Postprandial Period: The time frame after a meal or FOOD INTAKE.Carbadox: An antibacterial agent that has been used in veterinary practice for treating swine dysentery and enteritis and for promoting growth. However, its use has been prohibited in the UK following reports of carcinogenicity and mutagenicity. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p125)Food: Any substances taken in by the body that provide nourishment.Gastric Emptying: The evacuation of food from the stomach into the duodenum.Eating: The consumption of edible substances.Cross-Over Studies: Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)TriglyceridesBlood Glucose: Glucose in blood.Dietary Fats: Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.Gastrointestinal Motility: The motor activity of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.Fasting: Abstaining from all food.Fatty Acids, Nonesterified: FATTY ACIDS found in the plasma that are complexed with SERUM ALBUMIN for transport. These fatty acids are not in glycerol ester form.Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).

*  Diabetes

... the C-peptide concentrations over the postprandial period were over 16% higher at lunch relative to breakfast (P , 0.05 after ... Postprandial glucose turnover was measured using the triple tracer technique. Postprandial glucose excursion was significantly ... postprandial glucose tolerance (as evidenced by lower postprandial glucose excursions) was better at breakfast than at lunch or ... Diurnal variation in postprandial glucose excursions may result from changes in Ra of meal glucose, EGP, Rd, or a combination ...
diabetes.diabetesjournals.org/content/61/11/2691.full

*  Diabetes

Plasma glucose levels were very high (between 10 and 13 mmol/L) at fasting and during the postprandial period in type 2 ... 5.5-6.0 mmol/L over the last 3 h of the 6-h postprandial period using a variable dextrose 20% (D20%) intravenous infusion ... Postprandial free fatty acid kinetics are abnormal in upper body obesity. Diabetes 1993;42:1567-1573pmid:8405696. ... Impaired postprandial adipose tissue blood flow response is related to aspects of insulin sensitivity. Diabetes 2002;51:2467- ...
diabetes.diabetesjournals.org/content/60/2/408.long

*  Supine body position is an important factor influencing postprandial ambulatory blood pressure.

... even very recent studies assessing postprandial blood pressure (BP) have not taken into account the possibil ... Postprandial Period. Supine Position*. Systole. Time Factors. From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of ... HR changes during those periods when the subjects lay down within 2 hours after the meal and BP/HR changes during those periods ... We addressed this issue by analysing diurnal BP profiles together with subject's reports on supine rest periods and meal ...
biomedsearch.com/nih/Supine-body-position-important-factor/12552248.html

*  Drink more, and eat less: advice in obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

... report describes a series of symptomatic patients with obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy with significant postprandial ... Postprandial Period. Sleep Apnea, Obstructive / complications, physiopathology. Treatment Outcome. From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a ... However, recognition of postprandial exacerbation in symptomatic patients may allow for nonpharmacologic dietary interventions ... report describes a series of symptomatic patients with obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy with significant postprandial ...
biomedsearch.com/nih/Drink-more-eat-less-advice/21029830.html

*  Monosodium glutamate raises antral distension and plasma amino acid after a standard meal in humans.

... yet these effects have been poorly investigated directly in humans and in particular in the postprandial phase. Thirteen ... Postprandial Period / physiology. Pyloric Antrum / drug effects*. Sodium Glutamate / pharmacology*. Chemical. Reg. No./ ... Finally, the postprandial fate of dietary N was identical between dietary conditions. Our findings indicate that nutritional ... On the 7th day, they underwent a complete postprandial examination for the 6 h following the ingestion of the same liquid ...
biomedsearch.com/nih/Monosodium-glutamate-raises-antral-distension/21030612.html

*  Direct measurement of post-prandial portal haemodynamics in cirrhotic patients with a transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic...

