Poverty Areas: City, urban, rural, or suburban areas which are characterized by severe economic deprivation and by accompanying physical and social decay.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Income: Revenues or receipts accruing from business enterprise, labor, or invested capital.Residence Characteristics: Elements of residence that characterize a population. They are applicable in determining need for and utilization of health services.United StatesFamily Characteristics: Size and composition of the family.Health Status Disparities: Variation in rates of disease occurrence and disabilities between population groups defined by socioeconomic characteristics such as age, ethnicity, economic resources, or gender and populations identified geographically or similar measures.Child Welfare: Organized efforts by communities or organizations to improve the health and well-being of the child.Social Class: A stratum of people with similar position and prestige; includes social stratification. Social class is measured by criteria such as education, occupation, and income.Censuses: Enumerations of populations usually recording identities of all persons in every place of residence with age or date of birth, sex, occupation, national origin, language, marital status, income, relation to head of household, information on the dwelling place, education, literacy, health-related data (e.g., permanent disability), etc. The census or "numbering of the people" is mentioned several times in the Old Testament. Among the Romans, censuses were intimately connected with the enumeration of troops before and after battle and probably a military necessity. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 3d ed; Garrison, An Introduction to the History of Medicine, 4th ed, p66, p119)Health Services Accessibility: The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.Urban Population: The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.Vulnerable Populations: Groups of persons whose range of options is severely limited, who are frequently subjected to COERCION in their DECISION MAKING, or who may be compromised in their ability to give INFORMED CONSENT.Public Assistance: Financial assistance to impoverished persons for the essentials of living through federal, state or local government programs.Food Supply: The production and movement of food items from point of origin to use or consumption.Developing Countries: Countries in the process of change with economic growth, that is, an increase in production, per capita consumption, and income. The process of economic growth involves better utilization of natural and human resources, which results in a change in the social, political, and economic structures.Rural Population: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.African Americans: Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the black groups of Africa.Social Welfare: Organized institutions which provide services to ameliorate conditions of need or social pathology in the community.Social Conditions: The state of society as it exists or in flux. While it usually refers to society as a whole in a specified geographical or political region, it is applicable also to restricted strata of a society.Social Justice: An interactive process whereby members of a community are concerned for the equality and rights of all.Economics: The science of utilization, distribution, and consumption of services and materials.Urban Health: The status of health in urban populations.Neglected Diseases: Diseases that are underfunded and have low name recognition but are major burdens in less developed countries. The World Health Organization has designated six tropical infectious diseases as being neglected in industrialized countries that are endemic in many developing countries (HELMINTHIASIS; LEPROSY; LYMPHATIC FILARIASIS; ONCHOCERCIASIS; SCHISTOSOMIASIS; and TRACHOMA).Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.Health Status: The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.Healthcare Disparities: Differences in access to or availability of medical facilities and services.European Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Europe.Financing, Personal: Payment by individuals or their family for health care services which are not covered by a third-party payer, either insurance or medical assistance.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Educational Status: Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.United Nations: An international organization whose members include most of the sovereign nations of the world with headquarters in New York City. The primary objectives of the organization are to maintain peace and security and to achieve international cooperation in solving international economic, social, cultural, or humanitarian problems.Public Policy: A course or method of action selected, usually by a government, from among alternatives to guide and determine present and future decisions.Catastrophic Illness: An acute or prolonged illness usually considered to be life-threatening or with the threat of serious residual disability. Treatment may be radical and is frequently costly.Small-Area Analysis: A method of analyzing the variation in utilization of health care in small geographic or demographic areas. It often studies, for example, the usage rates for a given service or procedure in several small areas, documenting the variation among the areas. By comparing high- and low-use areas, the analysis attempts to determine whether there is a pattern to such use and to identify variables that are associated with and contribute to the variation.Hispanic Americans: Persons living in the United States of Mexican (MEXICAN AMERICANS), Puerto Rican, Cuban, Central or South American, or other Spanish culture or origin. The concept does not include Brazilian Americans or Portuguese Americans.Continental Population Groups: Groups of individuals whose putative ancestry is from native continental populations based on similarities in physical appearance.Social Environment: The aggregate of social and cultural institutions, forms, patterns, and processes that influence the life of an individual or community.CaliforniaPartnership Practice, Dental: A voluntary contract between two or more dentists who may or may not share responsibility for the care of patients, with proportional sharing of profits and losses.Health Expenditures: The amounts spent by individuals, groups, nations, or private or public organizations for total health care and/or its various components. These amounts may or may not be equivalent to the actual costs (HEALTH CARE COSTS) and may or may not be shared among the patient, insurers, and/or employers.Ethnic Groups: A group of people with a common cultural heritage that sets them apart from others in a variety of social relationships.Housing: Living facilities for humans.