Population Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.Sentinel Surveillance: Monitoring of rate of occurrence of specific conditions to assess the stability or change in health levels of a population. It is also the study of disease rates in a specific cohort such as in a geographic area or population subgroup to estimate trends in a larger population. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Public Health Surveillance: The ongoing, systematic collection, analysis, and interpretation of health-related data with the purpose of preventing or controlling disease or injury, or of identifying unusual events of public health importance, followed by the dissemination and use of information for public health action. (From Am J Prev Med 2011;41(6):636)Product Surveillance, Postmarketing: Surveillance of drugs, devices, appliances, etc., for efficacy or adverse effects, after they have been released for general sale.Immunologic Surveillance: The theory that T-cells monitor cell surfaces and detect structural changes in the plasma membrane and/or surface antigens of virally or neoplastically transformed cells.Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Disease Notification: Notification or reporting by a physician or other health care provider of the occurrence of specified contagious diseases such as tuberculosis and HIV infections to designated public health agencies. The United States system of reporting notifiable diseases evolved from the Quarantine Act of 1878, which authorized the US Public Health Service to collect morbidity data on cholera, smallpox, and yellow fever; each state in the US has its own list of notifiable diseases and depends largely on reporting by the individual health care provider. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)

*  U.S. Needs National Disease Surveillance System - InformationWeek

... information is being comingled with other health data within large electronic data stores and used for population surveillance ... take the lead in developing a surveillance system, since the department already funds disease surveillance through the CDC and ... Emphasizing the value of a national system, the IOM report goes on to state: "Without a national surveillance system, the gaps ... A robust surveillance system … will help in monitoring, evaluating, and improving policies, programs, and services and in ...
https://informationweek.com/healthcare/electronic-health-records/us-needs-national-disease-surveillance-system/d/d-id/1099402

*  Guidelines for National Human Immunodeficiency Virus Case Surveillance, Including Monitoring for Human Immunodeficiency Virus...

In contrast to AIDS case surveillance, HIV case surveillance provides data to better characterize populations in which HIV ... History of AIDS and HIV Case Surveillance. Since the epidemic was first identified in the United States in 1981, population- ... AIDS surveillance will continue to be important in evaluating access to care for different populations and in identifying ... Expanded surveillance will provide additional data about HIV-infected populations to enhance local, state, and federal efforts ...
https://cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/rr4813a1.htm

*  PLOS Medicine: Monitoring the Introduction of Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccines into West Africa: Design and Implementation of a...

Philip Campbell Hill and colleagues describe how they set up a population-based surveillance system to assess the impact of ...
journals.plos.org/plosmedicine/article/related?id=10.1371/journal.pmed.1001161

*  Improving disease incidence estimates in primary care surveillance systems | Population Health Metrics | Full Text

Public health surveillance systems are nowadays expected to provide health situation awareness to officials and the population ... It is likely due to the long-standing issue of characterizing the population monitored by a public health surveillance system [ ... Byass P: Empirical modelling of population sampling: lessons for designing sentinel surveillance. Publ Health 2003, 117: 36-42 ... Although the major issue of representativeness for surveillance systems is to compare the monitored population to the general ...
https://pophealthmetrics.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12963-014-0019-8

*  Choosing Wisely: Avoid use of ultrasound for routine surveillance of carotid arteries in the asymptomatic healthy population at...

Avoid use of ultrasound for routine surveillance of carotid arteries in the asymptomatic healthy population at any time. ... Avoid use of ultrasound for routine surveillance of carotid arteries in the asymptomatic healthy population at any time.. ... The presence of asymptomatic severe carotid artery disease in the general population yields a risk of neurologic event, which ... A model for predicting occult carotid artery stenosis: screening is justified in a selected population. J Vasc Surg. 2003;38(4 ...
aafp.org/afp/recommendations/viewRecommendation.htm?recommendationId=237

*  Population-Based Birth Defects Surveillance and Utilazation of Surveillance Data - Ruttenber Margaret