Postprandial Period / physiology*. Splanchnic Circulation / physiology*. Thermodilution. From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of ... Direct measurement of post-prandial portal haemodynamics in cirrhotic patients with a transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic ... We directly assessed post-prandial splanchnic haemodynamics in cirrhotic patients with a transjugular intrahepatic ... This model offers a new technique to directly assess the causes for and possible treatments of post-prandial splanchnic ...
biomedsearch.com/nih/Direct-measurement-post-prandial-portal/9619385.html

*  The effects of 6-week-decoupled bi-pedal cycling on submaximal and high intensity performance in competitive cyclists and...

7606644 - Walking during the postprandial period decreases alimentary lipaemia.. 21969894 - Effects of pranayam breathing on ...
biomedsearch.com/nih/effects-6-week-decoupled-bi/21193924.html

*  Fast Food, Central Nervous System Insulin Resistance, and Obesity | Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology

The metabolic consequences of high-glycemic-index meals extend beyond the immediate postprandial period. High-glycemic-index ... Although diets that are both high in fat and low in carbohydrates (eg, Atkins) may attenuate the postprandial insulin response ... Both hormones are secreted during periods of energy sufficiency or excess, their receptors colocalize to the same VMH neurons, ... High-glycemic-index foods trigger greater postprandial elevations in serum glucose than low glycemic index foods, leading to a ...
atvb.ahajournals.org/content/25/12/2451.long

*  Postprandial Blood Glucose | Diabetes Care

Hypoglycemia in the postprandial period is rare except in response to exercise or rapid-acting insulin analogs. ... How do we best assess postprandial hyperglycemia and the relationships among FPG, PPG, and HbA1c? The term postprandial ... Elevated postprandial glucose (PPG) concentrations may contribute to suboptimal glycemic control. Postprandial hyperglycemia is ... In contrast, postprandial glucose excursions (PPGEs), defined as the change in glucose concentration from before to after a ...
care.diabetesjournals.org/content/24/4/775

*  Elevated Remnant-Like Particle Cholesterol Concentration | Circulation

Postprandial Plasma RLP-C Levels in Normolipidemic Subjects. Plasma TRL and RLP accumulate in the postprandial period in ... 99,100 In the postprandial period, arterial relaxation (as assessed by flow-mediated dilation) in healthy young normolipidemic ... Both fasting and postprandial plasma RLP-C levels were elevated.54,61,85-90 Interestingly, the impact of type II diabetes ... No data on postprandial plasma RLP-C levels in FCHL patients have become available as yet, but we may speculate that RLP-C may ...
circ.ahajournals.org/content/109/16/1918

*  1c3d - Proteopedia, life in 3D

... and triacylglycerol clearance by human adipose tissue in vivo in the postprandial period. J Lipid Res. 1998 Apr;39(4):884-91. ... and triacylglycerol clearance by human adipose tissue in vivo in the postprandial period. J Lipid Res. 1998 Apr;39(4):884-91. ... and triacylglycerol clearance by human adipose tissue in vivo in the postprandial period. J Lipid Res. 1998 Apr;39(4):884-91. ... regulating fat storage and playing a role in postprandial TG clearance. Appears to stimulate TG synthesis via activation of the ...
proteopedia.org/wiki/index.php/1c3d

*  Plus it

gastric emptying of solids in the postprandial period requires solids to be broken into smaller particles before they are ... have been used to measure the cumulative forces of antral contraction exerted on a 1.8-cm balloon over a 30-min period, which ...
ajpgi.physiology.org/content/280/5/G844

*  Plus it

By regulating hepatic VLDL secretion during the postprandial period, insulin allows for a smooth transition from the fasting ... intestinal TRL are allowed to be rapidly cleared from the circulation during the postprandial period. The suppression of ... In the current study, serum cholesterol levels remained unchanged over the 3-h time period. Because cholesterol in rats is ... 1988) Effect of dietary fat composition on the metabolism of triacylglycerol-rich plasma lipoproteins in the postprandial phase ...
ajpendo.physiology.org/content/279/5/E1003

*  Laetrile (Steven B. Harris, M.D.)

