Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Pregnancy Outcome: Results of conception and ensuing pregnancy, including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; SPONTANEOUS ABORTION; INDUCED ABORTION. The outcome may follow natural or artificial insemination or any of the various ASSISTED REPRODUCTIVE TECHNIQUES, such as EMBRYO TRANSFER or FERTILIZATION IN VITRO.Pregnancy Complications: Conditions or pathological processes associated with pregnancy. They can occur during or after pregnancy, and range from minor discomforts to serious diseases that require medical interventions. They include diseases in pregnant females, and pregnancies in females with diseases.Pregnancy, Animal: The process of bearing developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero in non-human mammals, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Pregnancy, Ectopic: A potentially life-threatening condition in which EMBRYO IMPLANTATION occurs outside the cavity of the UTERUS. Most ectopic pregnancies (>96%) occur in the FALLOPIAN TUBES, known as TUBAL PREGNANCY. They can be in other locations, such as UTERINE CERVIX; OVARY; and abdominal cavity (PREGNANCY, ABDOMINAL).Pregnancy Trimester, First: The beginning third of a human PREGNANCY, from the first day of the last normal menstrual period (MENSTRUATION) through the completion of 14 weeks (98 days) of gestation.Pregnancy Rate: The ratio of the number of conceptions (CONCEPTION) including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; and fetal losses, to the mean number of females of reproductive age in a population during a set time period.Pregnancy Trimester, Third: The last third of a human PREGNANCY, from the beginning of the 29th through the 42nd completed week (197 to 294 days) of gestation.Pregnancy Complications, Cardiovascular: The co-occurrence of pregnancy and a cardiovascular disease. The disease may precede or follow FERTILIZATION and it may or may not have a deleterious effect on the pregnant woman or FETUS.Pregnancy Trimesters: The three approximately equal periods of a normal human PREGNANCY. Each trimester is about three months or 13 to 14 weeks in duration depending on the designation of the first day of gestation.Pregnancy Tests: Tests to determine whether or not an individual is pregnant.Pregnancy, Multiple: The condition of carrying two or more FETUSES simultaneously.Pregnancy in Diabetics: The state of PREGNANCY in women with DIABETES MELLITUS. This does not include either symptomatic diabetes or GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE induced by pregnancy (DIABETES, GESTATIONAL) which resolves at the end of pregnancy.Pregnancy, Tubal: The most common (>96%) type of ectopic pregnancy in which the extrauterine EMBRYO IMPLANTATION occurs in the FALLOPIAN TUBE, usually in the ampullary region where FERTILIZATION takes place.Pregnancy Trimester, Second: The middle third of a human PREGNANCY, from the beginning of the 15th through the 28th completed week (99 to 196 days) of gestation.Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic: The co-occurrence of pregnancy and NEOPLASMS. The neoplastic disease may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.Pregnancy in Adolescence: Pregnancy in human adolescent females under the age of 19.Pregnancy Complications, Infectious: The co-occurrence of pregnancy and an INFECTION. The infection may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.Abortion, Spontaneous: Expulsion of the product of FERTILIZATION before completing the term of GESTATION and without deliberate interference.Pregnancy Proteins: Proteins produced by organs of the mother or the PLACENTA during PREGNANCY. These proteins may be pregnancy-specific (present only during pregnancy) or pregnancy-associated (present during pregnancy or under other conditions such as hormone therapy or certain malignancies.)Pregnancy, Unplanned: Unintended accidental pregnancy, including pregnancy resulting from failed contraceptive measures.Pregnancy, High-Risk: Pregnancy in which the mother and/or FETUS are at greater than normal risk of MORBIDITY or MORTALITY. Causes include inadequate PRENATAL CARE, previous obstetrical history (ABORTION, SPONTANEOUS), pre-existing maternal disease, pregnancy-induced disease (GESTATIONAL HYPERTENSION), and MULTIPLE PREGNANCY, as well as advanced maternal age above 35.Pregnancy, Unwanted: Pregnancy, usually accidental, that is not desired by the parent or parents.Gestational Age: The age of the conceptus, beginning from the time of FERTILIZATION. In clinical obstetrics, the gestational age is often estimated as the time from the last day of the last MENSTRUATION which is about 2 weeks before OVULATION and fertilization.Pregnancy Complications, Hematologic: The co-occurrence of pregnancy and a blood disease (HEMATOLOGIC DISEASES) which involves BLOOD CELLS or COAGULATION FACTORS. The hematologic disease may precede or follow FERTILIZATION and it may or may not have a deleterious effect on the pregnant woman or FETUS.Pregnancy, Prolonged: A term used to describe pregnancies that exceed the upper limit of a normal gestational period. In humans, a prolonged pregnancy is defined as one that extends beyond 42 weeks (294 days) after the first day of the last menstrual period (MENSTRUATION), or birth with gestational age of 41 weeks or more.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Pre-Eclampsia: A complication of PREGNANCY, characterized by a complex of symptoms including maternal HYPERTENSION and PROTEINURIA with or without pathological EDEMA. Symptoms may range between mild and severe. Pre-eclampsia usually occurs after the 20th week of gestation, but may develop before this time in the presence of trophoblastic disease.Pregnancy, Twin: The condition of carrying TWINS simultaneously.Placenta: A highly vascularized mammalian fetal-maternal organ and major site of transport of oxygen, nutrients, and fetal waste products. It includes a fetal portion (CHORIONIC VILLI) derived from TROPHOBLASTS and a maternal portion (DECIDUA) derived from the uterine ENDOMETRIUM. The placenta produces an array of steroid, protein and peptide hormones (PLACENTAL HORMONES).Fetal Death: Death of the developing young in utero. BIRTH of a dead FETUS is STILLBIRTH.Abortion, Induced: Intentional removal of a fetus from the uterus by any of a number of techniques. (POPLINE, 1978)Pregnancy, Abdominal: A type of ectopic pregnancy in which the EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN implants in the ABDOMINAL CAVITY instead of in the ENDOMETRIUM of the UTERUS.Uterus: The hollow thick-walled muscular organ in the female PELVIS. It consists of the fundus (the body) which is the site of EMBRYO IMPLANTATION and FETAL DEVELOPMENT. Beyond the isthmus at the perineal end of fundus, is CERVIX UTERI (the neck) opening into VAGINA. Beyond the isthmi at the upper abdominal end of fundus, are the FALLOPIAN TUBES.Pregnancy Complications, Parasitic: The co-occurrence of pregnancy and parasitic diseases. The parasitic infection may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.Pregnancy Maintenance: Physiological mechanisms that sustain the state of PREGNANCY.Ultrasonography, Prenatal: The visualization of tissues during pregnancy through recording of the echoes of ultrasonic waves directed into the body. The procedure may be applied with reference to the mother or the fetus and with reference to organs or the detection of maternal or fetal disease.Embryo Implantation: Endometrial implantation of EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN at the BLASTOCYST stage.Embryo Transfer: The transfer of mammalian embryos from an in vivo or in vitro environment to a suitable host to improve pregnancy or gestational outcome in human or animal. In human fertility treatment programs, preimplantation embryos ranging from the 4-cell stage to the blastocyst stage are transferred to the uterine cavity between 3-5 days after FERTILIZATION IN VITRO.Prenatal Care: Care provided the pregnant woman in order to prevent complications, and decrease the incidence of maternal and prenatal mortality.Fertilization in Vitro: An assisted reproductive technique that includes the direct handling and manipulation of oocytes and sperm to achieve fertilization in vitro.Maternal-Fetal Exchange: Exchange of substances between the maternal blood and the fetal blood at the PLACENTA via PLACENTAL CIRCULATION. The placental barrier excludes microbial or viral transmission.Parity: The number of offspring a female has borne. It is contrasted with GRAVIDITY, which refers to the number of pregnancies, regardless of outcome.Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects: The consequences of exposing the FETUS in utero to certain factors, such as NUTRITION PHYSIOLOGICAL PHENOMENA; PHYSIOLOGICAL STRESS; DRUGS; RADIATION; and other physical or chemical factors. These consequences are observed later in the offspring after BIRTH.Birth Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual at BIRTH. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Pregnancy Reduction, Multifetal: Selective abortion of one or more embryos or fetuses in a multiple gestation pregnancy. The usual goal is to improve the outcome for the remaining embryos or fetuses.Maternal Age: The age of the mother in PREGNANCY.Hypertension, Pregnancy-Induced: A condition in pregnant women with elevated systolic (>140 mm Hg) and diastolic (>90 mm Hg) blood pressure on at least two occasions 6 h apart. HYPERTENSION complicates 8-10% of all pregnancies, generally after 20 weeks of gestation. Gestational hypertension can be divided into several broad categories according to the complexity and associated symptoms, such as EDEMA; PROTEINURIA; SEIZURES; abnormalities in BLOOD COAGULATION and liver functions.Cesarean Section: Extraction of the FETUS by means of abdominal HYSTEROTOMY.Fetal Growth Retardation: The failure of a FETUS to attain its expected FETAL GROWTH at any GESTATIONAL AGE.Progesterone: The major progestational steroid that is secreted primarily by the CORPUS LUTEUM and the PLACENTA. Progesterone acts on the UTERUS, the MAMMARY GLANDS and the BRAIN. It is required in EMBRYO IMPLANTATION; PREGNANCY maintenance, and the development of mammary tissue for MILK production. Progesterone, converted from PREGNENOLONE, also serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.Premature Birth: CHILDBIRTH before 37 weeks of PREGNANCY (259 days from the first day of the mother's last menstrual period, or 245 days after FERTILIZATION).Infertility, Female: Diminished or absent ability of a female to achieve conception.Abnormalities, Drug-Induced: Congenital abnormalities caused by medicinal substances or drugs of abuse given to or taken by the mother, or to which she is inadvertently exposed during the manufacture of such substances. The concept excludes abnormalities resulting from exposure to non-medicinal chemicals in the environment.Lactation: The processes of milk secretion by the maternal MAMMARY GLANDS after PARTURITION. The proliferation of the mammary glandular tissue, milk synthesis, and milk expulsion or let down are regulated by the interactions of several hormones including ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; PROLACTIN; and OXYTOCIN.Fetal Development: Morphological and physiological development of FETUSES.Decidua: The hormone-responsive glandular layer of ENDOMETRIUM that sloughs off at each menstrual flow (decidua menstrualis) or at the termination of pregnancy. During pregnancy, the thickest part of the decidua forms the maternal portion of the PLACENTA, thus named decidua placentalis. The thin portion of the decidua covering the rest of the embryo is the decidua capsularis.Fetus: The unborn young of a viviparous mammal, in the postembryonic period, after the major structures have been outlined. In humans, the unborn young from the end of the eighth week after CONCEPTION until BIRTH, as distinguished from the earlier EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Labor, Obstetric: The repetitive uterine contraction during childbirth which is associated with the progressive dilation of the uterine cervix (CERVIX UTERI). Successful labor results in the expulsion of the FETUS and PLACENTA. Obstetric labor can be spontaneous or induced (LABOR, INDUCED).Obstetric Labor, Premature: Onset of OBSTETRIC LABOR before term (TERM BIRTH) but usually after the FETUS has become viable. In humans, it occurs sometime during the 29th through 38th week of PREGNANCY. TOCOLYSIS inhibits premature labor and can prevent the BIRTH of premature infants (INFANT, PREMATURE).Congenital Abnormalities: Malformations of organs or body parts during development in utero.Twins: Two individuals derived from two FETUSES that were fertilized at or about the same time, developed in the UTERUS simultaneously, and born to the same mother. Twins are either monozygotic (TWINS, MONOZYGOTIC) or dizygotic (TWINS, DIZYGOTIC).Prenatal Diagnosis: Determination of the nature of a pathological condition or disease in the postimplantation EMBRYO; FETUS; or pregnant female before birth.Maternal Exposure: Exposure of the female parent, human or animal, to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals that may affect offspring. It includes pre-conception maternal exposure.Chorionic Gonadotropin: A gonadotropic glycoprotein hormone produced primarily by the PLACENTA. Similar to the pituitary LUTEINIZING HORMONE in structure and function, chorionic gonadotropin is involved in maintaining the CORPUS LUTEUM during pregnancy. CG consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is virtually identical to the alpha subunits of the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity (CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN, BETA SUBUNIT, HUMAN).Diabetes, Gestational: Diabetes mellitus induced by PREGNANCY but resolved at the end of pregnancy. It does not include previously diagnosed diabetics who become pregnant (PREGNANCY IN DIABETICS). Gestational diabetes usually develops in late pregnancy when insulin antagonistic hormones peaks leading to INSULIN RESISTANCE; GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; and HYPERGLYCEMIA.Abortion, Therapeutic: Abortion induced to save the life or health of a pregnant woman. