Primary Health Care: Care which provides integrated, accessible health care services by clinicians who are accountable for addressing a large majority of personal health care needs, developing a sustained partnership with patients, and practicing in the context of family and community. (JAMA 1995;273(3):192)Health Status: The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.Delivery of Health Care: The concept concerned with all aspects of providing and distributing health services to a patient population.Public Health: Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.Health Policy: Decisions, usually developed by government policymakers, for determining present and future objectives pertaining to the health care system.Health Care Reform: Innovation and improvement of the health care system by reappraisal, amendment of services, and removal of faults and abuses in providing and distributing health services to patients. It includes a re-alignment of health services and health insurance to maximum demographic elements (the unemployed, indigent, uninsured, elderly, inner cities, rural areas) with reference to coverage, hospitalization, pricing and cost containment, insurers' and employers' costs, pre-existing medical conditions, prescribed drugs, equipment, and services.Health Services Accessibility: The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.Health Promotion: Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.Quality of Health Care: The levels of excellence which characterize the health service or health care provided based on accepted standards of quality.Health Care Surveys: Statistical measures of utilization and other aspects of the provision of health care services including hospitalization and ambulatory care.Mental Health: The state wherein the person is well adjusted.Health Planning: Planning for needed health and/or welfare services and facilities.Attitude to Health: Public attitudes toward health, disease, and the medical care system.Health Services Needs and Demand: Health services required by a population or community as well as the health services that the population or community is able and willing to pay for.Health: The state of the organism when it functions optimally without evidence of disease.Health Services Research: The integration of epidemiologic, sociological, economic, and other analytic sciences in the study of health services. Health services research is usually concerned with relationships between need, demand, supply, use, and outcome of health services. The aim of the research is evaluation, particularly in terms of structure, process, output, and outcome. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Health Personnel: Men and women working in the provision of health services, whether as individual practitioners or employees of health institutions and programs, whether or not professionally trained, and whether or not subject to public regulation. (From A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, 1976)Rural Health Services: Health services, public or private, in rural areas. The services include the promotion of health and the delivery of health care.Community Health Centers: Facilities which administer the delivery of health care services to people living in a community or neighborhood.Health Services: Services for the diagnosis and treatment of disease and the maintenance of health.Health Behavior: Behaviors expressed by individuals to protect, maintain or promote their health status. For example, proper diet, and appropriate exercise are activities perceived to influence health status. Life style is closely associated with health behavior and factors influencing life style are socioeconomic, educational, and cultural.World Health: The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).Insurance, Health: Insurance providing coverage of medical, surgical, or hospital care in general or for which there is no specific heading.National Health Programs: Components of a national health care system which administer specific services, e.g., national health insurance.Delivery of Health Care, Integrated: A health care system which combines physicians, hospitals, and other medical services with a health plan to provide the complete spectrum of medical care for its customers. In a fully integrated system, the three key elements - physicians, hospital, and health plan membership - are in balance in terms of matching medical resources with the needs of purchasers and patients. (Coddington et al., Integrated Health Care: Reorganizing the Physician, Hospital and Health Plan Relationship, 1994, p7)Community Health Services: Diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive health services provided for individuals in the community.Health Education: Education that increases the awareness and favorably influences the attitudes and knowledge relating to the improvement of health on a personal or community basis.Rural Health: The status of health in rural populations.Patient Acceptance of Health Care: The seeking and acceptance by patients of health service.Attitude of Health Personnel: Attitudes of personnel toward their patients, other professionals, toward the medical care system, etc.Health Expenditures: The amounts spent by individuals, groups, nations, or private or public organizations for total health care and/or its various components. These amounts may or may not be equivalent to the actual costs (HEALTH CARE COSTS) and may or may not be shared among the patient, insurers, and/or employers.Public Health Administration: Management of public health organizations or agencies.Health Priorities: Preferentially rated health-related activities or functions to be used in establishing health planning goals. This may refer specifically to PL93-641.Health Care Rationing: Planning for the equitable allocation, apportionment, or distribution of available health resources.Child Health Services: Organized services to provide health care for children.Oral Health: The optimal state of the mouth and normal functioning of the organs of the mouth without evidence of disease.Health Facilities: Institutions which provide medical or health-related services.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Health Status Disparities: Variation in rates of disease occurrence and disabilities between population groups defined by socioeconomic characteristics such as age, ethnicity, economic resources, or gender and populations identified geographically or similar measures.Mental Health Services: Organized services to provide mental health care.Community Health Planning: Planning that has the goals of improving health, improving accessibility to health services, and promoting efficiency in the provision of services and resources on a comprehensive basis for a whole community. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988, p299)Quality Assurance, Health Care: Activities and programs intended to assure or improve the quality of care in either a defined medical setting or a program. The concept includes the assessment or evaluation of the quality of care; identification of problems or shortcomings in the delivery of care; designing activities to overcome these deficiencies; and follow-up monitoring to ensure effectiveness of corrective steps.World Health Organization: A specialized agency of the United Nations designed as a coordinating authority on international health work; its aim is to promote the attainment of the highest possible level of health by all peoples.Public Health Practice: The activities and endeavors of the public health services in a community on any level.Health Care Sector: Economic sector concerned with the provision, distribution, and consumption of health care services and related products.Environmental Health: The science of controlling or modifying those conditions, influences, or forces surrounding man which relate to promoting, establishing, and maintaining health.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Occupational Health: The promotion and maintenance of physical and mental health in the work environment.Comprehensive Health Care: Providing for the full range of personal health services for diagnosis, treatment, follow-up and rehabilitation of patients.Women's Health: The concept covering the physical and mental conditions of women.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Urban Health: The status of health in urban populations.Family Practice: A medical specialty concerned with the provision of continuing, comprehensive primary health care for the entire family.Outcome Assessment (Health Care): Research aimed at assessing the quality and effectiveness of health care as measured by the attainment of a specified end result or outcome. Measures include parameters such as improved health, lowered morbidity or mortality, and improvement of abnormal states (such as elevated blood pressure).Health Manpower: The availability of HEALTH PERSONNEL. It includes the demand and recruitment of both professional and allied health personnel, their present and future supply and distribution, and their assignment and utilization.Interviews as Topic: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.Patient Care Team: Care of patients by a multidisciplinary team usually organized under the leadership of a physician; each member of the team has specific responsibilities and the whole team contributes to the care of the patient.Regional Health Planning: Planning for health resources at a regional or multi-state level.Health Resources: Available manpower, facilities, revenue, equipment, and supplies to produce requisite health care and services.Health Services, Indigenous: Health care provided to specific cultural or tribal peoples which incorporates local customs, beliefs, and taboos.SwedenHealth Literacy: Degree to which individuals have the capacity to obtain, process, and understand basic health information and services needed to make appropriate health decisions.Preventive Health Services: Services designed for HEALTH PROMOTION and prevention of disease.Rural Population: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.Primary Nursing: The primary responsibility of one nurse for the planning, evaluation, and care of a patient throughout the course of illness, convalescence, and recovery.Program Evaluation: Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.Health Services Administration: The organization and administration of health services dedicated to the delivery of health care.South Africa: A republic in southern Africa, the southernmost part of Africa. It has three capitals: Pretoria (administrative), Cape Town (legislative), and Bloemfontein (judicial). Officially the Republic of South Africa since 1960, it was called the Union of South Africa 1910-1960.