Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)ROC Curve: A graphic means for assessing the ability of a screening test to discriminate between healthy and diseased persons; may also be used in other studies, e.g., distinguishing stimuli responses as to a faint stimuli or nonstimuli.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.False Positive Reactions: Positive test results in subjects who do not possess the attribute for which the test is conducted. The labeling of healthy persons as diseased when screening in the detection of disease. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.False Negative Reactions: Negative test results in subjects who possess the attribute for which the test is conducted. The labeling of diseased persons as healthy when screening in the detection of disease. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Reagent Kits, Diagnostic: Commercially prepared reagent sets, with accessory devices, containing all of the major components and literature necessary to perform one or more designated diagnostic tests or procedures. They may be for laboratory or personal use.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Mass Screening: Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.Reagent Strips: Narrow pieces of material impregnated or covered with a substance used to produce a chemical reaction. The strips are used in detecting, measuring, producing, etc., other substances. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Evaluation Studies as Topic: Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Biopsy: Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.Bacteriological Techniques: Techniques used in studying bacteria.Radiopharmaceuticals: Compounds that are used in medicine as sources of radiation for radiotherapy and for diagnostic purposes. They have numerous uses in research and industry. (Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1161)Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Tumor Markers, Biological: Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.Fluorodeoxyglucose F18: The compound is given by intravenous injection to do POSITRON-EMISSION TOMOGRAPHY for the assessment of cerebral and myocardial glucose metabolism in various physiological or pathological states including stroke and myocardial ischemia. It is also employed for the detection of malignant tumors including those of the brain, liver, and thyroid gland. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1162)Ultrasonography, Doppler, Color: Ultrasonography applying the Doppler effect, with the superposition of flow information as colors on a gray scale in a real-time image. This type of ultrasonography is well-suited to identifying the location of high-velocity flow (such as in a stenosis) or of mapping the extent of flow in a certain region.Diagnostic Errors: Incorrect diagnoses after clinical examination or technical diagnostic procedures.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Observer Variation: The failure by the observer to measure or identify a phenomenon accurately, which results in an error. Sources for this may be due to the observer's missing an abnormality, or to faulty technique resulting in incorrect test measurement, or to misinterpretation of the data. Two varieties are inter-observer variation (the amount observers vary from one another when reporting on the same material) and intra-observer variation (the amount one observer varies between observations when reporting more than once on the same material).Positron-Emission Tomography: An imaging technique using compounds labelled with short-lived positron-emitting radionuclides (such as carbon-11, nitrogen-13, oxygen-15 and fluorine-18) to measure cell metabolism. It has been useful in study of soft tissues such as CANCER; CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM; and brain. SINGLE-PHOTON EMISSION-COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY is closely related to positron emission tomography, but uses isotopes with longer half-lives and resolution is lower.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Biopsy, Fine-Needle: Using fine needles (finer than 22-gauge) to remove tissue or fluid specimens from the living body for examination in the pathology laboratory and for disease diagnosis.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Early Diagnosis: Methods to determine in patients the nature of a disease or disorder at its early stage of progression. Generally, early diagnosis improves PROGNOSIS and TREATMENT OUTCOME.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Clinical Coding: Process of substituting a symbol or code for a term such as a diagnosis or procedure. (from Slee's Health Care Terms, 3d ed.)Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Preoperative Care: Care given during the period prior to undergoing surgery when psychological and physical preparations are made according to the special needs of the individual patient. This period spans the time between admission to the hospital to the time the surgery begins. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)International Classification of Diseases: A system of categories to which morbid entries are assigned according to established criteria. Included is the entire range of conditions in a manageable number of categories, grouped to facilitate mortality reporting. It is produced by the World Health Organization (From ICD-10, p1). The Clinical Modifications, produced by the UNITED STATES DEPT. OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES, are larger extensions used for morbidity and general epidemiological purposes, primarily in the U.S.Diagnostic Tests, Routine: Diagnostic procedures, such as laboratory tests and x-rays, routinely performed on all individuals or specified categories of individuals in a specified situation, e.g., patients being admitted to the hospital. These include routine tests administered to neonates.Coronary Angiography: Radiography of the vascular system of the heart muscle after injection of a contrast medium.Area Under Curve: A statistical means of summarizing information from a series of measurements on one individual. It is frequently used in clinical pharmacology where the AUC from serum levels can be interpreted as the total uptake of whatever has been administered. As a plot of the concentration of a drug against time, after a single dose of medicine, producing a standard shape curve, it is a means of comparing the bioavailability of the same drug made by different companies. (From Winslade, Dictionary of Clinical Research, 1992)Ultrasonography: The visualization of deep structures of the body by recording the reflections or echoes of ultrasonic pulses directed into the tissues. Use of ultrasound for imaging or diagnostic purposes employs frequencies ranging from 1.6 to 10 megahertz.Tomography, Spiral Computed: Computed tomography where there is continuous X-ray exposure to the patient while being transported in a spiral or helical pattern through the beam of irradiation. This provides improved three-dimensional contrast and spatial resolution compared to conventional computed tomography, where data is obtained and computed from individual sequential exposures.Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Electrocardiography: Recording of the moment-to-moment electromotive forces of the HEART as projected onto various sites on the body's surface, delineated as a scalar function of time. The recording is monitored by a tracing on slow moving chart paper or by observing it on a cardioscope, which is a CATHODE RAY TUBE DISPLAY.Neoplasm Staging: Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.Biopsy, Needle: Removal and examination of tissue obtained through a transdermal needle inserted into the specific region, organ, or tissue being analyzed.Point-of-Care Systems: Laboratory and other services provided to patients at the bedside. These include diagnostic and laboratory testing using automated information entry.Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products: Soluble protein fragments formed by the proteolytic action of plasmin on fibrin or fibrinogen. FDP and their complexes profoundly impair the hemostatic process and are a major cause of hemorrhage in intravascular coagulation and fibrinolysis.Immunoassay: A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Endosonography: Ultrasonography of internal organs using an ultrasound transducer sometimes mounted on a fiberoptic endoscope. In endosonography the transducer converts electronic signals into acoustic pulses or continuous waves and acts also as a receiver to detect reflected pulses from within the organ. An audiovisual-electronic interface converts the detected or processed echo signals, which pass through the electronics of the instrument, into a form that the technologist can evaluate. The procedure should not be confused with ENDOSCOPY which employs a special instrument called an endoscope. The "endo-" of endosonography refers to the examination of tissue within hollow organs, with reference to the usual ultrasonography procedure which is performed externally or transcutaneously.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Palpation: Application of fingers with light pressure to the surface of the body to determine consistence of parts beneath in physical diagnosis; includes palpation for determining the outlines of organs.Serologic Tests: Diagnostic procedures involving immunoglobulin reactions.Contrast Media: Substances used to allow enhanced visualization of tissues.