Poultry: Domesticated birds raised for food. It typically includes CHICKENS; TURKEYS, DUCKS; GEESE; and others.Poultry Diseases: Diseases of birds which are raised as a source of meat or eggs for human consumption and are usually found in barnyards, hatcheries, etc. The concept is differentiated from BIRD DISEASES which is for diseases of birds not considered poultry and usually found in zoos, parks, and the wild.Poultry Products: Food products manufactured from poultry.Influenza in Birds: Infection of domestic and wild fowl and other BIRDS with INFLUENZA A VIRUS. Avian influenza usually does not sicken birds, but can be highly pathogenic and fatal in domestic POULTRY.Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 5 and neuraminidase 1. The H5N1 subtype, frequently referred to as the bird flu virus, is endemic in wild birds and very contagious among both domestic (POULTRY) and wild birds. It does not usually infect humans, but some cases have been reported.Influenza A Virus, H9N2 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 9 and neuraminidase 2. The H9N2 subtype usually infects domestic birds (POULTRY) but there have been some human infections reported.Animal Husbandry: The science of breeding, feeding and care of domestic animals; includes housing and nutrition.Turkeys: Large woodland game BIRDS in the subfamily Meleagridinae, family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. Formerly they were considered a distinct family, Melegrididae.Birds: Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.Campylobacter Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus CAMPYLOBACTER.DucksMeat: The edible portions of any animal used for food including domestic mammals (the major ones being cattle, swine, and sheep) along with poultry, fish, shellfish, and game.Food Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food and food products. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms: the presence of various non-pathogenic bacteria and fungi in cheeses and wines, for example, is included in this concept.Campylobacter jejuni: A species of bacteria that resemble small tightly coiled spirals. Its organisms are known to cause abortion in sheep and fever and enteritis in man and may be associated with enteric diseases of calves, lambs, and other animals.Campylobacter: A genus of bacteria found in the reproductive organs, intestinal tract, and oral cavity of animals and man. Some species are pathogenic.Zoonoses: Diseases of non-human animals that may be transmitted to HUMANS or may be transmitted from humans to non-human animals.Abattoirs: Places where animals are slaughtered and dressed for market.Food-Processing Industry: The productive enterprises concerned with food processing.Salmonella Infections, Animal: Infections in animals with bacteria of the genus SALMONELLA.Cloaca: A dilated cavity extended caudally from the hindgut. In adult birds, reptiles, amphibians, and many fishes but few mammals, cloaca is a common chamber into which the digestive, urinary and reproductive tracts discharge their contents. In most mammals, cloaca gives rise to LARGE INTESTINE; URINARY BLADDER; and GENITALIA.Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Eggs: Animal reproductive bodies, or the contents thereof, used as food. The concept is differentiated from OVUM, the anatomic or physiologic entity.Influenza A Virus, H7N7 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 7 and neuraminidase 7. The H7N7 subtype produced an epidemic in 2003 which was highly pathogenic among domestic birds (POULTRY). Some infections in humans were reported.Newcastle Disease: An acute febrile, contagious, viral disease of birds caused by an AVULAVIRUS called NEWCASTLE DISEASE VIRUS. It is characterized by respiratory and nervous symptoms in fowl and is transmissible to man causing a severe, but transient conjunctivitis.GeeseMeat Products: Articles of food which are derived by a process of manufacture from any portion of carcasses of any animal used for food (e.g., head cheese, sausage, scrapple).Salmonella enteritidis: A serotype of Salmonella enterica which is an etiologic agent of gastroenteritis in man and other animals.Influenza A virus: The type species of the genus INFLUENZAVIRUS A that causes influenza and other diseases in humans and animals. Antigenic variation occurs frequently between strains, allowing classification into subtypes and variants. Transmission is usually by aerosol (human and most non-aquatic hosts) or waterborne (ducks). Infected birds shed the virus in their saliva, nasal secretions, and feces.Campylobacter coli: A species of gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria isolated from the intestinal tract of swine, poultry, and man. It may be pathogenic.Influenza, Human: An acute viral infection in humans involving the respiratory tract. It is marked by inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA; the PHARYNX; and conjunctiva, and by headache and severe, often generalized, myalgia.Food Contamination: The presence in food of harmful, unpalatable, or otherwise objectionable foreign substances, e.g. chemicals, microorganisms or diluents, before, during, or after processing or storage.Influenza A Virus, H7N3 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 7 and neuraminidase 3. It was first detected in turkeys in Britain in 1963 and there have been several outbreaks on poultry farms since that time. A couple cases of human infections have been reported.Hemagglutinin Glycoproteins, Influenza Virus: Membrane glycoproteins from influenza viruses which are involved in hemagglutination, virus attachment, and envelope fusion. Fourteen distinct subtypes of HA glycoproteins and nine of NA glycoproteins have been identified from INFLUENZA A VIRUS; no subtypes have been identified for Influenza B or Influenza C viruses.Animals, Wild: Animals considered to be wild or feral or not adapted for domestic use. It does not include wild animals in zoos for which ANIMALS, ZOO is available.Food Handling: Any aspect of the operations in the preparation, processing, transport, storage, packaging, wrapping, exposure for sale, service, or delivery of food.Influenza A Virus, H7N9 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 7 and neuraminidase 9. This avian origin virus was first identified in humans in 2013.Agriculture: The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Bird Diseases: Diseases of birds not considered poultry, therefore usually found in zoos, parks, and the wild. The concept is differentiated from POULTRY DISEASES which is for birds raised as a source of meat or eggs for human consumption, and usually found in barnyards, hatcheries, etc.Housing, AnimalFood Inspection: Examination of foods to assure wholesome and clean products free from unsafe microbes or chemical contamination, natural or added deleterious substances, and decomposition during production, processing, packaging, etc.Manure: Accumulations of solid or liquid animal excreta usually from stables and barnyards with or without litter material. Its chief application is as a fertilizer. (From Webster's 3d ed)Livestock: Domesticated farm animals raised for home use or profit but excluding POULTRY. Typically livestock includes CATTLE; SHEEP; HORSES; SWINE; GOATS; and others.Animals, Domestic: Animals which have become adapted through breeding in captivity to a life intimately associated with humans. They include animals domesticated by humans to live and breed in a tame condition on farms or ranches for economic reasons, including LIVESTOCK (specifically CATTLE; SHEEP; HORSES; etc.), POULTRY; and those raised or kept for pleasure and companionship, e.g., PETS; or specifically DOGS; CATS; etc.Fowlpox: A poxvirus infection of poultry and other birds characterized by the formation of wart-like nodules on the skin and diphtheritic necrotic masses (cankers) in the upper digestive and respiratory tracts.Influenza A Virus, H5N2 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 5 and neuraminidase 2. The H5N2 subtype has been found to be highly pathogenic in chickens.Newcastle disease virus: The most well known avian paramyxovirus in the genus AVULAVIRUS and the cause of a highly infectious pneumoencephalitis in fowl. It is also reported to cause CONJUNCTIVITIS in humans. Transmission is by droplet inhalation or ingestion of contaminated water or food.Animal Feed: Foodstuff used especially for domestic and laboratory animals, or livestock.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Reassortant Viruses: Viruses containing two or more pieces of nucleic acid (segmented genome) from different parents. Such viruses are produced in cells coinfected with different strains of a given virus.Salmonella Food Poisoning: Poisoning caused by ingestion of food harboring species of SALMONELLA. Conditions of raising, shipping, slaughtering, and marketing of domestic animals contribute to the spread of this bacterium in the food supply.Meat-Packing Industry: The aggregate enterprise of technically producing packaged meat.Agricultural Workers' Diseases: Diseases in persons engaged in cultivating and tilling soil, growing plants, harvesting crops, raising livestock, or otherwise engaged in husbandry and farming. The diseases are not restricted to farmers in the sense of those who perform conventional farm chores: the heading applies also to those engaged in the individual activities named above, as in those only gathering harvest or in those only dusting crops.Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field: Gel electrophoresis in which the direction of the electric field is changed periodically. This technique is similar to other electrophoretic methods normally used to separate double-stranded DNA molecules ranging in size up to tens of thousands of base-pairs. However, by alternating the electric field direction one is able to separate DNA molecules up to several million base-pairs in length.Carbon-Oxygen Ligases: Enzymes that catalyze the joining of two molecules by the formation of a carbon-oxygen bond. EC 6.1.Anseriformes: An order of BIRDS comprising the waterfowl, particularly DUCKS; GEESE; swans; and screamers.VietnamSalmonella Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus SALMONELLA.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Enterococcus faecium: A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria whose organisms are normal flora of the intestinal tract. Unlike ENTEROCOCCUS FAECALIS, this species may produce an alpha-hemolytic reaction on blood agar and is unable to utilize pyruvic acid as an energy source.China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.