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Allied Health Personnel: Health care workers specially trained and licensed to assist and support the work of health professionals. Often used synonymously with paramedical personnel, the term generally refers to all health care workers who perform tasks which must otherwise be performed by a physician or other health professional.Urban Health Services: Health services, public or private, in urban areas. The services include the promotion of health and the delivery of health care.Catchment Area (Health): A geographic area defined and served by a health program or institution.Politics: Activities concerned with governmental policies, functions, etc.Public Health Nursing: A nursing specialty concerned with promoting and protecting the health of populations, using knowledge from nursing, social, and public health sciences to develop local, regional, state, and national health policy and research. It is population-focused and community-oriented, aimed at health promotion and disease prevention through educational, diagnostic, and preventive programs.Health Plan Implementation: Those actions designed to carry out recommendations pertaining to health plans or programs.Maternal Health Services: Organized services to provide health care to expectant and nursing mothers.Qualitative Research: Any type of research that employs nonnumeric information to explore individual or group characteristics, producing findings not arrived at by statistical procedures or other quantitative means. (Qualitative Inquiry: A Dictionary of Terms Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1997)Quality Indicators, Health Care: Norms, criteria, standards, and other direct qualitative and quantitative measures used in determining the quality of health care.Electronic Health Records: Media that facilitate transportability of pertinent information concerning patient's illness across varied providers and geographic locations. Some versions include direct linkages to online consumer health information that is relevant to the health conditions and treatments related to a specific patient.Women's Health Services: Organized services to provide health care to women. It excludes maternal care services for which MATERNAL HEALTH SERVICES is available.Primary Care Nursing: Techniques or methods of patient care used by nurses as primary careproviders.Nurses: Professionals qualified by graduation from an accredited school of nursing and by passage of a national licensing examination to practice nursing. They provide services to patients requiring assistance in recovering or maintaining their physical or mental health.Financing, Government: Federal, state, or local government organized methods of financial assistance.Health Facility Planning: Areawide planning for health care institutions on the basis of projected consumer need.Consumer Participation: Community or individual involvement in the decision-making process.IndiaAustralia: The smallest continent and an independent country, comprising six states and two territories. Its capital is Canberra.Outcome and Process Assessment (Health Care): Evaluation procedures that focus on both the outcome or status (OUTCOMES ASSESSMENT) of the patient at the end of an episode of care - presence of symptoms, level of activity, and mortality; and the process (ASSESSMENT, PROCESS) - what is done for the patient diagnostically and therapeutically.Spain: Parliamentary democracy located between France on the northeast and Portugual on the west and bordered by the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea.Patient Satisfaction: The degree to which the individual regards the health care service or product or the manner in which it is delivered by the provider as useful, effective, or beneficial.Referral and Consultation: The practice of sending a patient to another program or practitioner for services or advice which the referring source is not prepared to provide.Great BritainGeneral Practitioners: Physicians whose practice is not restricted to a specific field of MEDICINE.BrazilHealth Facility Administration: Management of the organization of HEALTH FACILITIES.Physicians, Family: Those physicians who have completed the education requirements specified by the American Academy of Family Physicians.Mental Disorders: Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Clinical Governance: A framework through which the United Kingdom's National Health Service organizations are accountable for continually improving the quality of their services and safeguarding high standards of care by creating an environment in which excellence in clinical care will flourish. (Scally and Donaldson, BMJ (4 July 1998): 61-65)Cooperative Behavior: The interaction of two or more persons or organizations directed toward a common goal which is mutually beneficial. An act or instance of working or acting together for a common purpose or benefit, i.e., joint action. (From Random House Dictionary Unabridged, 2d ed)LithuaniaChronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Health Services for the Aged: Services for the diagnosis and treatment of diseases in the aged and the maintenance of health in the elderly.Healthcare Disparities: Differences in access to or availability of medical facilities and services.Medically Underserved Area: A geographic location which has insufficient health resources (manpower and/or facilities) to meet the medical needs of the resident population.Health Occupations: Professions or other business activities directed to the cure and prevention of disease. For occupations of medical personnel who are not physicians but who are working in the fields of medical technology, physical therapy, etc., ALLIED HEALTH OCCUPATIONS is available.Private Sector: That distinct portion of the institutional, industrial, or economic structure of a country that is controlled or owned by non-governmental, private interests.Poverty: A situation in which the level of living of an individual, family, or group is below the standard of the community. It is often related to a specific income level.Reproductive Health: The physical condition of human reproductive systems.EnglandFamily Health: The health status of the family as a unit including the impact of the health of one member of the family on the family as a unit and on individual family members; also, the impact of family organization or disorganization on the health status of its members.Physician's Practice Patterns: Patterns of practice related to diagnosis and treatment as especially influenced by cost of the service requested and provided.Health Benefit Plans, Employee: Health insurance plans for employees, and generally including their dependents, usually on a cost-sharing basis with the employer paying a percentage of the premium.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Nurse Practitioners: Nurses who are specially trained to assume an expanded role in providing medical care under the supervision of a physician.Maternal-Child Health Centers: Facilities which administer the delivery of health care services to mothers and children.Financing, Organized: All organized methods of funding.Models, Organizational: Theoretical representations and constructs that describe or explain the structure and hierarchy of relationships and interactions within or between formal organizational entities or informal social groups.Needs Assessment: Systematic identification of a population's needs or the assessment of individuals to determine the proper level of services needed.Program Development: The process of formulating, improving, and expanding educational, managerial, or service-oriented work plans (excluding computer program development).Ontario: A province of Canada lying between the provinces of Manitoba and Quebec. Its capital is Toronto. It takes its name from Lake Ontario which is said to represent the Iroquois oniatariio, beautiful lake. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p892 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p391)Policy Making: The decision process by which individuals, groups or institutions establish policies pertaining to plans, programs or procedures.Social Justice: An interactive process whereby members of a community are concerned for the equality and rights of all.Universal Coverage: Health insurance coverage for all persons in a state or country, rather than for some subset of the population. It may extend to the unemployed as well as to the employed; to aliens as well as to citizens; for pre-existing conditions as well as for current illnesses; for mental as well as for physical conditions.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Adolescent Health Services: Organized services to provide health care to adolescents, ages ranging from 13 through 18 years.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Organizational Objectives: The purposes, missions, and goals of an individual organization or its units, established through administrative processes. It includes an organization's long-range plans and administrative philosophy.Efficiency, Organizational: The capacity of an organization, institution, or business to produce desired results with a minimum expenditure of energy, time, money, personnel, materiel, etc.Occupational Health Services: Health services for employees, usually provided by the employer at the place of work.IraqPublic Sector: The area of a nation's economy that is tax-supported and under government control.Quality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.Health Planning Councils: Organized groups serving in advisory capacities related to health planning activities.Interinstitutional Relations: The interactions between representatives of institutions, agencies, or organizations.Population Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.Local Government: Smallest political subdivisions within a country at which general governmental functions are carried-out.Community Health Workers: Persons trained to assist professional health personnel in communicating with residents in the community concerning needs and availability of health services.