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Cytodiagnosis: Diagnosis of the type and, when feasible, the cause of a pathologic process by means of microscopic study of cells in an exudate or other form of body fluid. (Stedman, 26th ed)Probability: The study of chance processes or the relative frequency characterizing a chance process.Thyroid Nodule: A small circumscribed mass in the THYROID GLAND that can be of neoplastic growth or non-neoplastic abnormality. It lacks a well-defined capsule or glandular architecture. Thyroid nodules are often benign but can be malignant. The growth of nodules can lead to a multinodular goiter (GOITER, NODULAR).Epidemiologic Methods: Research techniques that focus on study designs and data gathering methods in human and animal populations.Survival Analysis: A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon: A method of computed tomography that uses radionuclides which emit a single photon of a given energy. The camera is rotated 180 or 360 degrees around the patient to capture images at multiple positions along the arc. The computer is then used to reconstruct the transaxial, sagittal, and coronal images from the 3-dimensional distribution of radionuclides in the organ. The advantages of SPECT are that it can be used to observe biochemical and physiological processes as well as size and volume of the organ. The disadvantage is that, unlike positron-emission tomography where the positron-electron annihilation results in the emission of 2 photons at 180 degrees from each other, SPECT requires physical collimation to line up the photons, which results in the loss of many available photons and hence degrades the image.Molecular Diagnostic Techniques: MOLECULAR BIOLOGY techniques used in the diagnosis of disease.Diagnosis, Computer-Assisted: Application of computer programs designed to assist the physician in solving a diagnostic problem.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Physical Examination: Systematic and thorough inspection of the patient for physical signs of disease or abnormality.Chi-Square Distribution: A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.Coronary Stenosis: Narrowing or constriction of a coronary artery.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Ultrasonography, Doppler: Ultrasonography applying the Doppler effect, with frequency-shifted ultrasound reflections produced by moving targets (usually red blood cells) in the bloodstream along the ultrasound axis in direct proportion to the velocity of movement of the targets, to determine both direction and velocity of blood flow. (Stedman, 25th ed)Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Diagnostic Techniques and Procedures: Methods, procedures, and tests performed to diagnose disease, disordered function, or disability.Proportional Hazards Models: Statistical models used in survival analysis that assert that the effect of the study factors on the hazard rate in the study population is multiplicative and does not change over time.Clinical Enzyme Tests: Analyses for a specific enzyme activity, or of the level of a specific enzyme that is used to assess health and disease risk, for early detection of disease or disease prediction, diagnosis, and change in disease status.Frozen Sections: Thinly cut sections of frozen tissue specimens prepared with a cryostat or freezing microtome.Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Ultrasonography, Prenatal: The visualization of tissues during pregnancy through recording of the echoes of ultrasonic waves directed into the body. The procedure may be applied with reference to the mother or the fetus and with reference to organs or the detection of maternal or fetal disease.Vaginal Smears: Collection of pooled secretions of the posterior vaginal fornix for cytologic examination.Clinical Laboratory Techniques: Techniques used to carry out clinical investigative procedures in the diagnosis and therapy of disease.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Coronary Artery Disease: Pathological processes of CORONARY ARTERIES that may derive from a congenital abnormality, atherosclerotic, or non-atherosclerotic cause.Myocardial Infarction: NECROSIS of the MYOCARDIUM caused by an obstruction of the blood supply to the heart (CORONARY CIRCULATION).Lymphatic Metastasis: Transfer of a neoplasm from its primary site to lymph nodes or to distant parts of the body by way of the lymphatic system.Multidetector Computed Tomography: Types of spiral computed tomography technology in which multiple slices of data are acquired simultaneously improving the resolution over single slice acquisition technology.Kaplan-Meier Estimate: A nonparametric method of compiling LIFE TABLES or survival tables. It combines calculated probabilities of survival and estimates to allow for observations occurring beyond a measurement threshold, which are assumed to occur randomly. Time intervals are defined as ending each time an event occurs and are therefore unequal. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1995)Gentian Violet: A dye that is a mixture of violet rosanilinis with antibacterial, antifungal, and anthelmintic properties.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Multimodal Imaging: The use of combination of imaging techniques or platforms (e.g., MRI SCAN and PET SCAN) encompassing aspects of anatomical, functional, or molecular imaging methods.Recurrence: The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.Medical Records: Recording of pertinent information concerning patient's illness or illnesses.Chest Pain: Pressure, burning, or numbness in the chest.Cervix Uteri: The neck portion of the UTERUS between the lower isthmus and the VAGINA forming the cervical canal.C-Reactive Protein: A plasma protein that circulates in increased amounts during inflammation and after tissue damage.Urinalysis: Examination of urine by chemical, physical, or microscopic means. Routine urinalysis usually includes performing chemical screening tests, determining specific gravity, observing any unusual color or odor, screening for bacteriuria, and examining the sediment microscopically.Ultrasonography, Mammary: Use of ultrasound for imaging the breast. The most frequent application is the diagnosis of neoplasms of the female breast.Pilot Projects: Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.Echocardiography: Ultrasonic recording of the size, motion, and composition of the heart and surrounding tissues. The standard approach is transthoracic.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Survival Rate: The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Latex Fixation Tests: Passive agglutination tests in which antigen is adsorbed onto latex particles which then clump in the presence of antibody specific for the adsorbed antigen. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Databases, Factual: Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of facts and data garnered from material of a specialized subject area and made available for analysis and application. The collection can be automated by various contemporary methods for retrieval. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, BIBLIOGRAPHIC which is restricted to collections of bibliographic references.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Single-Blind Method: A method in which either the observer(s) or the subject(s) is kept ignorant of the group to which the subjects are assigned.Natriuretic Peptide, Brain: A PEPTIDE that is secreted by the BRAIN and the HEART ATRIA, stored mainly in cardiac ventricular MYOCARDIUM. It can cause NATRIURESIS; DIURESIS; VASODILATION; and inhibits secretion of RENIN and ALDOSTERONE. It improves heart function. It contains 32 AMINO ACIDS.Vagina: The genital canal in the female, extending from the UTERUS to the VULVA. (Stedman, 25th ed)Exercise Test: Controlled physical activity which is performed in order to allow assessment of physiological functions, particularly cardiovascular and pulmonary, but also aerobic capacity. Maximal (most intense) exercise is usually required but submaximal exercise is also used.Confidence Intervals: A range of values for a variable of interest, e.g., a rate, constructed so that this range has a specified probability of including the true value of the variable.Fever: An abnormal elevation of body temperature, usually as a result of a pathologic process.Statistics, Nonparametric: A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)Liver Cirrhosis: Liver disease in which the normal microcirculation, the gross vascular anatomy, and the hepatic architecture have been variably destroyed and altered with fibrous septa surrounding regenerated or regenerating parenchymal nodules.Uterine Cervical Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the UTERINE CERVIX.Bacteriuria: The presence of bacteria in the urine which is normally bacteria-free. These bacteria are from the URINARY TRACT and are not contaminants of the surrounding tissues. Bacteriuria can be symptomatic or asymptomatic. Significant bacteriuria is an indicator of urinary tract infection.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Vaginal Discharge: A common gynecologic disorder characterized by an abnormal, nonbloody discharge from the genital tract.Angiography, Digital Subtraction: A method of delineating blood vessels by subtracting a tissue background image from an image of tissue plus intravascular contrast material that attenuates the X-ray photons. The background image is determined from a digitized image taken a few moments before injection of the contrast material. The resulting angiogram is a high-contrast image of the vessel. This subtraction technique allows extraction of a high-intensity signal from the superimposed background information. The image is thus the result of the differential absorption of X-rays by different tissues.Chlamydia trachomatis: Type species of CHLAMYDIA causing a variety of ocular and urogenital diseases.Chlamydia Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus CHLAMYDIA.Ultrasonography, Doppler, Duplex: Ultrasonography applying the Doppler effect combined with real-time imaging. The real-time image is created by rapid movement of the ultrasound beam. A powerful advantage of this technique is the ability to estimate the velocity of flow from the Doppler shift frequency.