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*  Poultry Production Best Management Pactices (BMPs) by LSU Agricultural Center - issuu
Title: Poultry Production Best Management Pactices (BMPs), Author: LSU Agricultural Center , Name: Poultry Production Best ... POULTRY MORTALITY Commercial poultry producers shall be required to dispose of dead poultry by one of the following methods:. ... Poultry carcasses may be held on the premises of commercial poultry producers as long as the storage does not create a sanitary ... Poultry producers should keep records of the amount of manure removed from poultry houses, when the manure was removed and how ...
*  A TIME'S MEMORY: Highly pathogenic #avian #influenza #H5N8, #Taiwan [four #poultry #outbreaks] (#OIE, Jun 6 '17)
Title: Highly pathogenic #avian #influenza #H5N8, #Taiwan [four #poultry #outbreaks].. Subject: Avian Influenza, H5N8 subtype, ... Suspected signs were observed in poultry carcasses during post-mortem inspection in 3 abattoirs in Taipei City (2 findings), ... Highly pathogenic #avian #influenza #H5N8, #Taiwan [four #poultry #outbreaks] (#OIE, Jun 6 '17) ... Highly pathogenic #avian #influenza #H5N8, Italy [four #poultry #outbreaks] (#IZSVE, Oct. 13 '17) ...
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*  A TIME'S MEMORY: Highly pathogenic #avian #influenza #H5N8, #Germany [16 #poultry / #wildbirds #outbreaks] (#OIE, Mar. 13 '17)
No poultry or poultry products have been dispatched. *Restriction zones have been established and epidemiological ... Title: Highly pathogenic #avian #influenza #H5N8, #Germany [16 #poultry / #wildbirds #outbreaks].. Subject: Avian Influenza, ... All poultry have been culled and safely disposed of. * ... Tags: A/H5N8, AVIAN INFLUENZA, GERMANY, OIE, POULTRY, UPDATES, ... Highly pathogenic #avian #influenza #H5N8, #Germany [16 #poultry / #wildbirds #outbreaks] (#OIE, Mar. 13 '17) ...
*  A TIME'S MEMORY: Highly pathogenic #avian #influenza #H5N8, #UK [a #poultry #outbreak] (#OIE, Jan. 31 '17)
Title: Highly pathogenic #avian #influenza #H5N8, #UK [a #poultry #outbreak].. Subject: Avian Influenza, H5N8 subtype, poultry ... Investigations conducted so far on contact tracings and poultry holdings in the restriction zones have uncovered no evidence of ... Highly pathogenic #avian #influenza #H5N8, #UK [a #poultry #outbreak] (#OIE, Jan. 31 '17) ... Highly pathogenic #avian #influenza #H5N8, Italy [four #poultry #outbreaks] (#IZSVE, Oct. 13 '17) ...
*  A TIME'S MEMORY: Highly pathogenic #avian #influenza #H5N8, #Italy [a #poultry #outbreak] (#OIE, Feb. 20 '17)
Title: Highly pathogenic #avian #influenza #H5N8, #Italy [a #poultry #outbreak].. Subject: Avian Influenza, H5N8 subtype, ... Highly pathogenic #avian #influenza #H5N8, #Italy [a #poultry #outbreak] (#OIE, Feb. 20 '17) ... Highly pathogenic #avian #influenza #H5N8, Italy [four #poultry #outbreaks] (#IZSVE, Oct. 13 '17) ... Highly pathogenic #avian #influenza #H5N8, #Italy [three #poultry #outbreaks] (#IZSVE, Oct. 17 '17) ...
*  G2077 Feeding Poultry Litter to Beef Cattle | University of Missouri Extension
Poultry litter often contains high levels of ash. Ash is composed of inorganic mineral matter. A high level of ash in poultry ... Poultry litter can be fed to stocker cattle for up to 180 days before copper toxicity becomes a risk. Poultry litter should not ... Regulations on feeding poultry litter. Poultry litter can be used as a feedstuff, but it presents special consumer issues that ... Heating of poultry litter to 140 degrees for 5 days will kill most other pathogens that may be associated with poultry litter. ...
*  A TIME'S MEMORY: Low pathogenic #avian #influenza #H5N3, #France [a #poultry #outbreak] (#OIE, Jun 9 '17)
Title: Low pathogenic #avian #influenza #H5N3, #France [a #poultry #outbreak].. Subject: Avian Influenza, H5N3 subtype, poultry ... Low pathogenic #avian #influenza #H5N3, #France [a #poultry #outbreak] (#OIE, Jun 9 '17) ... Highly pathogenic #avian #influenza #H5N8, Italy [four #poultry #outbreaks] (#IZSVE, Oct. 13 '17) ... Highly pathogenic #avian #influenza #H5N8, #Italy [three #poultry #outbreaks] (#IZSVE, Oct. 17 '17) ...
*  A TIME'S MEMORY: Highly pathogenic #avian #influenza #H5N6, #Japan [a #poultry #outbreak] (#OIE, Jan. 25 '17)
Title: Highly pathogenic #avian #influenza #H5N6, #Japan [a #poultry #outbreak].. Subject: Avian Influenza, H5N6 subtype, ... Highly pathogenic #avian #influenza #H5N6, #Japan [a #poultry #outbreak] (#OIE, Jan. 25 '17) ... Highly pathogenic #avian #influenza #H5N8, Italy [four #poultry #outbreaks] (#IZSVE, Oct. 13 '17) ... Highly pathogenic #avian #influenza #H5N8, #Italy [three #poultry #outbreaks] (#IZSVE, Oct. 17 '17) ...
*  Poultry Podiatry - PoultryPedia
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*  Egypt (halal Poultry)
U.S. Poultry Plants approved for export of halal whole poultry to Egypt. EG - Sep 24, 2013. ... Mar Jac Poultry, Inc.. P.O. Box 1017. Gainesville, GA. 30503. P - 146. Tyson Foods, Inc.. 13264 Mountain Rd.. Glen Allen, VA ... The following were cited by Egypt as recognized organizations for poultry:. Islamic Society of the Washington Area (ISWA). ...