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Trophoblasts: Cells lining the outside of the BLASTOCYST. After binding to the ENDOMETRIUM, trophoblasts develop into two distinct layers, an inner layer of mononuclear cytotrophoblasts and an outer layer of continuous multinuclear cytoplasm, the syncytiotrophoblasts, which form the early fetal-maternal interface (PLACENTA).Abortion, Habitual: Three or more consecutive spontaneous abortions.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Abortifacient Agents, Nonsteroidal: Non-steroidal chemical compounds with abortifacient activity.Insemination, Artificial: Artificial introduction of SEMEN or SPERMATOZOA into the VAGINA to facilitate FERTILIZATION.Delivery, Obstetric: Delivery of the FETUS and PLACENTA under the care of an obstetrician or a health worker. Obstetric deliveries may involve physical, psychological, medical, or surgical interventions.Fetal Diseases: Pathophysiological conditions of the FETUS in the UTERUS. Some fetal diseases may be treated with FETAL THERAPIES.Puerperal Disorders: Disorders or diseases associated with PUERPERIUM, the six-to-eight-week period immediately after PARTURITION in humans.Endometrium: The mucous membrane lining of the uterine cavity that is hormonally responsive during the MENSTRUAL CYCLE and PREGNANCY. The endometrium undergoes cyclic changes that characterize MENSTRUATION. After successful FERTILIZATION, it serves to sustain the developing embryo.Sperm Injections, Intracytoplasmic: An assisted fertilization technique consisting of the microinjection of a single viable sperm into an extracted ovum. It is used principally to overcome low sperm count, low sperm motility, inability of sperm to penetrate the egg, or other conditions related to male infertility (INFERTILITY, MALE).Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Fertility: The capacity to conceive or to induce conception. It may refer to either the male or female.Infant, Low Birth Weight: An infant having a birth weight of 2500 gm. (5.5 lb.) or less but INFANT, VERY LOW BIRTH WEIGHT is available for infants having a birth weight of 1500 grams (3.3 lb.) or less.Preconception Care: An organized and comprehensive program of health care that identifies and reduces a woman's reproductive risks before conception through risk assessment, health promotion, and interventions. Preconception care programs may be designed to include the male partner in providing counseling and educational information in preparation for fatherhood, such as genetic counseling and testing, financial and family planning, etc. This concept is different from PRENATAL CARE, which occurs during pregnancy.Placenta Diseases: Pathological processes or abnormal functions of the PLACENTA.Amniotic Fluid: A clear, yellowish liquid that envelopes the FETUS inside the sac of AMNION. In the first trimester, it is likely a transudate of maternal or fetal plasma. In the second trimester, amniotic fluid derives primarily from fetal lung and kidney. Cells or substances in this fluid can be removed for prenatal diagnostic tests (AMNIOCENTESIS).Infertility: Inability to reproduce after a specified period of unprotected intercourse. Reproductive sterility is permanent infertility.Pregnant Women: Human females who are pregnant, as cultural, psychological, or sociological entities.Stillbirth: The event that a FETUS is born dead or stillborn.Gravidity: The number of pregnancies, complete or incomplete, experienced by a female. It is different from PARITY, which is the number of offspring borne. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Reproductive Techniques, Assisted: Clinical and laboratory techniques used to enhance fertility in humans and animals.Chorionic Gonadotropin, beta Subunit, Human: The beta subunit of human CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN. Its structure is similar to the beta subunit of LUTEINIZING HORMONE, except for the additional 30 amino acids at the carboxy end with the associated carbohydrate residues. HCG-beta is used as a diagnostic marker for early detection of pregnancy, spontaneous abortion (ABORTION, SPONTANEOUS); ECTOPIC PREGNANCY; HYDATIDIFORM MOLE; CHORIOCARCINOMA; or DOWN SYNDROME.Parturition: The process of giving birth to one or more offspring.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Maternal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutrition of a mother which affects the health of the FETUS and INFANT as well as herself.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Ovulation Induction: Techniques for the artifical induction of ovulation, the rupture of the follicle and release of the ovum.Pregnancy Tests, Immunologic: Methods of detecting pregnancy by examining the levels of human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) in plasma or urine.Live Birth: The event that a FETUS is born alive with heartbeats or RESPIRATION regardless of GESTATIONAL AGE. Such liveborn is called a newborn infant (INFANT, NEWBORN).Myometrium: The smooth muscle coat of the uterus, which forms the main mass of the organ.Abortion, Legal: Termination of pregnancy under conditions allowed under local laws. (POPLINE Thesaurus, 1991)Placental Circulation: The circulation of BLOOD, of both the mother and the FETUS, through the PLACENTA.Contraception: Prevention of CONCEPTION by blocking fertility temporarily, or permanently (STERILIZATION, REPRODUCTIVE). Common means of reversible contraception include NATURAL FAMILY PLANNING METHODS; CONTRACEPTIVE AGENTS; or CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES.Prenatal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutrition of FEMALE during PREGNANCY.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Abortion, Threatened: UTERINE BLEEDING from a GESTATION of less than 20 weeks without any CERVICAL DILATATION. It is characterized by vaginal bleeding, lower back discomfort, or midline pelvic cramping and a risk factor for MISCARRIAGE.Hydatidiform Mole: Trophoblastic hyperplasia associated with normal gestation, or molar pregnancy. It is characterized by the swelling of the CHORIONIC VILLI and elevated human CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN. Hydatidiform moles or molar pregnancy may be categorized as complete or partial based on their gross morphology, histopathology, and karyotype.Infant, Small for Gestational Age: An infant having a birth weight lower than expected for its gestational age.Triplets: Three individuals derived from three FETUSES that were fertilized at or about the same time, developed in the UTERUS simultaneously, and born to the same mother.Uterine Hemorrhage: Bleeding from blood vessels in the UTERUS, sometimes manifested as vaginal bleeding.Placentation: The development of the PLACENTA, a highly vascularized mammalian fetal-maternal organ and major site of transport of oxygen, nutrients, and fetal waste products between mother and FETUS. The process begins at FERTILIZATION, through the development of CYTOTROPHOBLASTS and SYNCYTIOTROPHOBLASTS, the formation of CHORIONIC VILLI, to the progressive increase in BLOOD VESSELS to support the growing fetus.Reproductive Techniques: Methods pertaining to the generation of new individuals, including techniques used in selective BREEDING, cloning (CLONING, ORGANISM), and assisted reproduction (REPRODUCTIVE TECHNIQUES, ASSISTED).Mothers: Female parents, human or animal.Uterine Artery: A branch arising from the internal iliac artery in females, that supplies blood to the uterus.Abortifacient Agents: Chemical substances that interrupt pregnancy after implantation.Fetal Resorption: The disintegration and assimilation of the dead FETUS in the UTERUS at any stage after the completion of organogenesis which, in humans, is after the 9th week of GESTATION. It does not include embryo resorption (see EMBRYO LOSS).Contraception Behavior: Behavior patterns of those practicing CONTRACEPTION.Corpus Luteum: The yellow body derived from the ruptured OVARIAN FOLLICLE after OVULATION. The process of corpus luteum formation, LUTEINIZATION, is regulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE.Estradiol: The 17-beta-isomer of estradiol, an aromatized C18 steroid with hydroxyl group at 3-beta- and 17-beta-position. Estradiol-17-beta is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids.Oocyte Donation: Transfer of preovulatory oocytes from donor to a suitable host. Oocytes are collected, fertilized in vitro, and transferred to a host that can be human or animal.Chorionic Villi: The threadlike, vascular projections of the chorion. Chorionic villi may be free or embedded within the DECIDUA forming the site for exchange of substances between fetal and maternal blood (PLACENTA).Embryonic and Fetal Development: Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS or FETUSES.Maternal Welfare: Organized efforts by communities or organizations to improve the health and well-being of the mother.Hyperemesis Gravidarum: Intractable VOMITING that develops in early PREGNANCY and persists. This can lead to DEHYDRATION and WEIGHT LOSS.Estrus: The period in the ESTROUS CYCLE associated with maximum sexual receptivity and fertility in non-primate female mammals.Fetal Weight: The weight of the FETUS in utero. It is usually estimated by various formulas based on measurements made during PRENATAL ULTRASONOGRAPHY.Eclampsia: Onset of HYPERREFLEXIA; SEIZURES; or COMA in a previously diagnosed pre-eclamptic patient (PRE-ECLAMPSIA).Amniocentesis: Percutaneous transabdominal puncture of the uterus during pregnancy to obtain amniotic fluid. It is commonly used for fetal karyotype determination in order to diagnose abnormal fetal conditions.Family Planning Services: Health care programs or services designed to assist individuals in the planning of family size. Various methods of CONTRACEPTION can be used to control the number and timing of childbirths.Obstetric Labor Complications: Medical problems associated with OBSTETRIC LABOR, such as BREECH PRESENTATION; PREMATURE OBSTETRIC LABOR; HEMORRHAGE; or others. These complications can affect the well-being of the mother, the FETUS, or both.Fetal Blood: Blood of the fetus. Exchange of nutrients and waste between the fetal and maternal blood occurs via the PLACENTA. The cord blood is blood contained in the umbilical vessels (UMBILICAL CORD) at the time of delivery.Abortion, Missed: The retention in the UTERUS of a dead FETUS two months or more after its DEATH.Fallopian Tubes: A pair of highly specialized muscular canals extending from the UTERUS to its corresponding OVARY. They provide the means for OVUM collection, and the site for the final maturation of gametes and FERTILIZATION. The fallopian tube consists of an interstitium, an isthmus, an ampulla, an infundibulum, and fimbriae. Its wall consists of three histologic layers: serous, muscular, and an internal mucosal layer lined with both ciliated and secretory cells.Cryopreservation: Preservation of cells, tissues, organs, or embryos by freezing. In histological preparations, cryopreservation or cryofixation is used to maintain the existing form, structure, and chemical composition of all the constituent elements of the specimens.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Crown-Rump Length: In utero measurement corresponding to the sitting height (crown to rump) of the fetus. Length is considered a more accurate criterion of the age of the fetus than is the weight. The average crown-rump length of the fetus at term is 36 cm. (From Williams Obstetrics, 18th ed, p91)Fetal Macrosomia: A condition of fetal overgrowth leading to a large-for-gestational-age FETUS. It is defined as BIRTH WEIGHT greater than 4,000 grams or above the 90th percentile for population and sex-specific growth curves. It is commonly seen in GESTATIONAL DIABETES; PROLONGED PREGNANCY; and pregnancies complicated by pre-existing diabetes mellitus.HELLP Syndrome: A syndrome of HEMOLYSIS, elevated liver ENZYMES, and low blood platelets count (THROMBOCYTOPENIA). HELLP syndrome is observed in pregnant women with PRE-ECLAMPSIA or ECLAMPSIA who also exhibit LIVER damage and abnormalities in BLOOD COAGULATION.Fetal Monitoring: Physiologic or biochemical monitoring of the fetus. It is usually done during LABOR, OBSTETRIC and may be performed in conjunction with the monitoring of uterine activity. It may also be performed prenatally as when the mother is undergoing surgery.Birth Rate: The number of births in a given population per year or other unit of time.Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical: The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens from one generation to another. It includes transmission in utero or intrapartum by exposure to blood and secretions, and postpartum exposure via breastfeeding.Estriol: A hydroxylated metabolite of ESTRADIOL or ESTRONE that has a hydroxyl group at C3, 16-alpha, and 17-beta position. Estriol is a major urinary estrogen. During PREGNANCY, a large amount of estriol is produced by the PLACENTA. Isomers with inversion of the hydroxyl group or groups are called epiestriol.Ovary: The reproductive organ (GONADS) in female animals. In vertebrates, the ovary contains two functional parts: the OVARIAN FOLLICLE for the production of female germ cells (OOGENESIS); and the endocrine cells (GRANULOSA CELLS; THECA CELLS; and LUTEAL CELLS) for the production of ESTROGENS and PROGESTERONE.Pseudopregnancy: An acyclic state that resembles PREGNANCY in that there is no ovarian cycle, ESTROUS CYCLE, or MENSTRUAL CYCLE. Unlike pregnancy, there is no EMBRYO IMPLANTATION. Pseudopregnancy can be experimentally induced to form DECIDUOMA in the UTERUS.Sheep: Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Morning Sickness: Symptoms of NAUSEA and VOMITING in pregnant women that usually occur in the morning during the first 2 to 3 months of PREGNANCY. Severe persistent vomiting during pregnancy is called HYPEREMESIS GRAVIDARUM.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Chorion: The outermost extra-embryonic membrane surrounding the developing embryo. In REPTILES and BIRDS, it adheres to the shell and allows exchange of gases between the egg and its environment. In MAMMALS, the chorion evolves into the fetal contribution of the PLACENTA.Estrous Cycle: The period of cyclic physiological and behavior changes in non-primate female mammals that exhibit ESTRUS. The estrous cycle generally consists of 4 or 5 distinct periods corresponding to the endocrine status (PROESTRUS; ESTRUS; METESTRUS; DIESTRUS; and ANESTRUS).Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Cervix Uteri: The neck portion of the UTERUS between the lower isthmus and the VAGINA forming the cervical canal.Fetal Viability: The potential of the FETUS to survive outside the UTERUS after birth, natural or induced. Fetal viability depends largely on the FETAL ORGAN MATURITY, and environmental conditions.Fertilization: The fusion of a spermatozoon (SPERMATOZOA) with an OVUM thus resulting in the formation of a ZYGOTE.Misoprostol: A synthetic analog of natural prostaglandin E1. It produces a dose-related inhibition of gastric acid and pepsin secretion, and enhances mucosal resistance to injury. It is an effective anti-ulcer agent and also has oxytocic properties.Abruptio Placentae: Premature separation of the normally implanted PLACENTA from the UTERUS. Signs of varying degree of severity include UTERINE BLEEDING, uterine MUSCLE HYPERTONIA, and FETAL DISTRESS or FETAL DEATH.Abortion, Eugenic: Abortion performed because of possible fetal defects.Weight Gain: Increase in BODY WEIGHT over existing weight.Menstrual Cycle: The period from onset of one menstrual bleeding (MENSTRUATION) to the next in an ovulating woman or female primate. The menstrual cycle is regulated by endocrine interactions of the HYPOTHALAMUS; the PITUITARY GLAND; the ovaries; and the genital tract. The menstrual cycle is divided by OVULATION into two phases. Based on the endocrine status of the OVARY, there is a FOLLICULAR PHASE and a LUTEAL PHASE. Based on the response in the ENDOMETRIUM, the menstrual cycle is divided into a proliferative and a secretory phase.Breast Feeding: The nursing of an infant at the breast.Relaxin: A water-soluble polypeptide (molecular weight approximately 8,000) extractable from the corpus luteum of pregnancy. It produces relaxation of the pubic symphysis and dilation of the uterine cervix in certain animal species. Its role in the human pregnant female is uncertain. (Dorland, 28th ed)Contraceptive Agents: Chemical substances that prevent or reduce the probability of CONCEPTION.Infant Mortality: Postnatal deaths from BIRTH to 365 days after birth in a given population. Postneonatal mortality represents deaths between 28 days and 365 days after birth (as defined by National Center for Health Statistics). Neonatal mortality represents deaths from birth to 27 days after birth.Litter Size: The number of offspring produced at one birth by a viviparous animal.Odds Ratio: The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.Down Syndrome: A chromosome disorder associated either with an extra chromosome 21 or an effective trisomy for chromosome 21. Clinical manifestations include hypotonia, short stature, brachycephaly, upslanting palpebral fissures, epicanthus, Brushfield spots on the iris, protruding tongue, small ears, short, broad hands, fifth finger clinodactyly, Simian crease, and moderate to severe INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY. Cardiac and gastrointestinal malformations, a marked increase in the incidence of LEUKEMIA, and the early onset of ALZHEIMER DISEASE are also associated with this condition. Pathologic features include the development of NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES in neurons and the deposition of AMYLOID BETA-PROTEIN, similar to the pathology of ALZHEIMER DISEASE. (Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p213)Maternal Mortality: Maternal deaths resulting from complications of pregnancy and childbirth in a given population.Infertility, Male: The inability of the male to effect FERTILIZATION of an OVUM after a specified period of unprotected intercourse. Male sterility is permanent infertility.Umbilical Arteries: Specialized arterial vessels in the umbilical cord. They carry waste and deoxygenated blood from the FETUS to the mother via the PLACENTA. In humans, there are usually two umbilical arteries but sometimes one.Maternal Behavior: The behavior patterns associated with or characteristic of a mother.Mammary Glands, Animal: MAMMARY GLANDS in the non-human MAMMALS.Neural Tube Defects: Congenital malformations of the central nervous system and adjacent structures related to defective neural tube closure during the first trimester of pregnancy generally occurring between days 18-29 of gestation. Ectodermal and mesodermal malformations (mainly involving the skull and vertebrae) may occur as a result of defects of neural tube closure. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch55, pp31-41)Dietary Supplements: Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide dietary ingredients, and that are intended to be taken by mouth to increase the intake of nutrients. Dietary supplements can include macronutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and/or MICRONUTRIENTS, such as VITAMINS; MINERALS; and PHYTOCHEMICALS.Insemination, Artificial, Homologous: Human artificial insemination in which the husband's semen is used.Placental Lactogen: A polypeptide hormone of approximately 25 kDa that is produced by the SYNCYTIOTROPHOBLASTS of the PLACENTA, also known as chorionic somatomammotropin. It has both GROWTH HORMONE and PROLACTIN activities on growth, lactation, and luteal steroid production. In women, placental lactogen secretion begins soon after implantation and increases to 1 g or more a day in late pregnancy. Placental lactogen is also an insulin antagonist.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Blastocyst: A post-MORULA preimplantation mammalian embryo that develops from a 32-cell stage into a fluid-filled hollow ball of over a hundred cells. A blastocyst has two distinctive tissues. The outer layer of trophoblasts gives rise to extra-embryonic tissues. The inner cell mass gives rise to the embryonic disc and eventual embryo proper.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Reproduction: The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)Fertility Agents, Female: Compounds which increase the capacity to conceive in females.Uterine Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the UTERUS.Uterine Contraction: Contraction of the UTERINE MUSCLE.Administration, Intravaginal: The insertion of drugs into the vagina to treat local infections, neoplasms, or to induce labor. The dosage forms may include medicated pessaries, irrigation fluids, and suppositories.Menstruation: The periodic shedding of the ENDOMETRIUM and associated menstrual bleeding in the MENSTRUAL CYCLE of humans and primates. Menstruation is due to the decline in circulating PROGESTERONE, and occurs at the late LUTEAL PHASE when LUTEOLYSIS of the CORPUS LUTEUM takes place.Apgar Score: A method, developed by Dr. Virginia Apgar, to evaluate a newborn's adjustment to extrauterine life. Five items - heart rate, respiratory effort, muscle tone, reflex irritability, and color - are evaluated 60 seconds after birth and again five minutes later on a scale from 0-2, 0 being the lowest, 2 being normal. The five numbers are added for the Apgar score. A score of 0-3 represents severe distress, 4-7 indicates moderate distress, and a score of 7-10 predicts an absence of difficulty in adjusting to extrauterine life.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Pregnancy-Associated Plasma Protein-A: A product of the PLACENTA, and DECIDUA, secreted into the maternal circulation during PREGNANCY. It has been identified as an IGF binding protein (IGFBP)-4 protease that proteolyzes IGFBP-4 and thus increases IGF bioavailability. It is found also in human FIBROBLASTS, ovarian FOLLICULAR FLUID, and GRANULOSA CELLS. The enzyme is a heterotetramer of about 500-kDa.Risk: The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.Chorionic Villi Sampling: A method for diagnosis of fetal diseases by sampling the cells of the placental chorionic villi for DNA analysis, presence of bacteria, concentration of metabolites, etc. The advantage over amniocentesis is that the procedure can be carried out in the first trimester.Fathers: Male parents, human or animal.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Labor, Induced: Artificially induced UTERINE CONTRACTION. Generally, LABOR, OBSTETRIC is induced with the intent to cause delivery of the fetus and termination of pregnancy.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Clomiphene: A triphenyl ethylene stilbene derivative which is an estrogen agonist or antagonist depending on the target tissue. Note that ENCLOMIPHENE and ZUCLOMIPHENE are the (E) and (Z) isomers of Clomiphene respectively.Labor Onset: The beginning of true OBSTETRIC LABOR which is characterized by the cyclic uterine contractions of increasing frequency, duration, and strength causing CERVICAL DILATATION to begin (LABOR STAGE, FIRST ).Reproductive Behavior: Human behavior or decision related to REPRODUCTION.Infant, Newborn, Diseases: Diseases of newborn infants present at birth (congenital) or developing within the first month of birth. It does not include hereditary diseases not manifesting at birth or within the first 30 days of life nor does it include inborn errors of metabolism. Both HEREDITARY DISEASES and METABOLISM, INBORN ERRORS are available as general concepts.Fetal Membranes, Premature Rupture: Spontaneous tearing of the membranes surrounding the FETUS any time before the onset of OBSTETRIC LABOR. Preterm PROM is membrane rupture before 37 weeks of GESTATION.Folic Acid: A member of the vitamin B family that stimulates the hematopoietic system. It is present in the liver and kidney and is found in mushrooms, spinach, yeast, green leaves, and grasses (POACEAE). Folic acid is used in the treatment and prevention of folate deficiencies and megaloblastic anemia.Prolactin: A lactogenic hormone secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). It is a polypeptide of approximately 23 kD. Besides its major action on lactation, in some species prolactin exerts effects on reproduction, maternal behavior, fat metabolism, immunomodulation and osmoregulation. Prolactin receptors are present in the mammary gland, hypothalamus, liver, ovary, testis, and prostate.Polyhydramnios: A condition of abnormally high AMNIOTIC FLUID volume, such as greater than 2,000 ml in the LAST TRIMESTER and usually diagnosed by ultrasonographic criteria (AMNIOTIC FLUID INDEX). It is associated with maternal DIABETES MELLITUS; MULTIPLE PREGNANCY; CHROMOSOMAL DISORDERS; and congenital abnormalities.Heart Rate, Fetal: The heart rate of the FETUS. The normal range at term is between 120 and 160 beats per minute.Intrauterine Devices: Contraceptive devices placed high in the uterine fundus.Embryo, Mammalian: The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.