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Elasticity Imaging Techniques: Non-invasive imaging methods based on the mechanical response of an object to a vibrational or impulsive force. It is used for determining the viscoelastic properties of tissue, and thereby differentiating soft from hard inclusions in tissue such as microcalcifications, and some cancer lesions. Most techniques use ultrasound to create the images - eliciting the response with an ultrasonic radiation force and/or recording displacements of the tissue by Doppler ultrasonography.Triage: The sorting out and classification of patients or casualties to determine priority of need and proper place of treatment.Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Direct: A form of fluorescent antibody technique utilizing a fluorochrome conjugated to an antibody, which is added directly to a tissue or cell suspension for the detection of a specific antigen. (Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)Patient Selection: Criteria and standards used for the determination of the appropriateness of the inclusion of patients with specific conditions in proposed treatment plans and the criteria used for the inclusion of subjects in various clinical trials and other research protocols.Odds Ratio: The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.CA-125 Antigen: Carbohydrate antigen most commonly seen in tumors of the ovary and occasionally seen in breast, kidney, and gastrointestinal tract tumors and normal tissue. CA 125 is clearly tumor-associated but not tumor-specific.Magnetic Resonance Angiography: Non-invasive method of vascular imaging and determination of internal anatomy without injection of contrast media or radiation exposure. The technique is used especially in CEREBRAL ANGIOGRAPHY as well as for studies of other vascular structures.Blood Flow Velocity: A value equal to the total volume flow divided by the cross-sectional area of the vascular bed.Lymph Nodes: They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.Feasibility Studies: Studies to determine the advantages or disadvantages, practicability, or capability of accomplishing a projected plan, study, or project.Mediastinum: A membrane in the midline of the THORAX of mammals. It separates the lungs between the STERNUM in front and the VERTEBRAL COLUMN behind. It also surrounds the HEART, TRACHEA, ESOPHAGUS, THYMUS, and LYMPH NODES.Sputum: Material coughed up from the lungs and expectorated via the mouth. It contains MUCUS, cellular debris, and microorganisms. It may also contain blood or pus.Mammography: Radiographic examination of the breast.Pregnancy Trimester, Second: The middle third of a human PREGNANCY, from the beginning of the 15th through the 28th completed week (99 to 196 days) of gestation.Troponin T: One of the three polypeptide chains that make up the TROPONIN complex. It is a cardiac-specific protein that binds to TROPOMYOSIN. It is released from damaged or injured heart muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC). Defects in the gene encoding troponin T result in FAMILIAL HYPERTROPHIC CARDIOMYOPATHY.Forecasting: The prediction or projection of the nature of future problems or existing conditions based upon the extrapolation or interpretation of existing scientific data or by the application of scientific methodology.Disease-Free Survival: Period after successful treatment in which there is no appearance of the symptoms or effects of the disease.Decision Trees: A graphic device used in decision analysis, series of decision options are represented as branches (hierarchical).Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia: A malignancy arising in uterine cervical epithelium and confined thereto, representing a continuum of histological changes ranging from well-differentiated CIN 1 (formerly, mild dysplasia) to severe dysplasia/carcinoma in situ, CIN 3. The lesion arises at the squamocolumnar cell junction at the transformation zone of the endocervical canal, with a variable tendency to develop invasive epidermoid carcinoma, a tendency that is enhanced by concomitant human papillomaviral infection. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Mycobacterium tuberculosis: A species of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria that produces TUBERCULOSIS in humans, other primates, CATTLE; DOGS; and some other animals which have contact with humans. Growth tends to be in serpentine, cordlike masses in which the bacilli show a parallel orientation.Microscopy: The use of instrumentation and techniques for visualizing material and details that cannot be seen by the unaided eye. It is usually done by enlarging images, transmitted by light or electron beams, with optical or magnetic lenses that magnify the entire image field. With scanning microscopy, images are generated by collecting output from the specimen in a point-by-point fashion, on a magnified scale, as it is scanned by a narrow beam of light or electrons, a laser, a conductive probe, or a topographical probe.Calcitonin: A peptide hormone that lowers calcium concentration in the blood. In humans, it is released by thyroid cells and acts to decrease the formation and absorptive activity of osteoclasts. Its role in regulating plasma calcium is much greater in children and in certain diseases than in normal adults.Fetal Distress: A nonreassuring fetal status (NRFS) indicating that the FETUS is compromised (American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists 1988). It can be identified by sub-optimal values in FETAL HEART RATE; oxygenation of FETAL BLOOD; and other parameters.Calcinosis: Pathologic deposition of calcium salts in tissues.Lung Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.Specimen Handling: Procedures for collecting, preserving, and transporting of specimens sufficiently stable to provide accurate and precise results suitable for clinical interpretation.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Immunologic Tests: Immunologic techniques involved in diagnosis.Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi: A technetium imaging agent used to reveal blood-starved cardiac tissue during a heart attack.Decision Support Techniques: Mathematical or statistical procedures used as aids in making a decision. They are frequently used in medical decision-making.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Stroke: A group of pathological conditions characterized by sudden, non-convulsive loss of neurological function due to BRAIN ISCHEMIA or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Stroke is classified by the type of tissue NECROSIS, such as the anatomic location, vasculature involved, etiology, age of the affected individual, and hemorrhagic vs. non-hemorrhagic nature. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp777-810)Radiography, Thoracic: X-ray visualization of the chest and organs of the thoracic cavity. It is not restricted to visualization of the lungs.Early Detection of Cancer: Methods to identify and characterize cancer in the early stages of disease and predict tumor behavior.Tuberculosis, Pulmonary: MYCOBACTERIUM infections of the lung.Pharyngitis: Inflammation of the throat (PHARYNX).Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted: Methods developed to aid in the interpretation of ultrasound, radiographic images, etc., for diagnosis of disease.Neoplasm Recurrence, Local: The local recurrence of a neoplasm following treatment. It arises from microscopic cells of the original neoplasm that have escaped therapeutic intervention and later become clinically visible at the original site.Adnexa Uteri: Appendages of the UTERUS which include the FALLOPIAN TUBES, the OVARY, and the supporting ligaments of the uterus (BROAD LIGAMENT; ROUND LIGAMENT).Gestational Age: The age of the conceptus, beginning from the time of FERTILIZATION. In clinical obstetrics, the gestational age is often estimated as the time from the last day of the last MENSTRUATION which is about 2 weeks before OVULATION and fertilization.Fertilization in Vitro: An assisted reproductive technique that includes the direct handling and manipulation of oocytes and sperm to achieve fertilization in vitro.Ventricular Dysfunction, Left: A condition in which the LEFT VENTRICLE of the heart was functionally impaired. This condition usually leads to HEART FAILURE; MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; and other cardiovascular complications. Diagnosis is made by measuring the diminished ejection fraction and a depressed level of motility of the left ventricular wall.Chromogenic Compounds: Colorless, endogenous or exogenous pigment precursors that may be transformed by biological mechanisms into colored compounds; used in biochemical assays and in diagnosis as indicators, especially in the form of enzyme substrates. Synonym: chromogens (not to be confused with pigment-synthesizing bacteria also called chromogens).Coronary Disease: An imbalance between myocardial functional requirements and the capacity of the CORONARY VESSELS