*  Poultry Recipes | PBS Food
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*  Keeping Backyard Poultry | Features | CDC
Live poultry, such as chickens, ducks, geese, and turkeys, often carry germs such as Salmonella. After you touch a bird, or ... How do people get Salmonella infections from live poultry?. Live poultry might have Salmonella germs in their droppings and on ... Live poultry, such as chickens, ducks, geese, and turkeys, often carry germs such as Salmonella. After you touch a bird, or ... Poultry may carry bacteria such as Salmonella that can contaminate the inside of eggs before the shells are formed. Eggs can ...
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... family based poultry production. It gives a comprehensive review of all aspects of small-scale poultry production in developing ... Inadequate ventilation of poultry houses results in a build-up of ammonia gas from poultry faeces, which contain urea. This can ... All 1248 E. coli strains from the University poultry farm, and 2196 strains from a commercial poultry farm in Ibadan, were ... The opposite may be true of family poultry, with humans infecting poultry. Ojeniyi (1984) reported that S. hirschfeldii was ...
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*  Poultry & Eggs: Top Recipients | OpenSecrets
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*  USDA APHIS | Poultry Disease Information Home
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*  North Carolina poultry company recalls cooked chicken - CNN
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British Poultry Standard: [Poultry Standard.png|thumb|right|The front cover of the 6th Edition of the British Poultry Standards.Plumping: Plumping, also referred to as “enhancing” or “injecting,” is a term that describes the process by which some poultry companies inject raw chicken meat with saltwater, chicken stock, seaweed extract or some combination thereof. The practice is most commonly used for fresh chicken and is also used in frozen poultry products,Buying this chicken?Influenza A virus subtype H5N1: Influenza A virus subtype H5N1, also known as A(H5N1) or simply H5N1, is a subtype of the influenza A virus which can cause illness in humans and many other animal species. A bird-adapted strain of H5N1, called HPAI A(H5N1) for highly pathogenic avian influenza virus of type A of subtype H5N1, is the highly pathogenic causative agent of H5N1 flu, commonly known as avian influenza ("bird flu").Chicken as biological research model: Chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) and their eggs have been used extensively as research models throughout the history of biology. Today they continue to serve as an important model for normal human biology as well as pathological disease processes.Global spread of H5N1 in 2006: The global spread of (highly pathogenic) H5N1 in birds is considered a significant pandemic threat.College of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry, Anand: The College of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry, Anand was founded in 1964. It is a part of AAU, Anand, Gujarat, India.Ground turkey: The Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry published that ground turkey or minced Turkey is a mixture of dark and light turkey meat with remaining skin and visible fatWong, Michael K., Wong, Michael K.Bird trapping: Bird trapping techniques to capture wild birds include a wide range of techniques that have their origins in the hunting of birds for food. While hunting for food does not require birds to be caught alive, some trapping techniques capture birds without harming them and are of use in ornithology research.CampylobacteriosisTadorninae: The Tadorninae is the shelduck-sheldgoose subfamily of the Anatidae, the biological family that includes the ducks and most duck-like waterfowl such as the geese and swans.White meat: White meat or light meat refers to the lighter-colored meat of poultry as contrasted with dark meat. In a more general sense, white meat may also refer to any lighter-colored meat, as contrasted with red meats like beef and some types of game.Campylobacter jejuni: Campylobacter jejuni is a species of bacterium commonly found in animal feces. It is curved, helical-shaped, non-spore forming, Gram-negative, and microaerophilic.Campylobacter concisus: Campylobacter concisus is a Gram-negative, spiral, and microaerophilic bacteria. Motile, with either unipolar or bipolar flagella, the organisms have a characteristic spiral/corkscrew appearance and are oxidase-positive.Jet aeratorsNational Outbreak Reporting System: ==The National Outbreak Reporting System (NORS)==Forced molting: Induced molting (or forced molting) is the practice by the commercial egg industry of artificially provoking a complete flock of hens to molt simultaneously. This is usually achieved by withdrawal of feed for 7-14 days.Goose egg addling: Goose egg “addling” is a wildlife management