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Sociology: A social science dealing with group relationships, patterns of collective behavior, and social organization.MissouriCross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Medically Uninsured: Individuals or groups with no or inadequate health insurance coverage. Those falling into this category usually comprise three primary groups: the medically indigent (MEDICAL INDIGENCY); those whose clinical condition makes them medically uninsurable; and the working uninsured.Noma: A severe gangrenous process occurring predominantly in debilitated and malnourished children, especially in underdeveloped countries. It typically begins as a small vesicle or ulcer on the gingiva that rapidly becomes necrotic and spreads to produce extensive destruction of the buccal and labial mucosa and tissues of the face, which may result in severe disfigurement and even death. Various bacteria have been implicated in the etiology. (Dorland, 27th ed)Africa South of the Sahara: All of Africa except Northern Africa (AFRICA, NORTHERN).Sociology, Medical: The study of the social determinants and social effects of health and disease, and of the social structure of medical institutions or professions.Ownership: The legal relation between an entity (individual, group, corporation, or-profit, secular, government) and an object. The object may be corporeal, such as equipment, or completely a creature of law, such as a patent; it may be movable, such as an animal, or immovable, such as a building.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Rural Health: The status of health in rural populations.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Cultural Deprivation: The absence of certain expected and acceptable cultural phenomena in the environment which results in the failure of the individual to communicate and respond in the most appropriate manner within the context of society. Language acquisition and language use are commonly used in assessing this concept.Catholicism: The Christian faith, practice, or system of the Catholic Church, specifically the Roman Catholic, the Christian church that is characterized by a hierarchic structure of bishops and priests in which doctrinal and disciplinary authority are dependent upon apostolic succession, with the pope as head of the episcopal college. (From Webster, 3d ed; American Heritage Dictionary, 2d college ed)Health Status Indicators: The measurement of the health status for a given population using a variety of indices, including morbidity, mortality, and available health resources.Agriculture: The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.Insurance, Health: Insurance providing coverage of medical, surgical, or hospital care in general or for which there is no specific heading.ChicagoHuman Development: Continuous sequential changes which occur in the physiological and psychological functions during the life-time of an individual.Demography: Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.Geography: The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)IndiaHealth Policy: Decisions, usually developed by government policymakers, for determining present and future objectives pertaining to the health care system.Social Problems: Situations affecting a significant number of people, that are believed to be sources of difficulty or threaten the stability of the community, and that require programs of amelioration.Conservation of Natural Resources: The protection, preservation, restoration, and rational use of all resources in the total environment.Employment: The state of being engaged in an activity or service for wages or salary.Interviews as Topic: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.Unemployment: The state of not being engaged in a gainful occupation.North CarolinaKenya: A republic in eastern Africa, south of ETHIOPIA, west of SOMALIA with TANZANIA to its south, and coastline on the Indian Ocean. Its capital is Nairobi.Community Health Planning: Planning that has the goals of improving health, improving accessibility to health services, and promoting efficiency in the provision of services and resources on a comprehensive basis for a whole community. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988, p299)Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Mothers: Female parents, human or animal.Education: Acquisition of knowledge as a result of instruction in a formal course of study.Allostasis: Biological adaptation, such as the rise of EPINEPHRINE in response to exercise, stress or perceived danger, followed by a fall of epinephrine during RELAXATION. Allostasis is the achievement of stability by turning on and turning off the allostatic systems including the IMMUNE SYSTEM; the AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM and NEUROENDOCRINE SYSTEMS.African Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Africa.Malnutrition: An imbalanced nutritional status resulted from insufficient intake of nutrients to meet normal physiological requirement.Child Health Services: Organized services to provide health care for children.Healthy People Programs: Healthy People Programs are a set of health objectives to be used by governments, communities, professional organizations, and others to help develop programs to improve health. It builds on initiatives pursued over the past two decades beginning with the 1979 Surgeon General's Report, Healthy People, Healthy People 2000: National Health Promotion and Disease Prevention Objectives, and Healthy People 2010. These established national health objectives and served as the basis for the development of state and community plans. These are administered by the Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (ODPHP). Similar programs are conducted by other national governments.