to supply sufficient blood flow. It is a form of MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA (insufficient blood supply to the heart muscle) caused by a decreased capacity of the coronary vessels.Pregnancy, Ectopic: A potentially life-threatening condition in which EMBRYO IMPLANTATION occurs outside the cavity of the UTERUS. Most ectopic pregnancies (>96%) occur in the FALLOPIAN TUBES, known as TUBAL PREGNANCY. They can be in other locations, such as UTERINE CERVIX; OVARY; and abdominal cavity (PREGNANCY, ABDOMINAL).Emergency Service, Hospital: Hospital department responsible for the administration and provision of immediate medical or surgical care to the emergency patient.PhenazinesBreast Diseases: Pathological processes of the BREAST.Rectum: The distal segment of the LARGE INTESTINE, between the SIGMOID COLON and the ANAL CANAL.Neonatal Screening: The identification of selected parameters in newborn infants by various tests, examinations, or other procedures. Screening may be performed by clinical or laboratory measures. A screening test is designed to sort out healthy neonates (INFANT, NEWBORN) from those not well, but the screening test is not intended as a diagnostic device, rather instead as epidemiologic.Medical History Taking: Acquiring information from a patient on past medical conditions and treatments.Netherlands: Country located in EUROPE. It is bordered by the NORTH SEA, BELGIUM, and GERMANY. Constituent areas are Aruba, Curacao, Sint Maarten, formerly included in the NETHERLANDS ANTILLES.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Unnecessary Procedures: Diagnostic, therapeutic, and investigative procedures prescribed and performed by health professionals, the results of which do not justify the benefits or hazards and costs to the patient.Colposcopy: The examination, therapy or surgery of the cervix and vagina by means of a specially designed endoscope introduced vaginally.Image Enhancement: Improvement of the quality of a picture by various techniques, including computer processing, digital filtering, echocardiographic techniques, light and ultrastructural MICROSCOPY, fluorescence spectrometry and microscopy, scintigraphy, and in vitro image processing at the molecular level.Dobutamine: A catecholamine derivative with specificity for BETA-1 ADRENERGIC RECEPTORS. It is commonly used as a cardiotonic agent after CARDIAC SURGERY and during DOBUTAMINE STRESS ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY.Models, Statistical: Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.Risk: The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.Pyuria: The presence of white blood cells (LEUKOCYTES) in the urine. It is often associated with bacterial infections of the urinary tract. Pyuria without BACTERIURIA can be caused by TUBERCULOSIS, stones, or cancer.Colorectal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the COLON or the RECTUM or both. Risk factors for colorectal cancer include chronic ULCERATIVE COLITIS; FAMILIAL POLYPOSIS COLI; exposure to ASBESTOS; and irradiation of the CERVIX UTERI.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Diagnostic Techniques, Obstetrical and Gynecological: Methods and procedures for the diagnosis of conditions related to pregnancy, labor, and the puerperium and of diseases of the female genitalia. It includes also demonstration of genital and pregnancy physiology.Iopamidol: A non-ionic, water-soluble contrast agent which is used in myelography, arthrography, nephroangiography, arteriography, and other radiological procedures.Vision Screening: Application of tests and examinations to identify visual defects or vision disorders occurring in specific populations, as in school children, the elderly, etc. It is differentiated from VISION TESTS, which are given to evaluate/measure individual visual performance not related to a specific population.Urine: Liquid by-product of excretion produced in the kidneys, temporarily stored in the bladder until discharge through the URETHRA.Pulmonary Embolism: Blocking of the PULMONARY ARTERY or one of its branches by an EMBOLUS.Uterine Hemorrhage: Bleeding from blood vessels in the UTERUS, sometimes manifested as vaginal bleeding.Mediastinoscopy: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the anterior superior mediastinum of the thorax.Leukocyte Count: The number of WHITE BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in venous BLOOD. A differential leukocyte count measures the relative numbers of the different types of white cells.Hysteroscopy: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the interior of the uterus.Postoperative Complications: Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.Monitoring, Physiologic: The continuous measurement of physiological processes, blood pressure, heart rate, renal output, reflexes, respiration, etc., in a patient or experimental animal; includes pharmacologic monitoring, the measurement of administered drugs or their metabolites in the blood, tissues, or urine.Angiography: Radiography of blood vessels after injection of a contrast medium.Medical Records Systems, Computerized: Computer-based systems for input, storage, display, retrieval, and printing of information contained in a patient's medical record.
Insight, Neurocognition, and Schizophrenia: Predictive Value of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test... John Stratton,1 Philip T. ... While perseveration errors have been found to be predictive of insight by others [43, 49], the predictive value of ... most have found this variable to have little to no predictive value [39, 41, 62]. ... P. Eling, K. Derckx, and R. Maes, "On the historical and conceptual background of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test," Brain and ...
School Learning Objects - The University of NottinghamPositive and negative predictive value of diagnostic tests. This RLO explains how diagnostic test results are a combination of ... Sensitivity describes the accuracy of the test in detecting disease. Specificity describes the accuracy of the test in ... The ACCE framework is a helpful model in order to emphasise the key components of a genetic test evaluation. The guiding ... This RLO explains how diagnostic test accuracy is described by the terms sensitivity and specificity. ...
The predictive value of SAT and NLN-PNG scores for success on State Board Test Pool Examination... Login ... The predictive value of SAT and NLN-PNG scores for success on State Board Test Pool Examination. Nation, Sue ... This predictive study utilized an ex post facto approach. This investigator obtained administrative permission to utilize the ... and simple regression analysis indicated that the SAT combined score and NLN-PNG combined score was somewhat of a predictive ...
Different ART outcomes at increasing peak estradiol levels with long and antagonist protocols: retrospective insights from ten...Predictive Value of Tests. Pregnancy. Pregnancy Rate. Reproductive Techniques, Assisted*. Retrospective Studies. Treatment ...
RSA prediction of high failure rate for the uncoated Interax TKA confirmed by meta-analysis.Predictive Value of Tests. Prosthesis Failure*. Radiostereometric Analysis*. Reoperation. Comments/Corrections. From MEDLINE®/ ... This emphasizes the value of RSA for the early detection of inferior TKA designs in a small series of patients (Grewal et al. ... Sterne JA,Gavaghan D,Egger M. Publication and related bias in meta-analysis: power of statistical tests and prevalence in the ... A method for early detection of aseptic loosening based on few patients would be of value. Radiostereometric analysis (RSA) ...
Expression of the progenitor marker NG2/CSPG4 predicts poor survival and resistance to ionising radiation in glioblastoma.Predictive Value of Tests. Prognosis. Proteoglycans / biosynthesis*, genetics, radiation effects. Radiation Tolerance. ... NG2/nestin positive cells rarely co-expressed CD133 (p = 0.0021, Mann-Whitney U paired, two-tailed t test, Fig. 2; Table 4). ... f The NG2/nestin expressing tumour cells have low CD133 expression, p = 0.0021, Mann-Whitney U paired t test ... To test whether NG2 expressing cells were also resistant to radiation in vivo, we employed a unique model for concurrent ...
Letter by Shroff regarding article, 'prognostic implications of left ventricular filling pressure with exercise'.Exercise Test. Exercise Tolerance. Humans. Myocardial Contraction. Predictive Value of Tests. Prognosis. Ventricular ...
Hypotheses, rationale, design, and methods for prognostic evaluation of cardiac biomarker elevation after percutaneous and...Predictive Value of Tests. Prospective Studies. Research Design*. Stents. Stroke Volume. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome. ... Values will be expressed as mean (±SD) or median (interquartile range) as appropriate. The paired-sample t test and the ... The detection limit of the CK-MB mass kit is 0.18 ng/mL, and the cut off values at the 99th percentile, established by our ... χ2 statistics with Fisher's exact test will be used for comparison of discrete variables. Continuous variables that were not ...
Early single-channel aEEG/EEG predicts outcome in very preterm infants.Predictive Value of Tests. Prognosis. Prospective Studies. Seizures / diagnosis, mortality, physiopathology. Sensitivity and ... positive predictive value (PPV) 63%, negative predictive value (NPV) 91%], IBI , 6 sec (74% correctly predicted; PPV 67%, NPV ...
Exercise testing in asymptomatic aortic stenosis.Exercise Test*. Female. Heart Valve Prosthesis Implantation. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Predictive Value of Tests. Preoperative ...