... were observed after a 24-h postprandial period. Hence, cattle are most susceptible to poisoning by cyanogenic plants when the ... Thiocyanate excreted within the same 48-h period was 7.0, 9.1, and 9.5 mumol representing 18, 11.2, and 7.8% of the 200, 400, ... rates for the three glycosides were negligible at the 3 and 6 h postprandial sampling times.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) ...
yarchive.net/med/laetrile.html

*  Dietary Polyphenols and Lipid Oxidation - Tabular View - ClinicalTrials.gov

At the end of each supplementation period, postprandial fat oxidation is measured ... postprandial fat oxidation [ Time Frame: 3 days ]. 3 day supplementation of different combinations of polyphenols in a ...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/record/NCT01302639

*  Plus it

... demonstrating the importance of peripheral neuroendocrine loop to regulate plasma glucose in the postprandial period (29). ... and food intake in the postprandial period in T2DM. ... Body weight was recorded throughout the experimental period. ... Reduced postprandial concentrations of intact biologically active glucagon-like peptide 1 in type 2 diabetic patients. Diabetes ... motor and secretory function likely impairs the postprandial response to a meal and may lead to dysregulation of postprandial ...
ajpregu.physiology.org/content/302/6/R657

*  Browsing Food, Nutrition, Dietetics and Health Faculty Research and Publications by Title

The effect of moderate intensity exercise in the postprandial period on the inflammatory response to a high-fat meal: an ... Postprandial exercise has been shown to effectively attenuate PPL. However, little is known about the impact of postprandial ... Background: Consuming a high-fat meal (HFM) may lead to postprandial lipemia (PPL) and inflammation. ...
krex.k-state.edu/dspace/handle/2097/572/browse?rpp=20&order=ASC&sort_by=1&etal=-1&type=title&starts_with=T

*  Pramlintide Combined With Model Predictive Control Algorithm - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov

... known to occur with pramlintide administration in the early postprandial period, has the potential to repair inadequate ...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01434862

*  Plus it

Because FII-based dosing is calculated from insulin requirements during the initial 2-h postprandial period (23), HF foods have ... Each closed-loop period was preceded by an open-loop period with identical lunch meals and similar activity. ... During the 24-h preceding admission, the two afternoon periods of open-loop control and the nocturnal period, the low alarm ... 7,215 ± 1,802 µU/mL⋅min; P , 0.05), with levels not different in the periods 6:00 p.m.-11:00 p.m., 4:00 a.m.-8:00 a.m., and 8: ...
care.diabetesjournals.org/content/36/4/810

*  Increased Myocardial Uptake of Dietary Fatty Acids Linked to Cardiac Dysfunction in Glucose-Intolerant Humans | Diabetes

Although it is not possible to exclude that dietary fatty acid fractional uptake may change over the postprandial period in ... Although myocardial TG deposition occurs at increased rate during fasting compared with the postprandial period in healthy ... Normal postprandial nonesterified fatty acid uptake in muscles despite increased circulating fatty acids in type 2 diabetes. ... Real-time assessment of postprandial fat storage in liver and skeletal muscle in health and type 2 diabetes. Am J Physiol ...
diabetes.diabetesjournals.org/content/61/11/2701?frame=header

*  2005 DGAC report - Part G. Appendices, Sect. 1. Glossary

... the 2-hour postprandial period relative to the same amount of carbohydrate from a reference food (white bread or glucose) ...
https://health.gov/dietaryguidelines/dga2005/report/html/G1_Glossary.htm

*  2005 DGAC report - Part D. Science Base, Sect. 5. Carbohydrates

... during the 2-hour postprandial period, relative to the same amount of carbohydrate from a reference food (white bread or ... Sugar-sweetened soft drinks were the only food that was significantly related to BMI z-score1 over the study period, but it was ... Also, it is necessary to examine the effect of glycemic load of a mixed meal diet on postprandial glucose and insulin levels. A ... Review of the Evidence Glycemic Index. Although the use of food with a low-glycemic index may reduce postprandial glucose, ...
https://health.gov/dietaryguidelines/dga2005/report/html/D5_Carbs.htm

