Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Pregnancy Outcome: Results of conception and ensuing pregnancy, including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; SPONTANEOUS ABORTION; INDUCED ABORTION. The outcome may follow natural or artificial insemination or any of the various ASSISTED REPRODUCTIVE TECHNIQUES, such as EMBRYO TRANSFER or FERTILIZATION IN VITRO.Pregnancy Complications: Conditions or pathological processes associated with pregnancy. They can occur during or after pregnancy, and range from minor discomforts to serious diseases that require medical interventions. They include diseases in pregnant females, and pregnancies in females with diseases.Pregnancy, Animal: The process of bearing developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero in non-human mammals, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Pregnancy, Ectopic: A potentially life-threatening condition in which EMBRYO IMPLANTATION occurs outside the cavity of the UTERUS. Most ectopic pregnancies (>96%) occur in the FALLOPIAN TUBES, known as TUBAL PREGNANCY. They can be in other locations, such as UTERINE CERVIX; OVARY; and abdominal cavity (PREGNANCY, ABDOMINAL).Pregnancy Trimester, First: The beginning third of a human PREGNANCY, from the first day of the last normal menstrual period (MENSTRUATION) through the completion of 14 weeks (98 days) of gestation.Pregnancy Rate: The ratio of the number of conceptions (CONCEPTION) including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; and fetal losses, to the mean number of females of reproductive age in a population during a set time period.Pregnancy Trimester, Third: The last third of a human PREGNANCY, from the beginning of the 29th through the 42nd completed week (197 to 294 days) of gestation.Pregnancy Complications, Cardiovascular: The co-occurrence of pregnancy and a cardiovascular disease. The disease may precede or follow FERTILIZATION and it may or may not have a deleterious effect on the pregnant woman or FETUS.Pregnancy Trimesters: The three approximately equal periods of a normal human PREGNANCY. Each trimester is about three months or 13 to 14 weeks in duration depending on the designation of the first day of gestation.Pregnancy Tests: Tests to determine whether or not an individual is pregnant.Pregnancy, Multiple: The condition of carrying two or more FETUSES simultaneously.Pregnancy in Diabetics: The state of PREGNANCY in women with DIABETES MELLITUS. This does not include either symptomatic diabetes or GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE induced by pregnancy (DIABETES, GESTATIONAL) which resolves at the end of pregnancy.Pregnancy, Tubal: The most common (>96%) type of ectopic pregnancy in which the extrauterine EMBRYO IMPLANTATION occurs in the FALLOPIAN TUBE, usually in the ampullary region where FERTILIZATION takes place.Pregnancy Trimester, Second: The middle third of a human PREGNANCY, from the beginning of the 15th through the 28th completed week (99 to 196 days) of gestation.Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic: The co-occurrence of pregnancy and NEOPLASMS. The neoplastic disease may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.Pregnancy in Adolescence: Pregnancy in human adolescent females under the age of 19.Pregnancy Complications, Infectious: The co-occurrence of pregnancy and an INFECTION. The infection may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.Abortion, Spontaneous: Expulsion of the product of FERTILIZATION before completing the term of GESTATION and without deliberate interference.Pregnancy Proteins: Proteins produced by organs of the mother or the PLACENTA during PREGNANCY. These proteins may be pregnancy-specific (present only during pregnancy) or pregnancy-associated (present during pregnancy or under other conditions such as hormone therapy or certain malignancies.)Pregnancy, Unplanned: Unintended accidental pregnancy, including pregnancy resulting from failed contraceptive measures.Pregnancy, High-Risk: Pregnancy in which the mother and/or FETUS are at greater than normal risk of MORBIDITY or MORTALITY. Causes include inadequate PRENATAL CARE, previous obstetrical history (ABORTION, SPONTANEOUS), pre-existing maternal disease, pregnancy-induced disease (GESTATIONAL HYPERTENSION), and MULTIPLE PREGNANCY, as well as advanced maternal age above 35.Pregnancy, Unwanted: Pregnancy, usually accidental, that is not desired by the parent or parents.Gestational Age: The age of the conceptus, beginning from the time of FERTILIZATION. In clinical obstetrics, the gestational age is often estimated as the time from the last day of the last MENSTRUATION which is about 2 weeks before OVULATION and fertilization.Pregnancy Complications, Hematologic: The co-occurrence of pregnancy and a blood disease (HEMATOLOGIC DISEASES) which involves BLOOD CELLS or COAGULATION FACTORS. The hematologic disease may precede or follow FERTILIZATION and it may or may not have a deleterious effect on the pregnant woman or FETUS.Pregnancy, Prolonged: A term used to describe pregnancies that exceed the upper limit of a normal gestational period. In humans, a prolonged pregnancy is defined as one that extends beyond 42 weeks (294 days) after the first day of the last menstrual period (MENSTRUATION), or birth with gestational age of 41 weeks or more.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Pre-Eclampsia: A complication of PREGNANCY, characterized by a complex of symptoms including maternal HYPERTENSION and PROTEINURIA with or without pathological EDEMA. Symptoms may range between mild and severe. Pre-eclampsia usually occurs after the 20th week of gestation, but may develop before this time in the presence of trophoblastic disease.Pregnancy, Twin: The condition of carrying TWINS simultaneously.Placenta: A highly vascularized mammalian fetal-maternal organ and major site of transport of oxygen, nutrients, and fetal waste products. It includes a fetal portion (CHORIONIC VILLI) derived from TROPHOBLASTS and a maternal portion (DECIDUA) derived from the uterine ENDOMETRIUM. The placenta produces an array of steroid, protein and peptide hormones (PLACENTAL HORMONES).Fetal Death: Death of the developing young in utero. BIRTH of a dead FETUS is STILLBIRTH.Abortion, Induced: Intentional removal of a fetus from the uterus by any of a number of techniques. (POPLINE, 1978)Pregnancy, Abdominal: A type of ectopic pregnancy in which the EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN implants in the ABDOMINAL CAVITY instead of in the ENDOMETRIUM of the UTERUS.Uterus: The hollow thick-walled muscular organ in the female PELVIS. It consists of the fundus (the body) which is the site of EMBRYO IMPLANTATION and FETAL DEVELOPMENT. Beyond the isthmus at the perineal end of fundus, is CERVIX UTERI (the neck) opening into VAGINA. Beyond the isthmi at the upper abdominal end of fundus, are the FALLOPIAN TUBES.Pregnancy Complications, Parasitic: The co-occurrence of pregnancy and parasitic diseases. The parasitic infection may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.Pregnancy Maintenance: Physiological mechanisms that sustain the state of PREGNANCY.Ultrasonography, Prenatal: The visualization of tissues during pregnancy through recording of the echoes of ultrasonic waves directed into the body. The procedure may be applied with reference to the mother or the fetus and with reference to organs or the detection of maternal or fetal disease.Embryo Implantation: Endometrial implantation of EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN at the BLASTOCYST stage.Embryo Transfer: The transfer of mammalian embryos from an in vivo or in vitro environment to a suitable host to improve pregnancy or gestational outcome in human or animal. In human fertility treatment programs, preimplantation embryos ranging from the 4-cell stage to the blastocyst stage are transferred to the uterine cavity between 3-5 days after FERTILIZATION IN VITRO.Prenatal Care: Care provided the pregnant woman in order to prevent complications, and decrease the incidence of maternal and prenatal mortality.Fertilization in Vitro: An assisted reproductive technique that includes the direct handling and manipulation of oocytes and sperm to achieve fertilization in vitro.Maternal-Fetal Exchange: Exchange of substances between the maternal blood and the fetal blood at the PLACENTA via PLACENTAL CIRCULATION. The placental barrier excludes microbial or viral transmission.Parity: The number of offspring a female has borne. It is contrasted with GRAVIDITY, which refers to the number of pregnancies, regardless of outcome.Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects: The consequences of exposing the FETUS in utero to certain factors, such as NUTRITION PHYSIOLOGICAL PHENOMENA; PHYSIOLOGICAL STRESS; DRUGS; RADIATION; and other physical or chemical factors. These consequences are observed later in the offspring after BIRTH.Birth Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual at BIRTH. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Pregnancy Reduction, Multifetal: Selective abortion of one or more embryos or fetuses in a multiple gestation pregnancy. The usual goal is to improve the outcome for the remaining embryos or fetuses.Maternal Age: The age of the mother in PREGNANCY.Hypertension, Pregnancy-Induced: A condition in pregnant women with elevated systolic (>140 mm Hg) and diastolic (>90 mm Hg) blood pressure on at least two occasions 6 h apart. HYPERTENSION complicates 8-10% of all pregnancies, generally after 20 weeks of gestation. Gestational hypertension can be divided into several broad categories according to the complexity and associated symptoms, such as EDEMA; PROTEINURIA; SEIZURES; abnormalities in BLOOD COAGULATION and liver functions.Cesarean Section: Extraction of the FETUS by means of abdominal HYSTEROTOMY.Fetal Growth Retardation: The failure of a FETUS to attain its expected FETAL GROWTH at any GESTATIONAL AGE.Progesterone: The major progestational steroid that is secreted primarily by the CORPUS LUTEUM and the PLACENTA. Progesterone acts on the UTERUS, the MAMMARY GLANDS and the BRAIN. It is required in EMBRYO IMPLANTATION; PREGNANCY maintenance, and the development of mammary tissue for MILK production. Progesterone, converted from PREGNENOLONE, also serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.Premature Birth: CHILDBIRTH before 37 weeks of PREGNANCY (259 days from the first day of the mother's last menstrual period, or 245 days after FERTILIZATION).Infertility, Female: Diminished or absent ability of a female to achieve conception.Abnormalities, Drug-Induced: Congenital abnormalities caused by medicinal substances or drugs of abuse given to or taken by the mother, or to which she is inadvertently exposed during the manufacture of such substances. The concept excludes abnormalities resulting from exposure to non-medicinal chemicals in the environment.Lactation: The processes of milk secretion by the maternal MAMMARY GLANDS after PARTURITION. The proliferation of the mammary glandular tissue, milk synthesis, and milk expulsion or let down are regulated by the interactions of several hormones including ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; PROLACTIN; and OXYTOCIN.Fetal Development: Morphological and physiological development of FETUSES.Decidua: The hormone-responsive glandular layer of ENDOMETRIUM that sloughs off at each menstrual flow (decidua menstrualis) or at the termination of pregnancy. During pregnancy, the thickest part of the decidua forms the maternal portion of the PLACENTA, thus named decidua placentalis. The thin portion of the decidua covering the rest of the embryo is the decidua capsularis.Fetus: The unborn young of a viviparous mammal, in the postembryonic period, after the major structures have been outlined. In humans, the unborn young from the end of the eighth week after CONCEPTION until BIRTH, as distinguished from the earlier EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Labor, Obstetric: The repetitive uterine contraction during childbirth which is associated with the progressive dilation of the uterine cervix (CERVIX UTERI). Successful labor results in the expulsion of the FETUS and PLACENTA. Obstetric labor can be spontaneous or induced (LABOR, INDUCED).Obstetric Labor, Premature: Onset of OBSTETRIC LABOR before term (TERM BIRTH) but usually after the FETUS has become viable. In humans, it occurs sometime during the 29th through 38th week of PREGNANCY. TOCOLYSIS inhibits premature labor and can prevent the BIRTH of premature infants (INFANT, PREMATURE).Congenital Abnormalities: Malformations of organs or body parts during development in utero.Twins: Two individuals derived from two FETUSES that were fertilized at or about the same time, developed in the UTERUS simultaneously, and born to the same mother. Twins are either monozygotic (TWINS, MONOZYGOTIC) or dizygotic (TWINS, DIZYGOTIC).Prenatal Diagnosis: Determination of the nature of a pathological condition or disease in the postimplantation EMBRYO; FETUS; or pregnant female before birth.Maternal Exposure: Exposure of the female parent, human or animal, to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals that may affect offspring. It includes pre-conception maternal exposure.Chorionic Gonadotropin: A gonadotropic glycoprotein hormone produced primarily by the PLACENTA. Similar to the pituitary LUTEINIZING HORMONE in structure and function, chorionic gonadotropin is involved in maintaining the CORPUS LUTEUM during pregnancy. CG consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is virtually identical to the alpha subunits of the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity (CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN, BETA SUBUNIT, HUMAN).Diabetes, Gestational: Diabetes mellitus induced by PREGNANCY but resolved at the end of pregnancy. It does not include previously diagnosed diabetics who become pregnant (PREGNANCY IN DIABETICS). Gestational diabetes usually develops in late pregnancy when insulin antagonistic hormones peaks leading to INSULIN RESISTANCE; GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; and HYPERGLYCEMIA.Abortion, Therapeutic: Abortion induced to save the life or health of a pregnant woman. