisoners this month in a bid to calm political tension at the start of ... The government denies it holds any political prisoners.. At least 40 were killed and hundreds more detained last January in ...
https://voanews.com/a/congo-to-release-2000-prisoner-in-january/3131603.html

*  Sean Twaits, prisoner of the war on drugs

I didn't realize that there were people out there who are willing to stand up and say there needs to be a change. When I was in county jail there was a man who cut a woman in two with his truck. He got 4 years -- will do 2 ...
november.org/thewall/twaits_sean.html

*  The Prisoner: A Tale of a Prisoner of War (Sparks): Amazon.co.uk: Penny Mckinlay: 9780749645984: Books

A Tale of a Prisoner of War (Sparks) by Penny Mckinlay from Amazon's Children's Book Store. Browse by age range, book type, ... The Prisoner: A Tale of a Prisoner of War (Sparks) Paperback - 30 May 2002 ... Dates of battles and who can shout victory is very hollow, and of no use apart from exam questions!!!!....Mario the prisoner, ... wants to be with his family...and that's all that matters.....to everyone....the prisoner by penny McKinlay ...
https://amazon.co.uk/Prisoner-Tale-War-Sparks/dp/0749645989

*  Ransomed; or, A Prisoner of War - Wikipedia

Ransomed; or, A Prisoner of War è un cortometraggio muto del 1910. Il nome del regista non viene riportato nei credit del film ... Filmografia della Vitagraph Filmografia di Clara Kimball Young (EN) Ransomed; or, A Prisoner of War, su Internet Movie Database ...
https://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ransomed;_or,_A_Prisoner_of_War

*  Extension for reducing prisoners sought - SFGate

... like identifying prisoners who would pose little danger if released early. ... Extension for reducing prisoners sought. PRISONS State officials ask federal court for 6 more months to reach population- ... She said the state has also made little use of a program allowing up to 2,500 prisoners who are caregivers for their children ... like identifying prisoners who would pose little danger if released early. ...
sfgate.com/crime/article/Extension-for-reducing-prisoners-sought-4051767.php

*  DESCENDANTS OF PRISONERS AT ANDERSONVILLE

... Although this page is titled " Descendants of Andersonville prisoners " it is ... The goal is to allow those who are related to those who suffered and those who died while being held prisoners of war at ... intended to include all lateral relatives of Andersonville prisoners. ...
angelfire.com/ga2/Andersonvilleprison/descendants.html

*  Commanding the mass murder of child prisoners of war is evil, no matter what - Everything2.com

Commanding the mass murder of child prisoners of war is evil, no matter what. That is a point which ought to be cleared up, ... Commanding the mass murder of child prisoners of war is evil, no matter what.. That is a point which ought to be cleared up, ... Naturally, if the claim of a God-commanded mass murder of child war prisoners is an error, than the book writ whole can not be ... Where the mass murder commanded is not simply of children, but of the most powerless possible, child war prisoners, it is a new ...
https://everything2.com/title/Commanding the mass murder of child prisoners of war is evil%2C no matter what?author_id=1902455

*  prisoners : NPR

prisoners
npr.org/tags/177657983/prisoners/archive?start=placeholder&date=4-30-2003

*  Prisoners (2013) - Goofs - IMDb

Prisoners (2013) Goofs on IMDb: Mistakes, Errors in geography, Spoilers and more... ...
imdb.com/title/tt1392214/trivia?tab=gf&ref_=tt_trv_gf

*  Heaven's Prisoners Quotes

... everything you need to sharpen your knowledge of Heaven's Prisoners. ...
bookrags.com/studyguide-heavens-prisoners/quotes.html