*  Discussion Thread | Healthy Longevity

These findings provided strong evidence of actual improved cardiovascular health in Norway during the period of deprivation of ... Last year, on Don's blog, the anti zoonutrient folks said that what matters is not your fasting cholesterol, but the post prandial ... Another report from the same time period indicates that commercially produced hydrogenated fats, like those added to safflower ... Also, it is likely important to exclude deaths during the early follow-up period in order to control for reverse causality, ie ...
healthylongevity.blogspot.com/2012/03/comment-section.html?showComment=1365618888027

*  Natural Foods General Store Condition Center

Shea butter: In clinical trials, shea butter/oil was shown to lower increases in postprandial lipids and postprandial factor ... Elevated blood pressure over a sustained period of time is a condition called hypertension (HTN) or high blood pressure. ... over short periods of time (4 to 12 weeks) with use of garlic. It is not clear if there are benefits for hyperlipidemia after ...
naturalfoodsgeneralstore.com/promog/ConditionCenter.asp?ConditionID=20&StoreID=72282E13C95F42DE9427E1FB887610F0

(1/1828) Gallstones: an intestinal disease?

Current evidence suggests that impaired intestinal motility may facilitate gallstone formation by influencing biliary deoxycholate levels or by modulating interdigestive gall bladder motility (fig 2), although a primary intestinal defect in gallstone pathogenesis has not yet been demonstrated. In the cold war period, most interesting events, from a political point of view, occurred at the border between capitalist and communist systems, near the iron curtain. Similarly, the gall bladder and biliary tract can be viewed as the border between liver and intestinal tract, where many interesting things occur with profound impact on both systems. Combined efforts by researchers in the field of hepatology and gastrointestinal motility should brake down the Berlin wall of ignorance of one of the most common diseases in the Western world.  (+info)

(2/1828) Response of adipose tissue lipoprotein lipase to the cephalic phase of insulin secretion.

Modulation of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) allows a tissue-specific partitioning of triglyceride-derived fatty acids, and insulin is a major modulator of its activity. The present studies were aimed to assess in rats the contribution of insulin to the response of adipose tissue and muscle LPL to food intake. Epididymal and retroperitoneal adipose LPL rose 65% above fasting values as early as 1 h after the onset of a 30-min high-carbohydrate meal, with a second activity peak 1 h later that was maintained for an additional 2 h. Soleus muscle LPL was decreased by 25% between 0.5 and 4 h after meal intake. The essential contribution of insulin to the LPL response to food intake was determined by preventing the full insulin response to meal intake by administration of diazoxide (150 mg/kg body wt, in the meal). The usual postprandial changes in adipose and muscle LPL did not occur in the absence of an increase in insulinemia. However, the early (60 min) increase in adipose tissue LPL was not prevented by the drug, likely because of the maintenance of the early centrally mediated phase of insulin secretion. In a subsequent study, rats chronically implanted with a gastric cannula were used to demonstrate that the postprandial rise in adipose LPL is independent of nutrient absorption and can be elicited by the cephalic (preabsorptive) phase of insulin secretion. Obese Zucker rats were used because of their strong cephalic insulin response. After an 8-h fast, rats were fed a liquid diet ad libitum (orally, cannula closed), sham fed (orally, cannula opened), or fed directly into the stomach via the cannula during 4 h. Insulinemia increased 10-fold over fasting levels in ad libitum- and intragastric-fed rats and threefold in sham-fed rats. Changes in adipose tissue LPL were proportional to the elevation in plasma insulin levels, demonstrating that the cephalic-mediated rise in insulinemia, in the absence of nutrient absorption, stimulates adipose LPL. These results demonstrate the central role of insulin in the postprandial response of tissue LPL, and they show that cephalically mediated insulin secretion is able to stimulate adipose LPL.  (+info)

(3/1828) Inhibition of carbohydrate-mediated glucagon-like peptide-1 (7-36)amide secretion by circulating non-esterified fatty acids.