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Trophoblasts: Cells lining the outside of the BLASTOCYST. After binding to the ENDOMETRIUM, trophoblasts develop into two distinct layers, an inner layer of mononuclear cytotrophoblasts and an outer layer of continuous multinuclear cytoplasm, the syncytiotrophoblasts, which form the early fetal-maternal interface (PLACENTA).Abortion, Habitual: Three or more consecutive spontaneous abortions.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Abortifacient Agents, Nonsteroidal: Non-steroidal chemical compounds with abortifacient activity.Insemination, Artificial: Artificial introduction of SEMEN or SPERMATOZOA into the VAGINA to facilitate FERTILIZATION.Delivery, Obstetric: Delivery of the FETUS and PLACENTA under the care of an obstetrician or a health worker. Obstetric deliveries may involve physical, psychological, medical, or surgical interventions.Fetal Diseases: Pathophysiological conditions of the FETUS in the UTERUS. Some fetal diseases may be treated with FETAL THERAPIES.Puerperal Disorders: Disorders or diseases associated with PUERPERIUM, the six-to-eight-week period immediately after PARTURITION in humans.Endometrium: The mucous membrane lining of the uterine cavity that is hormonally responsive during the MENSTRUAL CYCLE and PREGNANCY. The endometrium undergoes cyclic changes that characterize MENSTRUATION. After successful FERTILIZATION, it serves to sustain the developing embryo.Sperm Injections, Intracytoplasmic: An assisted fertilization technique consisting of the microinjection of a single viable sperm into an extracted ovum. It is used principally to overcome low sperm count, low sperm motility, inability of sperm to penetrate the egg, or other conditions related to male infertility (INFERTILITY, MALE).Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Fertility: The capacity to conceive or to induce conception. It may refer to either the male or female.Infant, Low Birth Weight: An infant having a birth weight of 2500 gm. (5.5 lb.) or less but INFANT, VERY LOW BIRTH WEIGHT is available for infants having a birth weight of 1500 grams (3.3 lb.) or less.Preconception Care: An organized and comprehensive program of health care that identifies and reduces a woman's reproductive risks before conception through risk assessment, health promotion, and interventions. Preconception care programs may be designed to include the male partner in providing counseling and educational information in preparation for fatherhood, such as genetic counseling and testing, financial and family planning, etc. This concept is different from PRENATAL CARE, which occurs during pregnancy.Placenta Diseases: Pathological processes or abnormal functions of the PLACENTA.Amniotic Fluid: A clear, yellowish liquid that envelopes the FETUS inside the sac of AMNION. In the first trimester, it is likely a transudate of maternal or fetal plasma. In the second trimester, amniotic fluid derives primarily from fetal lung and kidney. Cells or substances in this fluid can be removed for prenatal diagnostic tests (AMNIOCENTESIS).Infertility: Inability to reproduce after a specified period of unprotected intercourse. Reproductive sterility is permanent infertility.Pregnant Women: Human females who are pregnant, as cultural, psychological, or sociological entities.Stillbirth: The event that a FETUS is born dead or stillborn.Gravidity: The number of pregnancies, complete or incomplete, experienced by a female. It is different from PARITY, which is the number of offspring borne. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Reproductive Techniques, Assisted: Clinical and laboratory techniques used to enhance fertility in humans and animals.Chorionic Gonadotropin, beta Subunit, Human: The beta subunit of human CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN. Its structure is similar to the beta subunit of LUTEINIZING HORMONE, except for the additional 30 amino acids at the carboxy end with the associated carbohydrate residues. HCG-beta is used as a diagnostic marker for early detection of pregnancy, spontaneous abortion (ABORTION, SPONTANEOUS); ECTOPIC PREGNANCY; HYDATIDIFORM MOLE; CHORIOCARCINOMA; or DOWN SYNDROME.Parturition: The process of giving birth to one or more offspring.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Maternal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutrition of a mother which affects the health of the FETUS and INFANT as well as herself.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Ovulation Induction: Techniques for the artifical induction of ovulation, the rupture of the follicle and release of the ovum.Pregnancy Tests, Immunologic: Methods of detecting pregnancy by examining the levels of human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) in plasma or urine.Live Birth: The event that a FETUS is born alive with heartbeats or RESPIRATION regardless of GESTATIONAL AGE. Such liveborn is called a newborn infant (INFANT, NEWBORN).Myometrium: The smooth muscle coat of the uterus, which forms the main mass of the organ.Abortion, Legal: Termination of pregnancy under conditions allowed under local laws. (POPLINE Thesaurus, 1991)Placental Circulation: The circulation of BLOOD, of both the mother and the FETUS, through the PLACENTA.Contraception: Prevention of CONCEPTION by blocking fertility temporarily, or permanently (STERILIZATION, REPRODUCTIVE). Common means of reversible contraception include NATURAL FAMILY PLANNING METHODS; CONTRACEPTIVE AGENTS; or CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES.Prenatal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutrition of FEMALE during PREGNANCY.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Abortion, Threatened: UTERINE BLEEDING from a GESTATION of less than 20 weeks without any CERVICAL DILATATION. It is characterized by vaginal bleeding, lower back discomfort, or midline pelvic cramping and a risk factor for MISCARRIAGE.Hydatidiform Mole: Trophoblastic hyperplasia associated with normal gestation, or molar pregnancy. It is characterized by the swelling of the CHORIONIC VILLI and elevated human CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN. Hydatidiform moles or molar pregnancy may be categorized as complete or partial based on their gross morphology, histopathology, and karyotype.Infant, Small for Gestational Age: An infant having a birth weight lower than expected for its gestational age.Triplets: Three individuals derived from three FETUSES that were fertilized at or about the same time, developed in the UTERUS simultaneously, and born to the same mother.Uterine Hemorrhage: Bleeding from blood vessels in the UTERUS, sometimes manifested as vaginal bleeding.Placentation: The development of the PLACENTA, a highly vascularized mammalian fetal-maternal organ and major site of transport of oxygen, nutrients, and fetal waste products between mother and FETUS. The process begins at FERTILIZATION, through the development of CYTOTROPHOBLASTS and SYNCYTIOTROPHOBLASTS, the formation of CHORIONIC VILLI, to the progressive increase in BLOOD VESSELS to support the growing fetus.Reproductive Techniques: Methods pertaining to the generation of new individuals, including techniques used in selective BREEDING, cloning (CLONING, ORGANISM), and assisted reproduction (REPRODUCTIVE TECHNIQUES, ASSISTED).Mothers: Female parents, human or animal.Uterine Artery: A branch arising from the internal iliac artery in females, that supplies blood to the uterus.Abortifacient Agents: Chemical substances that interrupt pregnancy after implantation.Fetal Resorption: The disintegration and assimilation of the dead FETUS in the UTERUS at any stage after the completion of organogenesis which, in humans, is after the 9th week of GESTATION. It does not include embryo resorption (see EMBRYO LOSS).Contraception Behavior: Behavior patterns of those practicing CONTRACEPTION.Corpus Luteum: The yellow body derived from the ruptured OVARIAN FOLLICLE after OVULATION. The process of corpus luteum formation, LUTEINIZATION, is regulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE.Estradiol: The 17-beta-isomer of estradiol, an aromatized C18 steroid with hydroxyl group at 3-beta- and 17-beta-position. Estradiol-17-beta is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids.Oocyte Donation: Transfer of preovulatory oocytes from donor to a suitable host. Oocytes are collected, fertilized in vitro, and transferred to a host that can be human or animal.Chorionic Villi: The threadlike, vascular projections of the chorion. Chorionic villi may be free or embedded within the DECIDUA forming the site for exchange of substances between fetal and maternal blood (PLACENTA).Embryonic and Fetal Development: Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS or FETUSES.Maternal Welfare: Organized efforts by communities or organizations to improve the health and well-being of the mother.Hyperemesis Gravidarum: Intractable VOMITING that develops in early PREGNANCY and persists. This can lead to DEHYDRATION and WEIGHT LOSS.Estrus: The period in the ESTROUS CYCLE associated with maximum sexual receptivity and fertility in non-primate female mammals.Fetal Weight: The weight of the FETUS in utero. It is usually estimated by various formulas based on measurements made during PRENATAL ULTRASONOGRAPHY.Eclampsia: Onset of HYPERREFLEXIA; SEIZURES; or COMA in a previously diagnosed pre-eclamptic patient (PRE-ECLAMPSIA).Amniocentesis: Percutaneous transabdominal puncture of the uterus during pregnancy to obtain amniotic fluid. It is commonly used for fetal karyotype determination in order to diagnose abnormal fetal conditions.Family Planning Services: Health care programs or services designed to assist individuals in the planning of family size. Various methods of CONTRACEPTION can be used to control the number and timing of childbirths.Obstetric Labor Complications: Medical problems associated with OBSTETRIC LABOR, such as BREECH PRESENTATION; PREMATURE OBSTETRIC LABOR; HEMORRHAGE; or others. These complications can affect the well-being of the mother, the FETUS, or both.Fetal Blood: Blood of the fetus. Exchange of nutrients and waste between the fetal and maternal blood occurs via the PLACENTA. The cord blood is blood contained in the umbilical vessels (UMBILICAL CORD) at the time of delivery.Abortion, Missed: The retention in the UTERUS of a dead FETUS two months or more after its DEATH.Fallopian Tubes: A pair of highly specialized muscular canals extending from the UTERUS to its corresponding OVARY. They provide the means for OVUM collection, and the site for the final maturation of gametes and FERTILIZATION. The fallopian tube consists of an interstitium, an isthmus, an ampulla, an infundibulum, and fimbriae. Its wall consists of three histologic layers: serous, muscular, and an internal mucosal layer lined with both ciliated and secretory cells.Cryopreservation: Preservation of cells, tissues, organs, or embryos by freezing. In histological preparations, cryopreservation or cryofixation is used to maintain the existing form, structure, and chemical composition of all the constituent elements of the specimens.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Crown-Rump Length: In utero measurement corresponding to the sitting height (crown to rump) of the fetus. Length is considered a more accurate criterion of the age of the fetus than is the weight. The average crown-rump length of the fetus at term is 36 cm. (From Williams Obstetrics, 18th ed, p91)Fetal Macrosomia: A condition of fetal overgrowth leading to a large-for-gestational-age FETUS. It is defined as BIRTH WEIGHT greater than 4,000 grams or above the 90th percentile for population and sex-specific growth curves. It is commonly seen in GESTATIONAL DIABETES; PROLONGED PREGNANCY; and pregnancies complicated by pre-existing diabetes mellitus.HELLP Syndrome: A syndrome of HEMOLYSIS, elevated liver ENZYMES, and low blood platelets count (THROMBOCYTOPENIA). HELLP syndrome is observed in pregnant women with PRE-ECLAMPSIA or ECLAMPSIA who also exhibit LIVER damage and abnormalities in BLOOD COAGULATION.Fetal Monitoring: Physiologic or biochemical monitoring of the fetus. It is usually done during LABOR, OBSTETRIC and may be performed in conjunction with the monitoring of uterine activity. It may also be performed prenatally as when the mother is undergoing surgery.Birth Rate: The number of births in a given population per year or other unit of time.Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical: The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens from one generation to another. It includes transmission in utero or intrapartum by exposure to blood and secretions, and postpartum exposure via breastfeeding.Estriol: A hydroxylated metabolite of ESTRADIOL or ESTRONE that has a hydroxyl group at C3, 16-alpha, and 17-beta position. Estriol is a major urinary estrogen. During PREGNANCY, a large amount of estriol is produced by the PLACENTA. Isomers with inversion of the hydroxyl group or groups are called epiestriol.Ovary: The reproductive organ (GONADS) in female animals. In vertebrates, the ovary contains two functional parts: the OVARIAN FOLLICLE for the production of female germ cells (OOGENESIS); and the endocrine cells (GRANULOSA CELLS; THECA CELLS; and LUTEAL CELLS) for the production of ESTROGENS and PROGESTERONE.Pseudopregnancy: An acyclic state that resembles PREGNANCY in that there is no ovarian cycle, ESTROUS CYCLE, or MENSTRUAL CYCLE. Unlike pregnancy, there is no EMBRYO IMPLANTATION. Pseudopregnancy can be experimentally induced to form DECIDUOMA in the UTERUS.Sheep: Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Morning Sickness: Symptoms of NAUSEA and VOMITING in pregnant women that usually occur in the morning during the first 2 to 3 months of PREGNANCY. Severe persistent vomiting during pregnancy is called HYPEREMESIS GRAVIDARUM.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Chorion: The outermost extra-embryonic membrane surrounding the developing embryo. In REPTILES and BIRDS, it adheres to the shell and allows exchange of gases between the egg and its environment. In MAMMALS, the chorion evolves into the fetal contribution of the PLACENTA.Estrous Cycle: The period of cyclic physiological and behavior changes in non-primate female mammals that exhibit ESTRUS. The estrous cycle generally consists of 4 or 5 distinct periods corresponding to the endocrine status (PROESTRUS; ESTRUS; METESTRUS; DIESTRUS; and ANESTRUS).Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Cervix Uteri: The neck portion of the UTERUS between the lower isthmus and the VAGINA forming the cervical canal.Fetal Viability: The potential of the FETUS to survive outside the UTERUS after birth, natural or induced. Fetal viability depends largely on the FETAL ORGAN MATURITY, and environmental conditions.Fertilization: The fusion of a spermatozoon (SPERMATOZOA) with an OVUM thus resulting in the formation of a ZYGOTE.Misoprostol: A synthetic analog of natural prostaglandin E1. It produces a dose-related inhibition of gastric acid and pepsin secretion, and enhances mucosal resistance to injury. It is an effective anti-ulcer agent and also has oxytocic properties.Abruptio Placentae: Premature separation of the normally implanted PLACENTA from the UTERUS. Signs of varying degree of severity include UTERINE BLEEDING, uterine MUSCLE HYPERTONIA, and FETAL DISTRESS or FETAL DEATH.Abortion, Eugenic: Abortion performed because of possible fetal defects.Weight Gain: Increase in BODY WEIGHT over existing weight.Menstrual Cycle: The period from onset of one menstrual bleeding (MENSTRUATION) to the next in an ovulating woman or female primate. The menstrual cycle is regulated by endocrine interactions of the HYPOTHALAMUS; the PITUITARY GLAND; the ovaries; and the genital tract. The menstrual cycle is divided by OVULATION into two phases. Based on the endocrine status of the OVARY, there is a FOLLICULAR PHASE and a LUTEAL PHASE. Based on the response in the ENDOMETRIUM, the menstrual cycle is divided into a proliferative and a secretory phase.Breast Feeding: The nursing of an infant at the breast.Relaxin: A water-soluble polypeptide (molecular weight approximately 8,000) extractable from the corpus luteum of pregnancy. It produces relaxation of the pubic symphysis and dilation of the uterine cervix in certain animal species. Its role in the human pregnant female is uncertain. (Dorland, 28th ed)Contraceptive Agents: Chemical substances that prevent or reduce the probability of CONCEPTION.Infant Mortality: Postnatal deaths from BIRTH to 365 days after birth in a given population. Postneonatal mortality represents deaths between 28 days and 365 days after birth (as defined by National Center for Health Statistics). Neonatal mortality represents deaths from birth to 27 days after birth.Litter Size: The number of offspring produced at one birth by a viviparous animal.Odds Ratio: The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.Down Syndrome: A chromosome disorder associated either with an extra chromosome 21 or an effective trisomy for chromosome 21. Clinical manifestations include hypotonia, short stature, brachycephaly, upslanting palpebral fissures, epicanthus, Brushfield spots on the iris, protruding tongue, small ears, short, broad hands, fifth finger clinodactyly, Simian crease, and moderate to severe INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY. Cardiac and gastrointestinal malformations, a marked increase in the incidence of LEUKEMIA, and the early onset of ALZHEIMER DISEASE are also associated with this condition. Pathologic features include the development of NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES in neurons and the deposition of AMYLOID BETA-PROTEIN, similar to the pathology of ALZHEIMER DISEASE. (Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p213)Maternal Mortality: Maternal deaths resulting from complications of pregnancy and childbirth in a given population.Infertility, Male: The inability of the male to effect FERTILIZATION of an OVUM after a specified period of unprotected intercourse. Male sterility is permanent infertility.Umbilical Arteries: Specialized arterial vessels in the umbilical cord. They carry waste and deoxygenated blood from the FETUS to the mother via the PLACENTA. In humans, there are usually two umbilical arteries but sometimes one.Maternal Behavior: The behavior patterns associated with or characteristic of a mother.Mammary Glands, Animal: MAMMARY GLANDS in the non-human MAMMALS.Neural Tube Defects: Congenital malformations of the central nervous system and adjacent structures related to defective neural tube closure during the first trimester of pregnancy generally occurring between days 18-29 of gestation. Ectodermal and mesodermal malformations (mainly involving the skull and vertebrae) may occur as a result of defects of neural tube closure. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch55, pp31-41)Dietary Supplements: Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide dietary ingredients, and that are intended to be taken by mouth to increase the intake of nutrients. Dietary supplements can include macronutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and/or MICRONUTRIENTS, such as VITAMINS; MINERALS; and PHYTOCHEMICALS.Insemination, Artificial, Homologous: Human artificial insemination in which the husband's semen is used.Placental Lactogen: A polypeptide hormone of approximately 25 kDa that is produced by the SYNCYTIOTROPHOBLASTS of the PLACENTA, also known as chorionic somatomammotropin. It has both GROWTH HORMONE and PROLACTIN activities on growth, lactation, and luteal steroid production. In women, placental lactogen secretion begins soon after implantation and increases to 1 g or more a day in late pregnancy. Placental lactogen is also an insulin antagonist.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Blastocyst: A post-MORULA preimplantation mammalian embryo that develops from a 32-cell stage into a fluid-filled hollow ball of over a hundred cells. A blastocyst has two distinctive tissues. The outer layer of trophoblasts gives rise to extra-embryonic tissues. The inner cell mass gives rise to the embryonic disc and eventual embryo proper.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Reproduction: The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)Fertility Agents, Female: Compounds which increase the capacity to conceive in females.Uterine Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the UTERUS.Uterine Contraction: Contraction of the UTERINE MUSCLE.Administration, Intravaginal: The insertion of drugs into the vagina to treat local infections, neoplasms, or to induce labor. The dosage forms may include medicated pessaries, irrigation fluids, and suppositories.Menstruation: The periodic shedding of the ENDOMETRIUM and associated menstrual bleeding in the MENSTRUAL CYCLE of humans and primates. Menstruation is due to the decline in circulating PROGESTERONE, and occurs at the late LUTEAL PHASE when LUTEOLYSIS of the CORPUS LUTEUM takes place.Apgar Score: A method, developed by Dr. Virginia Apgar, to evaluate a newborn's adjustment to extrauterine life. Five items - heart rate, respiratory effort, muscle tone, reflex irritability, and color - are evaluated 60 seconds after birth and again five minutes later on a scale from 0-2, 0 being the lowest, 2 being normal. The five numbers are added for the Apgar score. A score of 0-3 represents severe distress, 4-7 indicates moderate distress, and a score of 7-10 predicts an absence of difficulty in adjusting to extrauterine life.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Pregnancy-Associated Plasma Protein-A: A product of the PLACENTA, and DECIDUA, secreted into the maternal circulation during PREGNANCY. It has been identified as an IGF binding protein (IGFBP)-4 protease that proteolyzes IGFBP-4 and thus increases IGF bioavailability. It is found also in human FIBROBLASTS, ovarian FOLLICULAR FLUID, and GRANULOSA CELLS. The enzyme is a heterotetramer of about 500-kDa.Risk: The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.Chorionic Villi Sampling: A method for diagnosis of fetal diseases by sampling the cells of the placental chorionic villi for DNA analysis, presence of bacteria, concentration of metabolites, etc. The advantage over amniocentesis is that the procedure can be carried out in the first trimester.Fathers: Male parents, human or animal.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Labor, Induced: Artificially induced UTERINE CONTRACTION. Generally, LABOR, OBSTETRIC is induced with the intent to cause delivery of the fetus and termination of pregnancy.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Clomiphene: A triphenyl ethylene stilbene derivative which is an estrogen agonist or antagonist depending on the target tissue. Note that ENCLOMIPHENE and ZUCLOMIPHENE are the (E) and (Z) isomers of Clomiphene respectively.Labor Onset: The beginning of true OBSTETRIC LABOR which is characterized by the cyclic uterine contractions of increasing frequency, duration, and strength causing CERVICAL DILATATION to begin (LABOR STAGE, FIRST ).Reproductive Behavior: Human behavior or decision related to REPRODUCTION.Infant, Newborn, Diseases: Diseases of newborn infants present at birth (congenital) or developing within the first month of birth. It does not include hereditary diseases not manifesting at birth or within the first 30 days of life nor does it include inborn errors of metabolism. Both HEREDITARY DISEASES and METABOLISM, INBORN ERRORS are available as general concepts.Fetal Membranes, Premature Rupture: Spontaneous tearing of the membranes surrounding the FETUS any time before the onset of OBSTETRIC LABOR. Preterm PROM is membrane rupture before 37 weeks of GESTATION.Folic Acid: A member of the vitamin B family that stimulates the hematopoietic system. It is present in the liver and kidney and is found in mushrooms, spinach, yeast, green leaves, and grasses (POACEAE). Folic acid is used in the treatment and prevention of folate deficiencies and megaloblastic anemia.Prolactin: A lactogenic hormone secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). It is a polypeptide of approximately 23 kD. Besides its major action on lactation, in some species prolactin exerts effects on reproduction, maternal behavior, fat metabolism, immunomodulation and osmoregulation. Prolactin receptors are present in the mammary gland, hypothalamus, liver, ovary, testis, and prostate.Polyhydramnios: A condition of abnormally high AMNIOTIC FLUID volume, such as greater than 2,000 ml in the LAST TRIMESTER and usually diagnosed by ultrasonographic criteria (AMNIOTIC FLUID INDEX). It is associated with maternal DIABETES MELLITUS; MULTIPLE PREGNANCY; CHROMOSOMAL DISORDERS; and congenital abnormalities.Heart Rate, Fetal: The heart rate of the FETUS. The normal range at term is between 120 and 160 beats per minute.Intrauterine Devices: Contraceptive devices placed high in the uterine fundus.Embryo, Mammalian: The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.