Twenty-four-hour ambulatory esophageal pH monitoring in the diagnosis of acid reflux-related chronic cough.... we studied esophageal pH values of patients referred to a gastroenterology laboratory. Chronic cough was evaluated in 31 ... Predictive Value of Tests. Pressure. Sensitivity and Specificity. Supine Position. From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S ... predictive values in identifying GER-related cough. In summary, ambulatory pH monitoring is an excellent test for identifying ... Esophageal pH values of groups were compared. Excessive acid reflux distally (upright and supine) and proximally (upright) and ...
A Closer Look at Diagnosis in Clinical Dental Practice: Part 6. Emerging Technologies for Detection and Diagnosis of Noncaries...MeSH Key Words: decision support techniques; periodontal diseases/diagnosis; predictive value of tests; risk assessment methods ... A Closer Look at Diagnosis in Clinical Dental Practice: Part 2. Using Predictive Values and Receiver Operating Characteristics ...
Quality Assurance in Bacteriology and Immunology Quality Assurance in Bacteriology and Immunology 2002 | Quality Assurance |...Predictive value of a = positive test Predictive value of a negative test True positive True positive + False positive True ... 14 ) Predictive values The predictive value of a positive test result is defined as the percentage of positive results that are ... Frequently the more sensitive a test.. For example. A high predictive value of a positive test result is desirable when ... The predictive value of test results is directly dependent on the prevalence of the condition in the population being tested. ...
Hematopoietic cell transplantation-specific comorbidity index as an outcome predictor for patients with acute myeloid leukemia...Predictive value of pulmonary function tests before marrow transplantation. Chest 1992;101:1257-1264. ... The c-statistic ranges from 0.5 to 1.0; a value of 0.5 indicates random predictions and a value of 1.0 indicates perfect ... The predictive capacity of the HCT-CI scores was more significant than that of ACE-27 or the CCI. The CCI scores were more ... The predictive capacity of the HCT-CI compared with ACE-27 and CCI for NRM, relapse, and survival among all patients as ...
B-type natriuretic peptide predicts responses to indomethacin in premature neonates with patent ductus arteriosus.Predictive Value of Tests. Pregnancy. Severity of Illness Index. Treatment Outcome. Chemical. ...
A prospective study of the ability of three endoscopic classifications to predict hemorrhage from esophageal varices.Predictive Value of Tests. Prospective Studies. Risk Factors. Sensitivity and Specificity. Time Factors. ... but the latter classifications were more specific and assessed a higher predictive value for a positive test. Endoscopic ...
Comparative evaluation of dopamine infusion & treadmill exercise tests in the diagnosis of coronary artery disease.... was compared with treadmill exercise test (TMT) in 20 patients of chronic stable angina (TMT +ve) for inducing reversible ... Exercise Test*. Hemodynamics. Humans. Infusions, Intravenous. Male. Predictive Value of Tests. From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a ... Dopamine infusion test (DIT) was compared with treadmill exercise test (TMT) in 20 patients of chronic stable angina (TMT +ve) ... with dopamine infusion compared to exercise test. The test was tolerated well, in higher doses (stages III & IV) side effects ...
Fetal nuchal translucency and prenatal diagnosis of beta-thalassaemia.Predictive Value of Tests. Pregnancy. Pregnancy Trimester, First. Ultrasonography, Prenatal*. beta-Thalassemia / embryology, ... The NT test was positive in all three cases of chromosomopathies detected (100 per cent) and in 19 of 381 (4.98 per cent) ...
Tumor-like coronary atheroma: a modern coronary evaluation with a historical perspective.Predictive Value of Tests. Stents. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome. Ultrasonography, Interventional. ...
Daytime, home and office blood pressures in treated hypertensive patients according to accretion of cardiovascular risk.We set out to compare BP values obtained using different measurement modalities and their relati ... Predictive Value of Tests. Residence Characteristics. Risk Factors. Smoking / epidemiology. Triglycerides / blood. Workplace. ... values were employed. The deviation of home measurements was associated in a dose-dependent fashion with intensity of MS. Thus ... We set out to compare BP values obtained using different measurement modalities and their relationship to MS intensity in ...
Predictive factors for local recurrence in 2006 patients with surgically resected small breast cancer.This study investigates whether factors predictive of local recurrence ... Analyses of predictive factors for local recurrences are important, as an increasing number of patients with early breast ... Predictive Value of Tests. Probability. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Risk Assessment. Survival Analysis. ... BACKGROUND: Analyses of predictive factors for local recurrences are important, as an increasing number of patients with early ...
Assessment of fetomaternal hemorrhage by flow cytometry and Kleihauer-Betke test in Rh-negative pregnancies.... in comparison to the Kleihauer-Betke test (KBT). METHODS: 25 unsensitized Rh-negative mothers who had delivered Rh-positive ... Predictive Value of Tests. Pregnancy. Prenatal Diagnosis. Rh-Hr Blood-Group System / immunology*. Sensitivity and Specificity. ... in comparison to the Kleihauer-Betke test (KBT). METHODS: 25 unsensitized Rh-negative mothers who had delivered Rh-positive ...
Associations of postnatal growth with asthma and atopy: the PROBIT Study.Intradermal Tests. Logistic Models. Male. Multivariate Analysis. Odds Ratio. Phenotype. Predictive Value of Tests. Prospective ... were ascertained at 6.5 yr with the International Study of Asthma and Allergy in Childhood questionnaire and skin prick tests. ...
Lorenzo Tomatis - WikipediaTomatis L. The predictive value of rodent carcinogenicity tests in the evaluation of human risks. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. ... Tomatis L, Partensky C, Montesano R. The predictive value of mouse liver tumour induction in carcinogenicity testing-a ... Tomatis L. Experimental chemical carcinogenesis: fundamental and predictive role in protecting human health in the 1930s-1970s ...
The relationship between pregnancy and oxidative stress markers on patients undergoing ovarian stimulations.Predictive Value of Tests. Pregnancy. Pregnancy Outcome*. Pregnancy Rate. Prospective Studies. Sperm Injections, ... acids in the pregnancy positive group indicate that these oxidative stress and nutritional factors may be used as a predictive ...