Population-Based Birth Defects Surveillance and Utilazation of Surveillance Data Margaret, Ruttenber Colorado State Department/ ... Population-Based Birth Defects Surveillance and Utilazation of Surveillance Data. Ruttenber, Margaret / Colorado State ... Population-Based Birth Defects Surveillance and Utilazation of Surveillance Data. Ruttenber, Margaret / Colorado State ... Population-Based Birth Defects Surveillance and Utilazation of Surveillance Data. Ruttenber, Margaret / Colorado State ...
grantome.com/grant/NIH/U50-DD000596-02

*  Population-Based Birth Defects Surveillance Programs and the Utilization of Surve - Trish Wilson

Population-Based Birth Defects Surveillance Programs and the Utilization of Surve Wilson, Trish Illinois State Department of ... Population-Based Birth Defects Surveillance Programs and the Utilization of Surve. Wilson, Trish / Illinois State Department of ... Population-Based Birth Defects Surveillance Programs and the Utilization of Surve. Wilson, Trish / Illinois State Department of ... Population-Based Birth Defects Surveillance Programs and the Utilization of Surve. Wilson, Trish / Illinois State Department of ...
grantome.com/grant/NIH/U50-DD000598-04

*  Long-term quality of life after endoscopic dilation of strictured colorectal or colocolonic anastomoses.

Population Surveillance. Quality of Life*. Rectal Diseases / therapy*. Treatment Outcome. From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of ...
biomedsearch.com/nih/Long-term-quality-life-after/18074183.html

*  Racial and ethnic differences in determinants of intrauterine growth retardation and other compromised birth outcomes.

Population Surveillance. Pregnancy. Pregnancy Outcome / ethnology*, genetics. Prenatal Care. Prevalence. Residence ... 6867257 - Mortality among minority populations: a review of recent patterns and trends.. 3658577 - Native american postneonatal ...
biomedsearch.com/nih/Racial-ethnic-differences-in-determinants/9431287.html

*  Automated identification of postoperative complications within an electronic medical record using natural language processing.

... free-text searches of electronic medical records could represent an additional surveillance approach. To evaluate a natural ... Population Surveillance. Postoperative Complications / epidemiology*. Pulmonary Embolism / epidemiology. Quality Indicators, ... free-text searches of electronic medical records could represent an additional surveillance approach.. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate a ...
biomedsearch.com/nih/Automated-identification-postoperative-complications-within/21862746.html

*  Prevalence of immunoglobulin G to Helicobacter pylori among endoscopy nurses/technicians.

... seropositivity among gastroenterology nurses and technicians with that of the general population. Nurses attending the 1996 ... Population Surveillance. Seroepidemiologic Studies. Chemical. Reg. No./Substance: 0/Antibodies, Bacterial; 0/Immunoglobulin G ... representing the general population) underwent qualitative HP antibody testing. Results showed that the prevalence of ... seropositivity among gastroenterology nurses and technicians with that of the general population. Nurses attending the 1996 ...
biomedsearch.com/nih/Prevalence-immunoglobulin-G-to-Helicobacter/10222917.html

*  The role of bathtub seats and rings in infant drowning deaths.

Population Surveillance. Sex Distribution. United States / epidemiology. Grant Support. ID/Acronym/Agency: R29AA07700/AA/NIAAA ...
biomedsearch.com/nih/role-bathtub-seats-rings-in/9310534.html

*  Insurance and education determine survival in infantile coarctation of the aorta.

In a population-based study between 1981 and 1989, 103 cases of infant coarctation of the aorta were diagnosed before one year ... Population Surveillance. Severity of Illness Index. Socioeconomic Factors. Survival Analysis. Virginia / epidemiology. ... In a population-based study between 1981 and 1989, 103 cases of infant coarctation of the aorta were diagnosed before one year ... Outcome measures require knowledge of the entire population and of insurance status to inform policy.. ...
biomedsearch.com/nih/Insurance-education-determine-survival-in/11057056.html

*  Evaluation of the Japanese school health surveillance system for influenza.