Two studies were performed to assess the entero-insular axis in simple obesity and the possible effect of variations in the level of circulating non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) on one of the components of the entero-insular axis, glucagon-like peptide-1 [(7-36) amide]. In the first study, we compared the entero-pancreatic hormone response to oral carbohydrate in obese and lean women. Obese subjects demonstrated hyperinsulinaemia and impaired glucose tolerance but this was not associated with an increased secretion of either glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide or glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). These findings therefore provide no support for the hypothesis that overactivity of the entero-insular axis contributes to the hyperinsulinaemia seen in obesity. Indeed, the plasma GLP-1 response to carbohydrate was markedly attenuated in obese subjects, confirming previous observations. In the second study, in which carbohydrate-stimulated GLP-1 responses were again evaluated in obese and lean women, circulating NEFA levels were modulated using either heparin (to increase serum NEFA) or acipimox (to reduce serum NEFA). Treatment with acipimox resulted in complete suppression of NEFA levels and in a markedly higher GLP-1 response than the response to carbohydrate alone or to carbohydrate plus heparin. We suggest that higher fasting and postprandial NEFA levels in obesity may tonically inhibit nutrient-mediated GLP-1 secretion, and that this results in attenuation of the GLP-1 response to carbohydrate. However, although serum NEFA levels post-acipimox were similarly suppressed in both lean and obese subjects, the GLP-1 response was again significantly lower in obese subjects, suggesting the possibility of an intrinsic defect of GLP-1 secretion in obesity. The reduction of GLP-1 levels in obesity may be important both in relation to its insulinotropic effect and to its postulated role as a satiety factor.  (+info)

(4/1828) Impaired endothelial function following a meal rich in used cooking fat.

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that intake of used cooking fat is associated with impaired endothelial function. BACKGROUND: Diets containing high levels of lipid oxidation products may accelerate atherogenesis, but the effect on endothelial function is unknown. METHODS: Flow-mediated endothelium-dependent dilation and glyceryl trinitrate-induced endothelium-independent dilation of the brachial artery were investigated in 10 men. Subjects had arterial studies before and 4 h after three test meals: 1) a meal (fat 64.4 g) rich in cooking fat that had been used for deep frying in a fast food restaurant; 2) the same meal (fat 64.4 g) rich in unused cooking fat, and 3) a corresponding low fat meal (fat 18.4 g) without added fat. RESULTS: Endothelium-dependent dilation decreased between fasting and postprandial studies after the used fat meal (5.9 +/- 2.3% vs. 0.8 +/- 2.2%, p = 0.0003), but there was no significant change after the unused fat meal (5.3 +/- 2.1% vs. 6.0 +/- 2.5%) or low fat meal (5.3 +/- 2.3% vs. 5.4 +/- 3.3%). There was no significant difference in endothelium-independent dilation after any of the meals. Plasma free fatty acid concentration did not change significantly during any of the meals. The level of postprandial hypertriglyceridemia was not associated with change in endothelial function. CONCLUSIONS: Ingestion of a meal rich in fat previously used for deep frying in a commercial fast food restaurant resulted in impaired arterial endothelial function. These findings suggest that intake of degradation products of heated fat contribute to endothelial dysfunction.  (+info)

(5/1828) The influence of the colon on postprandial glucagon-like peptide 1 (7-36) amide concentration in man.