*  Prisoners' hunger strike escalates

The number of Palestinian prisoners on hunger strike in Israeli jails has grown to at least 2800, human rights groups say, ... We have a committee that is going from prison to prison to discuss the prisoners' concerns. We will tell them soon about our ... Well supported ... Palestinians pray next to pictures of Palestinian prisoners involved in hunger strikes. Photo: Reuters. ... Tha'er Halahleh, 33, and Bilal Diab, 27, the two prisoners who have been on a hunger strike for 69 days, had their appeals ...
theage.com.au/world/prisoners-hunger-strike-escalates-20120506-1y73l.html

*  Prisoners | Power Line

Prisoners. I think it's time to note again Israel's failure to produce a statesman equal to the challenges it has faced over ... According both to Caroline Glick and Hillel Halkin, Israel now stands on the verge of a sickening prisoner swap that will free ...
https://powerlineblog.com/archives/2007/04/017007.php

Stateville Penitentiary Malaria Study: The Stateville Penitentiary malaria study was a controlled study of the effects of malaria on the prisoners of Stateville Penitentiary near Joliet, Illinois in the 1940s. The study was conducted by the Department of Medicine at the University of Chicago in conjunction with the United States Army and the State Department.List of tattoo artists: This is a list of notable tattoo artists.Graham Young: Graham Fredrick Young (7 September 1947 – 1 August 1990) was an English serial killer who used poison to kill his victims. He was sent to Broadmoor Hospital in 1962 after poisoning several members of his family, killing his stepmother.Document-centric collaboration: Document-centric collaboration is a new approach to working together on projects online which puts the document and its contents at the centre of the process.Ethical decisionProgram for Torture VictimsFelony murder rule (Florida): In the state of Florida, the common law felony murder rule has been codified in Florida Revised Statutes § 782.04.Social determinants of health in poverty: The social determinants of health in poverty describe the factors that affect impoverished populations’ health and health inequality. Inequalities in health stem from the conditions of people's lives, including living conditions, work environment, age, and other social factors, and how these affect people's ability to respond to illness.ClostebolCriminal justice system of the Netherlands: The criminal justice system of the Netherlands is the system of practices and institutions of the Netherlands directed at upholding social control, deterring and mitigating crime, and sanctioning those who violate laws with criminal penalties and rehabilitation efforts. The Netherlands criminal code is based on the Napoleonic Code, imposed during the time of the French Empire.PunishmentFBI Criminal Investigative Division: The Criminal Investigative Division (CID) is a division within the Criminal, Cyber, Response, and Services Branch of the Federal Bureau of Investigation. The CID is the primary component within the FBI responsible for overseeing FBI investigations of traditional crimes such as narcotics trafficking and violent crime.Humanitarian crisis: A humanitarian crisis (or "humanitarian disaster") is defined as a singular event or a series of events that are threatening in terms of health, safety or well being of a community or large group of people."What Is a Humanitarian Crisis", Humanitarian Coalition, Retrieved on 6 May 2013.Danane concentration camp: The Danane concentration camp was an Italian concentration camp established near Mogadishu in Italian East Africa after the Second Italo-Ethiopian War.Michael R.British Columbia Human Rights Tribunal: The British Columbia Human Rights Tribunal is a quasi-judicial human rights body in British Columbia, Canada. It was established under the British Columbia Human Rights Code.Senorita Stakes: The Senorita Stakes is an American flat Thoroughbred horse race for three-year-old fillies once held annually at Hollywood Park Racetrack in Inglewood, California.Charles ConderSubstance-related disorderUnited States Army Medical Research Unit-Brazil: The United States Army Medical Research Unit-Brazil (USAMRU-B) was a "Special Foreign Activity" of the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research headquartered in Rio De Janeiro, Brazil with several satellite labs in the Brazilian hinterland.National Research Council (2000), Strategies to Protect the Health of Deployed U.Engaged Buddhism: Engaged Buddhism refers to Buddhists who are seeking ways to apply the insights from meditation practice and dharma teachings to situations of social, political, environmental, and economic suffering and injustice. Finding its roots in Vietnam through the Zen Buddhist teacher Thích Nhất Hạnh, Engaged Buddhism has grown in popularity in the West.Mental disorderWorld War II in popular culture: There is a wide range of ways in which people have represented World War II in popular culture. Many works were created during the years of conflict and many more have arisen