method of population control for Canada geese and other bird species. The process of addling involves temporarily removing fertilized eggs from the nest, testing for embryo development, terminating embryo development, and placing the egg back in the nest.Bologna sausageInterleukin 12: Interleukin 12 (IL-12) is an interleukin that is naturally produced by dendritic cells, macrophages, neutrophils, and human B-lymphoblastoid cells (NC-37) in response to antigenic stimulation.Influenza Research Database: The Influenza Research Database (IRD)IRD Influenza Research Database BRCSquires, R.B.Campylobacter coli: Campylobacter coli is a Gram-negative, microaerophilic, non-endospore forming, S-shaped bacterial species within genus Campylobacter.Lansing M.Influenza A virus subtype H1N1: Influenza A (H1N1) virus is the subtype of influenza A virus that was the most common cause of human influenza (flu) in 2009, and is associated with the 1918 outbreak known as the Spanish Flu.SAFE FOODSNational Data Repository: A National Data Repository (NDR) is a data bank that seeks to preserve and promote a country’s natural resources data, particularly data related to the petroleum exploration and production (E&P) sector.Chilalo Agricultural Development Union: Chilalo Agricultural Development Union (CADU) is the first comprehensive package project established in Arsi Zone, Oromia Region, Ethiopia to modernize traditional subsistence agriculture. The major components of the package programmes include fertilizers, ameliorated seeds, farm credits, marketing facilities, better tools and implements, and improved storage facilities.Branching order of bacterial phyla (Gupta, 2001): There are several models of the Branching order of bacterial phyla, one of these was proposed in 2001 by Gupta based on conserved indels or protein, termed "protein signatures", an alternative approach to molecular phylogeny. Some problematic exceptions and conflicts are present to these conserved indels, however, they are in agreement with several groupings of classes and phyla.Gestation crate: A gestation crate, also known as a sow stall, is a metal enclosure used in intensive pig farming, in which a female breeding pig (sow) may be kept during pregnancy and for most of her adult life.Wilson G.Master StrokeManure management: Manure management refers to capture, storage, treatment, and utilization of animal manures in an environmentally sustainable manner. It can be retained in various holding facilities.New Mexico Livestock Board: The New Mexico Livestock Board regulates livestock health and livestock identification in New Mexico, in the United States. It was created in 1967 by the merger of the New Mexico Cattle Sanitary Board and the New Mexico Sheep Sanitary Board.Interbreeding of dingoes with other domestic dogs: The interbreeding of dingoes with other domestic dogs is an ongoing process affecting the population of free ranging domestic dogs in Australia. The current population of free ranging domestic dogs in Australia is now probably higher than in the past.Newcastle, Jamaica: Newcastle is a settlement in the Blue Mountains of Jamaica. Formerly a military hill station for the British Army it is now a training centre for the Jamaica Defence Force.Dry matter: The dry matter (or otherwise known as dry weight) is a measurement of the mass of something when completely dried.Meat Industry Association of New ZealandPulsenet: PulseNet is a network run by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) which brings together public health and food regulatory agency laboratories around the United States.http://www.Bokhara Trumpeter: The Bokhara Trumpeter is a breed of fancy pigeon developed over many years of selective breeding. Bokhara Trumpeters, along with other varieties of domesticated pigeons, are all descendants from the rock pigeon (Columba livia).Institut Pasteur in Ho Chi Minh City: The Institut Pasteur in Ho Chi Minh City is a Vietnamese national institute initially created by the French in 1891 under the name Pasteur Institute - Sai Gon, in 1975 renamed the Institute of Epidemiology, and in 1991 given the current name.Subtherapeutic antibiotic use in swine: Antibiotics are commonly used in commercial swine production in the United States and around the world. They are used for disease treatment, disease prevention and control, and growth promotion.Enterococcus faecium: Enterococcus faecium is a Gram-positive, alpha-hemolytic or nonhemolytic bacterium in the genus Enterococcus. It can be commensal (innocuous, coexisting organism) in the human intestine, but it may also be pathogenic, causing diseases such as neonatal meningitis or endocarditis.Layout of the Port of Tianjin: The Port of Tianjin is divided into nine areas: the three core (“Tianjin Xingang”) areas of Beijiang, Nanjiang, and Dongjiang around the Xingang fairway; the Haihe area along the river; the Beitang port area around the Beitangkou estuary; the Dagukou port area in the estuary of the Haihe River; and three areas under construction (Hanggu, Gaoshaling, Nangang).