Glucagon-like peptide (7-36) amide (GLP-1) is an incretin hormone of the enteroinsular axis released rapidly after meals despite the fact that GLP-1 secreting cells (L-cells) occur predominantly in the distal gut. The importance of these colonic L-cells for postprandial GLP-1 was determined in healthy control subjects and in ileostomy patients with minimal small bowel resection (<5 cm). Subjects were fed a high complex carbohydrate test meal (15.3 g starch) followed by two carbohydrate-free, high fat test meals (25 g and 48.7 g fat respectively). Circulating levels of glucose, insulin, glucagon, glucose insulinotrophic peptide (GIP) and GLP-1 were measured over a 9-h postprandial period. For both subject groups the complex carbohydrate test meal failed to elicit a rise in either GIP or GLP-1. However, both hormones were elevated after the fat load although the GLP-1 concentration was significantly reduced in the ileostomist group when compared with controls (P=0.02). Associated with this reduction in circulating GLP-1 was an elevation in glucagon concentration (P=0.012) and a secondary rise in the plasma glucose concentration (P=0.006). These results suggest that the loss of colonic endocrine tissue is an important determinant in the postprandial GLP-1 concentration. Ileostomists should not be assumed to have normal enteroinsular function as the colon appears to have an important role in postprandial metabolism.  (+info)

(6/1828) Effect of the glycemic index and content of indigestible carbohydrates of cereal-based breakfast meals on glucose tolerance at lunch in healthy subjects.

BACKGROUND: Diets with a low glycemic index (GI) have been shown to improve glucose tolerance in both healthy and diabetic subjects. Two potential mechanisms are discussed in relation to long-term metabolic effects: a decreased demand for insulin in the postprandial phase and formation of short-chain fatty acids from fermentation of indigestible carbohydrates in the colon. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to study the effect of the GI and the indigestible carbohydrate--resistant starch (RS) and dietary fiber (DF)--content of cereal-based breakfasts on glucose tolerance at a second meal (lunch) in healthy subjects. DESIGN: The effects of 7 test breakfasts with known GIs (GI: 52-99) and RS + DF contents (2-36 g) were evaluated. White-wheat bread was used as a reference breakfast (high GI, low RS + DF content). Glucose and insulin responses after the second meal were measured in healthy subjects. In addition, the satiating capacity of 4 of the 7 test breakfasts was estimated before and during the second meal. RESULTS: Two of the 4 low-GI breakfasts improved glucose tolerance at the second meal. Only these 2 breakfasts were capable of postponing the in-between-meal fasting state. There was no measurable effect of fermentable carbohydrates on glucose tolerance at the second meal. The highest satiety score was associated with the barley breakfast that had a low GI and a high RS + DF content. CONCLUSIONS: Glucose tolerance can improve in a single day. Slow absorption and digestion of starch from the breakfast meal, but not the content of indigestible carbohydrates in the breakfast meal, improved glucose tolerance at the second meal (lunch).  (+info)

(7/1828) Net postprandial utilization of [15N]-labeled milk protein nitrogen is influenced by diet composition in humans.

The aim of this study was to follow the fate of dietary nitrogen to assess the postprandial utilization of purified milk protein and to determine the acute influence of energy nutrients. For this purpose, a [15N]-labeling dietary protein approach was used. Twenty-five subjects swallowed an ileal tube and ingested [15 N]-milk protein alone or supplemented with either milk fat or sucrose. The absorption and postprandial deamination of dietary protein was monitored for 8 h. Sucrose delayed the absorption of protein longer than fat, but the ileal digestibility did not differ among groups (94.5-94.8%). Sucrose, but not fat, significantly reduced the postprandial transfer of [15N]-milk nitrogen to urea. Consequently, the net postprandial protein utilization (NPPU) of milk protein calculated 8 h after meal ingestion was 80% when ingested either alone or supplemented with fat and was significantly greater with sucrose (NPPU = 85%). This study shows that energy nutrients do not affect the nitrogen absorption but modify the metabolic utilization of dietary protein in the phase of nitrogen gain. Our method provides information concerning the deamination kinetics of dietary amino acids and further allows the detection of differences of dietary protein utilization in acute conditions. The diet composition should be carefully considered, and protein quality must be determined under optimal conditions of utilization.  (+info)

(8/1828) Enhanced postprandial energy expenditure with medium-chain fatty acid feeding is attenuated after 14 d in premenopausal women.