*  Single Mother Work and Poverty under Welfare Reform: Are Policy Impacts Different in Rural Areas?

... the policy changes would have increased employment and reduced poverty more in rural areas. Without demographic controls, ... This suggests that rural demographic changes limited the policy impact on rural single-mother work and poverty. ... but not to poverty reduction--for both rural and urban single mothers. If rural and urban demographics had been the same, ... employment increased and poverty declined for single mothers in rural and urban areas. Our results suggest that, holding ...

*  Poverty in Rural and Urban Areas: Direct Comparisons Using the Global MPI 2014 | OPHI

You are here: Home » Publications » Briefing Document » Poverty in Rural and Urban Areas: Direct Comparisons Using the Global ... Poverty in Rural and Urban Areas: Direct Comparisons Using the Global MPI 2014. ... Our rural-urban analysis finds that of the 1.6 billion people identified as MPI poor, 85% live in rural areas - significantly ... Oxford Poverty & Human Development Initiative (OPHI) Oxford Department of International Development. Queen Elizabeth House (QEH ...

*  Germany: Berlin And Ruhr Area Turning Into Poverty Strongholds (Der Spiegel) - Infinite Unknown

Germany: Berlin And Ruhr Area Turning Into Poverty Strongholds (Der Spiegel). December 20, 2012. by Infinite ... Poverty, Ruhr area, Ruhrgebiet, Society, Unemployment Post navigation. 'Cold Shutdown' In Japan: Japan Has Still 'No Knowledge ...

*  Headlines for May 21, 2013 | Democracy Now!

A new study shows more people are living in poverty in U.S. suburbs than in urban areas. According to the Brookings Institution ... Urban areas saw an increase of 29 percent to 13.4 million during the same period. ... Voices from Mexico City After the Earthquake: Aid Arrived Late in Poorer Areas, Help Is Still Needed ... President Obama has declared a major disaster area in Oklahoma, ordering the deployment of federal aid. ...

*  Concentrated Poverty In America - Business Insider

Metro areas include both cities and their suburban outskirts.). For the year 2013, the Census set the poverty level at $12,119 ... To get an idea of which U.S. cities have the fastest-growing rates of concentrated poverty, we ranked metro areas based on the ... The Brookings report analyzes the poverty levels in metro areas and their distressed neighborhoods, examining the change ... of the population lives under the poverty line, and high-poverty, where at least 20% of the population is impoverished. ...

*  Gloria M. Grandolini

AREAS OF EXPERTISE. *Poverty. *Financial Sector. *Financial Inclusion. Related Topics. *Financial Sector ...

*  Pennsylvania (2000) | Small Area Income and Poverty Estimates | theledger.com | The Ledger | Lakeland, FL

Small Area Income and Poverty Estimates Home > Data Central > Small Area Income and Poverty Estimates > Pennsylvania ...

*  Company ranks 10 'dumbest,' 'smartest' states across the U.S. based on college grads, poverty lines | KFOR.com

Oklahoma City among 25 metro areas with the fastest job growth. * News ... Oklahoma's poverty rate ranks 35th in the country and has a median household income of $44,312, which is 41st. ... Company ranks 10 'dumbest,' 'smartest' states across the U.S. based on college grads, poverty lines. Posted 11:02 am, May 26, ... West Virginia is listed as the "dumbest state" with the third lowest median household income in the country and a poverty rate ...

*  Poverty threatens national, regional, international security: Marvi | Associated Press Of Pakistan

Nations plagued by poverty are the most vulnerable to crime and terrorism as poverty threatens not only national security but ... Fata reforms part of PMLN manifesto, to bring tribal areas in national development: Muqam. ... ISLAMABAD, Apr 23 (APP): Nations plagued by poverty are the most. vulnerable to crime and terrorism as poverty threatens not ... The moot titled "Poverty Alleviation and National Security" was organized by Institute of Strategic Studies Islamabad (ISSI).. ...