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.GreeceCommunity Mental Health Services: Diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive mental health services provided for individuals in the community.State Medicine: A system of medical care regulated, controlled and financed by the government, in which the government assumes responsibility for the health needs of the population.Organizational Case Studies: Descriptions and evaluations of specific health care organizations.Urban Population: The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.Public Health Informatics: The systematic application of information and computer sciences to public health practice, research, and learning.Process Assessment (Health Care): An evaluation procedure that focuses on how care is delivered, based on the premise that there are standards of performance for activities undertaken in delivering patient care, in which the specific actions taken, events occurring, and human interactions are compared with accepted standards.National Institutes of Health (U.S.): An operating division of the US Department of Health and Human Services. It is concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to health and medical research. Until 1995, it was an agency of the United States PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE.FinlandPatient Education as Topic: The teaching or training of patients concerning their own health needs.QatarCommunity-Institutional Relations: The interactions between members of a community and representatives of the institutions within that community.State Health Plans: State plans prepared by the State Health Planning and Development Agencies which are made up from plans submitted by the Health Systems Agencies and subject to review and revision by the Statewide Health Coordinating Council.General Practice: Patient-based medical care provided across age and gender or specialty boundaries.Life Style: Typical way of life or manner of living characteristic of an individual or group. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)Educational Status: Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.Physician-Patient Relations: The interactions between physician and patient.Organizational Innovation: Introduction of changes which are new to the organization and are created by management.Social Class: A stratum of people with similar position and prestige; includes social stratification. Social class is measured by criteria such as education, occupation, and income.Developing Countries: Countries in the process of change with economic growth, that is, an increase in production, per capita consumption, and income. The process of economic growth involves better utilization of natural and human resources, which results in a change in the social, political, and economic structures.International Cooperation: The interaction of persons or groups of persons representing various nations in the pursuit of a common goal or interest.Community Health Nursing: General and comprehensive nursing practice directed to individuals, families, or groups as it relates to and contributes to the health of a population or community. This is not an official program of a Public Health Department.Reproductive Health Services: Health care services related to human REPRODUCTION and diseases of the reproductive system. Services are provided to both sexes and usually by physicians in the medical or the surgical specialties such as REPRODUCTIVE MEDICINE; ANDROLOGY; GYNECOLOGY; OBSTETRICS; and PERINATOLOGY.Rwanda: A republic in eastern Africa, south of UGANDA, east of DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO, west of TANZANIA. Its capital is Kigali. It was formerly part of the Belgian trust territory of Ruanda-Urund.Oceanic Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the islands of the central and South Pacific, including Micronesia, Melanesia, Polynesia, and traditionally Australasia.United Arab Emirates: A federation of seven states on the southeast portion of the Arabian peninsula: Abu Dhabi, Ajman, Dubai, Fujairah, Ras al-Khaimah, Sharjah and Umm al-Qaiwain. In 1820 a treaty of peace was concluded between Great Britain and native rulers. During the 19th century the rulers agreed to suppression of the slave trade and restriction of foreign relations to Great Britain. The Trucial Council was established in 1952 and defense treaties with Great Britain terminated. In 1971 an independent six-member federation was formed, with Ras al-Khaimah joining the federation in 1972. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1250)Mass Screening: Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.Health Care Coalitions: Voluntary groups of people representing diverse interests in the community such as hospitals, businesses, physicians, and insurers, with the principal objective to improve health care cost effectiveness.Ambulatory Care Facilities: Those facilities which administer health services to individuals who do not require hospitalization or institutionalization.Continuity of Patient Care: Health care provided on a continuing basis from the initial contact, following the patient through all phases of medical care.Personnel Delegation: To entrust to the care or management of another, to transfer or to assign tasks within an organizational or administrative unit or structureHealth Records, Personal: Longitudinal patient-maintained records of individual health history and tools that allow individual control of access.Men's Health: The concept covering the physical and mental conditions of men.Health Planning Guidelines: Recommendations for directing health planning functions and policies. These may be mandated by PL93-641 and issued by the Department of Health and Human Services for use by state and local planning agencies.Mobile Health Units: Movable or portable facilities in which diagnostic and therapeutic services are provided to the community.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Inservice Training: On the job training programs for personnel carried out within an institution or agency. It includes orientation programs.Ambulatory Care: Health care services provided to patients on an ambulatory basis, rather than by admission to a hospital or other health care facility. The services may be a part of a hospital, augmenting its inpatient services, or may be provided at a free-standing facility.Cost-Benefit Analysis: A method of comparing the cost of a program with its expected benefits in dollars (or other currency). The benefit-to-cost ratio is a measure of total return expected per unit of money spent. This analysis generally excludes consideration of factors that are not measured ultimately in economic terms. Cost effectiveness compares alternative ways to achieve a specific set of results.Pilot Projects: Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.Health Maintenance Organizations: Organized systems for providing comprehensive prepaid health care that have five basic attributes: (1) provide care in a defined geographic area; (2) provide or ensure delivery of an agreed-upon set of basic and supplemental health maintenance and treatment services; (3) provide care to a voluntarily enrolled group of persons; (4) require their enrollees to use the services of designated providers; and (5) receive reimbursement through a predetermined, fixed, periodic prepayment made by the enrollee without regard to the degree of services provided. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988)Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Leadership: The function of directing or controlling the actions or attitudes of an individual or group with more or less willing acquiescence of the followers.Counseling: The giving of advice and assistance to individuals with educational or personal problems.Consumer Satisfaction: Customer satisfaction or dissatisfaction with a benefit or service received.Medical Staff: Professional medical personnel who provide care to patients in an organized facility, institution or agency.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Health Planning Support: Financial resources provided for activities related to health planning and development.Social Responsibility: The obligations and accountability assumed in carrying out actions or ideas on behalf of others.Medical Indigency: The condition in which individuals are financially unable to access adequate medical care without depriving themselves and their dependents of food, clothing, shelter, and other essentials of living.Vulnerable Populations: Groups of persons whose range of options is severely limited, who are frequently subjected to COERCION in their DECISION MAKING, or who may be compromised in their ability to give INFORMED CONSENT.Privatization: Process of shifting publicly controlled services and/or facilities to the private sector.Saudi ArabiaDecision Making, Organizational: The process by which decisions are made in an institution or other organization.Schools, Public Health: Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of public health.Interdisciplinary Communication: Communication, in the sense of cross-fertilization of ideas, involving two or more academic disciplines (such as the disciplines that comprise the cross-disciplinary field of bioethics, including the health and biological sciences, the humanities, and the social sciences and law). Also includes problems in communication stemming from differences in patterns of language usage in different academic or medical disciplines.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Practice Guidelines as Topic: Directions or principles presenting current or future rules of policy for assisting health care practitioners in patient care decisions regarding diagnosis, therapy, or related clinical circumstances. The guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by the convening of expert panels. The guidelines form a basis for the evaluation of all aspects of health care and delivery.Residence Characteristics: Elements of residence that characterize a population. They are applicable in determining need for and utilization of health services.Uzbekistan