*  Kim Kardashian's pregnancy fashion

Take a gander at all the looks Kim Kardashian is rocking through her pregnancy. ...
https://yahoo.com/celebrity/photos/kim-kardashian-s-pregnancy-fashion-slideshow/kim-kardashian-shows-off-her-baby-bump-in-a-tight-patterned-dress-teamed-with-a-black-blazer-and-photo--85953629.html

*  Exercising During Pregnancy

Most women benefit greatly from exercising throughout their pregnancies. But during that time, you'll need to make a few ... regain your pre-pregnancy body more quickly. You'll gain less fat weight during your pregnancy if you continue to exercise ( ... What's Safe During Pregnancy?. It depends on when you start and whether your pregnancy is complicated. If you exercised ... Benefits of Exercising During Pregnancy. No doubt about it, exercise is a big plus for both you and your baby (if complications ...
kidshealth.org/WillisKnighton/en/parents/exercising-pregnancy.html

*  Teen Pregnancy | RAND

RAND's research on teen pregnancy includes studies related to sex education, prevention and birth control, infant low birth ... as well as groundbreaking research on the link between exposure to sexual content on television and teen pregnancy. ... Teenage pregnancy is frequently associated with problems for the adolescent parents and their children as well as more ... Teen Pregnancy. Teenage pregnancy is frequently associated with problems for the adolescent parents and their children as well ...
https://rand.org/topics/teen-pregnancy.html

*  CDC - Pregnancy, Trouble Getting Pregnant

These problems include heavy menstrual bleeding (termed menorrhagia), bleeding and clotting complications of pregnancy, and ...
https://cdc.gov/pregnancy/trouble.html

*  Most Popular 'Pregnancy' Titles - IMDb

Pregnancy Husband Wife Relationship (1,357) Death (1,026) Mother Son Relationship (917) Father Son Relationship (889) Mother ... Most Popular 'Pregnancy' Titles Refine See titles to watch instantly, titles you haven't rated, etc ... After an unplanned pregnancy, teenager Amy Juergens's life will never be the same, as she deals with other teenagers around her ...
imdb.com/search/keyword?keywords=pregnancy

*  Pregnancy-related Anxiety Scale Survey

Web survey powered by SurveyMonkey.com. Create your own online survey now with SurveyMonkey's expert certified FREE templates.
https://surveymonkey.com/r/55xzx2G

*  Free Pregnancy Tests | eBay

Find great deals on eBay for Free Pregnancy Tests. Shop with confidence. ...
https://ebay.com/sch/i.html?_nkw=Free Pregnancy Tests

*  Signs & symptoms of pregnancy

Pregnancy symptoms differ from women to women and pregnancy to pregnancy.• However, one of the most significant pregnancy ... Diagnosis of pregnancy &antenatal c... by Faculty of Medici... 15342 views * Diagnosis Of Pregnancy by Dr Neelesh Bhandari ... 9. Mood swings and Stress• Mood swings and stress are common symptoms reported by many women in the early stages of pregnancy ... 3. Missed Period• Is often the first sign of pregnancy.• Sometimes a woman who is pregnant may still experience some bleeding ...
https://slideshare.net/amyabdulla/signs-symptoms-of-pregnancy

*  Happy pregnancy, Julia Roberts!

Julia Roberts and husband Danny Moder are expecting their third child, the Oscar winner
ew.com/article/2006/12/29/happy_pregnancy/

*  Beyonce Discusses Pregnancy Cravings

Shortly after announcing her pregnancy at the MTV VMA Awards in August, Beyonce has allegedly been craving tomato ketchup on ...
https://uk.news.yahoo.com/news/beyonce-discusses-pregnancy-cravings-110703983.html

*  Prepregnancy maternal overweight increases the risk of both early and late preterm delivery. - Healthcanal.com : Healthcanal.com

Preterm delivery is defined by the World Health Organization as delivery before 37 completed weeks of gestation. It is of great importance because it is a leading cause of neonatal death and morbidity. Preterm delivery is responsible for 3 million deaths worldwide annually.. Maternal obesity is a growing public health problem worldwide. It is known that women with excess weight have a higher risk of several adverse maternal and perinatal outcomes that include preeclampsia, gestational diabetes mellitus, cesarean section delivery, and fetal death. Women with lower than normal body mass index also have an elevated risk of adverse prenatal outcomes, such as preterm delivery and intrauterine growth restriction.. The findings in this study support the hypothesis that high pre-pregnancy maternal body mass index increases the risk of preterm delivery says Dr. Morken, one of the authors of the study. According to Dr. Morken the results showed that pre-pregnancy maternal overweight ...
https://healthcanal.com/pregnancy-childbirth/34503-prepregnancy-maternal-overweight-increases-the-risk-of-both-early-and-late-preterm-delivery.html

*  Fetal Outcome of Sleep Disordered Breathing During Pregnancy - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov

To examine the effect of maternal SDB on fetal and neonatal outcome. Methods: 300 women in the third trimester of a singleton uncomplicated pregnancy, who attend a low risk obstetric surveillance will be recruited. Hundred women hospitalized at the Antenatal department due to pregnancy related hypertensive disorder, intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), diabetes mellitus or premature labor will also be recruited. In addition, 200 women of a singleton uncomplicated pregnancy will be recruited during labor at the delivery room. All participants will be asked to complete a designated sleep questionnaire. Based on the questionnaires, women in the third trimester will undergo a sleep study. Medical records review will be conducted after delivery and will include information of maternal blood pressure, labor duration, route of delivery, infant birth weight and APGAR score. Placentas will be collected immediately after delivery from all women. Cord blood will be ...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00931099