BACKGROUND: Medium-chain triacylglycerols (MCTs) are reported to enhance human energy expenditure (EE), although few studies have involved women and the duration of such effects is only known for periods of approximately 7 d. OBJECTIVE: This study was conducted to determine whether women consuming mixed, MCT-enriched or long-chain triacylglycerol (LCT)-enriched diets showed changes in EE or substrate oxidation after 7 and 14 d. DESIGN: Twelve nonobese, premenopausal women were fed isoenergetic mixed diets enriched in either MCTs or LCTs during separate, 14-d feeding periods. Each meal contained 40% of energy as fat (80% of which was the treatment fat), 45% as carbohydrate, and 15% as protein. On days 7 and 14 of each trial, basal metabolic rate (BMR, kJ/min), total energy expenditure (TEE, kJ/min), and thermic effect of feeding (deltakJ/min) after a standardized breakfast were measured by respiratory gas exchange. RESULTS: On day 7, the mean (+/-SEM) BMR (3.58+/-0.11 kJ/min) with the MCT diet was greater (P = 0.0003) than that with the LCT diet (3.43+/-0.11 kJ/min). The mean postprandial TEE on day 7 was significantly greater (P = 0.04) with the MCT diet (4.36+/-0.04 kJ/min) than with the LCT diet (4.23+/-0.04 kJ/min); by day 14, postprandial TEE was still greater with the MCT diet, but not significantly so. No significant differences in the thermic effect of feeding were evident between diets. CONCLUSIONS: Results from this longest controlled MCT feeding study to date suggest that short-term feeding of MCT-enriched diets increases TEE, but this effect could be transient with continued feeding.  (+info)



influence postprandial


  • CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that supine body position is an important factor, which may influence postprandial BP investigated by ABPM. (biomedsearch.com)
  • However, these studies ( 8 ) controlled for neither meal size, composition, and caloric content nor for levels of physical activity, all of which influence postprandial glucose excursions. (diabetesjournals.org)

glucose


  • No changes to the postprandial glucose, insulin, glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1, and ghrelin were noted between MSG- and NaCl-supplemented meals. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Elevated postprandial glucose (PPG) concentrations may contribute to suboptimal glycemic control. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Postprandial hyperglycemia is also one of the earliest abnormalities of glucose homeostasis associated with type 2 diabetes and is markedly exaggerated in diabetic patients with fasting hyperglycemia. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Because the absorption of food persists for 5-6 h after a meal in both diabetic and nondiabetic individuals, the optimal time to measure postprandial glucose concentration must be determined. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • In general, a measurement of plasma glucose 2 h after the start of a meal is practical, generally approximates the peak value in patients with diabetes, and provides a reasonable assessment of postprandial hyperglycemia. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Postprandial glucose turnover was measured using the triple tracer technique. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • These factors include, but are not limited to, variabilities introduced by diurnal differences in postprandial insulin secretion and action, timing and pattern of meal glucose appearance, and changes in physical activity. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Although earlier studies ( 1 ) showed higher postprandial insulin concentrations in the morning than evening without any differences in postprandial glucose concentrations, subsequent studies ( 2 ) showed higher postprandial glucose excursion in the evening. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • In healthy individuals, some ( 2 - 4 ) but not all ( 1 ) studies suggest that postprandial glucose excursion is greater in the evening than morning. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Moreover, because these studies did not use glucose tracers and modeling techniques, hepatic and peripheral insulin action, meal glucose appearance, and postprandial insulin secretion were not assessed. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The purpose of this study was to determine if there are diurnal changes in postprandial glucose tolerance, insulin action, insulin secretion, and meal glucose appearance in nondiabetic subjects using the triple-tracer technique ( 9 ) while controlling for meal macronutrient composition and caloric content and levels of physical activity. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Glucose in the gut lumen activates gut endocrine cells to release 5-HT, glucagon-like peptide 1/2 (GLP-1/2), and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), which act to change gastrointestinal function and regulate postprandial plasma glucose. (physiology.org)
  • RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We used a crossover design comparing two 18-h periods of closed-loop glucose control after high-fat (HF) dinner compared with low-fat (LF) dinner. (diabetesjournals.org)