(1/1054) Lead and mercury residues in kidney and liver of Canadian slaughter animals.

Liver and kidney samples were collected from Canadian slaughter animals during the winter of 1973-1974. A total of 256 samples were analyzed for lead. Mean lead levels of 1.02 ppm in poultry liver, 1.04 ppm in bovine liver, 1.02 ppm in bovine kidney, 0.73 ppm in pork liver and 0.85 ppm in pork kidney were found. A total of 265 samples were analyzed for mercury. Mean mercury levels of 0.003 ppm in poultry liver, 0.007 ppm in bovine liver, 0.008 ppm in bovine kidney, 0.001 ppm in pork liver and 0.013 ppm in pork kidney were found. All levels detected were below the Canadian official tolerance of 2 ppm for lead and administrative tolerance of 0.5 ppm for mercury.  (+info)

(2/1054) Complementary randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis patterns and primer sets to differentiate Mycoplasma gallisepticum strains.

Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis was used to differentiate 7 strains of Mycoplasma gallisepticum. Six commercially available primers or primer combinations were screened for their ability to differentiate vaccine and type strains. Although major and minor bands were produced with each primer, many of the primers were unsuitable for strain differentiation. The use of primer 6 and combined primers 3 and 4 resulted in complementary RAPD banding patterns for each M. gallisepticum strain. Eleven different isolates representing 7 different strains were segregated into 7 different patterns, corresponding to the 7 strains.  (+info)

(3/1054) Cloning of Mycoplasma synoviae genes encoding specific antigens and their use as species-specific DNA probes.

A genomic library of Mycoplasma synoviae (MS) was generated by using bacteriophage lambda gt11 as a cloning and expression vector. Identification of recombinant clones highly specific to MS was achieved by screening the library for expression of MS proteins with polyclonal antiserum that had been preadsorbed with 6 heterologous avian mycoplasma species antigens. Expression of the recombinant clones in Escherichia coli followed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the total cell lysates and immunoblot yielded a predominant reactive fusion protein of 165 kD. Two clones (MS2/28 and MS2/12) that yielded inserts of different size were selected. The 2 MS DNA inserts were subcloned in a plasmid vector, labeled with digoxigenin, and used as probes for the specific recognition of several MS strains. A high degree of conservation was demonstrated for the MS2/12 and MS2/28 genes in tested MS strains. In addition, neither DNA fragment recognized any other avian mycoplasma species (M. gallisepticum, M. meleagridis, M. gallinarum, M. iners, M. anatis, and M. iowae), thus indicating their high specificity to MS. The sensitivity of the slot blot hybridization method using digoxigenin-labeled MS2/12 and MS2/28 probes for direct detection of MS from broth cultures of field isolates was 10(5) colony-forming units/ml. These results demonstrate the effectiveness of adsorbed antisera for the isolation of species-specific mycoplasma DNA and the potential for its use as probes for the specific and direct detection of MS from broth cultures of field isolates.  (+info)

(4/1054) Phage type conversion in Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis caused by the introduction of a resistance plasmid of incompatibility group X (IncX).

The plasmid pOG670, a 54 kb, conjugative plasmid that specifies resistance to ampicillin and kanamycin and belonging to the incompatibility group X (IncX), was transferred into 10 isolates of Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis belonging to 10 different phage types (PT1, 2, 3, 4, 8, 9, 9b, 10, 11 and 13). Acquisition of the plasmid by these strains did not result in the loss of any resident plasmids but resulted in phage type conversion in 8 of the 10 strains (PT1, 2, 4, 8, 9, 9b, 10 and 11). The observed changes in phage type were found to result from the loss of sensitivity to 3 of the 10 typing phages used (phages 3, 5 and 7). Where the conversion resulted in a change to a defined phage type, both the new and original PTs belonged to the same, previously described, evolutionary lines. Enteritidis PTs 1, 4 and 8, commonly associated with poultry world-wide, were converted to PTs 21, 6 and 13a respectively. The results indicate a different route for phage type conversion Enteritidis from others reported in the literature and, although IncX plasmids are not normally present in PT8 or PT13a, may suggest a possible mechanism/link connecting these phage types.  (+info)

(5/1054) Molecular typing of Salmonella serotype Thompson strains isolated from human and animal sources.

One-hundred-and-thirteen isolates of Salmonella serotype Thompson from diverse sources in seven countries were characterized by PvuII ribotyping and IS200 fingerprinting. Ten PvuII ribotypes were observed. The predominant PvuII ribotype 1 represented a major clone of world-wide distribution but was not found in Australia; PvuII ribotypes 2 and 3 represented minor clones. HincII ribotyping discriminated subtypes within PvuII ribotype 1: HincII ribotype 1 was distributed widely but HincII ribotype 2 was found mainly in Scottish isolates. None of 101 isolates of PvuII ribotypes 1-3 contained copies of IS200. All 12 isolates of PvuII ribotypes 4-10 were from Australia and 7 of them contained copies of IS200 of 5 different profiles. These results suggest the existence of at least two lineages of Salmonella Thompson with a different geographical distribution. The finding that most isolates from man and poultry in Scotland belonged to the same ribotype (PvuII 1/HincII 2) and were IS200-negative suggests that poultry is an important source of human infection in Scotland.  (+info)

(6/1054) High-resolution genotyping of Campylobacter strains isolated from poultry and humans with amplified fragment length polymorphism fingerprinting.