*  Alexis Dominguez, High-Risk and Low-Risk Pregnancies - Alexis Dominguez

Women who have high blood pressure can effectively monitor their pressure status to avoid having a low-risk pregnancy. If their blood pressure is not properly managed, the effects can lead to damage to the kidneys and the baby being born with a low weight. Diabetes can also make an impact on pregnancies. If the diabetic issue is not properly managed as well, birth defects become a possibility. Other low-risk pregnancy issues are lupus or multiple sclerosis and at worst, a preterm birth or stillbirth. As an OB/GYN physician, Alexis Dominguez knows well the possibilities of these types of pregnancies. ...
alexisdominguez1.weebly.com/home/alexis-dominguez-high-risk-and-low-risk-pregnancies

*  Albumin and pregnancy - Pregnancy Blog

When cervical mucus becomes more slippery, it can help sperm make its method to the albumin and pregnancy. Also throughout pregnancy, the amount of blood circulating through your physique increases, inflicting extra fluids to be processed by your kidneys and bladder, which suggests extra albumin and pregnancy room breaks. I hope every part works albumin and pregnancy effectively for you - I had fairly dangerous treatment for unruptured ectopic pregnancy with my first pregnancy, all was effective. Albumin and pregnancy case you are hunting for the signs of implantation, then you could know precisely about your menstrual cycle in order that the time of ovulation may albumin and pregnancy determined. Any sudden motion or place change could albumin and pregnancy them to spasm. If albumin and pregnancy have mild feelings of sickness (nausea) and ...
myartyshow.com/and-pregnancy/albumin-and-pregnancy.html

*  Principal Investigators, Scientific Researchers | GRAVIDA

Professor Phil Baker is an obstetrician scientist with a particular interest in the pregnancy complications preeclampsia and intrauterine growth restriction. These conditions are studied at a molecular, cellular, blood vessel and whole body level with each project interacting with and strengthening other projects.. Major ongoing efforts include the use of murine models to identify novel potential therapies for preeclampsia and intrauterine growth restriction, and the application of metabolomic technologies for patient benefits, particularly to develop screening tests for major pregnancy complications.. Other research interests have included: vascular adaptation to pregnancy, placental cell invasion, placental cell turnover, endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), adverse pregnancy outcome in teenage pregnancies, fetal origins of adult disease (such as schizophrenia) and the effect of maternal stress on pregnancy outcome, and ...
gravida.org.nz/our-people/principal-investigators/

*  Twin Pregnancy - My Blog

During the first trimester your 12 week check out ultrasound testing will show whether you have a twin pregnancy. The sonographer (medical professionals who operate the equipment) can even identify whether you are carrying identical or fraterno twins by measuring the thickness of the filters which separate the two amniotic sacs (the sac longchamp pas cher in which the unborn child develops) in your womb.. The occurrence of a multiple pregnancy can be recognized during the other months of pregnancy when your doctor may find two separate fetal heartbeats, at other times, during prenatal tests, abnormally high degrees of hCG, (human chorionic gonadotropin) a hormone produced by the embryo soon after conception, will be found. Although there can be other reasons for testing rates of hCG in most cases higher levels may well business lead your doctor to expect a multiple pregnancy in your case.. A twin pregnant state is generally regarded by the ...
devwebpronl.com/twin-pregnancy/

*  PTU-056 Pregnancy outcomes in Patients with Crohn'S Disease: Lessons from Audit in a Specialist IBD Clinic | Gut

Results 80 pregnancies in 57 patients with CD were identified.10 patients currently pregnant,9 patients(13 pregnancies) with incomplete data were excluded.Therefore,pregnancy outcomes of 57 pregnancies/38 patients (mean age: 30.7 years) were analysed. 31/38(82%) of patients had luminal disease,7/38(18%) perianal disease.36/38(95%) conceived naturally,1/38(2.5%) by assisted reproduction,1/38(2.5%) by IVF.25/57(44%) pregnancies were on no treatment in early pregnancy, 4/57(7%) on biologics [Infliximab 3/4(75%),Adalimumab1/4(25%)],6/57(10%) on biologics+thiopurines(TPN),6/57(10%) on TPN,6/57(10%) on TPN+5-ASA,7/57(12%) on 5-ASA,2/57(3.5%) on steroids and 1/57(1.7%) on elemental diet.15/57(26%) pregnancies had flares,of which 5/15(33%) continued throughout pregnancy.5/15(33%) occurred in the 1st trimester,4/15(27%) in the 2nd, 1/15(7%) in the 3rd. Of all pregnancies with flares,9/15(60%) were on no CD therapy. The mean week of delivery was 39.5 weeks ...
gut.bmj.com/content/62/Suppl_1/A67.1

*  Antibiotics during pregnancy and fetal risk - Pregnancy Blog

Feeling like you couldn't presumably get any larger right now. But when this urges will increase, then these could be a signal that she needs to visit her physician, particularly if she suspects pregnancy. Discover out more about Statutory Maternity Payincluding when you might want to tell your employer that you're pregnant. Yes, shedding being pregnant weight is extraordinarily necessary. For data relating to back pain throughout being pregnantswing by the creator's internet page with out hesitation. My being pregnant trace was the taste of my milk, my qld health maternity leave this last week was not liking the taste. My cycle was very regular the final antibiotics during pregnancy and fetal risk of my cycle antiviotics was brownish recognizing. I think she's anxious, however all she will rizk able to do is anticipate her period. this question should now not vex your thoughts. I had been interested by connecting with the fertile mamas antibiotics during ...
myartyshow.com/and-pregnancy/antibiotics-during-pregnancy-and-fetal-risk.html

*  SAT0212 Pregnancy and fetal outcome in patients with an established diagnosis of primary sjögren's syndrome | Annals of the...

Results Patients' mean age was 59 yr (17-89), mean age at diagnosis 51,4 yr; 138/1073 (12,8%) were diagnosed before 35 yr. Thirty-five women (31 with anti-SSA/Ro and/or anti-SSA/La antibodies) with an established diagnosis of pSS had 44 pregnancies which ended with the delivery of 39 newborns. Two miscarriages, 2 fetal death and one induced abortion were recorded. Mean age at the latest pregnancy was 34,6 yr (range 29-44), mean number of pregnancy 1,25 (1-3); 17/39 cesarean sections were performed, mean pregnancy length was 38,5 week (range 32-43) with 6 preterm delivery. The mean Apgar score at 5 minute was 8,9 (range 5-10), mean birth weight was 2934 mg (range 826-4060). Congenital heart block (CHB) occurred in 2 newborns of 31 mothers with anti-SSA and/or SSB antibodies (6,45%), with fatal outcome. Other 2 infants had cardial incontinence and a mild interatrial defect, respectively. During pregnancy one patient presented thrombocytopenia ...
ard.bmj.com/content/71/Suppl_3/543.3

*  Plus it

In 1998, a national Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Group was set up with the support of the French Association for the Study of Diabetes. Twelve tertiary perinatal centers, all members of this group, participated in the present study (see list in acknowledgments). All women with type 1 or type 2 diabetes and a single pregnancy who delivered between January 2000 and December 2001 were recruited for the study. Gestational diabetes and multiple pregnancies were excluded.. All data were prospectively collected using the Obstetrical Quality Indicators and Data Collection aggregated database (11), which consists of the following categorical variables: preconception care; HbA1c ,8% during the first and third trimesters; retinopathy, nephropathy, and their progression; gestational hypertension or pre-eclampsia; pregnancy outcomes (perinatal mortality, major congenital malformations, preterm delivery); macrosomia; mode of delivery; and neonatal complications.. ...
care.diabetesjournals.org/content/26/11/2990

*  Length of time for full term pregnancy - Pregnancy Blog

weekly and monthly length of time for full term pregnancy accessible if you are on the lookout for extra full-time care, but want the philosophy and style of a postpartum doula to a child nurse. Who the fuk cares what a bunch of celibate males length of time for full term pregnancy long humorous attire take into consideration my uterus and reproductive well being care. Though your fetus has been shifting for a number of weeks, the movements haven't been robust sufficient for you to discover till now. These earliest signs of pregnancy - stomach cramping and spotting - are often known as implantation symptoms of being pregnant. Doctors' first priority is to identify disorders that require emergency surgical procedure, such as an ectopic being pregnant or appendicitis. This calendar will assist not solely the women but additionally her physician to bioglan throat clear lozenges pregnancy the wholesome growth of the child till his beginning. ...
guyuntereiner.com/for-pregnancy/length-of-time-for-full-term-pregnancy.html

*  Dealing with new pregnancy after miscarriage - Pregnancy Blog

Here we will discuss about how women are at a greater risk from swine flu in pregnancy and what precautions and actions you must take, to ensure that there are no complications in your child-birth. Understanding the signs of pregnancy is important because each symptom may dealing with new pregnancy after miscarriage causes other than pregnancy. After that, it's best to stay close to home in case you deliver. Lover of books, chocolate, sunshine, and a good latte. Allow yourself plenty of opportunity to rest. Dealing with new pregnancy after miscarriage ingat anak awak tu baru sebesar jari ke sayang??. This is a major operation that you will have been through and depending on your state of health pre operation, the first week after the procedure will be challenging both physically and mentally. At the start of the dealing with new pregnancy after miscarriage, an increase of 150 calories per day is recommended. ...
burtonmackenzie.com/after-pregnancy/dealing-with-new-pregnancy-after-miscarriage.html

*  Nigeria: 'Malaria in Pregnancy Causes Miscarriage, Premature Births, Maternal Deaths, Others' - allAfrica.com

Public health experts have said that one of the major causes of premature births, maternal deaths, maternal anaemia, miscarriages and low birth weights in Nigeria is malaria in pregnancy.
allafrica.com/stories/201708240270.html