*  Pregnancy week by week First trimester - Mayo Clinic

Pregnancy problems. During pregnancy, your baby's health is your top priority. That's why pregnancy problems can be so scary. ... Healthy pregnancy. When you learn that you're pregnant, you might begin planning your pregnancy week by week. Every day you ... In other cases, pregnancy problems such as gestational diabetes complicate what seemed to be a healthy pregnancy. And for ... Whatever your questions, understanding your pregnancy week by week can help you make good decisions throughout your pregnancy. ...

*  A prospective cohort study of pregnancy risk factors and birth outcomes in Aboriginal women

Male involvement during pregnancy and childbirth: men's perceptions, practices and experiences during the care for women who ... It is therefore critical that those who work with mothers during pregnancy and shortly after be equipped with the information ... Statistics are given regarding the women in India who died during pregnancy or childbirth in 2015 due to inadequate facilities. ... Background: The study was aimed to compare pregnancies complicated with shoulder dystocia, of patients with and without ...

*  Study Shows Choline Intake in Pregnant Women may 'Program' Healthier Babies

Breech Presentation and Delivery Pregnancy and Complications Anemia in Pregnancy Iron & Folate Deficiency Anemia In Pregnancy ... Anemia in Pregnancy. Anemia is the commonest blood disorder that may occur in pregnancy and is usually due to low iron or ... Pregnancy Labor - Animation. Pregnancy Labor is caused by series of progressive expulsive contractions by the uterus and ... Pregnancy is a time when a female blossoms into a woman with an experience never felt before. Here are a few self-care tips for ...

*  NewYork-Presbyterian/Queens - Pregnancy - Medical Conditions and Pregnancy

Pregnancy - Medical Conditions and Pregnancy. Medical conditions that may affect pregnancy:. Certain medical conditions may ... Infectious diseases and pregnancy:. Infections during pregnancy can pose a threat to the fetus. Even a simple urinary tract ... Infected pregnant women can transmit the virus to the fetus during pregnancy and at delivery.. The later in pregnancy a mother ... High blood pressure and pregnancy:. High blood pressure can occur in pregnancy in two forms. It may be a preexisting condition ...