For epidemiological studies of Campylobacter infections, molecular typing methods that can differentiate campylobacters at the strain level are needed. In this study we used a recently developed genotyping method, amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP), which is based on selective amplification of restriction fragments of chromosomal DNA, for genetic typing of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli strains derived from humans and poultry. We developed an automated AFLP fingerprinting method in which restriction endonucleases HindIII and HhaI were used in combination with one set of selective PCR primers. This method resulted in evenly distributed band patterns for amplified fragments ranging from 50 to 500 bp long. The discriminatory power of AFLP was assessed with a C. jejuni strain, an isogenic flagellin mutant, and distinct C. jejuni strains having known pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and fla PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism genotypes. Unrelated C. jejuni strains produced heterogeneous patterns, whereas genetically related strains produced similar AFLP patterns. Twenty-five Campylobacter strains obtained from poultry farms in The Netherlands grouped in three C. jejuni clusters that were separate from a C. coli cluster. The band patterns of 10 C. jejuni strains isolated from humans were heterogeneous, and most of these strains grouped with poultry strains. Our results show that AFLP analysis can distinguish genetically unrelated strains from genetically related strains of Campylobacter species. However, desirable genetically related strains can be differentiated by using other genotyping methods. We concluded that automated AFLP analysis is an attractive tool which can be used as a primary method for subtyping large numbers of Campylobacter strains and is extremely useful for epidemiological investigations.  (+info)

(7/1054) Salmonellosis in North Thames (East), UK: associated risk factors.

We assessed the rate of salmonella infections and risk factors associated with infection in North East Thames in 1993. Cases of culture confirmed infection were identified through microbiology laboratories and environmental health officers in the North East Thames. A total of 1730 cases were reported and 209 of these individuals (those who could be contacted within a 3-week interval after onset of symptoms) and matched controls were interviewed by telephone. In addition randomly selected controls were interviewed over a 4-month period about recent gastric acid lowering medication and antimicrobial ingestion. Sixty-six serotypes were identified: S. enteritidis was isolated from 1179 (69%) cases, S. typhimurium from 221 (13%), S. virchow from 77 (4%) and S. newport 25 (1%). Infections were more frequent in summer months. Highest rates were documented in children under 2 years of age for S. enteritidis (108/100,000) and under 1 year for S. typhimurium (36/100,000). Using the Townsend score, highest isolation rates of S. enteritidis were in more prosperous areas (36/100,000 vs. 27/100,000; odds ratio (OR) 1.3, 95% confidence intervals (CIs) 1.2-1.6, P < 0.0001), while for S. typhimurium, there was no relation between deprivation index and isolation rates areas (6.4/100,000 vs. 6.1/100,000; OR 1.1, 95% CIs 0.8-1.5, P = 0.77). The case control study showed a significant association between ingestion of products containing raw eggs and S. enteritidis infection (8/111 cases vs. 0/110 controls; OR undefined, lower 95% CIs 3.4). Individuals with salmonella infection were significantly more likely to have travelled abroad in the week before the onset of illness [42/186 (23%) vs. 1/182 (0.5%); OR 40, 95% CIs = 5.5-291, P < 0.001] and to report gastroduodenal disease [11/143 (7%) vs. 3/143 (2%); OR 5.0, 95% CIs = 1.1-23, P = 0.04]. There was an association between illness and gastric acid-lowering medications [unmatched controls OR 22.3 (95% CIs 1.5-3.7, P = 0.0002), matched controls OR 3.7 (95% CIs 1.0-3.8, P = 0.07)], but no association with antimicrobial ingestion.  (+info)

(8/1054) Case-control study of risk factors for avian influenza A (H5N1) disease, Hong Kong, 1997.

In May 1997, a 3-year-old boy in Hong Kong died of a respiratory illness related to influenza A (H5N1) virus infection, the first known human case of disease from this virus. An additional 17 cases followed in November and December. A case-control study of 15 of these patients hospitalized for influenza A (H5N1) disease was conducted using controls matched by age, sex, and neighborhood to determine risk factors for disease. Exposure to live poultry (by visiting either a retail poultry stall or a market selling live poultry) in the week before illness began was significantly associated with H5N1 disease (64% of cases vs. 29% of controls, odds ratio, 4.5, P=.045). By contrast, travel, eating or preparing poultry products, recent exposure to persons with respiratory illness, including persons with known influenza A (H5N1) infection, were not associated with H5N1 disease.  (+info)