from that period of world history.Human subject research legislation in the United States: Human subject research legislation in the United States can be traced to the early 20th century. Human subject research in the United States was mostly unregulated until the 20th century, as it was throughout the world, until the establishment of various governmental and professional regulations and codes of ethics.Methadone clinic: A methadone clinic is a clinic which has been established for the dispensing of methadone (Dolophine), a schedule II opioid analgesic, to those who abuse heroin and other opioids. The focus of these clinics is the elimination or reduction of opioid usage by putting the patient on methadone.Terry Waters (GC): Lieutenant Terence Edward Waters GC (1 June 1929 – 22 April 1951), known as Terry Waters,Michael Ashcroft, George Cross Heroes, 2010 was a British soldier who was awarded the George Cross in recognition of gallant and distinguished services whilst a prisoner of war of North Korea, having been captured at the Battle of the Imjin River during the Korean War. He died whilst being held captive at Pyongyang, Korea.Tobacco harm reduction: Tobacco harm reduction (THR) is a public health strategy to lower the health risks associated with using nicotine, as an example of the concept of harm reduction, a strategy for dealing with the abuse of other drugs. Smoking tobacco is widely acknowledged as a leading cause of illness and death.List of military conflicts spanning multiple wars: Early histories of a war typically describe the war as it was declared by the states involved. It is not uncommon for later historians to group together a series of wars over a long period or spread over several theaters as part of a broader conflict or strategic campaign.History of psychopathy: Psychopathy, from psych (soul or mind) and pathy (suffering or disease), was coined by German psychiatrists in the 19th century and originally just meant what would today be called mental disorder, the study of which is still known as psychopathology. By the turn of the century 'psychopathic inferiority' referred to the type of mental disorder that might now be termed personality disorder, along with a wide variety of other conditions now otherwise classified.Agreed Framework: The Agreed Framework between the United States of America and the Democratic People's Republic of Korea was signed on October 21, 1994 between North Korea (DPRK) and the United States. The objective of the agreement was the freezing and replacement of North Korea's indigenous nuclear power plant program with more nuclear proliferation resistant light water reactor power plants, and the step-by-step normalization of relations between the U.List of Townsville suburbs: This article is a list of suburbs that make up the City of Townsville in Queensland, Australia. For the main article/s, see Townsville, and City of Townsville.Comfort Food (novel): Comfort Food: A Novel by Noah Ashenhurst contains a cast of characters: a romantic academic, a self-assured young writer, an enigmatic musician, a slacker, a wealthy mountaineer, and a former heroin addict—characters whose lives intersect in the unique, award-winning debut novel.Management of HIV/AIDS: The management of HIV/AIDS normally includes the use of multiple antiretroviral drugs in an attempt to control HIV infection. There are several classes of antiretroviral agents that act on different stages of the HIV life-cycle.Mark Siegler: Mark Siegler (born June 20, 1941) is an American physician who specializes in internal medicine. He is the Lindy Bergman Distinguished Service Professor of Medicine and Surgery at the University of Chicago.Mass suicides in 1945 Nazi Germany: Mass suicides in 1945 Nazi Germany among civilians, government officials and military personnel alike occurred with unusual frequency during the final weeks of Nazi Germany and the end of World War II in Europe for numerous reasons. These include the influence of Nazi propaganda, reaction to the suicide of Adolf Hitler, loyalty to the tenets of the Nazi Party, the nation's impending defeat in war, the anticipated Allied occupation of Nazi Germany, and fears of harsh treatment at the hands of military personnel both from the Western armies and the Soviet army.Bibliography of The Holocaust: This is a selected bibliography and other resources for The Holocaust.Hong Kong Auxiliary Police Force: The Hong Kong Auxiliary Police Force (HKAPF, ) is established in 1914 as the Police Reserve unit, provides additional manpower to the Hong Kong Police Force, especially during emergencies and other incidents.Capital punishment in Taiwan: Capital punishment is a legal form of punishment in the Republic of China, a country with effective jurisdiction over the island of Taiwan and the Pescadores, as well as Kinmen, Wuchiu, the Matsu Islands, the Pratas Islands and Itu Aba, and--before 1949--over the Chinese mainland.Red Moss, Greater Manchester: Red Moss is a wetland mossland in Greater Manchester, located south of Horwich and east of Blackrod. (Grid Reference ).