*  Department of Health | Primary Health Care Advisory Group

The Primary Health Care Advisory Group has completed its work investigating options into the reform of primary health care to ... support patients with chronic and complex illness, and the treatment of mental health conditions. ... Primary Health Care Advisory Group /. Primary Health Care Advisory Group. The Primary Health Care Advisory Group has completed ... and greater connection between primary health care and hospital care.. The role of the Primary Health Care Advisory Group was ...
health.gov.au/internet/main/publishing.nsf/Content/PrimaryHealthCareAdvisoryGroup-1

*  Primary Health Care Research & Development | Cambridge Core

Primary Health Care Research & Development - Professor Sally Kendall, Professor Rosamund Bryar, Prof. Dr Mehmet Akman, Dr Shaun ... Primary Health Care Research & Development is aimed specifically at both researchers and practitioners in primary health care, ... interdisciplinary research and development in primary health care. It is essential reading for all involved in primary care and ... The impact of space and time on interprofessional teamwork in Canadian primary health care settings: implications for health ...
https://cambridge.org/core/journals/primary-health-care-research-and-development

*  Is the quality of primary healthcare services influenced by the healthcare centre's type of ownership?-An observational study...

... and primary care constitutes for around 20 % of the total healthcare budget [3]. Primary care in Sweden is delivered by more ... Impact of comorbidity on the individual's choice of primary health care provider. Scand J Prim Health Care. 2011;29:104-9.View ... Department of Public Health and Community Medicine/Primary Health Care, Institute of Medicine, The Sahlgrenska Academy, ... Holmberg S, Ekström H. Primary health care in Kronoberg before and after the care choice. More satisfied patients… the staff ...
https://bmchealthservres.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12913-015-1082-y

*  What does primary health care mean?

Meaning of primary health care. What does primary health care mean? Information and translations of primary health care in the ... Definition of primary health care in the Definitions.net dictionary. ... Primary health care. Primary health care, often abbreviated as "PHC", has been defined as "essential health care based on ... primary health care(noun). health care that is provided by a health care professional in the first contact of a patient with ...
definitions.net/definition/primary health care

*  Primary Health Care in Practice: Is It Effective?

Using El Salvador as a case study, the paper draws on three data sets and a qualitative survey to assess health care access and ... and treatment success is higher than among health posts, health units or community health workers. These results combined with ... Households do not value the community health workers, and prefer high cost private care, even the poorest families, because of ... Similarly, higher level public facilities-health centers and hospitals-are preferred because they are less costly in terms of ...
https://ideas.repec.org/p/cgd/wpaper/55.html

*  Primary Health Care Framework by Phyllis Barclay on Prezi

Transcript of Primary Health Care Framework. Primary Health Care Framework Introduction Results A highly efficient and ... Inter-professional Primary Health Care Teams Comprehensive Client-Centered Care The values and beliefs of client centered care ... 75 percent of good health outcomes are not related to health care services. Primary Care is more narrowly focused on illness, ... This circle represents important components of both primary health care and primary care networks. Develop hubs consisting of a ...
https://prezi.com/wj2q_loo_8fj/primary-health-care-framework/

*  CSIRO PUBLISHING | Journal of Primary Health Care

2 Department of Family Medicine & Primary Care and Institute of Medical and Health Sciences Education, University of Hong Kong ... Correspondence to: Bruce Arroll, Department of General Practice and Primary Health Care, University of Auckland, Private Bag ... 1 Department of General Practice and Primary Health Care, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand ... KEYWORDS: Antidepressant agents; primary health care; placebos; clinical trial; meta-analysis; general practice ...
publish.csiro.au/HC/HC16008

*  CSIRO PUBLISHING | Journal of Primary Health Care

J Prim Health Care 2017; 9 85 [12] Palapar L, Wilkinson-Meyers L, Lumley T, Kerse N. Usual primary care of older people in New ... A descriptive study reporting primary health care registered nurses engagement with youth about sexual health. J Prim Health ... J Prim Health Care 2017; 9 3 [2] Gauld R. Clinical leadership: what is it and how do we facilitate it? J Prim Health Care 2017 ... J Prim Health Care 2017; 9 47 [14] Sheary B. Topical corticosteroid addiction and withdrawal in a 6 year old. J Prim Health ...
publish.csiro.au/HC/fulltext/HCv9n1_ED1

*  BRIEF-Primary Health Care says appointed Malcolm Parmenter as CEO | Reuters

Primary Health Care Ltd:
uk.reuters.com/article/brief-primary-health-care-says-appointed-idUKFWN1I30C7

*  Primary Health Care (MEDI6801) / Course / The University of Newcastle, Australia

This course is designed for students from all health professions to advance their understanding of contemporary primary health care ... Module 1. International and National Reforms in Primary Health Care. * Module 2. Social Determinants of Health and Health ... 6. Epidemiology, public health issues and risk factor management of common conditions seen in primary health care ... This course is designed for students from all health professions to advance their understanding of contemporary primary health care ...
https://newcastle.edu.au/course/MEDI6801?mobile=false

*  Lebanon to Invest in the Quality of Primary Health Care

... ... primary health care centres, laboratories and other health ... The six month project, starting in October of this year, will involve the review of current Lebanese Primary Health Care ... The further development and enhancement of these Primary Health Care Standards will help ensure that the people of Lebanon. ... International will help us in improving the quality of care and overall performance in Primary Health Centres in Lebanon. . ...
newswire.ca/news-releases/lebanon-to-invest-in-the-quality-of-primary-health-care-538682451.html

*  Primary Health Care and Resource Centre Fund | Krishna Man Shrestha's Fundraiser

The Primary Health Care and Resource Centre is a small community based clinic located in Chapaguan, Nepal (approximately 2 ... They provide primary care services to the townspeople of Chapaguan. While they treat patients with a wide variety of illnesses ... The Primary Health Care and Resource Centre is a small community based clinic located in Chapaguan, Nepal (approximately 2 ... They provide primary care services to the townspeople of Chapaguan. While they treat patients with a wide variety of illnesses ...
https://crowdrise.com/PHCRC/fundraiser/krishnamanshrestha

*  "Integrative medicine: enhancing quality in primary health care" by Sandra...

IM enhanced the quality of primary health care through its provision of health care that was patient-centered, effective ( ... and those seeking health promotion and illness prevention); and (3) enhanced the safety of primary health care (because IM ... chronic health conditions, those seeking an alternative to pharmaceutical health care, ... However, little is known about the contribution that IM makes to the quality of health care. The aim of the research was to ...
https://works.bepress.com/sandra_grace/15/

*  CiNii 論文 - Coordination of Primary Health Care for Back Pain : A Randomized Controlled Trial ...