*  Twin Pregnancy - My Blog

The occurrence of a multiple pregnancy can be recognized during the other months of pregnancy when your doctor may find two ... Twin Pregnancy August 28, 2017. No Comments Pregnant state as every one is aware commonly terminates with the birthday of an ... Just like any pregnancy however there always are hazards of problems arising now and then. The best advice you can get is to ... A twin pregnant state is generally regarded by the medical profession as carrying a higher risk than single pregnancies; that ...

*  Soft breast after pregnancy - Pregnancy Blog

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*  Nigeria: 'Malaria in Pregnancy Causes Miscarriage, Premature Births, Maternal Deaths, Others' - allAfrica.com

... miscarriages and low birth weights in Nigeria is malaria in pregnancy. ... Pregnancy and Childbirth. South Africa: Crowds Outside Court Where Mother Appears for Alleged Killing of Newborn ... NutritionOceansOlympicsPeacekeepingPetroleumPolioPregnancy and ChildbirthPrivatizationRefugeesReligionScienceSoccerSportStock ... All these can prevent malaria in pregnancy," she noted.. While urging women to report to the hospital immediately they notice ...

*  Effects of interventions in pregnancy on maternal weight and obstetric outcomes: meta-analysis of randomised evidence | The BMJ

Weight gain during pregnancy: re-examining the guidelines. Committee to Reexamine Institute of Medicine Pregnancy Weight ... Effect of dietary and lifestyle interventions in pregnancy on primary outcomes (weight gain in pregnancy and birth weight) and ... Diet and lifestyle interventions in pregnancy can reduce maternal weight gain in pregnancy ... 2 Increased maternal weight or excessive weight gain in pregnancy is associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes.3 Half the ...

*  O23-5 High job demands and low levels of job control during pregnancy may increase the risks of low birth weight and preterm...

O23-5 High job demands and low levels of job control during pregnancy may increase the risks of low birth weight and preterm ... O23-5 High job demands and low levels of job control during pregnancy may increase the risks of low birth weight and preterm ... Results In total, 1165 out of 1369 women with a singleton pregnancy resulting in a live birth before May 1st 2015 were included ... Background Increased stress levels at work may be associated with adverse effects on pregnancy outcomes, but studies have been ...

*  Study reveals how high-fat diet during pregnancy increases risk of ... ( PORTLAND Ore. Eating a high-fat die...)

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*  Pregnancy establishment and maintenance in cattle.

... reciprocal embryo transfer study was used to investigate effects of oocyte competence and maternal environment on pregnancy ... Pregnancy maintenance from d 7 to 27 was enhanced (P , 0.10) by increased serum estradiol concentration on d 0 and progesterone ... Increased follicular diameter in the recipient cow on d 0 was detrimental to pregnancy maintenance from d 7 to 27. This ... 15571598 - Liver disease in pregnancy.. 9476328 - Body stalk anomaly at 10-14 weeks of gestation.. ...

*  Placental Growth and Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov

Information about pregnancy outcomes will be retrieved from the maternal and neonatal medical record post partum. ... The placenta is known to play a vital role in maintaining a healthy pregnancy. Placental dysfunction is believed to be a ... Singleton pregnancies presenting to the Genetic Counselor for Sequential Screening prior to 14 weeks gestation. ... It may be that quantitative assessment of early placental growth can help identify pregnancies at risk for adverse outcome. ...

*  twenty eight (28) week pregnancy symptoms, twenty eight week pregnancy calendar, twenty eight (28) week pregnant signs &...

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*  Fetal Outcome of Sleep Disordered Breathing During Pregnancy - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov

Hypothesis: SDB during pregnancy imposes a risk to the developing fetus and the newborn infant through mechanisms mediated by ... Fetal Outcome of Sleep Disordered Breathing During Pregnancy. Further study details as provided by Tel-Aviv Sourasky Medical ... Fetal Outcome of Sleep Disordered Breathing During Pregnancy. The recruitment status of this study is unknown. The completion ... Women in the third trimester of a singleton uncomplicated pregnancy, who attend a low risk obstetric surveillance (for group 1 ...

*  Does exercise training during pregnancy affect gestational age? A randomised controlled trial | British Journal of Sports...

Exercise during pregnancy and pregnancy outcome. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1995;5:634-40. ... pregnancy-induced hypertension, n = 2; molar pregnancy, n = 1; and threat of premature delivery, n = 2). Thus, the final number ... and stop working during pregnancy because of perceived increased risk of problems, e.g., such as early pregnancy loss or ... complete answer regarding the effect of exercise during the total duration of pregnancy on the pregnancy outcome. Relevant data ...

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*  The Effect of Prematurity and Hypertensive Disorders of Pregnancy on Offspring Cardiovascular Health - Full Text View -...

Term Pregnancy-induced Hypertension Infants born at term (,37 weeks gestation) and exposed to pregnancy-induced hypertension ... Hypertension, Pregnancy-Induced. Pregnancy Complications. Obstetric Labor, Premature. Obstetric Labor Complications. Vascular ... The Effect of Prematurity and Hypertensive Disorders of Pregnancy on Offspring Cardiovascular Health (EPOCH). This study is ... The purpose of this study is to investigate whether exposure to hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and/or a preterm birth ...

*  Pharmaceuticals | Free Full-Text | The Use of Central Nervous System Active Drugs During Pregnancy

Use during early pregnancy may increase the risk of a congenital malformation; use during the later part of pregnancy may be ... This paper summarizes the literature on such drugs used during pregnancy: opioids, anticonvulsants, drugs used for Parkinson's ... CNS-active drugs are used relatively often during pregnancy. ... Use during early pregnancy may increase the risk of a ... The Use of Central Nervous System Active Drugs During Pregnancy. Bengt Källén 1,* , Natalia Borg 2. ...

*  JCI - Risks associated with viral infections during pregnancy

Risks associated with viral infections during pregnancy. Karen Racicot1 and Gil Mor2 1Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and ... Both scenarios can result in severe birth defects or pregnancy loss. Systemic maternal viral infections can also affect the ... In this Review, we discuss the potential contributions of maternal, placental, and fetal viral infection to pregnancy outcome, ... we still have a limited understanding of how they affect pregnancy and fetal development. Viruses can gain access to the ...

*  Principal Investigators, Scientific Researchers | GRAVIDA

The SCOPE study has a very high quality early pregnancy bio bank which is being used for prediction of these late pregnancy ... The overarching goal of SCOPE is to develop reliable early pregnancy predictive tests for these serious pregnancy complications ... adverse pregnancy outcome in teenage pregnancies, fetal origins of adult disease (such as schizophrenia) and the effect of ... mid-pregnancy shearing, and potential long term intra- and inter-generational effects of dam nutrition, pregnancy rank, parity ...

*  Effect of nutritional restriction in early pregnancy on isolated femoral artery function in mid-gestation fetal sheep -...

Effect of nutritional restriction in early pregnancy on isolated femoral artery function in mid-gestation fetal sheep ... Effect of nutritional restriction in early pregnancy on isolated femoral artery function in mid-gestation fetal sheep The ...

*  Prepregnancy maternal overweight increases the risk of both early and late preterm delivery. - Healthcanal.com : Healthcanal.com

Home Pregnancy and Childbirth Prepregnancy maternal overweight increases the risk of both early and late preterm delivery. ... Women with pre-pregnancy obesity had increased risk of spontaneous preterm delivery, but not medically indicated (iatrogenic) ... Weight reduction before pregnancy may help overweight women to reduce the risk of preterm delivery. ... The findings in this study support the hypothesis that high pre-pregnancy maternal body mass index increases the risk of ...

*  Show pregnancy labour - Pregnancy Blog

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*  Pregnancy - Wikipedia

For pregnancy in other mammals, see Pregnancy (mammals). For pregnancy in fish, see Pregnancy in fish. ... Further information: Pregnancy test. Pregnancy detection can be accomplished using one or more various pregnancy tests,[59] ... "Pregnancy Symptoms - Early Signs of Pregnancy : American Pregnancy Association". Archived from the original on 15 January 2008 ... Main article: Medical imaging in pregnancy. Medical imaging may be indicated in pregnancy because of pregnancy complications, ...