hyperglycemia


  • However, many questions remain unanswered regarding the definition of PPG and, perhaps most importantly, whether postprandial hyperglycemia has a unique role in the pathogenesis of diabetic complications and should be a specific target of therapy. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Pizza is widely recognized to cause marked late postprandial hyperglycemia in patients with type 1 diabetes ( 11 ). (diabetesjournals.org)

Humans


  • The consumption of monosodium glutamate (MSG) is advocated to elicit physiological and metabolic effects, yet these effects have been poorly investigated directly in humans and in particular in the postprandial phase. (biomedsearch.com)

underwent


  • On the 7th day, they underwent a complete postprandial examination for the 6 h following the ingestion of the same liquid standard meal (700 kcal, 20% of energy as [(15)N]protein, 50% as carbohydrate, and 30% as fat) supplemented with MSG or NaCl. (biomedsearch.com)
  • four men and five women), aged between 18 and 60 years, underwent two postprandial metabolic studies. (diabetesjournals.org)

meal


  • BACKGROUND: Although body position is known to be an important factor influencing the results of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM), even very recent studies assessing postprandial blood pressure (BP) have not taken into account the possibility that the examined subjects were lying down after a meal. (biomedsearch.com)
  • We addressed this issue by analysing diurnal BP profiles together with subject's reports on supine rest periods and meal consumption during ABPM. (biomedsearch.com)
  • There were no significant differences between BP/HR changes during those periods when the subjects lay down within 2 hours after the meal and BP/HR changes during those periods when supine rest was not preceded by a meal. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Axial force transducers have been used to measure the cumulative forces of antral contraction exerted on a 1.8-cm balloon over a 30-min period, which totaled 6 N during emptying of a liquid meal and 22 N during emptying of a solid meal ( 3 ). (physiology.org)
  • Background: Consuming a high-fat meal (HFM) may lead to postprandial lipemia (PPL) and inflammation. (k-state.edu)

abnormalities


  • The atherogenic lipoprotein phenotype is strongly linked to obesity, insulin resistance, familial combined hyperlipidemia (FCHL), hypertension, and abnormalities in postprandial lipid metabolism. (ahajournals.org)

dietary


  • However, recognition of postprandial exacerbation in symptomatic patients may allow for nonpharmacologic dietary interventions that may obviate the need for more invasive therapies and their associated complications. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Finally, the postprandial fate of dietary N was identical between dietary conditions. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Prediabetic and diabetic subjects display inefficient adipose tissue storage of dietary fatty acids during the postprandial state ( 2 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • This may lead to increased postprandial triglyceride (TG) and/or nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) circulating levels produced from dietary fatty acids with increased flux of dietary fatty acids to lean tissues ( 3 , 4 ) that is directly related to the presence of abdominal obesity ( 5 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Thus, the contribution of dietary fatty acids to organ-specific postprandial fatty acid exposure cannot be assessed simply by measurement of circulating NEFA and TG fluxes. (diabetesjournals.org)

changes


  • This report describes a series of symptomatic patients with obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy with significant postprandial hemodynamic changes. (biomedsearch.com)

blood


  • Supine body position is an important factor influencing postprandial ambulatory blood pressure. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Despite this elevated NEFA flux in type 2 diabetes (T2D), muscle NEFA uptake is not necessarily elevated because of reduced postprandial muscle blood flow ( 6 ). (diabetesjournals.org)

greater


  • Our findings indicate that nutritional dose of MSG promoted greater postprandial elevations of several indispensable amino acids in plasma and induced gastric distension. (biomedsearch.com)