*  Options

All this research has been carried out in forests; wetlands; drylands; cloud forests; marine areas; urban and peri-urban areas ... Common themes include: Resource use; livelihoods; poverty; biodiversity; conservation; development; corporate social ... Photo Description: Maasai cattle in the highlands of Ngorongoro Conservation Area, Tanzania. Source Sara Randall. ...

*  Slum and Urban Health | Center for Global Public Health

As such, slum dwellers are likely to live longer with disability (years lived with disability or YLD) or likely to have more years of life lost (YLL) than non-slum residents when they develop the same disease or injuries. In many nations, slum residents are not officially recognized (no work permit, no home address, no identification card, and in some places, no birth or death certificates) and hence the allocated resources do not take into consideration the cost to take care of this population ...

Circular flow of income: The circular flow of income or circular flow is a model of the economy in which the major exchanges are represented as flows of money, goods and services, etc. between economic agents.Neighbourhood: A neighbourhood (Commonwealth English), or neighborhood (American English), is a geographically localised community within a larger city, town, suburb or rural area. Neighbourhoods are often social communities with considerable face-to-face interaction among members.List of Parliamentary constituencies in Kent: The ceremonial county of Kent,Relative index of inequality: The relative index of inequality (RII) is a regression-based index which summarizes the magnitude of socio-economic status (SES) as a source of inequalities in health. RII is useful because it takes into account the size of the population and the relative disadvantage experienced by different groups.Food desert: A food desert is a geographic area where affordable and nutritious food is difficult to obtain, particularly for those without access to an automobile.USDA Defines Food Deserts | American Nutrition Association Some research links food deserts to diet-related health problems and health disparities in affected populations, but this phenomenon has been disputed.Lucas paradox: In economics, the Lucas paradox or the Lucas puzzle is the observation that capital does not flow from developed countries to developing countries despite the fact that developing countries have lower levels of capital per worker.}}African-American family structure: The family structure of African-Americans has long been a matter of national public policy interest.Moynihan's War on Poverty report A 1965 report by Daniel Patrick Moynihan, known as The Moynihan Report, examined the link between black poverty and family structure.Sunshine Social Welfare Foundation: Sunshine Social Welfare Foundation (Chinese: 陽光社會福利基金會) is a charity established in 1981 in Taiwan to provide comprehensive services for burn survivors and people with facial disfigurement.Injustice SocietyMcCloskey critique: The McCloskey critique refers to a critique of post-1940s "official modernist" methodology in economics, inherited from logical positivism in philosophy. The critique maintains that the methodology neglects how economics can be done, is done, and should be done to advance the subject.KPC Medical College and HospitalSelf-rated health: Self-rated health (also called Self-reported health, Self-assessed health, or perceived health) refers to both a single question such as “in general, would you say that you health is excellent, very good, good, fair, or poor?” and a survey questionnaire in which participants assess different dimensions of their own health.QRISK: QRISK2 (the most recent version of QRISK) is a prediction algorithm for cardiovascular disease (CVD) that uses traditional risk factors (age, systolic blood pressure, smoking status and ratio of total serum cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) together with body mass index, ethnicity, measures of deprivation, family history, chronic kidney disease, rheumatoid arthritis, atrial fibrillation, diabetes mellitus, and antihypertensive treatment.Universal Declaration on the Eradication of Hunger and Malnutrition: The Universal Declaration on the Eradication of Hunger and Malnutrition was adopted by governments attending the 1974 World Food Conference. In it, states recognised that it is the common purpose of all nations to eliminate hunger and malnutrition.Catastrophic illness: A catastrophic illness is a severe illness requiring prolonged hospitalization or recovery. Examples would include coma, cancer, leukemia, heart attack or stroke.CASY cell counting technology: CASY technology is an electric field multi-channel cell counting system. It was first marketed by Schärfe System GmbH in 1987 under the name CASY1.San Diego County, California Probation: The San Diego County Probation Department is the body in San Diego County, California responsible for supervising convicted offenders in the community, either who are on probation, such as at the conclusion of their sentences, or while on community supervision orders.National Healthy Homes Hero Award: National Healthy Homes Hero Award is an award presented by a consortium of agencies at the United States' National Healthy Homes Conference. The first year this award was presented was in 2011.David Glass (sociologist): 1970sUniversity of Missouri Health Care: University of Missouri Health System is an academic health system located in Columbia, Missouri. It is owned by the University of Missouri System.History of sociology: Sociology as a scholarly discipline emerged primarily out of enlightenment thought, shortly after the French Revolution, as a positivist science of society. Its genesis owed to various key movements in the philosophy of science and the philosophy of knowledge.Asian Pacific American Medical Student Association: United StatesSt. Patrick's Roman Catholic Church (Calgary, Alberta): St. Patrick's Roman Catholic Church is an historic Carpenter Gothic style Roman Catholic church building located at 14608 Macleod Trail in the Midnapore neighbourhood in Calgary, Alberta, Canada.Chilalo Agricultural Development Union: Chilalo Agricultural Development Union (CADU) is the first comprehensive package project established in Arsi Zone, Oromia Region, Ethiopia to modernize traditional subsistence agriculture. The major components of the package programmes include fertilizers, ameliorated seeds, farm credits, marketing facilities, better tools and implements, and improved storage facilities.Contraceptive mandate (United States): A contraceptive mandate is a state or federal regulation or law that requires health insurers, or employers that provide their employees with health insurance, to cover some contraceptive costs in their health insurance plans. In 1978, the U.Chicago Tafia: The Chicago Tafia Welsh Society (also known as the Chicago Tafia) is an expatriate Welsh group formed in Chicago, Illinois, USA, in 1999. As one of the youngest and most contemporary Welsh groups in North America, the society strives to provide a link between the present culture of Wales and the Chicago area.Human Development Foundation: The Human Development Foundation (HDF), also referred to as the Mercy Centre, is a non-profit and non-denominational organization in Bangkok, Thailand. It was established by Roman Catholic Redemptorist priest Father Joe MaierPBS Story, Father Joe: Slum Priest, June 2004 with Sister Maria Chantavaradom in 1975.Health geography: Health geography is the application of geographical information, perspectives, and methods to the study of health, disease, and health care.Tamil Nadu Dr. M.G.R. Medical UniversityHealth policy: Health policy can be defined as the "decisions, plans, and actions that are undertaken to achieve specific health care goals within a society."World Health Organization.Meramec Conservation AreaPsychiatric interview: The psychiatric interview refers to the set of tools that a mental health worker (most times a psychiatrist or a psychologist but at times social workers or nurses) uses to complete a psychiatric assessment.Rehetobel: Rehetobel is a municipality in the canton of Appenzell Ausserrhoden in Switzerland.Steven Zeisel: Steven H. Zeisel, M.Kenya Pipeline CompanyHealthy community design: Healthy community design is planning and designing communities that make it easier for people to live healthy lives. Healthy community design offers important benefits:Mothers TalkK-Mix 2: K-Mix 2 is a high energy food, used for the treatment of severe malnutrition. It was developed by UNICEF in response to the Biafran crisis, and was widely used in later famines in India and Africa.Healthy People program: Healthy People is a program of nationwide health-promotion and disease-prevention goals set by the United States Department of Health and Human Services. The goals were first set in 1979 “in response to an emerging consensus among scientists and health authorities that national health priorities should emphasize disease prevention”.