*  Care of pregnancy at first month - Pregnancy Blog

Generally folks ag know when there?s an issue. You are bound to throw up just a few instances as care of pregnancy at first month progress into your pregnancy. Final thing at evening and first thing within the morning I have a very good hack to get it all out. This is often full by 40 weeks. The Hypno Birthing strategies helped me to work with that and taught me prrgnancy on how to deal with breathing that helped my labor progress care of pregnancy at first month effectively. Sweetenham defined. The indicators of pregnancy could also be labeled in accordance with their reliability - presumptive, possible, and optimistic. Your due date could change if you are expecting multiples, reminiscent of twins or triplets. The rise in body temp is almost universal. You might be prone to bleed for about pregnancy sneeze pain days afterwards. Bought at drug stores, the kits take a look care of pregnancy at first month ...
tseyijeeptour.com/pregnancy/care-of-pregnancy-at-first-month.html

*  Planned Birth Before 39 Weeks and Child Development: A Population-Based Study | Articles | Pediatrics

FIGURE 1 Combined aRR of children being DHR for gestational age and mode of birth, NSW 2009 and 2012. Referent group: vaginal birth after spontaneous labor at 40 weeks. Adjusted for maternal age, marital and socioeconomic status, private obstetric care, smoking during pregnancy, maternal hypertension or diabetes, parity, timing of first antenatal visit, plurality, small for gestational age, child age, English as a second language, sex, and assessment year. ...
pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/early/2016/11/03/peds.2016-2002.figures-only

*  Second Trimester of Pregnancy | Health and Medication

Second trimester of pregnancy in our week by week pregnancy calendar. such as pregnancy pains and cramps, and when to have your ultrasound. Including fetal changes and pregnancy symptoms.
healthandmedication.com/pregnancy/second-trimester-of-pregnancy.html

*  Feeling Cold During Pregnancy, Brrrrr page 3 - Early Pregnancy Signs and Symptoms Forum - eHealthForum

Feeling Cold During Pregnancy, Brrrrr page 3. Hi everyone,everything I read about pregnancy symptoms says that most women get warm duirng pregnancy b/c their body temperature rises a bit. Well, i'm having the opposite problem. I'm about 6 weeks pg and i'm sooo coooold. I walk outside in... ... Pregnancy Forum - Early Pregnancy Signs and Symptoms
ehealthforum.com/health/topic32614_40.html

*  Diabetese and pregnancy - Pregnancy Blog

A being pregnant check utilizing a urine pattern is sort of all the time diabetese and pregnancy. Later final month i took a home being pregnant take a look at and diabetese and pregnancy was unfavourable but now i feel i am pregnant as a result of this diabetese and pregnancy i missed my interval however recently had a humorous colored discharge from my vagina but i viabetese no sex. Many good resources address the unique nutrition needs before, during, and after pregnancy. The skin is not dry, there may be typically no rash, but the itch can preegnancy intense and it's typically felt pregnncy around the physique. And even when that's not the case for you, pregnancy doesn't last without end, and it will all be value it in the long run. I'm ready to see which listing I'm experiencing this month. Click on right diabetese and pregnancy to sign up. Communicate along with your healthcare provider about taking ...
myartyshow.com/and-pregnancy/diabetese-and-pregnancy.html

*  Big hard stomach after pregnancy - Pregnancy Blog

Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). The doctor will look ahead to dilation of the cervix to see the newborn's position. Depression and nervousness impacts as much as 1 in eight girls during big hard stomach after pregnancy pregnant and postpartum, making childbirth one of the strongest triggers for melancholy in women. The idea is that this prevented the pregnant girls in old instances from consuming poisonous vegetation and fruits, that always have a bitter taste. (1991). I had 5 incisions, one in the stomach button, and didn't notice anything weird with the stomach button. This involves speaking to a therapist, psychologist, gall bladder stone removal during pregnancy social worker to be taught to change how melancholy makes you dangerous signs during pregnancy, feel, and smp or maternity allowance. S I had a severe kidney an infection two months ago. Streeter believed the embryonic period spanned a 47- to forty big hard stomach after ...
guyuntereiner.com/after-pregnancy/big-hard-stomach-after-pregnancy.html

*  How to control pregnancy | Doctor Medic

Which analyses should be taken within pregnancy? What does doctor pay attention to during examination? Clinical blood analysis, urine analysis, body mass
dmedic.com/how-to-control-pregnancy.html

*  Having Vaginal Burning/Itching - Possible Pregnancy Discharge - Early Pregnancy Signs and Symptoms Forum - eHealthForum

Having Vaginal Burning/Itching - Possible Pregnancy Discharge . So I'm having that clear, liquid scentless discharge that I hear many women get when pregnant (and lots of it) that I fear may be the result of a broken condom incident a few weeks back. But recently, my vagina started to burn and itch and I acquired... ... Pregnancy Forum - Early Pregnancy Signs and Symptoms
ehealthforum.com/health/having-vaginal-burning-itching-possible-pregnancy-discharge-t261585-a1.html

*  Expecting a Premature Birth - Canadian Premature Babies Foundation

If you're going to give birth prematurely, you want to have your baby at the highest level centre possible. Research shows that babies born at centres with a high risk pregnancy program and a high level NICU (usually a level 3 in Canada) have better outcomes. In an emergency you of course go to the closest hospital, but take the time to learn about what the hospitals are like that are closest to you, regardless of your birth plan, so that if you have the opportunity to choose you can go to the hospital that offers the appropriate level of care ...
cpbf-fbpc.org/for-families/expecting-a-premature-birth/

*  Plus it

When maternal welfare is considered, the potential for increased psychological stress caused by an additional complicating diagnosis in pregnancy must be a consideration. The possibility that testing for and diagnosing GDM could cause anxiety sufficient to negate the benefits of diagnosis and treatment has been raised. However, there is little objective information on this subject.. In practical terms, in the study area, all pregnant women are tested for GDM and attend the Diabetes Center if results are positive. The women in this study were derived from consecutive women with GDM seen over a 12-month period. Some exclusion criteria were applied. Women in whom GDM had been diagnosed during a previous pregnancy were not included in the study because it was considered possible that their previous experiences with GDM may have altered their responses. Also, the few women with multiple pregnancy were not considered because existing anxiety levels may have ...
care.diabetesjournals.org/content/26/2/385

*  Super User

When asked, "What's the difference between a mere human and a human person," which is a fair question to ask, there are three possible answers. First, an unborn child doesn't look like other bona fide human persons who are at different stages of development. "After all," they say, "an acorn isn't an oak." Second, an unborn child doesn't do like other bona fide human persons who are at different stages of development. You recall the unfortunate case of baby Theresa in Florida who was born without a cerebral cortex. What was the argument there? She's not a person because she can't think like other babies think (this was used as an argument for infanticide in Florida). She can't do what other real persons do. The law implicitly offers a third distinction. The unborn child isn't located at the right place as are other human persons who are at the same stage of development.. In summary, some human beings aren't worthy of human rights because they don't look like the rest of us, they can't do what the ...
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*  PPT - Fertilization, Pregnancy, and Labor and Delivery PowerPoint Presentation - ID:2264408

Fertilization, Pregnancy, and Labor and Delivery. Ch. 29. Pregnancy by Weeks. Doctors and midwives track pregnancy by weeks. A typical pregnancy and full-term is 40 weeks The weeks are counted from the first day of your last period Slideshow 2264408 by eldon
slideserve.com/eldon/fertilization-pregnancy-and-labor-and-delivery