Prenatal nutrition: Nutrition and weight management before and during :pregnancy has a profound effect on the development of infants. This is a rather critical time for healthy fetal development as infants rely heavily on maternal stores and nutrient for optimal growth and health outcome later in life.Ovarian pregnancyPregnancy rate: Pregnancy rate is the success rate for getting pregnant. It is the percentage of all attempts that leads to pregnancy, with attempts generally referring to menstrual cycles where insemination or any artificial equivalent is used, which may be simple artificial insemination (AI) or AI with additional in vitro fertilization.Pregnancy test: A pregnancy test attempts to determine whether a woman is pregnant. Markers that indicate pregnancy are found in urine and blood, and pregnancy tests require sampling one of these substances.Interstitial pregnancyTeenage Mother (film): Teenage Mother (a.k.Unintended pregnancy: Unintended pregnancies are pregnancies that are mistimed, unplanned or unwanted at the time of conception. Unintended pregnancy mainly results from engaging in vaginal sexual activity without the use of contraception, or due to incorrect use of a contraceptive method, but may also arise from the failure of the contraception method when used correctly to prevent pregnancy.Gestational age: Gestational age (or menstrual age) is a measure of the age of a pregnancy where the origin is the woman's last normal menstrual period (LMP), or the corresponding age as estimated by other methods. Such methods include adding 14 days to a known duration since fertilization (as is possible in in vitro fertilization), or by obstetric ultrasonography.Gestational thrombocytopeniaPlacenta: The placenta (also known as afterbirth) is an organ that connects the developing fetus to the uterine wall to allow nutrient uptake, waste elimination, and gas exchange via the mother's blood supply, fight against internal infection and produce hormones to support pregnancy. The placenta provides oxygen and nutrients to growing babies and removes waste products from the baby's blood.Medical abortion: A medical abortion is a type of non-surgical abortion in which abortifacient pharmaceutical drugs are used to induce abortion. An oral preparation for medical abortion is commonly referred to as an abortion pill.Abdominal pregnancyUterus transplantation: The uterine transplant is the surgical procedure whereby a healthy uterus is transplanted into a female organism of which the uterus is absent or diseased. As part of normal mammalian sexual reproduction, a diseased or absent uterus does not allow normal embryonic implantation, effectively rendering the female infertile.Embryo transfer: Embryo transfer refers to a step in the process of assisted reproduction in which embryos are placed into the uterus of a female with the intent to establish a pregnancy. This technique (which is often used in connection with in vitro fertilization (IVF)), may be used in humans or in animals, in which situations the goals may vary.Natural cycle in vitro fertilization: Natural Cycle IVF is in vitro fertilisation (IVF) using either of the following procedures:Transplacental carcinogenesis: Transplacental carcinogenesis is a series of genotypic and/or phenotypic changes in the cells of a fetus due to in utero exposure to carcinogens. Specifically, these changes are identified as malignant by virtue of their metastatic potential.Birth weight: Birth weight is the body weight of a baby at its birth.Definitions from Georgia Department of Public Health.Selective reduction: Selective reduction (or multifetal pregnancy reduction or MFPR) is the practice of reducing the number of fetuses in a multifetal pregnancy, say quadruplets, to a twin or singleton pregnancy.Gestational hypertensionLower segment Caesarean section: A lower (uterine) segment Caesarean section (LSCS) is the most commonly used type of Caesarean section used today. It includes a transverse cut just above the edge of the bladder and results in less blood loss and is easier to repair than other types of Caesarean sections.Unexplained infertility: Unexplained infertility is infertility that is idiopathic in the sense that its cause remains unknown even after an infertility work-up, usually including semen analysis in the man and assessment of ovulation and fallopian tubes in the woman.merckmanuals > Unexplained Infertility Last full review/revision November 2008 by Robert W.Male lactation: Male lactation in zoology means production of milk from mammary glands in the presence of physiological stimuli connected with nursing infants. It is well documented in the Dayak fruit bat.Decidual reaction: The decidual reaction is the changes in the endometrium of the uterus that prepare it for implantation of an embryo. These changes are observed in each menstrual cycle and enhanced after implantation.Nordli's Cabinet: Nordli's Cabinet governed Norway between 15 January 1976 and 4 February 1981. The Labour Party cabinet was led by Odvar Nordli.National Birth Defects Prevention Network: The National Birth Defects Prevention Network (NBDPN) was founded in 1997. It is a 501(c)3 not-for-profit volunteer organization whose members are involved in birth defects surveillance, prevention and research.Twin reversed arterial perfusionPrenatal diagnosis: Prenatal diagnosis or prenatal screening (note that prenatal diagnosis and prenatal screening refer to two different types of tests) is testing for diseases or conditions in a fetus or embryo before it is born. The aim is to detect birth defects such as neural tube defects, Down syndrome, chromosome abnormalities, genetic disorders and other conditions, such as spina bifida, cleft palate, Tay Sachs disease, sickle cell anemia, thalassemia, cystic fibrosis, Muscular dystrophy, and fragile X syndrome.Equine chorionic gonadotropin: Equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) is a gonadotropic hormone produced in the chorion of pregnant mares. Most commonly called pregnant mare's serum gonadotropin (PMSG) in the past, the hormone is commonly used in concert with progestogen to induce ovulation in livestock prior to artificial insemination.International Association of Plastics DistributorsTrophoblast: Trophoblasts (from Greek trephein: to feed, and blastos: germinator) are cells forming the outer layer of a blastocyst, which provide nutrients to the embryo and develop into a large part of the placenta. They are formed during the first stage of pregnancy and are the first cells to differentiate from the fertilized egg.Puerperal disorderEndometrium: The endometrium is the inner mucous membrane of the mammalian uterus.Reproductive technology: Reproductive technology (RT) encompasses all current and anticipated uses of technology in human and animal reproduction, including assisted reproductive technology, contraception and others.QRISK: QRISK2 (the most recent version of QRISK) is a prediction algorithm for cardiovascular disease (CVD) that uses traditional risk factors (age, systolic blood pressure, smoking status and ratio of total serum cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) together with body mass index, ethnicity, measures of deprivation, family history, chronic kidney disease, rheumatoid arthritis, atrial fibrillation, diabetes mellitus, and antihypertensive treatment.Low Fertility Cohorts Study: The Low Fertility Cohorts Study, 1978: A Survey of White, Ever-Married Women Belonging to the 1901-1910 United States Birth Cohorts,Data Sharing For Demographic Research consists of personal interviews of white, ever-married women born between July 1, 1900, and June 30, 1910. In 1978, a national survey of 1,049 married women between the ages of 68 and 78 were interviewed between the months of March and July in order to investigate low fertility during the 1920s and 1930s and the women of childbearing age during those decades.Low birth-weight paradox: The low birth-weight paradox is an apparently paradoxical observation relating to the birth weights and mortality rate of children born to tobacco smoking mothers. Low birth-weight children born to smoking mothers have a lower infant mortality rate than the low birth weight children of non-smokers.Pre-conception counseling: Pre-conception counseling (also called pre-conceptual counseling) is a meeting with a health-care professional (generally a physician) by a woman before attempting to become pregnant. It generally includes a pre-conception risk assessment for any potential complications of pregnancy as well as modifications of risk factors, such as increasing folic acid intake to reduce the risk of neural tube defects and counseling on smoking cessation, alcohol reduction, and medications that may compromise fetal development.Villitis of unknown etiology: Villitis of unknown etiology, abbreviated VUE, is an inflammatory process that involves the chorionic villi (villitis) whose cause (etiology) is not known. VUE is associated with recurrent miscarriage and intrauterine growth restriction, and recurs in subsequent pregnancies.Biocell Center: Biocell Center is an international company specializing in the cryopreservation and private banking of amniotic fluid stem cells. The company is headquartered in Italy with several international locations and is involved with numerous partnerships and research studies of amniotic fluid stem cells,.Global Alliance to Prevent Prematurity and StillbirthMyometrium: The myometrium is the middle layer of the uterine wall, consisting mainly of uterine smooth muscle cells (also called uterine myocytes), but also of supporting stromal and vascular tissue. Its main function is to induce uterine contractions.Contraception, Sterilisation, and Abortion Act 1977: Contraception, Sterilisation, and Abortion Act 1977 is an Act of Parliament in New Zealand. It was passed shortly after the report from the Royal Commission on Contraception, Sterilisation and Abortion.National Birth Control League: The National Birth Control League was a United States organization founded in the early 20th century to promoted the education and use of birth control.

(1/75222) Plasma concentration changes in LH and FSH following electrochemical stimulation of the medial preoptic are or dorsal anterior hypothalamic area of estrogen- or androgen-sterilized rats.

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(2/75222) Incidence of repeated legal abortion.

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(3/75222) Coagulation and fibrinolysis in intact hydatidiform molar pregnancy.

Tests of coagulation, fibrinolysis, and platelet function were performed in 17 patients with intact molar pregnancies. Women with intact molar pregnancies had higher fibrinogen factor VIII, and fibrinogen degradation products, concentrations and lower prothrombin, factor X, plasminogen, and plasminogen activator concentrations than controls with normal pregnancies. They also had reduced platelet counts and thromboelastographic values, which indicated hypocoagulability. These results suggest that intravascular coagulation occurs in intact hydatidiform molar pregnancies.  (+info)

(4/75222) Phagocytic acitivity of bovine leukocytes during pregnancy.

The phagocytic competence, measured as the total number of polymorphonuclear leukocytes per mm3 which phagocytosed Staphylococcus aureus, strain 321, in vitro, was determined in eight cows during complete pregnancies. Such leukocytes are referred to as "Active PMN'S". There was a gradual decline in the number of these cells from conception to a minimum between the 16th and 20th weeks of pregnancy, followed by a steady increase to the cessation of lactation when a marked drop occurred, after which there was an increase to a maximun during the second week prepartum. From this maximum there was a rapid decrease to an absolute minimum during the first week after parturition. From the second week postpartum there was a gradual increase to conception. The correlation coefficient (r) of number of active PMN'S with time before conception was -0.474 )p-0.01). There were significant differences (p=0.01) in numbers of active PMNS Among the eight cows. It was found that the cows fell into two groups, one whose members had, overall, significantly more active PMNs (p=0.001) than those in the second group. The between cow differences may have been due to 1) age, since the cows with the highest numbers of circulating active PMNs were younger than those in the other group of 2) the combined stress of pregnancy and lactation, as those cows which were both pregnant and milking had the lowest numbers of active PMNs.  (+info)

(5/75222) Studies on the response of ewes to live chlamydiae adapted to chicken embryos or tissue culture.