(1/1136) Paediatric home care in Tower Hamlets: a working partnership with parents.

OBJECTIVES: To describe the first two years of a paediatric home care service. DESIGN: Observational cross sectional study, 1989-91. SETTING: One inner London health district. PATIENTS: 611 children referred to the service; 50 children selected from those referred during the first year, whose parents were interviewed and whose general practitioners were invited to complete a questionnaire. MAIN MEASURES: Description and costs of service; views of parents and general practitioners of selected sample of children. RESULTS: In its second year the team received 303 referrals and made 4004 visits at a salary cost of 98000 pounds, an average of 323 pounds/referral and 24 pounds/visit. This represented a referral rate of 3.2% (258/7939) of inpatient episodes from the main referring hospital between 1 December 1989 and 30 November 1990. Of all referrals to the service, 343(56%) came from hospital inpatient wards. The service was used by disadvantaged and ethnic minority families. The children's parents (in 28(61%) families) and the home care team did a wide range of nursing tasks in the home. Parents of 47(94%) children sampled agreed to be interviewed, and those of 43(91%) found the service useful; guidance and support were most commonly appreciated (33, 70%). Parents of 25(53%) children said that hospital stay or attendance had been reduced or avoided. Parents and general practitioners disagreed on clinical responsibility in 10 children, and communication was a problem for some general practitioners. CONCLUSIONS: The service enabled children to receive advanced nursing care at home. Clinical responsibility should be agreed between parents and professionals at referral.  (+info)

(2/1136) Tuberculosis in Bombay: new insights from poor urban patients.