(1/986) Medical practice: defendants and prisoners.

It is argued in this paper that a doctor cannot serve two masters. The work of the prison medical officer is examined and it is shown that his dual allegiance to the state and to those individuals who are under his care results in activities which largely favour the former. The World Health Organisation prescribes a system of health ethics which indicates, in qualitative terms, the responsibility of each state for health provisions. In contrast, the World Medical Association acts as both promulgator and guardian of a code of medical ethics which determines the responsibilities of the doctor to his patient. In the historical sense medical practitioners have always emphasized the sanctity of the relationship with their patients and the doctor's role as an expert witness is shown to have centered around this bond. The development of medical services in prisons has focused more on the partnership between doctor and institution. Imprisonment in itself could be seen as prejudicial to health as are disciplinary methods which are more obviously detrimental. The involvement of medical practitioners in such procedures is discussed in the light of their role as the prisoner's personal physician.  (+info)

(2/986) The place of medicine in the American prison: ethical issues in the treatment of offenders.

In Britain doctors and others concerned with the treatment of offenders in prison may consult the Butler Report (see Focus, pp 157) and specialist journals, but these sources are concerned with the system in Britain only. In America the situation is different, both in organization and in certain attitudes. Dr Peter L Sissons has therefore provided a companion article to that of Dr Paul Bowden (page 163) describing the various medical issues in prisons. The main difference between the treatment of offenders in prisons in America and in Britain lies in the nature of the federal system which means that each state may operate a different system in a variety of prisons and prison medical services are as various. Nationally, the prison systems are 'structured to treat and cure the offender'. Therefore it follows that the prison medical officer is only one of the professionals concerned with this 'cure' of the offender. This principle also applies to any form of research: medical research in prisons is part of a programme which covers a wide field of social and judicial research. The prison medical officer (where there is one) has of course to look after sick prisoners, and the American idea of 'cure' is also expressed in the need for more corrective surgery where, for example, it is necessary to remove physical impediments to social rehabilitation. But a doctor is only found on the staff of those institutions which are large: in the smaller prisons there may be only first-aid facilities, and no specially appointed doctor in the community. Moreover medicines are often dispensed by medical auxiliaries who are sometimes prisoners themselves. Finally, in America prisoners are regularly invited to volunteer as subjects for medical and social research for which they are paid. In short, although it is hoped to 'cure' a prisoner he is a criminal first and a patient second.  (+info)

(3/986) Mortality among homeless shelter residents in New York City.

OBJECTIVES: This study examined the rates and predictors of mortality among sheltered homeless men and women in New York City. METHODS: Identifying data on a representative sample of shelter residents surveyed in 1987 were matched against national mortality records for 1987 through 1994. Standardized mortality ratios were computed to compare death rates among homeless people with those of the general US and New York City populations. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine predictors of mortality within the homeless sample. RESULTS: Age-adjusted death rates of homeless men and women were 4 times those of the general US population and 2 to 3 times those of the general population of New York City. Among homeless men, prior use of injectable drugs, incarceration, and chronic homelessness increased the likelihood of death. CONCLUSIONS: For homeless shelter users, chronic homelessness itself compounds the high risk of death associated with disease/disability and intravenous drug use. Interventions must address not only the health conditions of the homeless but also the societal conditions that perpetuate homelessness.  (+info)

(4/986) An evaluation of "informed consent" with volunteer prisoner subjects.