... we used surveillance guidelines (Centers for Disease Control and Preventi ... In order to evaluate the Japanese nationwide school absenteeism surveillance system for pediatric influenza in comparison with ... Population Surveillance / methods*. School Health Services*. Seasons. Sensitivity and Specificity. Sentinel Surveillance. ... Infectious Disease Surveillance Center, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Tokyo 162-8640, Japan. hiroshit@nih.go.jp. ...
biomedsearch.com/nih/Evaluation-Japanese-school-health-surveillance/11326126.html

*  Anthony Judge: Laetus in Praesens - Convergence of 30 Disabling Global Trends - Public Intelligence Blog

Population surveillance. *Research: genetic engineering, geo-engineering, biological warfare, etc. *Cyber warfare ... Increasing levels of surveillance and invasive security (far exceeding those deprecated during the Cold War) ... Population increase (as vital to ensuring a pattern of increased consumption necessary for the economy) ... Asystemic analysisof resource overshoot and remedial possibilities (most notably in relation to population increase): *Over- ...
https://phibetaiota.net/2012/08/john-steiner-laetus-in-praesens-convergence-of-30-disabling-global-trends/

*  adult pleomorphic rhabdomyosarcoma 2005:2010[pubdate] *count=100 - BioMedLib™ search engine

Population Surveillance. Prognosis. Proportional Hazards Models. United States / epidemiology. Young Adult. *[Email] Email this ... Title] Comparing adult and pediatric rhabdomyosarcoma in the surveillance, epidemiology and end results program, 1973 to 2005: ... CONCLUSION: It was concluded that the most common pleomorphic sarcoma occurring in our adult population was Leiomyosarcoma, and ... Comparing adult and pediatric rhabdomyosarcoma in the surveillance, epidemiology and end results program, 1973 to 2005: an ...
bmlsearch.com/?kwr=adult pleomorphic rhabdomyosarcoma 2005:2010[pubdate]&cxts=100&stmp=b0

*  Influence of Age, Sex, and Anthropometric Determinants on the Foot Posture Index in a Pediatric Population.

Population Surveillance. Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), ... Pediatric Population.". The Foot Posture Index (FPI) is a clinical tool for diagnosis that aims to quantify the grade of a foot ... Influence of Age, Sex, and Anthropometric Determinants on the Foot Posture Index in a Pediatric Population.. 07:00 EST 1st ... Body shape index: Sex-specific differences in predictive power for all-cause mortality in the Japanese population. ...
https://bioportfolio.com/resources/pmarticle/1719431/Influence-of-Age-Sex-and-Anthropometric-Determinants-on-the-Foot-Posture-Index.html

*  aids related immunoblastic lymphoma 2005:2010[pubdate] *count=100 - BioMedLib™ search engine

Population Surveillance. Sarcoma, Kaposi / epidemiology. *[MeSH-minor] Adult. Burkitt Lymphoma / epidemiology. Humans. ... Apoptosis was quantified by flow cytometric analysis of cell populations with sub-G1 DNA content and by measuring activated ...
bmlsearch.com/?kwr=aids related immunoblastic lymphoma 2005:2010[pubdate]&cxts=100&stmp=b0

*  August 15, 2004 - Volume 36 - Issue 5 - Contributor Index : JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes

Population-Based Surveillance of HIV-Associated Cancers: Utility of Cancer Registry Data. Clarke, Christina A.; Glaser, Sally L ... Population-Based Surveillance of HIV-Associated Cancers: Utility of Cancer Registry Data. Clarke, Christina A.; Glaser, Sally L ... Surveillance of HIV-1 Subtypes Among Heterosexuals in England and Wales, 1997-2000. Tatt, Iain D.; Barlow, Katrina L.; Clewley ... Surveillance of HIV-1 Subtypes Among Heterosexuals in England and Wales, 1997-2000. Tatt, Iain D.; Barlow, Katrina L.; Clewley ...
journals.lww.com/jaids/pages/contributorindex.aspx?year=2004&issue=08150

*  sep.hp: Hypergeometric (HerdPlus) population sensitivity for... in RSurveillance: Design and Analysis of Disease Surveillance...