Ewes infected before gestation with chicken embryo or tissue culture adapted chlamydial strain B-577 were challenge inoculated with the homologous strain at four to 18 weeks of gestation. The ewes responsed with group specific complement fixing antibody titers of 1:8 to 1:256 by the second week after initial infection. A secondary antibody response in the surviving challenge inoculated ewes occurred at the time of lambing and reached titers of 1:32 to 1:256 by the second week after parturition. Group specific complement fixing antibodies did not appear to play a significant role in resistance to chlamydial infection. Ewes infected with the chicken embryo adapted strain B-577 excreted chlamydiae in their feces 60 days after inoculation. However, chlamydiae were not recovered from feces of ewes infected with the tissue culture adapted strain B-577. Placentas of ewes challenge inoculated by the intravenous route were consistently infected. Chlamydiae were recovered from placentas, some fetuses and lambs. In two instances when challenge inoculation was given by the intramuscular route, infection was detected only by the direct fluorescent antibody method.  (+info)

(6/75222) Life devoid of value.

 (+info)

(7/75222) Graphic monitoring of labour.

The parturograph is a composite record designed for the monitoring of fetal and maternal well-being and the progress of labour. It permits the early recognition of abnormalities and pinpoints the patients who would benefit most from intervention. Observations are made from the time of admission of the mother to the caseroom and recorded graphically. Factors assessed include fetal heart rate, maternal vital signs and urine, cervical dilatation, descent of the presenting fetal part, and frequency, duration and intensity of uterine contractions.  (+info)

(8/75222) The effects of digestive enzymes on characteristics of placental insulin receptor. Comparison of particulate and soluble receptor preparations.

The role of the surrounding membrane structure on the binding characteristics of the insulin receptor was studied by using several digestive enzymes. The effects observed with particulate membrane preparations are compared with those from soluble receptor preparations. beta-Galactosidase and neuraminidase had no effect on insulin binding to either particulate or soluble receptors from human placentae. Exposure to 2 units of phospholipase C/ml increased insulin binding to particulate membranes, but was without effect on the soluble receptor preparation. The increase in binding to particulate membranes was shown to be due to an increase in apparent receptor number. After 5 min exposure to 500 microgram of trypsin/ml there was an increase in insulin binding to the particulate membrane fraction, owing to an increase in receptor affinity. After 15 min exposure to this amount of trypsin, binding decreased, owing to a progressive decrease in receptor availability. In contrast, this concentration of trypsin had no effect on the solubilized receptor preparation. Because of the differential effects of phospholipase C and trypsin on the particulate compared with the solubilized receptor preparations, it is concluded that the effects of these enzymes were due to an effect on the surrounding membrane structure. Changes in receptor configuration due to alterations within the adjoining membrane provide a potential mechanism for mediating short-term alterations in receptor function.  (+info)



ectopic pregnancies

  • Other treatment options include the use of methotrexate therapy for small, unruptured ectopic pregnancies in hemodynamically stable patients. (aafp.org)
  • More than 95 percent of ectopic pregnancies occur in the fallopian tubes. (aafp.org)
  • The number of ectopic pregnancies has increased dramatically in the past few decades. (aafp.org)
  • Some ectopic pregnancies detected today, for instance, would have spontaneously resolved without detection or intervention in the past. (aafp.org)
  • The case-fatality rate has declined from 35.5 maternal deaths per 10,000 ectopic pregnancies in 1970 to only 3.8 maternal deaths per 10,000 ectopic pregnancies in 1989. (aafp.org)
  • In vitro fertilization, IVF will be the best option for having a baby for many women with a history of tubal damage and 1 or more ectopic pregnancies. (advancedfertility.com)

laparoscopic

  • She had a history of laparoscopic left salpingectomy for tubal pregnancy 6 years ago at another hospital. (sls.org)
  • Although past treatment consisted of an open laparotomy and salpingectomy, current laparoscopic techniques for unruptured ectopic pregnancy emphasize tubal preservation. (aafp.org)
  • Laparoscopic findings revealed a right ectopic pregnancy, which was just distal to the right fallopian tube and attached to the fimbria as well as adherent to the right ovary. (mtsamples.com)
  • The two main conservative treatment alternatives for tubal pregnancy, methotrexate administration and laparoscopic salpingostomy are under constant review. (biomedsearch.com)

ultrasound

  • An ectopic pregnancy should be suspected if transvaginal ultrasonography shows no intrauterine gestational sac when the ß-hCG level is higher than 1,500 mlU per mL (1,500 IU per L). If the ß-hCG level plateaus or fails to double in 48 hours and the ultrasound examination fails to identify an intrauterine gestational sac, uterine curettage may determine the presence or absence of chorionic villi. (aafp.org)
  • Modern advances in ultrasound technology and the determination of serum beta-subunit human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG) levels have made it easier to diagnose ectopic pregnancy. (aafp.org)
  • Although much is made of blood hCG levels and ultrasound studies, the clinical impression of the gynecologist or reproductive endocrinologist is the most important factor in making a timely diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy. (advancedfertility.com)
  • By week eight of pregnancy, the baby's heart could be preghancy by an ultrasound. (letraspixeladas.com)

uterus

  • Estrogen causes the pregnancy test day 11 after embryo transfer of the uterus to build up, and progesterone helps maintain the liner in place for a pregnancy test day 11 after embryo transfer days after ovulation. (myartyshow.com)
  • The Trauma-Informed Partnering for Safety and Permanency - Model Approach for Partnerships in Parenting (TIPS-MAPP) training is required by the state of Early pregnancy uterus stretching for all prospective foster parents. (darrehla.com)
  • More Frequent Urination: The body produces more loose weight after pregnancy soon after conception to ensure an adequate iui after tubal pregnancy to the developing baby, uterus and placenta. (burtonmackenzie.com)

pelvic

  • In the general population, pelvic inflammatory disease is the most common risk factor for ectopic pregnancy. (aafp.org)
  • Right ruptured tubal pregnancy and pelvic adhesions. (mtsamples.com)
  • Because of these hormones, it is regular for there to be some additional looseness and pelvic strain in pregnancy. (letraspixeladas.com)

fallopian

  • Any mechanism that interferes with the normal function of the fallopian tube during this process increases the risk of ectopic pregnancy. (aafp.org)

Laparoscopy

  • Two-port laparoscopy with a multichannel port was performed and revealed a left cornual pregnancy with hemoperitoneum. (sls.org)
  • We performed 2-port laparoscopy, using a multichannel port for a left cornual pregnancy with hemoperitoneum. (sls.org)
  • Two-port laparoscopy with a multichannel port for recurrent cornual pregnancy was relative safe and easy, with the advantages of reduced surgical morbidity, less bleeding, and shorter operative time. (sls.org)
  • Dilatation and curettage and laparoscopy with removal of tubal pregnancy and right partial salpingectomy. (mtsamples.com)
  • It was decided to perform a laparoscopy for the possibility of an ectopic pregnancy. (mtsamples.com)
  • In this review, we assess the outcome of conservative management modalities for extrauterine pregnancy and compare the results of treatment with methotrexate and operative laparoscopy. (biomedsearch.com)

Salpingectomy

  • Cornual pregnancy on the same side as a previous salpingectomy is a very rare pathologic condition in cases of spontaneous pregnancy. (sls.org)

Expectant

  • Recently, expectant management of tubal pregnancy has become increasingly popular. (biomedsearch.com)
  • With adequate patient selection, expectant management of the tubal pregnancy is a reasonable approach with good results. (biomedsearch.com)

embryo

  • The place I stay we home pregnancy test 10 days after embryo transfer have the choice of ache medication. (showcaseontv.com)
  • You possibly can take a home pregnancy urine home pregnancy test 10 days after embryo transfer a look at from the day your interval would be due. (showcaseontv.com)
  • home pregnancy test 10 days after embryo transfer the nipples will sometimes be paler than common or a purplish colour, when they are often a pinkish coloration. (showcaseontv.com)
  • For home pregnancy test 10 days after embryo transfer and stuffy head, decongestants like Sudafed can be utilized. (showcaseontv.com)
  • As the quantity of blood being provided to the realm increases, it may well flip vaginal pores and skin from punk to dark pregnancy test day 11 after embryo transfer or crimson. (myartyshow.com)
  • Nonetheless, looking forward to a lower back dull pain early pregnancy of those early being pregnant symptoms, akin to morning sickness and breast tenderness together, could be a relatively dependable means for a lady to know that, no less than, it is time pregnancy test day 11 after embryo transfer take a being transffer take a look at. (myartyshow.com)
  • According Odent, it is this that simply can pregnancy test day 11 after embryo transfer in problems because of the increase in stress hormones. (myartyshow.com)
  • Darlena Cunha pregnancy test day 11 after embryo transfer is a freelance journalist based mostly in Gainesville, FL. (myartyshow.com)

urine

  • This Pregnancy Test kit is for the determination of hCG (Human Chorionic Gonadotropin) in urine specimens. (rapidtest.com)
  • Home pregnancy test kits are created to measure levels of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) in the urine. (infobarrel.com)
  • On women, this drug can also cause false positive pregnancy results on urine tests. (infobarrel.com)

symptoms

  • Sign of pregnancy and Pregnancy Symptoms! (rapidtest.com)
  • So for those to-be mothers who are unaware of the indicators and early signs associated with pregnancy, we've compiled an inventory of 21 pregnancy test after frozen blastocyst transfer being pregnant symptoms which will help present some insight to you and show you how to address them appropriately when they do happen. (letraspixeladas.com)
  • Sneag and Dr. This could how reliable are early pregnancy symptoms the way in which your body reacts to the micro organism that cause gingivitis. (tourismradionam.com)
  • When a woman has symptoms of pregnancy, a home pregnancy test is commonly used to confirm if she is indeed bearing a child. (infobarrel.com)
  • When symptoms of pregnancy begin to show, it is best to confirm pregnancy right away by taking a blood test or visiting an obstetrician. (infobarrel.com)

ovulation

  • Blood tests can also determine pregnancy earlier - only six to eight days after ovulation. (infobarrel.com)

diagnosis

  • Early pregnancy diagnosis in goats by determination of pregnancy-associated glycoprotein concentrations in plasma samples. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Different RIA systems available for measuring the concentrations of pregnancy-associated glycoproteins (PAGs) in dairy goats were compared in order to evaluate their accuracy in early pregnancy diagnosis. (biomedsearch.com)

occur

  • Just like a woman trying naturally, it antihistamines safe to use in pregnancy take several attempts with IVF before a pregnancy can occur. (burtonmackenzie.com)

fetal

  • Advanced (stage 4) pregnancy fetal growth, can't often be cured, however utilizing a parenting blogger jobs of therapies, together with surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy, the most cancers's unfold froxen often is cystitis normal in early pregnancy slowed down. (letraspixeladas.com)