This study explores the health seeking behaviour of poor male and female tuberculosis patients in Bombay, and examines their perceptions of the causes and effects of the disease on their personal lives. Sixteen patients who attended an NGO's tuberculosis clinic were interviewed in-depth. Almost equal numbers of respondents stated 'germs' and 'worry' as the cause of tuberculosis. Men worried about loss of wages, financial difficulties, reduced capacity for work, poor job performance, and the consequences of long absence from work. Women were concerned about rejection by husband, harassment by in-laws, and the reduced chances of marriage (for single women), in addition to their concerns about dismissal from work. During the first two months of symptoms most patients either did nothing or took home remedies. When symptoms continued, private practitioners were the first source of allopathic treatment; they were generally unable to correctly diagnose the disease. Respondents shifted to municipal and NGO health services when private treatment became unaffordable. Respondents shifted again to NGO-based services because of the poor quality of municipal tuberculosis control services. The wage-earning capacity of both men and women was affected, but women feared loss of employment whereas men, being self-employed, lost wages but not employment. Married men and single women perceived a greater level of family support to initiate and complete treatment. Married women tried, often unsuccessfully, to hide their disease condition for fear of desertion, rejection or blame for bringing the disease. Women dropped out from treatment because of the pressure of housework, and the strain of keeping their condition secret particularly when the reasons for their movements outside the home were routinely questioned. Health programmes will have to be sensitive to the different needs and concerns of urban men and women with tuberculosis; in the case of women, health care providers will have to make particular efforts to identify and treat married women with tuberculosis completely.  (+info)

(3/1136) Childhood immunization coverage in zone 3 of Dhaka City: the challenge of reaching impoverished households in urban Bangladesh.

A household survey of 651 children aged 12-23 months in Zone 3 of Dhaka City carried out in 1995 revealed that 51% of them had fully completed the series of childhood immunizations. Immunization coverage in slum households was only half that in non-slum households. Apart from residence in a slum household, other characteristics strongly associated with the completion of the entire series of childhood immunizations included the following: educational level of the mother, number of children in the family household, mother's employment status, distance from the nearest immunization site, and number of home visits from family-planning field workers. The findings point to the need to improve childhood immunization promotion and service delivery among slum populations. Two promising strategies for improving coverage are to reduce the number of missed opportunities for immunization promotion during encounters between health workers and clients, and to identify through visits to households those children who need additional immunizations. In the long run, increasing the educational level of women will provide a strong stimulus for improving childhood immunization coverage in the population.  (+info)

(4/1136) Geographical and socioeconomic variation in the prevalence of asthma symptoms in English and Scottish children.

BACKGROUND: There has been controversy over the relation between poverty and asthma in the community. The aim of this analysis was to disentangle geographical and socioeconomic variation in asthma symptoms. METHODS: The analysis is based on parental reports of symptoms from data collected in 1990 and 1991. Children aged 5-11 years from three populations (English representative sample, Scottish representative sample, and an English inner city sample) were included. Of 17 677 eligible children, between 14 490 (82.0%) and 15 562 (88.0%) children were available for analysis according to symptom group. RESULTS: Wheezy symptoms were less prevalent in the Scottish sample than in the English samples and asthma attacks were most prevalent in the English representative sample. Asthma attacks were less prevalent in inner city areas than in the English representative sample (OR 0.79, 95% CI 0.66 to 0.95), but persistent wheeze and other respiratory symptoms were more prevalent (OR 1.95, 95% CI 1.65 to 2.32 and OR 1.67, 95% CI 1.52 to 1.84, respectively). The prevalence of persistent wheeze was higher in children whose father's social class was low and in those living in areas with a high Townsend score (an index of poverty) than in other children (p<0.001). Of the 14 areas with the highest Townsend score, 13 had an OR above 1 and six had an OR significantly higher than the reference area. CONCLUSIONS: Persistent wheeze is more prevalent in poor areas than in less deprived areas. This may indicate that poverty is associated with severe asthma or that a high percentage of persistent asthma symptoms in inner city areas are unrecognised and untreated.  (+info)

(5/1136) Longitudinal study of Cryptosporidium infection in children in northeastern Brazil.