  • Birds
  • Some people who have contact with items, like coops or water dishes, in the area where poultry live can get sick without actually touching one of the birds. (cdc.gov)
  • Buy birds from hatcheries that participate in the U.S. Department of Agriculture National Poultry Improvement Plan (USDA-NPIP) U.S. voluntary Salmonella Monitoring Program [279 KB] . (cdc.gov)
  • Poultry can be distinguished from "game", defined as wild birds or mammals hunted for food or sport, a word also used to describe the flesh of these when eaten. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] The Soil Association standards used to certify organic flocks in the UK, indicate a maximum outdoors stocking density of 1,000 birds per hectare and a maximum of 2,000 hens in each poultry house. (wikipedia.org)
  • It includes a variety of other birds, including ducks, geese, and exotics in the poultry family. (wikipedia.org)
  • Poultry litter is used in confinement buildings used for raising broilers, turkeys and other birds. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some materials may meet industry goals once under the birds but if it is difficult to obtain, it will not find favor as a poultry litter. (wikipedia.org)
  • Poultry grit is a material fed to birds consisting mainly of crushed stone (though often with additives) which helps the bird's digestion grind their food. (wikipedia.org)
  • The height of the poultry showing in the United Kingdom was during the late 19th and early 20th century, when The Crystal Palace Poultry Show were held at The Crystal Palace, the largest attracting 10,533 filled cages, the actual number of birds unknown as many were pairs. (wikipedia.org)
  • A poultry association was organised afterwards and another show attempted the next year, which attracted 12,000 birds. (wikipedia.org)
  • Birds exhibited at poultry shows are judged to the local standard, a compiled manual that describe the ideal form of a poultry breed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chicken
  • A North Carolina poultry company is recalling approximately 4,000 pounds of cooked chicken breasts that may be contaminated with Listeria monocytogenes. (cnn.com)
  • More than 25,000 "World Famous Poultry Days Barbecue Chicken Dinners" are served. (wikipedia.org)
  • This partnership continues with the third generation of the Nelson family providing chicken for Poultry Days, which remains their single largest annual event. (wikipedia.org)
  • Compter
  • Poultry Compter (also sometimes known as Poultry Counter) was a small compter, or prison, run by a Sheriff of the City of London from mediaeval times until 1815. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1580 the Catholic printer William Carter was held in Poultry Compter before being transferred to the Tower of London and executed on charges of treason against Queen Elizabeth I. The compter was used to house prisoners such as vagrants, debtors and religious dissenters, as well as criminals convicted of misdemeanours including homosexuality, prostitution and drunkenness. (wikipedia.org)
  • On 1 August 1772, for instance, The Craftsman reported that "a well dressed man was detected, near Lombard-street, in an unnatural crime, and immediately committed to the Poultry Compter. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Poultry Compter was demolished in 1817. (wikipedia.org)
  • Strong's owner sought the help of John Ross, keeper of the Poultry Compter, and William Miller, an officer under the Lord Mayor of London, to kidnap him, and Strong was then imprisoned in the compter and sold for £30. (wikipedia.org)
  • The street gave its name to a prison, Poultry Compter, once located there. (wikipedia.org)
  • eggs
  • Poultry may carry bacteria such as Salmonella that can contaminate the inside of eggs before the shells are formed. (cdc.gov)
  • Shell eggs may become contaminated with Salmonella through the laying process, once the eggs are laid, through poultry feed or bedding. (cdc.gov)
  • North America
  • Cargill is investing $10 million (about THB 300 million) to upgrade its integrated poultry processing facility in Saraburi, Thailand, which produces a range of cooked poultry products for food service chains, convenience stores, food manufacturers, retailers and distributors across Asia, Europe and North America. (cargill.com)
  • The first poultry show in North America was held on 15-16 November, 1849, in Quincy Market, Boston, surpassing expectations to receive over 1400 entries however it proved a debacle as no poultry standard existed and judging was cancelled as there was no way to decide what was a purebred. (wikipedia.org)
  • It wasn't until 1874 that the American Standard of Perfection were adopted by the recently formed American Poultry Association, creating the first poultry standard in North America. (wikipedia.org)
  • Healthy
  • Keep reading to learn about the steps you can take to stay healthy around live poultry. (cdc.gov)
  • Live poultry might have Salmonella germs in their droppings and on their bodies (feathers, feet, and beaks), even when they appear healthy and clean. (cdc.gov)
  • Healthy poultry require a sufficient amount of protein and carbohydrates, along with the necessary vitamins, dietary minerals, and an adequate supply of water. (wikipedia.org)
  • Program 1 - Health and Welfare - aims to maintain a sustainable, healthy and welfare conscious supply of poultry products despite newly emerging pathogens, increasing environmental concerns about production and changing consumer demands. (wikipedia.org)
  • farms
  • Before the twentieth century, poultry were mostly kept on general farms, and foraged for much of their feed, eating insects, grain spilled by cattle and horses, and plants around the farm. (wikipedia.org)
  • As farming became more specialized, many farms kept flocks too large to be fed in this way, and nutritionally complete poultry feed was developed. (wikipedia.org)
  • cages
  • Stay outdoors when cleaning any equipment or materials used to raise or care for live poultry, such as cages or feed or water containers. (cdc.gov)
  • recipes
  • Levy, a three-time winner of the prestigious Tastemaker (cookbook) Award, includes enough poultry recipes to last most cooks a lifetime-more than 300 from 75 countries. (chicagotribune.com)
  • products
  • Humane treatment and the perceived health benefits of pastured poultry are causing an increase in demand for such products. (wikipedia.org)
  • Program 3 - Safe and Quality Food Production - focuses on controlling food-borne illnesses related to poultry products (i.e. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Animal and Poultry Sciences section of the Department of Agricultural Sciences provides qualified students with the opportunity to obtain a Master of Science degree in Animal and Poultry Nutrition, Animal and Poultry Breeding as well as Animal and Poultry Physiology. (tuskegee.edu)
  • The quantity of feed, and the nutritional requirements of the feed, depend on the weight and age of the poultry, their rate of growth, their rate of egg production, the weather (cold or wet weather causes higher energy expenditure), and the amount of nutrition the poultry obtain from foraging. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nutrition and Feeding of Organic Poultry. (wikipedia.org)
  • Australian