Prenatal nutrition: Nutrition and weight management before and during :pregnancy has a profound effect on the development of infants. This is a rather critical time for healthy fetal development as infants rely heavily on maternal stores and nutrient for optimal growth and health outcome later in life.Ovarian pregnancyPregnancy rate: Pregnancy rate is the success rate for getting pregnant. It is the percentage of all attempts that leads to pregnancy, with attempts generally referring to menstrual cycles where insemination or any artificial equivalent is used, which may be simple artificial insemination (AI) or AI with additional in vitro fertilization.Pregnancy test: A pregnancy test attempts to determine whether a woman is pregnant. Markers that indicate pregnancy are found in urine and blood, and pregnancy tests require sampling one of these substances.Interstitial pregnancyTeenage Mother (film): Teenage Mother (a.k.Unintended pregnancy: Unintended pregnancies are pregnancies that are mistimed, unplanned or unwanted at the time of conception. Unintended pregnancy mainly results from engaging in vaginal sexual activity without the use of contraception, or due to incorrect use of a contraceptive method, but may also arise from the failure of the contraception method when used correctly to prevent pregnancy.Gestational age: Gestational age (or menstrual age) is a measure of the age of a pregnancy where the origin is the woman's last normal menstrual period (LMP), or the corresponding age as estimated by other methods. Such methods include adding 14 days to a known duration since fertilization (as is possible in in vitro fertilization), or by obstetric ultrasonography.Gestational thrombocytopeniaPlacenta: The placenta (also known as afterbirth) is an organ that connects the developing fetus to the uterine wall to allow nutrient uptake, waste elimination, and gas exchange via the mother's blood supply, fight against internal infection and produce hormones to support pregnancy. The placenta provides oxygen and nutrients to growing babies and removes waste products from the baby's blood.Medical abortion: A medical abortion is a type of non-surgical abortion in which abortifacient pharmaceutical drugs are used to induce abortion. An oral preparation for medical abortion is commonly referred to as an abortion pill.Abdominal pregnancyUterus transplantation: The uterine transplant is the surgical procedure whereby a healthy uterus is transplanted into a female organism of which the uterus is absent or diseased. As part of normal mammalian sexual reproduction, a diseased or absent uterus does not allow normal embryonic implantation, effectively rendering the female infertile.Embryo transfer: Embryo transfer refers to a step in the process of assisted reproduction in which embryos are placed into the uterus of a female with the intent to establish a pregnancy. This technique (which is often used in connection with in vitro fertilization (IVF)), may be used in humans or in animals, in which situations the goals may vary.Natural cycle in vitro fertilization: Natural Cycle IVF is in vitro fertilisation (IVF) using either of the following procedures:Transplacental carcinogenesis: Transplacental carcinogenesis is a series of genotypic and/or phenotypic changes in the cells of a fetus due to in utero exposure to carcinogens. Specifically, these changes are identified as malignant by virtue of their metastatic potential.Birth weight: Birth weight is the body weight of a baby at its birth.Definitions from Georgia Department of Public Health.Selective reduction: Selective reduction (or multifetal pregnancy reduction or MFPR) is the practice of reducing the number of fetuses in a multifetal pregnancy, say quadruplets, to a twin or singleton pregnancy.Gestational hypertensionLower segment Caesarean section: A lower (uterine) segment Caesarean section (LSCS) is the most commonly used type of Caesarean section used today. It includes a transverse cut just above the edge of the bladder and results in less blood loss and is easier to repair than other types of Caesarean sections.Unexplained infertility: Unexplained infertility is infertility that is idiopathic in the sense that its cause remains unknown even after an infertility work-up, usually including semen analysis in the man and assessment of ovulation and fallopian tubes in the woman.merckmanuals > Unexplained Infertility Last full review/revision November 2008 by Robert W.Male lactation: Male lactation in zoology means production of milk from mammary glands in the presence of physiological stimuli connected with nursing infants. It is well documented in the Dayak fruit bat.Decidual reaction: The decidual reaction is the changes in the endometrium of the uterus that prepare it for implantation of an embryo. These changes are observed in each menstrual cycle and enhanced after implantation.Nordli's Cabinet: Nordli's Cabinet governed Norway between 15 January 1976 and 4 February 1981. The Labour Party cabinet was led by Odvar Nordli.National Birth Defects Prevention Network: The National Birth Defects Prevention Network (NBDPN) was founded in 1997. It is a 501(c)3 not-for-profit volunteer organization whose members are involved in birth defects surveillance, prevention and research.Twin reversed arterial perfusionPrenatal diagnosis: Prenatal diagnosis or prenatal screening (note that prenatal diagnosis and prenatal screening refer to two different types of tests) is testing for diseases or conditions in a fetus or embryo before it is born. The aim is to detect birth defects such as neural tube defects, Down syndrome, chromosome abnormalities, genetic disorders and other conditions, such as spina bifida, cleft palate, Tay Sachs disease, sickle cell anemia, thalassemia, cystic fibrosis, Muscular dystrophy, and fragile X syndrome.Equine chorionic gonadotropin: Equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) is a gonadotropic hormone produced in the chorion of pregnant mares. Most commonly called pregnant mare's serum gonadotropin (PMSG) in the past, the hormone is commonly used in concert with progestogen to induce ovulation in livestock prior to artificial insemination.International Association of Plastics DistributorsTrophoblast: Trophoblasts (from Greek trephein: to feed, and blastos: germinator) are cells forming the outer layer of a blastocyst, which provide nutrients to the embryo and develop into a large part of the placenta. They are formed during the first stage of pregnancy and are the first cells to differentiate from the fertilized egg.Puerperal disorderEndometrium: The endometrium is the inner mucous membrane of the mammalian uterus.Reproductive technology: Reproductive technology (RT) encompasses all current and anticipated uses of technology in human and animal reproduction, including assisted reproductive technology, contraception and others.QRISK: QRISK2 (the most recent version of QRISK) is a prediction algorithm for cardiovascular disease (CVD) that uses traditional risk factors (age, systolic blood pressure, smoking status and ratio of total serum cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) together with body mass index, ethnicity, measures of deprivation, family history, chronic kidney disease, rheumatoid arthritis, atrial fibrillation, diabetes mellitus, and antihypertensive treatment.Low Fertility Cohorts Study: The Low Fertility Cohorts Study, 1978: A Survey of White, Ever-Married Women Belonging to the 1901-1910 United States Birth Cohorts,Data Sharing For Demographic Research consists of personal interviews of white, ever-married women born between July 1, 1900, and June 30, 1910. In 1978, a national survey of 1,049 married women between the ages of 68 and 78 were interviewed between the months of March and July in order to investigate low fertility during the 1920s and 1930s and the women of childbearing age during those decades.Low birth-weight paradox: The low birth-weight paradox is an apparently paradoxical observation relating to the birth weights and mortality rate of children born to tobacco smoking mothers. Low birth-weight children born to smoking mothers have a lower infant mortality rate than the low birth weight children of non-smokers.Pre-conception counseling: Pre-conception counseling (also called pre-conceptual counseling) is a meeting with a health-care professional (generally a physician) by a woman before attempting to become pregnant. It generally includes a pre-conception risk assessment for any potential complications of pregnancy as well as modifications of risk factors, such as increasing folic acid intake to reduce the risk of neural tube defects and counseling on smoking cessation, alcohol reduction, and medications that may compromise fetal development.Villitis of unknown etiology: Villitis of unknown etiology, abbreviated VUE, is an inflammatory process that involves the chorionic villi (villitis) whose cause (etiology) is not known. VUE is associated with recurrent miscarriage and intrauterine growth restriction, and recurs in subsequent pregnancies.Biocell Center: Biocell Center is an international company specializing in the cryopreservation and private banking of amniotic fluid stem cells. The company is headquartered in Italy with several international locations and is involved with numerous partnerships and research studies of amniotic fluid stem cells,.Global Alliance to Prevent Prematurity and StillbirthMyometrium: The myometrium is the middle layer of the uterine wall, consisting mainly of uterine smooth muscle cells (also called uterine myocytes), but also of supporting stromal and vascular tissue. Its main function is to induce uterine contractions.Contraception, Sterilisation, and Abortion Act 1977: Contraception, Sterilisation, and Abortion Act 1977 is an Act of Parliament in New Zealand. It was passed shortly after the report from the Royal Commission on Contraception, Sterilisation and Abortion.National Birth Control League: The National Birth Control League was a United States organization founded in the early 20th century to promoted the education and use of birth control.

(1/75222) Plasma concentration changes in LH and FSH following electrochemical stimulation of the medial preoptic are or dorsal anterior hypothalamic area of estrogen- or androgen-sterilized rats.

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(2/75222) Incidence of repeated legal abortion.

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(3/75222) Coagulation and fibrinolysis in intact hydatidiform molar pregnancy.

Tests of coagulation, fibrinolysis, and platelet function were performed in 17 patients with intact molar pregnancies. Women with intact molar pregnancies had higher fibrinogen factor VIII, and fibrinogen degradation products, concentrations and lower prothrombin, factor X, plasminogen, and plasminogen activator concentrations than controls with normal pregnancies. They also had reduced platelet counts and thromboelastographic values, which indicated hypocoagulability. These results suggest that intravascular coagulation occurs in intact hydatidiform molar pregnancies.  (+info)

(4/75222) Phagocytic acitivity of bovine leukocytes during pregnancy.

The phagocytic competence, measured as the total number of polymorphonuclear leukocytes per mm3 which phagocytosed Staphylococcus aureus, strain 321, in vitro, was determined in eight cows during complete pregnancies. Such leukocytes are referred to as "Active PMN'S". There was a gradual decline in the number of these cells from conception to a minimum between the 16th and 20th weeks of pregnancy, followed by a steady increase to the cessation of lactation when a marked drop occurred, after which there was an increase to a maximun during the second week prepartum. From this maximum there was a rapid decrease to an absolute minimum during the first week after parturition. From the second week postpartum there was a gradual increase to conception. The correlation coefficient (r) of number of active PMN'S with time before conception was -0.474 )p-0.01). There were significant differences (p=0.01) in numbers of active PMNS Among the eight cows. It was found that the cows fell into two groups, one whose members had, overall, significantly more active PMNs (p=0.001) than those in the second group. The between cow differences may have been due to 1) age, since the cows with the highest numbers of circulating active PMNs were younger than those in the other group of 2) the combined stress of pregnancy and lactation, as those cows which were both pregnant and milking had the lowest numbers of active PMNs.  (+info)

(5/75222) Studies on the response of ewes to live chlamydiae adapted to chicken embryos or tissue culture.

Ewes infected before gestation with chicken embryo or tissue culture adapted chlamydial strain B-577 were challenge inoculated with the homologous strain at four to 18 weeks of gestation. The ewes responsed with group specific complement fixing antibody titers of 1:8 to 1:256 by the second week after initial infection. A secondary antibody response in the surviving challenge inoculated ewes occurred at the time of lambing and reached titers of 1:32 to 1:256 by the second week after parturition. Group specific complement fixing antibodies did not appear to play a significant role in resistance to chlamydial infection. Ewes infected with the chicken embryo adapted strain B-577 excreted chlamydiae in their feces 60 days after inoculation. However, chlamydiae were not recovered from feces of ewes infected with the tissue culture adapted strain B-577. Placentas of ewes challenge inoculated by the intravenous route were consistently infected. Chlamydiae were recovered from placentas, some fetuses and lambs. In two instances when challenge inoculation was given by the intramuscular route, infection was detected only by the direct fluorescent antibody method.  (+info)

(6/75222) Life devoid of value.

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(7/75222) Graphic monitoring of labour.

The parturograph is a composite record designed for the monitoring of fetal and maternal well-being and the progress of labour. It permits the early recognition of abnormalities and pinpoints the patients who would benefit most from intervention. Observations are made from the time of admission of the mother to the caseroom and recorded graphically. Factors assessed include fetal heart rate, maternal vital signs and urine, cervical dilatation, descent of the presenting fetal part, and frequency, duration and intensity of uterine contractions.  (+info)

(8/75222) The effects of digestive enzymes on characteristics of placental insulin receptor. Comparison of particulate and soluble receptor preparations.