"Informed consent" sets a goal for investigators experimenting with human subjects, but little is known about how to achieve or evaluate it in an experiment. In a 3-year, double-blind study with incarcerated men, we attempted to provide a "free and informed consent" and evaluated our efforts with an unannounced questionnaire administered to subjects after they completed the experiment. At that time, approximately two-thirds had sufficient information for an informed consent, but only one-third was well informed about all key aspects of the experiment and one-third was insufficiently informed to give an informed consent. We found that institution- or study-based coercion was minimal in our experiment. From our evaluation of the questionnaire and experience at the study institution, we conclude that an experiment with human subjects should be designed to include an ongoing evaluation of informed consent, and active attempts should be made to avoid or minimize coercive inducements. Experiments with significant risk, which require a long duration and/or large sample size relative to the institution's population, should probably not be performed on prisoner subjects. The experimenter should be independent of the penal institution's power structure. Presenting and explaining a consent form to volunteers on one occasion is probably an in adequate procedure for obtaining and maintaining an informed consent.  (+info)

(5/986) Clinical evaluation of the enhanced Gen-Probe Amplified Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Direct Test for rapid diagnosis of tuberculosis in prison inmates.

The reliability of the enhanced Amplified Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Direct Test (E-MTD; Gen-Probe, Inc., San Diego, Calif.) for rapid diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) was evaluated by testing 1, 004 respiratory specimens from 489 Texas prison inmates. Results were compared to those of mycobacterial culture (BACTEC TB 460 and Middlebrook 7H11 biplates), smear for acid-fast bacilli (AFB; auramine O), and clinical course. After chart review, three patients (nine specimens) who were on antituberculosis therapy before the study began were excluded from final analysis. Of the remaining 995 specimens, 21 were AFB smear positive: 13 grew Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC), 6 grew nontuberculous mycobacteria, and 2 (from two patients diagnosed with TB and started on therapy after the study began) were culture negative. Twenty-eight specimens (20 patients) were positive for MTBC by culture and E-MTD. Seven specimens (seven patients) were positive by culture alone; three were from patients who had other E-MTD-positive specimens, two were false-positive cultures, and two were false-negative E-MTD results. Eight specimens were positive by E-MTD only; four specimens (four patients) were false-positive E-MTD results, and four specimens were from two patients with earlier E-MTD-positive specimens that grew MTBC. Thus, there were 22 patients with TB (10 smear positive and 12 smear negative). The sensitivity and specificity of the AFB smear for diagnosis of TB, by patient, were 45.5 and 98.9%, respectively. After resolving discrepancies, these same values for E-MTD were 90.9 and 99.1% overall, 100 and 100% for the smear-positive patients, and 83.3 and 99.1% for the smear-negative patients. Excluding the one smear-negative patient whose E-MTD-negative, MTBC culture-positive specimen contained inhibitory substances, the sensitivity of E-MTD was 95.2% overall and 90.9% in smear-negative patients. The specificity and positive predictive value of E-MTD can be improved, without altering other performance characteristics, by modifying the equivocal zone recommended by the manufacturer. These data suggest that E-MTD is a reliable method for rapid diagnosis of pulmonary TB, irrespective of the AFB smear result. Guidelines for the most appropriate use of E-MTD with smear-negative patients are needed.  (+info)

(6/986) Prevalence of hepatitis C in prisons: WASH-C surveillance linked to self-reported risk behaviours.