Coordination of Primary Health Care for Back Pain : A Randomized Controlled Trial * * ROSSIGNOL Michel ... The outcomes and costs of care for acute low back pain among patients seen by primary care practitioners, chiropractors, and ... The role of the primary care physician in reducing work absenteeism and costs due to back pain DEYO RA. ... Should the gap be filled between guidelines and actual practice for management of low back pain in primary care? The Quebec ...
ci.nii.ac.jp/naid/10018092253

*  Access to primary health care services by community-based asylum seekers | The Medical Journal of Australia

4. Correa-Velez I, Johnston V, Kirk J, Ferdinand A. Community-based asylum seekers' use of primary health care services in ... Conclusions: Access to primary health care in Australia for community-based asylum seekers remains limited, and this has a ... Objectives: To determine whether community-based asylum seekers experience difficulty in gaining access to primary health care ... Asylum seekers' responses revealed that their access to primary health care was limited by a range of barriers including ...
https://mja.com.au/journal/2011/195/4/access-primary-health-care-services-community-based-asylum-seekers

*  What Are The Major Problems With Primary Health Care In Nigeria? - Health - Nigeria

Re: What Are The Major Problems With Primary Health Care In Nigeria? by omoabike: 3:53pm On Jun 30, 2010 Primary Health Care ... What Are The Major Problems With Primary Health Care In Nigeria? by EEngineer1(m): 2:10pm On Jul 08, 2010 primary health care ... Indian Health Care In Nigeria (1) (2) (3) (4) (0) (Reply) (Go Down). What Are The Major Problems With Primary Health Care In ... What Are The Major Problems With Primary Health Care In Nigeria? (33263 Views) A Workable Primary Health Care Programme: Post ...
nairaland.com/471320/what-major-problems-primary-health

*  Improving Primary Health Care Through Collaboration: Briefing 1-Current Knowledge About Interprofessional Teams in Canada

... in a series of four that aims to provide an analysis of the impact of inter-professional teams on the Canadian primary health care ... Primary health care reform has great potential to improve population health and sustain our health care system. Yet, compared ... primary health care structures. I t illustrated to me how close all the provinces are in their viewing of primary health care ... I would have appreciated if interdisciplinary care, team-based care, collaborative care, shared care etc., were also defined.. ...
conferenceboard.ca/e-library/abstract.aspx?did=5157

*  National Key Performance Indicators for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander primary health care: First national results June...

National Key Performance Indicators for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander primary health care: First national results June ... National Key Performance Indicators for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander primary health care: First national results June ... data from over 200 primary health care organisations that receive funding from the Australian Government Department of Health ... Australia's health 2016 Australia's health 2016 is the AIHW's 15th biennial report on the health of Australians. It… ...
https://aihw.gov.au/reports/indigenous-australians/national-kpi-primary-health-care-2012-2013/contents/table-of-contents

*  Primary Mental Health Care | Prospects.ac.uk

... fees and contact details for Primary Mental Health Care at Teesside University on prospects.ac.uk ... National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) which works on the principle of offering the least intrusive and most ... This award provides education and training that meets the requirements of the Department of Health (2011) curriculum for ... ensuring you are prepared to meet the challenges of current and future contemporary mental health services. ...
https://prospects.ac.uk/universities/teesside-university-4019/school-of-health-and-social-care-14119/courses/primary-mental-health-care-110577

*  Nurse Practitioners Essential Providers of Primary Care - Healthcare P...

Advanced-practice nurses are essential providers of primary care, especially for age 50+ people. ... Nurses are positioned across the health care system to provide high quality health care, increase access to health care ... nurses are increasingly the front line of primary care - the healthcare professionals we're most likely to see first when ... They'll continue to play that role as health care reform brings coverage and access to more Americans. But the contribution of ...
aarp.org/health/doctors-hospitals/info-10-2010/doctor_cant_see_you_but_nurse_can.2.html

*  Healthcare Crescent Primary Care Physicians Jobs Now Hiring | Snagajob

Healthcare Crescent Primary Care Physicians employers are now hiring. Find your next job today! ... 0 Healthcare Crescent Primary Care Physicians jobs in your area are available at Snagajob. ... Healthcare Crescent Primary Care Physicians Jobs Save Search My Searches. Recent Saved ...
snagajob.com/job-search/q-healthcare crescent primary care physicians

*  Predicting Caries Risk in Underserved Toddlers in Primary Healthcare Settings - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov

Children who are in foster care at study initiation will be excluded, due to the likelihood that their primary caregiver will ... Predicting Caries Risk in Underserved Toddlers in Primary Healthcare Settings. This study has been completed. ... Predicting Caries Risk in Underserved Toddlers in Primary Healthcare Settings A Stratified (by Race, Ethnicity, and Medicaid ... If Primary Caregiver is not the Parent/Legal Guardian: If another individual is the primary caregiver, then this individual ...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01707797?recr=Open&intr="Dental Care"&rank=11

*  Global 3D CAD Industry

Health Overview * Biometrics * Biotechnology * Dentistry * Clinical Trials & Medical Discoveries * FDA Approval * Health Care ... Market data and analytics are derived from primary and secondary research. Company profiles are primarily based on public ...
prnewswire.com/news-releases/global-3d-cad-industry-300352227.html

*  Episiotomy | HCA Virginia

Behavioral Health * Cancer Care * Emergency and Intensive Care * Heart and Vascular Care ... Orthopedic and Spine Care * Pediatric Care * Primary Care * Rehabilitation and Sports Medicine ... Postoperative Care. Your stitches will dissolve in about 10 days. The cut will heal within about 2 weeks. There may still be ... Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with ...
hcavirginia.com/hl/?/14809/&com.dotmarketing.htmlpage.language=1

*  Star Trek (2009) / Headscratchers - TV Tropes

Any Vulcan will do, I'm too mad to care. * Just wondering if this is an alternate timeline, why didn't Nero try to get back to ... That one's actually explained in the film - the primary fleet was dealing with a crisis in the Laurentian system, which meant ... Nero's torture has probably had very serious side-effects to his health. ... Why would it care about Spock and Kirk being together, but not about Vulcan being destroyed, or Spock's mother dying? The ...
tvtropes.org/pmwiki/pmwiki.php/Headscratchers/StarTrek2009