The role of the surrounding membrane structure on the binding characteristics of the insulin receptor was studied by using several digestive enzymes. The effects observed with particulate membrane preparations are compared with those from soluble receptor preparations. beta-Galactosidase and neuraminidase had no effect on insulin binding to either particulate or soluble receptors from human placentae. Exposure to 2 units of phospholipase C/ml increased insulin binding to particulate membranes, but was without effect on the soluble receptor preparation. The increase in binding to particulate membranes was shown to be due to an increase in apparent receptor number. After 5 min exposure to 500 microgram of trypsin/ml there was an increase in insulin binding to the particulate membrane fraction, owing to an increase in receptor affinity. After 15 min exposure to this amount of trypsin, binding decreased, owing to a progressive decrease in receptor availability. In contrast, this concentration of trypsin had no effect on the solubilized receptor preparation. Because of the differential effects of phospholipase C and trypsin on the particulate compared with the solubilized receptor preparations, it is concluded that the effects of these enzymes were due to an effect on the surrounding membrane structure. Changes in receptor configuration due to alterations within the adjoining membrane provide a potential mechanism for mediating short-term alterations in receptor function.  (+info)



complications of pregna


  • These problems include heavy menstrual bleeding (termed menorrhagia), bleeding and clotting complications of pregnancy, and recurrent fetal loss. (cdc.gov)
  • Women who have asthma have a small increase in the risk for certain complications of pregnancy, although the reasons for this are unknown. (uptodate.com)

ectopic


  • PID can lead to infertility and potentially fatal tubal (ectopic) pregnancy. (cdc.gov)
  • The Vanderbilt University scientists told Nature Medicine their findings could be important for understanding why ectopic pregnancies can occur. (bbc.co.uk)
  • The researchers recommended more research to find out whether cannabis use might increase the risk of ectopic pregnancies. (bbc.co.uk)
  • In ectopic pregnancy, the fertilised egg takes an alternative route and can implant itself outside of the womb. (bbc.co.uk)
  • The researchers said their findings had major implications for ectopic pregnancy in women because the fallopian tubes the site where most occur. (bbc.co.uk)
  • It remains to be seen whether the incidence of ectopic pregnancy is associated with. (bbc.co.uk)
  • They said tobacco smoking was already known to increase the risk of ectopic pregnancy and had been shown to impair the journey of rat embryos along the reproductive tract. (bbc.co.uk)
  • But to say that women who smoke cannabis socially are at high risk of ectopic pregnancy would be a step too far at this stage. (bbc.co.uk)
  • The major causes of ectopic pregnancies are sexually transmitted infections and other things that damage the fallopian tubes like endometriosis and previous surgery. (bbc.co.uk)
  • We know the risk factors and we are getting better at detecting ectopic pregnancies and treating them. (bbc.co.uk)
  • Ectopic pregnancies need to be researched further in light of these behaviours," she said. (bbc.co.uk)

becoming pregnant


  • You'll gain less fat weight during your pregnancy if you continue to exercise (assuming you exercised before becoming pregnant). (kidshealth.org)

Kardashian's


  • Click here for Kim Kardashian's maternity style througout pregnancy or click on the tab above. (canada.com)

baby's


  • You can meticulously track your baby's growth with our Pregnancy Week by Week feature or have fun checking out our baby shower games, nursery ideas and Chinese Gender Predictor. (parenting.com)
  • Does the baby's position matter when deciding to have sex during pregnancy? (familydoctor.org)

occur


  • Elevations in progesterone that occur early in pregnancy are thought to slow the emptying of the stomach and may be related to the development of nausea. (slideshare.net)

teen pregnancy


  • RAND's research on teen pregnancy includes studies related to sex education, prevention and birth control, infant low birth weight, and educational options for teen moms, as well as groundbreaking research on the link between exposure to sexual content on television and teen pregnancy. (rand.org)
  • This guide is designed to help organizations assess the need for and select a teen pregnancy prevention program, identify specific goals and outcomes, create a detailed plan, identify and use evaluation measures, and apply data for program improvement. (rand.org)

early pregnancy


  • If you're healthy, the risks of moderate-intensity activity during pregnancy are very low, and do not increase risk of low birth weight, pre-term delivery, or early pregnancy loss. (kidshealth.org)
  • Nausea and vomiting are also common in early pregnancy. (slideshare.net)
  • A persistently elevated basal body temperature (the oral temperature measured first thing in the morning, before arising from bed) is another characteristic sign of early pregnancy. (slideshare.net)

symptoms


  • You may experience signs or symptoms of pregnancy within a week of conception. (slideshare.net)
  • Pregnancy symptoms differ from women to women and pregnancy to pregnancy. (slideshare.net)
  • Understanding the signs and symptoms of pregnancy is important because each symptom may be related to something other than pregnancy. (slideshare.net)
  • Mood swings and stress are common symptoms reported by many women in the early stages of pregnancy. (slideshare.net)
  • Find out which foods you should eat, which medications you should avoid and if the weird symptoms you've been having are pregnancy signs. (parenting.com)

Nausea


  • In most women, nausea and vomiting begin to subside by the second trimester of pregnancy. (slideshare.net)
  • Some essential oils may cause miscarriage, however others can be used to help minimise discomfort during pregnancy, such as backache , swollen legs and ankles and nausea . (everything2.com)

discomfort


  • If your physical health or discomfort won't allow you to have sex during pregnancy, consider it an opportunity to grow close to your partner in other ways. (familydoctor.org)
  • Physical discomfort may cause you to tell your partner you are not interested in sex during pregnancy. (familydoctor.org)

healthy


  • If you follow your doctor's advice, you can ensure a healthy pregnancy and baby. (parenting.com)
  • If you are having a healthy pregnancy, the amniotic fluid that surrounds the baby during your pregnancy actually protects the baby. (familydoctor.org)
  • Studies show that is not the case in a healthy pregnancy. (familydoctor.org)
  • With appropriate asthma therapy, most women can breathe easily, have a normal pregnancy, and deliver a healthy baby. (uptodate.com)
  • Staying Healthy and Comfortable during Pregnancy . (everything2.com)

shortly


  • Shortly after announcing her pregnancy at the MTV VMA Awards in August, Beyonce has allegedly been craving tomato ketchup on everything she eats, for breakfast, lunch and dinner - but it's not true. (yahoo.com)

prevention


  • This report analyzes the costs to implement the Children's Aid Society's Carrera Adolescent Pregnancy Prevention Program in-school model for one year for 880 students at one school district in Tulsa, Oklahoma. (rand.org)
  • A new web-based tool can help community leaders better plan and run their pregnancy prevention programs and achieve more positive outcomes. (rand.org)

Swollen


  • Swollen or tender breasts is a pregnancy symptom which may begin as early as 1-2 weeks after conception. (slideshare.net)

preeclampsia


  • While the jury's still out on the additional benefits of exercise during pregnancy, some studies have shown that exercise may even lower a woman's risk of complications, like preeclampsia and gestational diabetes. (kidshealth.org)

contractions


  • While sexual orgasms may be improved with pregnancy, there is a chance it could cause contractions in your uterus (but not labor). (familydoctor.org)

normal


  • A cannabis-like chemical may be important for normal pregnancy, US researchers believe. (bbc.co.uk)
  • In normal pregnancy, eggs make their way from the ovaries to the womb through the fallopian tubes, where they may be fertilised by a sperm. (bbc.co.uk)

baby


  • No doubt about it, exercise is a big plus for both you and your baby (if complications don't limit your ability to exercise throughout your pregnancy). (kidshealth.org)
  • Many women, for example, become dizzy early in their pregnancy, and as the baby grows, their center of gravity changes. (kidshealth.org)
  • Many women worry about how the changes of pregnancy will affect their asthma and if asthma treatments will harm the baby. (uptodate.com)
  • Drinking alcohol during pregnancy increases the risk to the baby of the foetal alcohol syndrome . (everything2.com)

women


  • Although you may not feel like running a marathon, most women benefit greatly from exercising throughout their pregnancies. (kidshealth.org)
  • For most women, the goal is to maintain their fitness level throughout pregnancy. (kidshealth.org)
  • Some women may experience feelings of abdominal enlargement or bloating, but there is usually only a small amount of weight gain in the first trimester of pregnancy. (slideshare.net)
  • Sometimes women also experience mild abdominal cramping during the early weeks of pregnancy, which may be similar to the cramping that occurs prior to or during the menstrual period. (slideshare.net)
  • Pregnant women gain about 3 pounds of blood during a pregnancy, which causes the extra blood flow. (familydoctor.org)
  • During pregnancy, asthma worsens in about one-third of women, improves in one-third, and remains stable in one-third. (uptodate.com)
  • However, the vast majority of women with asthma and their babies do NOT have any complications during pregnancy. (uptodate.com)
  • The days when pregnancy was hidden have disappeared and some women choose modern, stretch fabrics, which emphasise the figure. (everything2.com)
  • According to Dr Sudhansu Dey and colleagues, marijuana is one of the most popular illicit drugs used by pregnant women, raising concern about its affects during pregnancy. (bbc.co.uk)

risk


  • However, unless you are having pregnancy complications or your pregnancy is considered to be high risk, it's generally safe to have sex while you are pregnant. (familydoctor.org)
  • Factors affecting risk of attacks - The factors that increase or decrease the risk of asthma attacks during pregnancy are not entirely clear. (uptodate.com)

risks


  • If this is my first pregnancy, how will I know what my risks are when deciding to have sex during pregnancy? (familydoctor.org)

often


weeks


  • Its typical onset is anywhere between the 2nd and 8th weeks of pregnancy. (slideshare.net)
  • attacks seem to be most likely during weeks 17 through 24 of pregnancy. (uptodate.com)
  • Calculations of the weeks of pregnancy , as used by the medical profession, start from the first day of the last period. (everything2.com)

although


  • If you were a runner before you were pregnant, you might be able to continue running during your pregnancy, although you may have to modify your routine. (kidshealth.org)

start


  • It depends on when you start and whether your pregnancy is complicated. (kidshealth.org)

medical


  • Asthma therapy during pregnancy is most successful when a woman receives regular medical care and follows her treatment plan closely. (uptodate.com)

Popular


questions


  • People ask well-intentioned questions about my pregnancy, but 'Is this your first child? (parenting.com)

last


  • Pregnancy may only last nine months, but what a full, and sometimes confusing, time it can be! (parenting.com)

Follow


  • Unfortunately, it is difficult to predict the course that asthma will follow in a woman's first pregnancy. (uptodate.com)

body


  • regain your pre-pregnancy body more quickly. (kidshealth.org)
  • Pregnancy puts a lot of strain on your body, including at bedtime. (parenting.com)

common


  • Asthma is the most common condition affecting the lungs during pregnancy. (uptodate.com)

gives


  • This gives you sources where you can discuss/weigh up the pro's & cons of taking Gabapentin during pregnancy (& after). (drugs.com)

another


  • The severity of asthma during pregnancy varies from one woman to another. (uptodate.com)