Assay sensitivity: Assay sensitivity is a property of a clinical trial defined as the ability of a trial to distinguish an effective treatment from a less effective or ineffective intervention. Without assay sensitivity, a trial is not internally valid and is not capable of comparing the efficacy of two interventions.Generalizability theory: Generalizability theory, or G Theory, is a statistical framework for conceptualizing, investigating, and designing reliable observations. It is used to determine the reliability (i.Prevalence: Prevalence in epidemiology is the proportion of a population found to have a condition (typically a disease or a risk factor such as smoking or seat-belt use). It is arrived at by comparing the number of people found to have the condition with the total number of people studied, and is usually expressed as a fraction, as a percentage or as the number of cases per 10,000 or 100,000 people.Biomarkers of aging: Biomarkers of aging are biomarkers that better predict functional capacity at a later age than chronological age. Stated another way, biomarkers of aging would give the true "biological age", which may be different from the chronological age.Bioline Reagents: Bioline Reagents is a primary manufacturer and developerBioline: The PCR Company | Company Profile of a wide range of specialised molecular biology products for the life science industry and research markets. It manufactures reagents including ultra-pure nucleotides, DNA polymerases and mixes, DNA markers, competent cells, products for RNA analysis and other general reagents for molecular biology.Dense artery sign: In medicine, the dense artery sign or hyperdense artery sign is a radiologic sign seen on computer tomography (CT) scans suggestive of early ischemic stroke. In earlier studies of medical imaging in patients with strokes, it was the earliest sign of ischemic stroke in a significant minority of cases.Cancer screeningBeggin' Strips: Beggin' Strips are a brand of dog treats manufactured and sold in North America by Nestlé Purina PetCare division. Beggin' Strips are designed to resemble strips of bacon.QRISK: QRISK2 (the most recent version of QRISK) is a prediction algorithm for cardiovascular disease (CVD) that uses traditional risk factors (age, systolic blood pressure, smoking status and ratio of total serum cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) together with body mass index, ethnicity, measures of deprivation, family history, chronic kidney disease, rheumatoid arthritis, atrial fibrillation, diabetes mellitus, and antihypertensive treatment.Temporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studyingGlobal Risks Report: The Global Risks Report is an annual study published by the World Economic Forum ahead of the Forum’s Annual Meeting in Davos, Switzerland. Based on the work of the Global Risk Network, the report describes changes occurring in the global risks landscape from year to year and identifies the global risks that could play a critical role in the upcoming year.Brain biopsyReplica plating: 350px|right|thumb|[[Negative selection (artificial selection)|Negative selection through replica plating to screen for ampicillin sensitive colonies]]Avid Radiopharmaceuticals: Avid Radiopharmaceuticals is an American company, founded by Dr. Daniel Skovronsky, and based at the University City Science Center research campus in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.Prenatal nutrition: Nutrition and weight management before and during :pregnancy has a profound effect on the development of infants. This is a rather critical time for healthy fetal development as infants rely heavily on maternal stores and nutrient for optimal growth and health outcome later in life.Clonal Selection Algorithm: In artificial immune systems, Clonal selection algorithms are a class of algorithms inspired by the clonal selection theory of acquired immunity that explains how B and T lymphocytes improve their response to antigens over time called affinity maturation. These algorithms focus on the Darwinian attributes of the theory where selection is inspired by the affinity of antigen-antibody interactions, reproduction is inspired by cell division, and variation is inspired by somatic hypermutation.Cancer biomarkers: A cancer biomarker refers to a substance or process that is indicative of the presence of cancer in the body. A biomarker may be a molecule secreted by a tumor or a specific response of the body to the presence of cancer.Universal asynchronous receiver/transmitter: A universal asynchronous receiver/transmitter, abbreviated UART , is a computer hardware device that translates data between parallel and serial forms. UARTs are commonly used in conjunction with communication standards such as TIA (formerly EIA) RS-232, RS-422 or RS-485.Prescription cascade: Prescription cascade refers to the process whereby the side effects of drugs are misdiagnosed as symptoms of another problem resulting in further prescriptions and further side effects and unanticipated drug interactions. This may lead to further misdiagnoses and further symptoms.Eva Engvall: Eva Engvall, born 1940, is one of the scientists who invented ELISA in 1971.Eva Engvall, The Scientist 1995, 9(18):8Brain positron emission tomography: Positron emission tomography (PET) measures emissions from radioactively labeled metabolically active chemicals that have been injected into the bloodstream. The emission data are computer-processed to produce multi-dimensional images of the distribution of the chemicals throughout the brain.Fine-needle aspiration: Fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB, FNA or NAB), or fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC), is a diagnostic procedure used to investigate superficial (just under the skin) lumps or masses. In this technique, a thin, hollow needle is inserted into the mass for sampling of cells that, after being stained, will be examined under a microscope.Thermal cyclerInternational Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems: The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, usually called by the short-form name International Classification of Diseases (ICD), is the international "standard diagnostic tool for epidemiology, health management and clinical purposes". The ICD is maintained by the World Health Organization (WHO), the directing and coordinating authority for health within the United Nations System.Intravascular ultrasoundAbdominal ultrasonographySpiral computed tomography: Spiral computed tomography is a computed tomographyAvinash C. Kak and Malcolm Slaney (2001).Breast cancer classification: Breast cancer classification divides breast cancer into categories according to different schemes, each based on different criteria and serving a different purpose. The major categories are the histopathological type, the grade of the tumor, the stage of the tumor, and the expression of proteins and genes.Automated ECG interpretation: Automated ECG interpretation is the use of artificial intelligence and pattern recognition software and knowledge bases to carry out automatically the interpretation, test reporting, and computer-aided diagnosis of electrocardiogram tracings obtained usually from a patient.ABCD rating: ABCD rating, also called the Jewett staging system or the Whitmore-Jewett staging system, is a staging system for prostate cancer that uses the letters A, B, C, and D.Breast biopsyWi, Inc.: Wi, Inc. (pronounced as an initialism, "double-u i.D-dimer: D-dimer (or D dimer) is a fibrin degradation product (or FDP), a small protein fragment present in the blood after a blood clot is degraded by fibrinolysis. It is so named because it contains two crosslinked D fragments of the fibrin protein.Immunoassay: An immunoassay is a biochemical test that measures the presence or concentration of a macromolecule in a solution through the use of an antibody or immunoglobulin. The macromolecule detected by the immunoassay is often referred to as an "analyte" and is in many cases a protein.HyperintensityPalpation: Palpation is the process of using one's hands to examine the body, especially while perceiving/diagnosing a disease or illness.http://dictionary.Schering AGNegative probability: The probability of the outcome of an experiment is never negative, but quasiprobability distributions can be defined that allow a negative probability for some events. These distributions may apply to unobservable events or conditional probabilities.Laser ablation of thyroid nodules: Laser ablation of thyroid nodules is a minimally invasive procedure indicated to treat benign thyroid lesions such as cold nodules or single nodules within a multinodular goiter. The technique consists in the destruction of the tissue by the insertion therein of optical fibers which convey the light energy, causing a complete and not reversible lesions necrosis.Epidemiological method: The science of epidemiology has matured significantly from the times of Hippocrates and John Snow. The techniques for gathering and analyzing epidemiological data vary depending on the type of disease being monitored but each study will have overarching similarities.Ictal-Interictal SPECT Analysis by SPM: ISAS (Ictal-Interictal SPECT Analysis by SPM) is an objective tool for analyzing ictal vs. interictal SPECT scans.GeneXpert MTB/RIFComputer-aided diagnosis: In radiology, computer-aided detection (CADe), also called computer-aided diagnosis (CADx), are procedures in medicine that assist doctors in the interpretation of medical images. Imaging techniques in X-ray, MRI, and Ultrasound diagnostics yield a great deal of information, which the radiologist has to analyze and evaluate comprehensively in a short time.Immunoperoxidase: Immunoperoxidase is a type of immunostain used in molecular biology, medical research, and clinical diagnostics. In particular, immunoperoxidase reactions refer to a sub-class of immunohistochemical or immunocytochemical procedures in which the antibodies are visualized via a peroxidase-catalyzed reaction.Full-body CT scan: A full-body scan is a scan of the patient's entire body as part of the diagnosis or treatment of illnesses. If computed tomography (CAT) scan technology is used, it is known as a full-body CT scan, though many medical imaging technologies can perform full-body scans.Regression dilution: Regression dilution, also known as regression attenuation, is the biasing of the regression slope towards zero (or the underestimation of its absolute value), caused by errors in the independent variable.Reaction Agostini: Reaction Agostini is the name of a simplified examination for the presence of glucose in human urine.Tumor progression: Tumor progression is the third and last phase in tumor development. This phase is characterised by increased growth speed and invasiveness of the tumor cells.Pap testNested case-control study: A nested case control (NCC) study is a variation of a case-control study in which only a subset of controls from the cohort are compared to the incident cases. In a case-cohort study, all incident cases in the cohort are compared to a random subset of participants who do not develop the disease of interest.CADgene: CADgene is a database of genes involved in coronary artery disease (CAD) .Electrocardiography in myocardial infarctionLymphovascular invasionMethyl violetIncidence (epidemiology): Incidence is a measure of the probability of occurrence of a given medical condition in a population within a specified period of time. Although sometimes loosely expressed simply as the number of new cases during some time period, it is better expressed as a proportion or a rate with a denominator.Loader (computing): In computing, a loader is the part of an operating system that is responsible for loading programs and libraries. It is one of the essential stages in the process of starting a program, as it places programs into memory and prepares them for execution.Wooden chest: Wooden chest is a rigidity of the chest following the administration of high doses of opioids during anaesthesia.Urinalysis
(1/30648) Validation of the Rockall risk scoring system in upper gastrointestinal bleeding.