Halfdan T. MahlerSelf-rated health: Self-rated health (also called Self-reported health, Self-assessed health, or perceived health) refers to both a single question such as “in general, would you say that you health is excellent, very good, good, fair, or poor?” and a survey questionnaire in which participants assess different dimensions of their own health.Global Health Delivery ProjectPublic Health Act: Public Health Act is a stock short title used in the United Kingdom for legislation relating to public health.Health policy: Health policy can be defined as the "decisions, plans, and actions that are undertaken to achieve specific health care goals within a society."World Health Organization.Rock 'n' Roll (Status Quo song)Lifestyle management programme: A lifestyle management programme (also referred to as a health promotion programme, health behaviour change programme, lifestyle improvement programme or wellness programme) is an intervention designed to promote positive lifestyle and behaviour change and is widely used in the field of health promotion.Society for Education Action and Research in Community Health: Searching}}Northeast Community Health CentreBehavior: Behavior or behaviour (see spelling differences) is the range of actions and [made by individuals, organism]s, [[systems, or artificial entities in conjunction with themselves or their environment, which includes the other systems or organisms around as well as the (inanimate) physical environment. It is the response of the system or organism to various stimuli or inputs, whether [or external], [[conscious or subconscious, overt or covert, and voluntary or involuntary.Behavior change (public health): Behavior change is a central objective in public health interventions,WHO 2002: World Health Report 2002 - Reducing Risks, Promoting Healthy Life Accessed Feb 2015 http://www.who.Contraceptive mandate (United States): A contraceptive mandate is a state or federal regulation or law that requires health insurers, or employers that provide their employees with health insurance, to cover some contraceptive costs in their health insurance plans. In 1978, the U.Comprehensive Rural Health Project: The Comprehensive Rural Health Project (CRHP) is a non profit, non-governmental organization located in Jamkhed, Ahmednagar District in the state of Maharashtra, India. The organization works with rural communities to provide community-based primary healthcare and improve the general standard of living through a variety of community-led development programs, including Women's Self-Help Groups, Farmers' Clubs, Adolescent Programs and Sanitation and Watershed Development Programs.School health education: School Health Education see also: Health Promotion is the process of transferring health knowledge during a student's school years (K-12). Its uses are in general classified as Public Health Education and School Health Education.Aging (scheduling): In Operating systems, Aging is a scheduling technique used to avoid starvation. Fixed priority scheduling is a scheduling discipline, in which tasks queued for utilizing a system resource are assigned a priority each.National Collaborating Centre for Mental Health: The National Collaborating Centre for Mental Health (NCCMH) is one of several centres of the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) tasked with developing guidance on the appropriate treatment and care of people with specific conditions within the National Health Service (NHS) in England and Wales. It was established in 2001.Healthy community design: Healthy community design is planning and designing communities that make it easier for people to live healthy lives. Healthy community design offers important benefits:European Immunization Week: European Immunization Week (EIW) is an annual regional initiative, coordinated by the World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe (WHO/Europe), to promote immunization against vaccine-preventable diseases. EIW activities are carried out by participating WHO/Europe member states.Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory: right|300px|thumb|Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory logo.WHO collaborating centres in occupational health: The WHO collaborating centres in occupational health constitute a network of institutions put in place by the World Health Organization to extend availability of occupational health coverage in both developed and undeveloped countries.Network of WHO Collaborating Centres in occupational health.Women's Health Initiative: The Women's Health Initiative (WHI) was initiated by the U.S.Closed-ended question: A closed-ended question is a question format that limits respondents with a list of answer choices from which they must choose to answer the question.Dillman D.Minati SenPsychiatric interview: The psychiatric interview refers to the set of tools that a mental health worker (most times a psychiatrist or a psychologist but at times social workers or nurses) uses to complete a psychiatric assessment.Eco-Runner Team Delft: Eco-Runner Team DelftSharon Regional Health System: Sharon Regional Health System is a profit health care service provider based in Sharon, Pennsylvania. Its main hospital is located in Sharon; additionally, the health system operates schools of nursing and radiography; a comprehensive pain management center across the street from its main hospital; clinics in nearby Mercer, Greenville, Hermitage, and Brookfield, Ohio; and Sharon Regional Medical Park in Hermitage.Resource leak: In computer science, a resource leak is a particular type of resource consumption by a computer program where the program does not release resources it has acquired. This condition is normally the result of a bug in a program.Climate change in Sweden: The issue of climate change has received significant public and political attention in Sweden and the mitigation of its effects has been high on the agenda of the two latest Governments of Sweden, the previous Cabinet of Göran Persson (-2006) and the current Cabinet of Fredrik Reinfeldt (2006-). Sweden aims for an energy supply system with zero net atmospheric greenhouse gas emissions by 2050.Standard evaluation frameworkHIV/AIDS in South African townships: South Africa’s HIV/AIDS epidemic, which is among the most severe in the world, is concentrated in its townships, where many black South Africans live due to the lingering effects of the Group Areas Act. A 2010 study revealed that HIV/AIDS infection in South Africa is distinctly divided along racial lines: 13.Integrated catchment management: Integrated catchment management is a subset of environmental planning which approaches sustainable resource management from a catchment perspective, in contrast to a piecemeal approach that artificially separates land management from water management.Opinion polling in the Philippine presidential election, 2010: Opinion polling (popularly known as surveys in the Philippines) for the 2010 Philippine presidential election is managed by two major polling firms: Social Weather Stations and Pulse Asia, and several minor polling firms. The polling firms conducted surveys both prior and after the deadline for filing of certificates of candidacies on December 1, 2009.Implementation research: Implementation research is the scientific study of methods to promote the uptake of research findings. Often research projects focus on small scale pilot studies or laboratory based experiments, and assume that findings can be generalised to roll out into a practice based domain with few changes.Maternal Health Task ForceEssex School of discourse analysis: The Essex School constitutes a variety of discourse analysis, one that combines theoretical sophistication – mainly due to its reliance on the post-structuralist and psychoanalytic traditions and, in particular, on the work of Lacan, Foucault, Barthes, Derrida, etc. – with analytical precision, since it focuses predominantly on an in-depth analysis of political discourses in late modernity.Richard Wells (nurse): Richard J. Wells CBE, RN, FRCN (1950–1993) was a British nurse, nursing adviser and health care administrator.Tamil Nadu Dr. M.G.R. Medical UniversityAustralian National BL classList of lighthouses in Spain: This is a list of lighthouses in Spain.Referral (medicine): In medicine, referral is the transfer of care for a patient from one clinician to another.García Olmos L, Gervas Camacho J, Otero A, Pérez Fernández M.National Cancer Research Institute: The National Cancer Research Institute (NCRI) is a UK-wide partnership between cancer research funders, which promotes collaboration in cancer research. Its member organizations work together to maximize the value and benefit of cancer research for the benefit of patients and the public.University of CampinasMental disorder

(1/8459) Nurses and nursing in primary medical care in England.

In 1974 we sent questionnaires on attachment and employment of nurses to 9214 general practices in England. There were 7863 replies (85%), of which 551 were excluded from the study. A total of 2654 nurses were directly employed by 24% (1774) of the practices, and 68% (4972) had attached nurses. Practices in health centres were larger and had greater nursing resources than those in other premises. We suggest that practices may employ nurses to compensate for ineffective nursing attachments, and we conclude that general-practice-employed nurses are becoming "professionalised".  (+info)

(2/8459) Clinical experience and choice of drug therapy for human immunodeficiency virus disease.

To determine if providers experienced in the management of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease preferred different treatment regimens than providers with less experience, we analyzed data from a national survey of primary care providers' preferred regimens for the management of 30 HIV-related medical conditions. We mailed questionnaires to 999 correct addresses of providers in > 20 cities in the United States in May 1996. We received 524 responses (response rate, 52%). We found a statistically significant association between the number of HIV-infected patients cared for by the provider and the likelihood that the provider would report prescribing highly active antiretroviral therapy and multidrug combinations for treatment of opportunistic infections. Providers with few HIV-infected patients were substantially less likely to report using new therapeutic regimens or new diagnostic tools. We concluded that the preferred regimens of experienced providers are more likely to be consistent with the latest information on treatment for HIV disease than are those of less experienced providers.  (+info)

(3/8459) The effect of race and sex on physicians' recommendations for cardiac catheterization.

BACKGROUND: Epidemiologic studies have reported differences in the use of cardiovascular procedures according to the race and sex of the patient. Whether the differences stem from differences in the recommendations of physicians remains uncertain. METHODS: We developed a computerized survey instrument to assess physicians' recommendations for managing chest pain. Actors portrayed patients with particular characteristics in scripted interviews about their symptoms. A total of 720 physicians at two national meetings of organizations of primary care physicians participated in the survey. Each physician viewed a recorded interview and was given other data about a hypothetical patient. He or she then made recommendations about that patient's care. We used multivariate logistic-regression analysis to assess the effects of the race and sex of the patients on treatment recommendations, while controlling for the physicians' assessment of the probability of coronary artery disease as well as for the age of the patient, the level of coronary risk, the type of chest pain, and the results of an exercise stress test. RESULTS: The physicians' mean (+/-SD) estimates of the probability of coronary artery disease were lower for women (probability, 64.1+/-19.3 percent, vs. 69.2+/-18.2 percent for men; P<0.001), younger patients (63.8+/-19.5 percent for patients who were 55 years old, vs. 69.5+/-17.9 percent for patients who were 70 years old; P<0.001), and patients with nonanginal pain (58.3+/-19.0 percent, vs. 64.4+/-18.3 percent for patients with possible angina and 77.1+/-14.0 percent for those with definite angina; P=0.001). Logistic-regression analysis indicated that women (odds ratio, 0.60; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.4 to 0.9; P=0.02) and blacks (odds ratio, 0.60; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.4 to 0.9; P=0.02) were less likely to be referred for cardiac catheterization than men and whites, respectively. Analysis of race-sex interactions showed that black women were significantly less likely to be referred for catheterization than white men (odds ratio, 0.4; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.2 to 0.7; P=0.004). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that the race and sex of a patient independently influence how physicians manage chest pain.  (+info)

(4/8459) Record linkage as a research tool for office-based medical care.