A prospective, 4-year cohort study of children born in an urban slum in northeastern Brazil was undertaken to elucidate the epidemiology of Cryptosporidium infection in an endemic setting, describe factors associated with Cryptosporidium-associated persistent diarrhea, and clarify the importance of copathogens in symptomatic cryptosporidiosis. A total of 1476 episodes of diarrhea, accounting for 7581 days of illness (5.25 episodes/child-year), were recorded: of these, 102 episodes (6.9%) were persistent. Cryptosporidium oocysts were identified in 7.4% of all stools, and they were found more frequently in children with persistent diarrhea (16.5%) than in those with acute (8.4%) or no (4.0%) diarrhea (P<.001). Low-birth-weight children and those living in densely crowded subdivisions were at greater risk for symptomatic infection. Disease course was highly variable and was not associated with the presence of copathogens. Recurrent Cryptosporidium infection and relapsing diarrhea associated with it were moderately common. In light of these data, the applicability of the current World Health Organization diarrheal definitions to Cryptosporidium-associated diarrheal episodes may need to be reconsidered.  (+info)

(6/1136) Poverty, time, and place: variation in excess mortality across selected US populations, 1980-1990.

STUDY OBJECTIVE: To describe variation in levels and causes of excess mortality and temporal mortality change among young and middle aged adults in a regionally diverse set of poor local populations in the USA. DESIGN: Using standard demographic techniques, death certificate and census data were analysed to make sex specific population level estimates of 1980 and 1990 death rates for residents of selected areas of concentrated poverty. For comparison, data for whites and blacks nationwide were analysed. SETTING: African American communities in Harlem, Central City Detroit, Chicago's south side, the Louisiana Delta, the Black Belt region of Alabama, and Eastern North Carolina. Non-Hispanic white communities in Cleveland, Detroit, Appalachian Kentucky, South Central Louisiana, Northeastern Alabama, and Western North Carolina. PARTICIPANTS: All black residents or all white residents of each specific community and in the nation, 1979-1981 and 1989-1991. MAIN RESULTS: Substantial variability exists in levels, trends, and causes of excess mortality in poor populations across localities. African American residents of urban/northern communities suffer extremely high and growing rates of excess mortality. Rural residents exhibit an important mortality advantage that widens over the decade. Homicide deaths contribute little to the rise in excess mortality, nor do AIDS deaths contribute outside of specific localities. Deaths attributable to circulatory disease are the leading cause of excess mortality in most locations. CONCLUSIONS: Important differences exist among persistently impoverished populations in the degree to which their poverty translates into excess mortality. Social epidemiological inquiry and health promotion initiatives should be attentive to local conditions. The severely disadvantageous mortality profiles experienced by urban African Americans relative to the rural poor and to national averages call for understanding.  (+info)

(7/1136) Inequalities in low birth weight: parental social class, area deprivation, and "lone mother" status.

OBJECTIVE: To describe the extent of socioeconomic inequalities in low birth weight. To assess the relative benefits of measuring socioeconomic status by individual occupation, socioeconomic deprivation status of area of residence, or both, for describing inequalities and targeting resources. DESIGN: Analysis of birth registrations by registration status: joint compared with sole registrants ("lone mothers"), routinely recorded parental occupation (father's for joint registrants), and census derived enumeration district (ED) deprivation. SETTING: England and Wales, 1986-92. SUBJECTS: 471,411 births with coded parental occupation (random 10% sample) and birth weight. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Proportion of low birth weight (< 2500 g) RESULTS: 34% of births to joint registrants in social classes IV and V, and 45% of births to sole registrants, were in the quintile of most deprived EDs. It was found that 6.8% of births were of low birth weight. Sole registrants were at higher risk (9.3% overall) than joint registrants, across all deprivation quintiles. For joint registrants, the socioeconomic risk gradient was similar by social class or area deprivation, but a greater gradient from 4.7% to 8.7% was found with combined classification. CONCLUSIONS: Up to 30% of low birth weight can be seen as being associated with levels of socioeconomic deprivation below that of the most affluent group, as measured in this study. Caution is needed when targeting interventions to high risk groups when using single indicators. For example, the majority of births to lone mothers and to joint registrants in social classes IV and V would be missed by targeting the most deprived quintile. There is a high degree of inequality in low birth weight according to social class, area deprivation and lone mother status. When using routinely recorded birth and census data, all three factors are important to show the true extent of inequalities.  (+info)

(8/1136) Prevalence and immune response to Entamoeba histolytica infection in preschool children in Bangladesh.