We used cross-sectional willing anonymous salivary hepatitis C (WASH-C) surveillance linked to self-completed risk-factor questionnaires to estimate the prevalence of salivary hepatitis C antibodies (HepCAbS) in five Scottish prisons from 1994 to 1996. Of 2121 available inmates, 1864 (88%) participated and 1532/1864 (82%) stored samples were suitable for testing. Overall 311/1532 (20.3%, prevalence 95% CI 18.3-22.3%) were HepCAbS-positive: 265/536 (49%, 95% CI 45-54%) injector-inmates but only 27/899 (3%, 95% CI 2-4%) non-injector-inmates. Among injectors, HepCAbS positivity was only slightly higher (p = 0.03) in those who had injected inside prison (53%, 162/305) than in those who had not (44%, 98/224). Those who began injecting in 1992-96 were much less likely to be HepCAbS-positive than those who started pre-1992 (31%, 35/114 vs. 55%, 230/422; p < 0.001). Even with injectors who began in 1992-96 but had never injected inside prison, the prevalence of hepatitis C carriage was 17/63 (95% CI 16-38%). The prevalence and potential transmissibility of hepatitis C in injector-inmates are both high. Promoting 'off injecting' before 'off drugs' (both inside and outside prison), methadone prescription during short incarcerations, alternatives to prison, and support of HepCAbS-positive inmates in becoming eligible for treatment, all warrant urgent consideration.  (+info)

(7/986) Prevalence and correlates of hepatitis C virus infection among inmates entering the California correctional system.

To estimate the prevalence and predictors of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection among inmates, a cross-sectional survey was conducted in 1994 among inmates entering six reception centers of the California Department of Corrections. Discarded serum samples were tested for antibodies to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), HCV, hepatitis B core, and hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). Of 4,513 inmates in this study, 87.0% were men and 13.0% were women. Among male inmates, 39.4% were anti-HCV-positive; by race/ethnicity, prevalences were highest among whites (49.1%). Among female inmates, 53.5% were anti-HCV-positive; the prevalence was highest among Latinas (69.7%). In addition, rates for HIV were 2.5% for men and 3.1% for women; and for HBsAg, 2.2% (men) and 1.2% (women). These data indicate that HCV infection is common among both men and women entering prison. The high seroprevalence of anti-HCV-positive inmates may reflect an increased prevalence of high-risk behaviors and should be of concern to the communities to which these inmates will be released.  (+info)

(8/986) Challenge of Goodness II: new humanitarian technology, developed in croatia and bosnia and Herzegovina in 1991-1995, and applied and evaluated in Kosovo 1999.

This paper presents improvements of the humanitarian proposals of the Challenge of Goodness project published earlier (1). In 1999 Kosovo crisis, these proposals were checked in practice. The priority was again on the practical intervention - helping people directly - to prevent, stop, and ease suffering. Kosovo experience also prompted us to modify the concept of the Challenge of Goodness. It should include research and education (1. redefinition of health, 2. confronting genocide, 3. university studies and education, and 4. collecting experience); evaluation (1. Red Cross forum, 2. organization and technology assessment, 3. Open Hand - Experience of Good People); activities in different stages of war or conflict in: 1. prevention (right to a home, Hate Watch, early warning), 2. duration (refugee camps, prisoners-of-war camps, global hospital, minorities), 3. end of conflict (planned, organized, and evaluated protection), 4. post conflict (remaini ng and abandoned populations, prisoners of war and missing persons, civilian participation, return, and renewal). Effectiveness of humanitarian intervention may be performed by politicians, soldiers, humanitarian workers, and volunteers, but the responsibility lies on science. Science must objectively collect data, develop hypotheses, check them in practice, allow education, and be the force of good, upon which everybody can rely. Never since the World War II has anybody in Europe suffered in war and conflict so much as peoples in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Kosovo. We should search for the meaning of their suffering, and develop new knowledge and technology of peace.  (+info)



Nazi


  • 2/10/79 Sketched by a political prisoner the same day we liberated a Nazi concentration camp (Flossenbürg). (jewishgen.org)

political


  • Concentration camps are internment centers established to confine minority and national groups and political prisoners. (familysearch.org)