OBJECTIVE: To explore the feasibility of linking records to study health services and health outcomes for primary care patients. DESIGN: A cohort of patients from the Family Medicine Centre at Mount Sinai Hospital was assembled from the clinic's billing records. Their health numbers were linked to the Ontario Hospital Discharge Database. The pattern of hospital admission rates was investigated using International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes for primary discharge diagnosis. A pilot case-control study of risk factor management for stroke was nested in the cohort. SETTING: Family medicine clinic based in a teaching hospital. PARTICIPANTS: A cohort of 19,654 Family Medicine Centre patients seen at least once since 1991. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Admission rates by age, sex, and diagnosis. Numbers of admissions for individual patients, time to readmission, and length of stay. Odds ratios for admission for cerebrovascular disease. RESULTS: The 19,654 patients in the cohort had 14,299 discharges from Ontario hospitals in the 4 years from 1992 to 1995, including 3832 discharges following childbirth. Some patients had many discharges: 4816 people accounted for the 10,467 admissions excluding childbirth. Excluding transfers between institutions, there were 4975 readmissions to hospital during the 4 years, 1392 (28%) of them within 28 days of previous discharge. Admissions for mental disorders accounted for the greatest number of days in hospital. The pilot study of risk factor management suggested that acetylsalicylic acid therapy might not be effective for elderly primary care patients with atrial fibrillation and that calcium channel blocker therapy might be less effective than other therapies for preventing cerebrovascular disease in hypertensive primary care patients. CONCLUSIONS: Record linkage combined with data collection by chart review or interview is a useful method for studying the effectiveness of medical care in Canada and might suggest interesting hypotheses for further investigation.  (+info)

(5/8459) Explicit guidelines for qualitative research: a step in the right direction, a defence of the 'soft' option, or a form of sociological imperialism?

Within the context of health service research, qualitative research has sometimes been seen as a 'soft' approach, lacking scientific rigour. In order to promote the legitimacy of using qualitative methodology in this field, numerous social scientists have produced checklists, guidelines or manuals for researchers to follow when conducting and writing up qualitative work. However, those working in the health service should be aware that social scientists are not all in agreement about the way in which qualitative work should be conducted, and they should not be discouraged from conducting qualitative research simply because they do not possess certain technical skills or extensive training in sociology, anthropology or psychology. The proliferation of guidelines and checklists may be off-putting to people who want to undertake this sort of research, and they may also make it even more difficult for researchers to publish work in medical journals. Consequently, the very people who may be in a position to change medical practice may never read the results of important qualitative research.  (+info)

(6/8459) Restructuring the primary health care services and changing profile of family physicians in Turkey.

A new health-reform process has been initiated by Ministry of Health in Turkey. The aim of that reform is to improve the health status of the Turkish population and to provide health care to all citizens in an efficient and equitable manner. The restructuring of the current health system will allow more funds to be allocated to primary and preventive care and will create a managed market for secondary and tertiary care. In this article, we review the current and proposed primary care services models and the role of family physicians therein.  (+info)

(7/8459) Physician management in primary care.

Minimal explicit consensus criteria in the management of patients with four indicator conditions were established by an ad hoc committee of primary care physicians practicing in different locations. These criteria were then applied to the practices of primary care physicians located in a single community by abstracting medical records and obtaining questionnaire data about patients with the indicator conditions. A standardized management score for each physician was used as the dependent variable in stepwise regression analysis with physician/practice and patient/disease characteristics as the candidate independent variables. For all physicians combined, the mean management scores were high, ranging from .78 to .93 for the four conditions. For two of the conditions, care of the normal infant and pregnant woman, the management scores were better for pediatricians and obstetricians respectively than for family physicians. For the other two conditions, adult onset diabetes and congestive heart failure, there were no differences between the management scores of family physicians and internists. Patient/disease characteristics did not contribute significantly to explaining the variation in the standardized management scores.  (+info)

(8/8459) Provision of primary care by office-based rheumatologists: results from the National Ambulatory Medical Care Surveys, 1991-1995.

OBJECTIVE: To determine the extent to which office-based rheumatologists provide primary care to patients without rheumatic diseases or provide principal care to patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS: The National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey was used to determine national probability estimates of the nature and types of conditions treated by office-based rheumatologists in 1991-1995. At each of 1,074 patient visits, the rheumatologists recorded up to 3 diagnoses and 3 patient-reported reasons for the visit, as well as information on the treatments provided at the visit. RESULTS: In only 9.8% of new consultations and 11.9% of return visits was neither a rheumatic disease diagnosis nor a musculoskeletal complaint recorded, indicating that the rheumatologist was likely acting as a primary care provider at a minority of patient visits. Among continuing patients with RA, the patient's primary reason for the visit was something other than a musculoskeletal complaint in only 9.9% of visits, and any nonrheumatic complaint was recorded in 30.4% of visits, indicating that at only some visits was the rheumatologist acting as the principal caregiver. In addition, only 31.1% of visits included the provision of medication for a nonrheumatic condition. CONCLUSION: In 1991-1995, most visits to rheumatologists involved the provision of specialized or consultative care to patients with rheumatic diseases or musculoskeletal complaints, and few visits were made by patients without either indication. Provision of principal care by rheumatologists to patients with RA is not currently widespread.  (+info)



reform


  • 1996 Benchmarks of Fairness for Health Care Reform - Oxford University Press. (slideserve.com)
  • Most U.S. doctors believe that healthcare reform will increase use of public health insurance programs but will not reduce costs, according to results from a survey of 500 physicians by the Deloitte Center for Health Solutions. (medpagetoday.com)
  • In addition, most of the survey respondents said they believe that healthcare reform will hurt their incomes and are pessimistic about the future of the medical profession. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Doctors don't have a rosy view of the future of medicine: seven out of 10 surveyed said they think healthcare reform will make potential doctors reconsider entering the field of medicine. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Healthcare reform is a hot topic right now. (payscale.com)
  • The World at Work and SHRM national conferences this year were full of sessions on healthcare reform. (payscale.com)
  • Most presentations emphasized that healthcare reform is a golden opportunity for HR to rise up as a strategic leader in a company. (payscale.com)
  • Why Is HR Hiding from Healthcare Reform? (payscale.com)
  • But, you have to be prepared to lead the conversations and understand the impact of healthcare reform on your business. (payscale.com)
  • Some of you are already learning what healthcare reform is and what impact it could have on your organization. (payscale.com)
  • The good news is that healthcare reform has helped HR by making employees aware of the value of their total rewards package. (payscale.com)