  • In September 2010, the Australian Office of the Fair Work Ombudsman commenced an investigation into allegations that Adelaide Poultry - part of the Baiada Group of Companies, had contravened Commonwealth workplace laws after public comments were made alleging underpayment of its workers. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Poultry Cooperative Research Centre, or Poultry CRC, is a joint venture established and supported under the Australian Government's Cooperative Research Centres Program. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, the Poultry CRC received an Australian Collaborative Innovation Award in May 2012. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many of these are accredited by a national body, such as the Poultry Club of Great Britain while others, such as Australian poultry clubs are only managed on a state level. (wikipedia.org)
  • production
  • In the US, the national organization overseeing poultry production is the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). (wikipedia.org)
  • The Poultry CRC's major challenge is to help Australia achieve sustainable, ethical poultry production in the face of population growth and climate change. (wikipedia.org)
  • In many areas of the United States, shavings from pine or other soft woods have historically been the bedding of choice for poultry production. (wikipedia.org)
  • Regionally, other materials have been the bedding material of choice due to regional cost and availability, such as rice hulls in the lower Mississippi River poultry production areas of Arkansas and Mississippi. (wikipedia.org)
  • early
  • Review of early animal and poultry literature and current research methods. (tuskegee.edu)
  • In the early 1970s, Poultry Days attempted to break the world record for the largest egg omelet with another attempt in 1982. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the 15th and early 17th century, Poultry was noted for its taverns, but few were rebuilt after the Great Fire of 1666. (wikipedia.org)
  • largest
  • The Tamil Nadu government has asked people in Namakkal district, which has the largest poultry population in the state, to be vigilant against the virulent bird flu disease, which has affected many Asian countries. (rediff.com)
  • Baiada is one of Australia's largest poultry processing companies with a market share of more than 20%, producing the Lilydale Select and Steggles brand to retailers including Coles, Woolworths, IGA, Aldi, McDonald's, KFC, Pizza Hut, Red Rooster, Nando's and Subway. (wikipedia.org)
  • For commercial poultry farming, feed serves as the largest cost of the operation. (wikipedia.org)
  • small
  • The word "poultry" comes from the French/Norman word poule, itself derived from the Latin word pullus, which means small animal. (wikipedia.org)
  • A small lane off Poultry, Grocers' Hall Court, leads to the livery hall of the Worshipful Company of Grocers, one of the City's original twelve great livery companies that ranks second in the companies' order of precedence. (wikipedia.org)
  • once
  • It took its name from its location on a section of Cheapside called Poultry, from the produce that was once sold in street markets along the thoroughfare. (wikipedia.org)
  • Poultry takes its name, like other roads nearby such as Milk Street and Bread Street, from the various produce once sold at Cheapside (meaning "market-place" in Old English). (wikipedia.org)
  • On the north side of the street once stood the church of St Mildred Poultry. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, if the new material has increased value once removed from the poultry house compared to current litters or if the current litter material itself becomes difficult to obtain or the quality is decreases, poultry growers may decide to use the new litter material. (wikipedia.org)
  • house
  • Don't let live poultry inside the house, especially in areas where food or drink is prepared, served, or stored. (cdc.gov)
  • Set aside a pair of shoes to wear while taking care of poultry and keep those shoes outside of the house. (cdc.gov)
  • office
  • No 1 Poultry is a postmodern office and retail building which is home to the Coq d'Argent restaurant, which includes a rooftop terrace and formal garden. (wikipedia.org)
  • A poultry was the office in a medieval household responsible for the purchase and preparation of poultry, as well as the room in which the poultry was stored. (wikipedia.org)
  • known
  • Blinders, also known as peepers, are devices fitted to, or through, the beaks of poultry to block their forward vision and assist in the control of feather pecking, cannibalism and sometimes egg-eating. (wikipedia.org)
  • Germs on your hands can spread easily to other people or surfaces, which is why it's important to wash hands immediately with soap and water after touching poultry or anything in the area where they live and roam. (cdc.gov)
  • people
  • However, children and other groups of people have a greater chance of illness from handling live poultry or anything in the area where they live and roam. (cdc.gov)
  • How do people get Salmonella infections from live poultry? (cdc.gov)
  • People become infected with Salmonella germs when they put their hands or equipment that has been in contact with live poultry in or around their mouth. (cdc.gov)
  • Don't let children younger than 5 years, adults older than 65, or people with weakened immune systems from conditions such as cancer treatment, HIV/AIDS or organ transplants, handle or touch chicks, ducklings, or other live poultry. (cdc.gov)
  • This program is intended to reduce the incidence of Salmonella in baby poultry in the hatchery, which helps prevent the spread of illness among poultry and people. (cdc.gov)
  • bird
  • Poultry" is a term used for any kind of domesticated bird, captive-raised for its utility, and traditionally the word has been used to refer to wildfowl (Galliformes) and waterfowl (Anseriformes) but not to cagebirds such as songbirds and parrots. (wikipedia.org)
  • held
  • Rides, parades and contests are held, including the "Miss Chick" contest for high school age young ladies and a "Little Miss Poultry Days" contest for girls ages 4-6. (wikipedia.org)
  • Poultry Days Festival began as a single day event held on a Thursday and referred to as Poultry Day. (wikipedia.org)
  • Finally, in 1972, the annual Poultry Days Festival was expanded to a three-day event on held on Friday, Saturday and Sunday. (wikipedia.org)
  • Poultry Days has settled into being held on the second full weekend in June. (wikipedia.org)
  • Below
  • Below are measures that can be helpful in treating Splayed Leg and other problems relating to poultry podiatry, orthopedics and foot and leg conditions & injuries. (google.com)
  • company
  • It manages its research and development programs through a public company, Poultry CRC Ltd. The Poultry CRC is headquartered at the University of New England in Armidale, New South Wales, and has an extensive collaborative network comprising researchers, educators and support staff from its participating organisations. (wikipedia.org)
  • Poultry 28 (Persian: مرغدارئ 28‎ - Marghdāry 28) is a village and company town in Lahijan-e Gharbi Rural District, Lajan District, Piranshahr County, West Azerbaijan Province, Iran. (wikipedia.org)
  • term
  • It was headed by a poulter or poulterer (though this last term is more often for a merchant who deals in poultry). (wikipedia.org)