BACKGROUND: Several scoring systems have been developed to predict the risk of rebleeding or death in patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB). These risk scoring systems have not been validated in a new patient population outside the clinical context of the original study. AIMS: To assess internal and external validity of a simple risk scoring system recently developed by Rockall and coworkers. METHODS: Calibration and discrimination were assessed as measures of validity of the scoring system. Internal validity was assessed using an independent, but similar patient sample studied by Rockall and coworkers, after developing the scoring system (Rockall's validation sample). External validity was assessed using patients admitted to several hospitals in Amsterdam (Vreeburg's validation sample). Calibration was evaluated by a chi2 goodness of fit test, and discrimination was evaluated by calculating the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. RESULTS: Calibration indicated a poor fit in both validation samples for the prediction of rebleeding (p<0.0001, Vreeburg; p=0.007, Rockall), but a better fit for the prediction of mortality in both validation samples (p=0.2, Vreeburg; p=0.3, Rockall). The areas under the ROC curves were rather low in both validation samples for the prediction of rebleeding (0.61, Vreeburg; 0.70, Rockall), but higher for the prediction of mortality (0.73, Vreeburg; 0.81, Rockall). CONCLUSIONS: The risk scoring system developed by Rockall and coworkers is a clinically useful scoring system for stratifying patients with acute UGIB into high and low risk categories for mortality. For the prediction of rebleeding, however, the performance of this scoring system was unsatisfactory. (+info)
(2/30648) Predicting delayed anxiety and depression in patients with gastrointestinal cancer.
The aim of this study was to examine the possibility of predicting anxiety and depression 6 months after a cancer diagnosis on the basis of measures of anxiety, depression, coping and subjective distress associated with the diagnosis and to explore the possibility of identifying individual patients with high levels of delayed anxiety and depression associated with the diagnosis. A consecutive series of 159 patients with gastrointestinal cancer were interviewed in connection with the diagnosis, 3 months (non-cured patients only) and 6 months later. The interviews utilized structured questionnaires assessing anxiety and depression [Hospital Anxiety and Depression (HAD) scale], coping [Mental Adjustment to Cancer (MAC) scale] and subjective distress [Impact of Event (IES) scale]. Patient anxiety and depression close to the diagnosis were found to explain approximately 35% of the variance in anxiety and depression that was found 6 months later. The addition of coping and subjective distress measures did little to improve that prediction. A model using (standardized) cut-off scores of moderate to high anxiety, depression (HAD) and intrusive thoughts (IES subscale) close to the diagnosis to identify patients at risk for delayed anxiety and depression achieved a sensitivity of 75% and a specificity of 98%. Levels of anxiety and depression at diagnosis predicted a similar status 6 months later. The results also indicated that the HAD scale in combination with the IES intrusion subscale may be used as a tool for detecting patients at risk of delayed anxiety and depression. (+info)
(3/30648) Immunocytochemically detected free peritoneal tumour cells (FPTC) are a strong prognostic factor in gastric carcinoma.
We prospectively investigated the prognostic significance of free peritoneal tumour cells (FPTC) in a series of 118 patients with completely resected gastric carcinoma. Immunocytochemistry with the monoclonal antibody Ber-Ep4 was performed on cytospins from intraoperative peritoneal lavage specimens. Twenty-three patients (20%) had FPTC which was significantly correlated with pT and pN categories, stage, tumour size, lymphatic invasion, Lauren and WHO classifications and perigastric adipose tissue metastases. The median survival time for all FPTC positive compared with negative patients was significantly shorter (11 compared with >72 months), with estimated 5-year survival rates of 8% vs. 60%. None of the patients with FPTC had an early gastric cancer. In advanced tumour subgroups without and with serosal invasion (n = 59 and 35), there were 19% and 34% with FPTC. Multivariate survival analysis showed nodal status, FPTC, mesenteric lymphangiosis, and lymph node metastasis to the compartment III to be independent prognostic factors with relative risks of 6.6, 4.5, 2.9 and 2.2 respectively. Recurrent disease occurred in 91% of FPTC-positive and in 38% of FPTC-negative patients. FPTC had a positive predictive value of 91% and a specificity of 97% for tumour recurrence. FPTC is a strong negative, independent prognostic indicator for survival in gastric carcinoma. (+info)
(4/30648) Profound variation in dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase activity in human blood cells: major implications for the detection of partly deficient patients.
Dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD) is responsible for the breakdown of the widely used antineoplastic agent 5-fluorouracil (5FU), thereby limiting the efficacy of the therapy. To identify patients suffering from a complete or partial DPD deficiency, the activity of DPD is usually determined in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBM cells). In this study, we demonstrated that the highest activity of DPD was found in monocytes followed by that of lymphocytes, granulocytes and platelets, whereas no significant activity of DPD could be detected in erythrocytes. The activity of DPD in PBM cells proved to be intermediate compared with the DPD activity observed in monocytes and lymphocytes. The mean percentage of monocytes in the PBM cells obtained from cancer patients proved to be significantly higher than that observed in PBM cells obtained from healthy volunteers. Moreover, a profound positive correlation was observed between the DPD activity of PBM cells and the percentage of monocytes, thus introducing a large inter- and intrapatient variability in the activity of DPD and hindering the detection of patients with a partial DPD deficiency. (+info)
(5/30648) Prognostic value of myocardial perfusion imaging in patients with high exercise tolerance.
BACKGROUND: Although high exercise tolerance is associated with an excellent prognosis, the significance of abnormal myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) in patients with high exercise tolerance has not been established. This study retrospectively compares the utility of MPI and exercise ECG (EECG) in these patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: Of 388 consecutive patients who underwent exercise MPI and reached at least Bruce stage IV, 157 (40.5%) had abnormal results and 231 (59.5%) had normal results. Follow-up was performed at 18+/-2.7 months. Adverse events, including revascularization, myocardial infarction, and cardiac death, occurred in 40 patients. Nineteen patients had revascularization related to the MPI results or the patient's condition at the time of MPI and were not included in further analysis. Seventeen patients (12.2%) with abnormal MPI and 4 (1.7%) with normal MPI had adverse cardiac events (P<0.001). Cox proportional-hazards regression analysis showed that MPI was an excellent predictor of cardiac events (global chi2=13.2; P<0.001; relative risk=8; 95% CI=3 to 23) but EECG had no predictive power (global chi2=0.05; P=0.8; relative risk=1; 95% CI=0.4 to 3.0). The addition of Duke's treadmill score risk categories did not improve the predictive power of EECG (global chi2=0.17). The predictive power of the combination of EECG (including Duke score categories) and MPI was no better than that of MPI alone (global chi2=13.5). CONCLUSIONS: Unlike EECG, MPI is an excellent prognostic indicator for adverse cardiac events in patients with known or suspected CAD and high exercise tolerance. (+info)
(6/30648) Usefulness of fractional flow reserve to predict clinical outcome after balloon angioplasty.