Behavior


  • These studies, generally known as Health Behavior in School-Aged Children (HBSC), are based on nationally independent surveys of school-aged children in as many as 30 participating countries. (umich.edu)
  • The study also examines a person's health and health behaviors such as eating habits, depression, injuries, anti-social behavior including questions concerning bullying, fighting, using weapons, and how one deals with anger. (umich.edu)
  • Also included are questions regarding child behavior, the use of mental health services, and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). (umich.edu)

behaviors


  • Since 1982, the World Health Organization (WHO) Regional Office for Europe has sponsored a cross-national, school-based study of health-related attitudes and behaviors of young people. (umich.edu)
  • The first objective is to monitor health-risk behaviors and attitudes in youth over time to provide background and identify targets for health promotion initiatives. (umich.edu)
  • The second objective is to provide researchers with relevant information to understand and explain the development of health attitudes and behaviors through early adolescence. (umich.edu)
  • A randomly-selected adult in each family was interviewed for the Sample Adult File (Part 4) regarding respiratory conditions, renal conditions, AIDS, joint symptoms, health status, limitation of daily activities, and behaviors such as smoking, alcohol consumption, and physical activity. (umich.edu)

Specialists


  • On the topic of salary, specialists said their pay should be 30% higher than what primary care specialists are paid, but primary care physicians don't think the pay difference should be that much. (medpagetoday.com)

disability


  • The purpose of the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) is to obtain information about the amount and distribution of illness, its effects in terms of disability and chronic impairments, and the kinds of health services people receive. (umich.edu)
  • 1 Neuropsychiatric disorders contribute significantly to disability and health care cost in society, 2 and rank third in their contribution to burden of disease in SA. (scielo.org.za)

Administrative


  • Medical managers in 49 'designated' hospitals in KwaZulu-Natal (KZN) were surveyed on infrastructure, staffing, administrative requirements and mental health care user case load pertaining to the Act for the month of July 2009. (scielo.org.za)

public health


  • 1 Mental health was a low priority on South Africa's public health agenda, the lack of an action plan being one of the shortcomings. (scielo.org.za)

people


  • As part of the European project VINTAGE, a systematic review of scientific literature was undertaken to document the evidence base on the impact of alcohol on the health and well-being of older people, and on effective policies and preventive approaches to face the problem in this steadily increasing segment of the population. (scielosp.org)
  • As the 2009 council of the European Union conclusions on Alcohol and Health noted , there are a number of reasons to consider reviewing the impact of alcohol on older people in the European Union (EU) and what can be done about it [4, (scielosp.org)
  • First, much less is known about the health, social and economic impacts of alcohol use in older people compared to younger adults. (scielosp.org)
  • Research suggests that older people might be more sensitive to alcohol's negative health effects compared to younger adults, which could mean that more harm results from equivalent amounts of consumption by older people. (scielosp.org)
  • Health promotion is the process of enabling people to increase control over, and improve, their health. (naspa.org)
  • In terms of what changes the ACA likely would bring, physicians responded that in addition to increasing enrollment in Medicare and Medicaid, the law will mean that more people will seek care in emergency rooms because there won't be enough primary care physicians to treat newly insured patients. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Media attention on this healthcare debate helps people be aware of what is at stake. (payscale.com)

adequate


  • 3 To ensure adequate access and treatment for mental health care users (MHCUs), human, social and financial resources are necessary. (scielo.org.za)

Practices


  • This report contains CDC guidance that augments the 2011 recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) for evaluating hepatitis B protection among health-care personnel (HCP) and administering post-exposure prophylaxis. (cdc.gov)

mental health s


  • 6 Scarce resources, inequity of distribution and inefficiency of resource use characterise mental health services in low- and middle-income countries. (scielo.org.za)
  • Historically, mental health services in KwaZulu-Natal (KZN) had been centred on a few large mental hospitals and stand-alone clinics. (scielo.org.za)
  • 50 (70.4%) of the district and regional hospitals have been designated to provide mental health services and admit involuntary and assisted MHCUs for 72-hour observations. (scielo.org.za)

access


  • Included in the 1999 NHIS are periodic questions that provide additional detail on topics such as Adult Conditions (ACN), Adult Access and Utilization (AAU), Child Conditions, Limitation of Activity and Health Status (CHS), and Child Access and Utilization (CAU). (umich.edu)

promotion


  • The 2018 NASPA Well-being and Health Promotion Leadership Conference will provide student affairs practitioners with the knowledge and skills to effectively address college student health and well-being through a variety of integrative approaches. (naspa.org)
  • The NASPA Well-being and Health Promotion Leadership Conference will build attendees' knowledge and capacity around creating a culture of health and well-being, and inform future planning at institutions of higher education. (naspa.org)

costs


  • A total of 85% of respondents said they felt that enrollment in Medicare and Medicaid would increase as a result of the Affordable Care Act (ACA), but just 27% said they thought the law would decrease healthcare costs. (medpagetoday.com)
  • When asked about what is the main factor driving up healthcare costs, most doctors pegged "unhealthy lifestyles" of patients as the main culprit, followed by the fear of lawsuits leading to physicians practicing defensive medicine, followed by insurance company costs, hospital costs, and the cost of prescription drugs. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Not the cost of anything else, but the cost of labor and, specifically, how it relates to healthcare costs. (payscale.com)
  • Let's make it clear that the 7 percent raise in healthcare costs that the company absorbs, plus a 3 percent base salary raise, is really like an 10 percent raise overall. (payscale.com)

insurance


  • Many workers have had to go without healthcare insurance because they were unemployed or have paid COBRA rates. (payscale.com)

make


  • But, if you are an HR professional, you need to get educated and prepare to take the lead on your company's attempt to make sense of healthcare. (payscale.com)

treat


  • The South African Mental Health Care Act (the Act) No. 17 of 2002 stipulated that regional and district hospitals be designated to admit, observe and treat mental health care users (MHCUs) for 72 hours before they are transferred to a psychiatric hospital. (scielo.org.za)

services


  • United States Department of Health and Human Services. (umich.edu)

system


  • A total of 60% of respondents gave the U.S. healthcare system a grade of "C" or "D" overall, but they were split over whether the ACA is the way to fix the system (about 44% said the law is a good start, while another 44% said it's a step in the wrong direction, and 12% said they weren't sure). (medpagetoday.com)

Department


  • 10 In KZN, 0.03% of the total health budget is spent on mental health, a figure that has not increased in the last decade (personal communication, KZN Department of Health). (scielo.org.za)

total


  • 4 Internationally, 32% of 191 countries surveyed did not have a specified budget for mental health, 5 and 36% of countries spent less than 1% of their total health budgets on mental health. (scielo.org.za)

budget


  • In one of the SHRM sessions I lead on compensation, one of the questions from the audience was, "How do you deal with the fact that your overall salary budget increase amount is 3 percent and healthcare is rising 7 percent? (payscale.com)

family


  • As part of the basic module, the Person-Level File (Part 3) provides information on all family members with respect to health status, limitation of daily activities, cognitive impairment, and health conditions. (umich.edu)
  • Probably not because employees are struggling with bigger concerns, like taking care of their family. (payscale.com)