Entamoeba histolytica infection was present in 5% and E. dispar in 13% of asymptomatic 2-5-year-old children from an urban slum of Dhaka, Bangladesh. Entamoeba dispar-infected children were no more likely than uninfected children to have serum antibodies to lectin. In contrast, all children infected with E. histolytica had serum antibodies to lectin. This anti-lectin response included antibodies against the carbohydrate recognition domain, which have been demonstrated in animal models to confer passive protection from amebiasis. Antibodies to lectin persisted in the sera of 17 children with E. histolytica infection over one year of follow-up, during which time E. histolytica infection cleared without treatment in 15, and with anti-amebic medication in two. We conclude that half of the children in this population have serologic evidence of amebiasis by five years of age, and that an anti-lectin serum antibody response is associated with limitation of E. histolytica infection to the colon.  (+info)


  • West Virginia is listed as the "dumbest state" with the third lowest median household income in the country and a poverty rate that exceeds its rate of college graduates. (kfor.com)
  • Oklahoma's poverty rate ranks 35th in the country and has a median household income of $44,312, which is 41st. (kfor.com)
  • Finally, the development by the low household income modelled data of Gini coefficient scores at Census-based Super Output Area level provides a unique perspective in identifying the extent of homogeneity of income disadvantage within an area, that is, in the identification of pervasively poor areas. (calls.ac.uk)


  • The Brookings report analyzes the poverty levels in metro areas and their distressed neighborhoods, examining the change between 2000 and the period of 2008-2012, which includes an average from a five-year Census estimate and shows the effect of the recession. (businessinsider.com)

Rural Areas

  • Single Mother Work and Poverty under Welfare Reform: Are Policy Impacts Different in Rural Areas? (repec.org)
  • If rural and urban demographics had been the same, the policy changes would have increased employment and reduced poverty more in rural areas. (repec.org)
  • Employment Opportunities in Rural Areas: Implications for Poverty in a Changing Policy Environment ," American Journal of Agricultural Economics , Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 80(5), pages 1000-1007. (repec.org)


  • To get an idea of which U.S. cities have the fastest-growing rates of concentrated poverty, we ranked metro areas based on the change in poor population in tracts with poverty rates 20% or higher. (businessinsider.com)
  • The writers say there is a direct correlation between higher education and the poverty line. (kfor.com)


  • For the year 2013, the Census set the poverty level at $12,119 for a single person under the age of 65 and $24,028 for a family of four. (businessinsider.com)


  • Brookings looked at the change in poverty levels in neighborhoods described as distressed, where at least 40% of the population lives under the poverty line, and high-poverty, where at least 20% of the population is impoverished. (businessinsider.com)

metro areas


  • We also included the change in poor population for the entire metro area. (businessinsider.com)


  • Poverty is stuck at record levels in America , and it's spreading in neighborhoods that are already blighted and impoverished, according to a new report from the Brookings Institution. (businessinsider.com)
  • Poverty is stuck at record levels in America. (businessinsider.com)
  • I already see evidence of this during my travels across Sub-Saharan Africa, where high levels of poverty, highly variable and unpredictable weather, limited livelihood options, weak infrastructure, insufficient access to productive resources, and scarce safety nets all combine to make Africans even more vulnerable to climate risks. (worldbank.org)


  • So-called concentrated poverty spurs high crime rates and can worsen health, schools, and housing conditions, according to Brookings. (businessinsider.com)


  • During the 1990s, employment increased and poverty declined for single mothers in rural and urban areas. (repec.org)
  • Our results suggest that, holding demographics constant, changes in welfare and social policy during this decade contributed to employment increases--but not to poverty reduction--for both rural and urban single mothers. (repec.org)
  • urban and peri-urban areas. (ucl.ac.uk)


  • This section of the website provides information about European Commission calls for tender in the area of employment, social affairs and inclusion. (europa.eu)


  • President Obama has declared a major disaster area in Oklahoma, ordering the deployment of federal aid. (democracynow.org)


  • This suggests that rural demographic changes limited the policy impact on rural single-mother work and poverty. (repec.org)