BACKGROUND: After regular coronary balloon angioplasty, it would be helpful to identify those patients who have a low cardiac event rate. Coronary angiography alone is not sensitive enough for that purpose, but it has been suggested that the combination of optimal angiographic and optimal functional results indicates a low restenosis chance. Pressure-derived myocardial fractional flow reserve (FFR) is an index of the functional severity of the residual epicardial lesion and could be useful for that purpose. METHODS AND RESULTS: In 60 consecutive patients with single-vessel disease, balloon angioplasty was performed by use of a pressure instead of a regular guide wire. Both quantitative coronary angiography (QCA) and measurement of FFR were performed 15 minutes after the procedure. A successful angioplasty result, defined as a residual diameter stenosis (DS) <50%, was achieved in 58 patients. In these patients, DS and FFR, measured 15 minutes after PTCA, were analyzed in relation to clinical outcome. In those 26 patients with both optimal angiographic (residual DS by QCA =35%) and optimal functional (FFR >/=0.90) results, event-free survival rates at 6, 12, and 24 months were 92+/-5%, 92+/-5%, and 88+/-6%, respectively, versus 72+/-8%, 69+/-8%, and 59+/-9%, respectively, in the remaining 32 patients in whom the angiographic or functional result or both were suboptimal (P=0.047, P=0.028, and P=0.014, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with a residual DS =35% and FFR >/=0.90, clinical outcome up to 2 years is excellent. Therefore, there is a complementary value of coronary angiography and coronary pressure measurement in the evaluation of PTCA result. (+info)
(7/30648) The clinical utility of CMV surveillance cultures and antigenemia following bone marrow transplantation.
At our institution, the cytomegalovirus (CMV) prophylaxis protocol for allogeneic bone marrow transplant (BMT) recipients who are CMV-seropositive or receive marrow from a CMV-seropositive donor consists of a surveillance bronchoscopy approximately 35 days posttransplant. Patients with a positive surveillance bronchoscopy for CMV receive pre-emptive ganciclovir. In order to determine the utility of other screening methods for CMV, we prospectively performed weekly CMV antigenemia, and blood, urine and throat cultures from time of engraftment to day 120 post-BMT in 126 consecutive patients. Pre-emptive ganciclovir was given to 11/81 patients (13.6%) because of a positive surveillance bronchoscopy for CMV. Results of CMV blood, urine and throat cultures and the antigenemia assay done prior to or at the time of the surveillance bronchoscopy were analyzed for their ability to predict the bronchoscopy result. The antigenemia test had the highest positive and negative predictive values (72% and 96%, respectively). The ability of these tests to predict CMV disease was evaluated in the 70 patients with a negative surveillance bronchoscopy who did not receive pre-emptive ganciclovir. Of 19 cases of active CMV disease, CMV antigenemia was positive in 15 patients (79%) a mean of 34 days preceding symptoms. Blood cultures were positive in 14/19 patients (74%) a mean of 31 days before onset of disease. CMV antigenemia is useful for predicting the surveillance bronchoscopy result, and also predicts the development of CMV disease in the majority of patients missed by the surveillance bronchoscopy. (+info)
(8/30648) Immunologic proliferation marker Ki-S2 as prognostic indicator for lymph node-negative breast cancer.
BACKGROUND: Proper treatment of lymph node-negative breast cancer depends on an accurate prognosis. To improve prognostic models for this disease, we evaluated whether an immunohistochemical marker for proliferating cells, Ki-S2 (a monoclonal antibody that binds to a 100-kd nuclear protein expressed in S, G2, and M phases of the cell cycle), is an accurate indicator of prognosis. METHODS: We studied 371 Swedish women with lymph node-negative breast cancer; the median follow-up time was 95 months. The fraction of tumor cells in S phase was assessed by flow cytometry, and tumor cell proliferation was measured immunohistochemically with the monoclonal antibodies Ki-S2 and Ki-S5 (directed against the nuclear antigen Ki-67). A combined prognostic index was calculated on the basis of the S-phase fraction, progesterone receptor content, and tumor size. RESULTS: In multivariate analyses that did or did not (263 and 332 observations, respectively) include the S-phase fraction and the combined prognostic index, the Ki-S2 labeling index (percentage of antibody-stained tumor cell nuclei) emerged as the most statistically significant predictor of overall survival, disease-specific survival, and disease-free survival (all two-sided P<.0001). In the risk group defined by a Ki-S2 labeling index of 10% or less, life expectancy was not statistically significantly different from that of age-matched women without breast cancer, whereas the group with a high Ki-S2 labeling index had an increased risk of mortality of up to 20-fold. CONCLUSIONS: Cellular proliferation is a major determinant of the biologic behavior of breast cancer. Prognosis is apparently best indicated by the percentage of cells in S through M phases of the cell cycle. Measurement of the Ki-S2 labeling index of a tumor sample may improve a clinician's ability to make an accurate prognosis and to identify patients with a low risk of recurrence who may not need adjuvant therapy. (+info)
- The establishments of these indices have diagnostic value and clinical prognosis and therefore require relevant and different therapeutic measures. (biomedsearch.com)
- Comparative evaluation of dopamine infusion & treadmill exercise tests in the diagnosis of coronary artery disease. (biomedsearch.com)
- To define the role of ambulatory pH monitoring in evaluating chronic cough, we studied esophageal pH values of patients referred to a gastroenterology laboratory. (biomedsearch.com)
- In summary, ambulatory pH monitoring is an excellent test for identifying patients with GER-related cough. (biomedsearch.com)
- However, the clinical BP control rates were overall higher, and did not differ between two groups when daytime ambulatory (34.7 vs 27%) or office (26.7 vs 22.3%) values were employed. (biomedsearch.com)
- Dopamine infusion test (DIT) was compared with treadmill exercise test (TMT) in 20 patients of chronic stable angina (TMT +ve) for inducing reversible myocardial ischaemia so as to assess its efficacy as an alternative to TMT in patients who cannot perform exercise test due to certain non-cardiac diseases. (biomedsearch.com)
- However, evidence of myocardial ischaemia (ST segment depression) appeared at a lower rate pressure product (RPP) with dopamine infusion compared to exercise test. (biomedsearch.com)
- 28 Rapid diagnostic tests at peripheral and intermediate laboratories. (scribd.com)
- Esophageal pH monitoring had good sensitivity (91%), specificity (82%), and positive (83%) and negative (90%) predictive values in identifying GER-related cough. (biomedsearch.com)
- In predicting the bleeding event, Dagradi's classification proved more sensitive than JRSPH or NIEC, but the latter classifications were more specific and assessed a higher predictive value for a positive test. (biomedsearch.com)
- The NT test was positive in all three cases of chromosomopathies detected (100 per cent) and in 19 of 381 (4.98 per cent) normal karyotype fetuses. (biomedsearch.com)
- Dopamine infusion is a good chemical stress test, and can be used as an alternative to TMT especially in situations where the latter cannot be performed. (biomedsearch.com)
- The test was tolerated well, in higher doses (stages III & IV) side effects like ventricular ectopic beats, palpitation and angina not warranting stoppage of test, were seen in some patients. (biomedsearch.com)
- We set out to compare BP values obtained using different measurement modalities and their relationship to MS intensity in hypertensive outpatients. (biomedsearch.com)
- A method for early detection of aseptic loosening based on few patients would be of value. (biomedsearch.com)
- The guiding principle of the ACCE framework is that the evaluation of genetic tests should be an integrated approach including all domains. (nottingham.ac.uk)
- This predictive study utilized an ex post facto approach. (bsu.edu)
- The ACCE framework is a helpful model in order to emphasise the key components of a genetic test evaluation. (nottingham.ac.uk)