Maternal

  • Ectopic pregnancy occurs at a rate of 19.7 cases per 1,000 pregnancies in North America and is a leading cause of maternal mortality in the first trimester. (aafp.org)

trimester

  • Men with a low sex drive, fading energy, mood changes and erectile dysfunction may have low testosterone levels, also known as low-T. You might best time for pregnancy test after implantation bleeding like to know more about best blesding for first trimester of pregnancy, before continuing. (darrehla.com)
  • This iui after tubal pregnancy appears during the first trimester. (burtonmackenzie.com)

outcomes

  • Pregnancy under age, slight adverse pregnancy outcomes reporting system that is generally a lighter color than menstrual blood is typical in iui after tubal pregnancy first 6-12 days after conception. (burtonmackenzie.com)
  • Outcomes of extrauterine pregnancy were obtained from a review compiled from the English literature identified by directed Medline search. (biomedsearch.com)

fertility

  • Ladies who're making an attempt pregnancy test after frozen blastocyst transfer conceive have to be especially careful about what kinds of issues they are placing of their bodies, so drug-free fertility supplements generally is a nice possibility. (letraspixeladas.com)
  • You may also endure additional assessments, together with hormone testing to verify your physique tubal pregnancy possible after partial hysterectomy producing the proper stage of hormones associated to fertility andor genetic testing to evaluate the person's genetic signature and his DNA. (tourismradionam.com)
  • Although the morbidity rate after tubal pregnancy treatment is decreasing and the main concern is to reduce the decline in fertility potential, the real future challenge remains prevention of the disease, especially among high risk patients, such as those undergoing infertility treatment. (biomedsearch.com)

detection

  • Pregnancy test is used to obtain a visual, qualitative result for the early detection of pregnancy. (rapidtest.com)

Risk Factors

  • Greater awareness of risk factors and improved technology (biochemical markers and ultrasonography) allow ectopic pregnancy to be identified before the development of life-threatening events. (aafp.org)

implants

  • The eyes can now focus, and reflexes like thumb sucking are most likely beginning to happen sore breasts during pregnancy with implants properly. (myartyshow.com)
  • Ectopic pregnancy is any pregnancy in which the fertilized ovum implants outside the intrauterine cavity. (aafp.org)

hormone

  • The pregnancy tests on the market today range widely in their sensitivity in picking up the pregnancy hormone, hCG. (rapidtest.com)

Sensitivity

  • The pregnancy test with 10mIU/mL sensitivity - Early Pregnancy test allows one to know earlier if their attempts to conceive were successful and to get medical care as soon as possible. (rapidtest.com)

Chances

  • All of these factors can impact ovarian or tubal function and the chances for successful pregnancy in the future. (advancedfertility.com)

partial

  • Particular assessments may help midwives and tubal pregnancy possible after partial hysterectomy see whether all is well with the mom and child. (tourismradionam.com)
  • Straighten your higher again in tubal pregnancy possible after partial hysterectomy that your ear, shoulder and hip are aligned. (tourismradionam.com)
  • The desk reveals these cities pregnany lagging behind the rest of the UK, which as an online videos of childbirths has seen tubal pregnancy possible after partial hysterectomy pregnancies fall to its lowest number since 1946. (tourismradionam.com)
  • tubal pregnancy possible after partial hysterectomy health insurance may fully or partially cover the price of pool access at these facilities. (tourismradionam.com)
  • Be reassured, signs normally resolve on their very own tubal pregnancy possible after partial hysterectomy after beginning. (tourismradionam.com)

naturally

  • However, we do know that when kids are a part of a a number of delivery or born to older moms, they're extra prone to have well being problems than infants who are naturally pregnancy test after frozen blastocyst transfer or than single babies. (letraspixeladas.com)

days

  • Also known as spotting, a lightweight interval palpitations and pregnancy shortness of breath lasts for a couple of days (or extra) trst very well be a confusing signal you are pregnant. (letraspixeladas.com)

normal

  • Is it normal for baby to have iui after tubal pregnancy of inaction throughout the day. (burtonmackenzie.com)
  • Therefore, we must be careful to give pregnancies with slow hCG rise every chance possible - they may turn out to be normal. (advancedfertility.com)
  • Excessive fatigue or even feeling extra drained than normal could indicate pregnancy and may start as early as the first week after conception. (tourismradionam.com)

levels

  • Some non-pregnant women may have low levels of hCG and when they use an extra sensitive pregnancy test the result might show false positive. (rapidtest.com)

cases

  • Based on hospital discharge data, the incidence of ectopic pregnancy has risen from 4.5 cases per 1,000 pregnancies in 1970 5 , 6 to 19.7 cases per 1,000 pregnancies in 1992. (aafp.org)

signs

  • Don't eat refrigerated pates or meat spreads as they've a excessive signs of low iron in early pregnancy of containing Listeria. (showcaseontv.com)
  • That is very helpful to seek out out the earliest doable signs of pregnancy. (showcaseontv.com)
  • These different signs can accompany bleeding at any level throughout your pregnancy. (myartyshow.com)
  • It is best to record these body changes and early signs of pregnancy in a pregnancy journal. (burtonmackenzie.com)

possibility

  • Gingival hyperplasia pregnancy time for one another, and give each other the possibility to be honest and weak. (tourismradionam.com)
  • In this article, we shall discuss the possibility of certain medications causing a false positive pregnancy test results. (infobarrel.com)

possible

  • Complex right lower quadrant mass with possible ectopic pregnancy. (mtsamples.com)

results

  • The Special Education Coordinator informed me that he was done with d and e termination of pregnancy testing and that she wanted to discuss his results with me. (darrehla.com)
  • But essentially the most useful function of the Bluetooth-linked pregnancy check is what happens after the results are displayed. (letraspixeladas.com)
  • Birth control pills as well as antibiotics are not factors that can disrupt the accuracy of pregnancy test results. (infobarrel.com)
  • Psychiatric Medications - Psychiatric medications can also cause false positive pregnancy test results. (infobarrel.com)

weeks

  • For example, you can see the iui after tubal pregnancy in the womb walking in affer 12 weeks of pregnancy. (burtonmackenzie.com)
  • Hello, I'm very happy to say Tuval pregnant, I am pear benefits for pregnancy 9 weeks alongside. (tourismradionam.com)

time

  • It was very difficult sometimes but my mother was at peace when best time for pregnancy test after implantation bleeding afger, knowing she had always been there for her. (darrehla.com)
  • Similarly, you require more of all the best time for pregnancy test after implantation bleeding nutrients than you did before you became pregnant. (darrehla.com)

higher

  • 6 Even though overall survival has increased, the risk of death associated with ectopic pregnancy remains higher among black and other non-white minority women. (aafp.org)
  • The rate of ectopic pregnancy in women with previous known PID is about 10 times higher than in women with no previous history of PID. (advancedfertility.com)

cause

  • However, there are hCG injections prescribed for hormonal imbalances which can cause a false positive pregnancy test result. (infobarrel.com)
  • Others - Aside from hCG injections and psychiatric medications, there are other common medications that can also cause a false positive pregnancy test result. (infobarrel.com)

another

Take

  • There are many options such as using can i take zyrtec during pregnancy spermicide, (which would kill any sperm that did escape),a cap, contraceptive sponge or preghancy based contraceptives such as yubal pill, iiu or implant. (burtonmackenzie.com)
  • Take a home pregnancy take a look at, although. (tourismradionam.com)
  • SO yeah, both take a take a look at best type of pregnancy test go see a doctor. (tourismradionam.com)

although

  • Pregnancy halts the cycle for most girls, although some continue to identify and even bleed calmly for the first few months of pregnancy. (myartyshow.com)

small

  • I actually told everyone small bumps around nipple during pregnancy away, mostly I was in shock to find out I was gonna have a kid. (darrehla.com)

women

  • As pregnancy implanttaion, the center of gravity shifts onward, so women lean backward to compensate. (darrehla.com)
  • Ectopic pregnancy is more often detected in women over 35 years of age and in non-white ethnic groups. (aafp.org)

false positive

  • A false positive pregnancy test result means that a woman, who is not actually pregnant, displayed a positive PT result. (infobarrel.com)
  • If you are taking such medications, there is a significant chance that you will have a false positive pregnancy test result. (infobarrel.com)