Calculates population sensitivity for a finite population and allowing for imperfect test sensitivity and specificity, using ... sep.hp: Hypergeometric (HerdPlus) population sensitivity for... In RSurveillance: Design and Analysis of Disease Surveillance ... Calculates population sensitivity for a finite population and allowing for imperfect test sensitivity and specificity, using ... sample size for 2-stage risk-based surveillance, risk factor... sep.pooled: Pooled population sensitivity tp.normal: Normal ...
https://rdrr.io/cran/RSurveillance/man/sep.hp.html

*  November 14, 2006 - Volume 20 - Issue 17 - Contributor Index : AIDS

Population-based surveillance for cryptococcosis in an antiretroviral-naive South African province with a high HIV ... for the Gauteng Cryptococcal Surveillance Initiative Group Less ...
journals.lww.com/aidsonline/pages/contributorindex.aspx?filter=C&year=2006&issue=11140

*  DPH: Foodborne Pathogens Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet)

FoodNet is an active laboratory andpopulation-based surveillance system to monitor the incidence of foodbornediseases and to ... Foodborne Pathogens Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet) Abstract: The Foodborne Diseases ActiveSurveillance Network (FoodNet ... FoodNet is an active laboratory and population-based surveillance system to monitor the incidence of foodborne diseases and to ... Population survey - conducted to more precisely estimate the burden of acute diarrheal illness and to describe the frequency. ...
ct.gov/dph/cwp/view.asp?a=3136&q=388294&dphNav_GID=1601&dphPNavCtr=|

*  Preventing Pneumococcal Disease Among Infants and Young Children

Geocoding and linking data from population-based surveillance and the US census to evaluate the impact of median household ... Invasive pneumococcal disease in Dallas County, Texas: results from population-based surveillance in 1995. Clin Infect Dis 1998 ... cases/100,000 population among children aged 6--11 months to 56 cases/100,000 population for children aged 36--47 months, which ... Division of Epidemiology and Surveillance. National Immunization Program in collaboration with the Advisory Committee on ...
https://cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/rr4909a1.htm

*  Human Plague -- United States, 1993-1994

... surveillance of rodent populations; and use of insecticides, and occasionally rodenticides, to control populations of fleas and ... Surveillance for plague in rodent and rodent-consuming carnivore populations during the 1990s indicates that plague has spread ... Animal surveillance was initiated in the Dallas metropolitan area to monitor plague in local rodent and carnivore populations ... Control measures should be undertaken when surveillance indicates epizootic activity among rodent populations. ...
https://cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/00026077.htm

*  A TIME'S MEMORY: Highly pathogenic #avian #influenza #H5N8, #Germany [thirty-one #poultry and #wildbirds #outbreaks] (#OIE, Feb...

Removed from the susceptible population through death, destruction and/or slaughter. ***Not calculated because of missing ... EPIDEMICS SURVEILLANCE ASEAN (21) * epidemics surveillance hk (83) * EPIDEMICS SURVEILLANCE NEWSWIRES (4) ...
https://hygimia69.blogspot.com/2017/02/highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza-h5n8_20.html

Proportional reporting ratio: The proportional reporting ratio (PRR) is a statistic that is used to summarize the extent to which a particular adverse event is reported for individuals taking a specific drug, compared to the frequency at which the same adverse event is reported for patients taking some other drug (or who are taking any drug in a specified class of drugs). The PRR will typically be calculated using a surveillance database in which reports of adverse events from a variety of drugs are recorded.U.S.-Mexico Border Infectious Disease Surveillance Project: The U.S.Postmarketing surveillance: Postmarketing surveillance (PMS) (also post market surveillance) is the practice of monitoring the safety of a pharmaceutical drug or medical device after it has been released on the market and is an important part of the science of pharmacovigilance. Since drugs are approved on the basis of clinical trials, which involve relatively small numbers of people who have been selected for this purpose - meaning that they normally do not have other medical conditions which may exist in the general population - postmarketing surveillance can further refine, or confirm or deny, the safety of a drug after it is used in the general population by large numbers of people who have a wide variety of medical conditions.National Outbreak Reporting System: ==The National Outbreak Reporting System (NORS)==Notifiable disease: A notifiable disease is any disease that is required by law to be reported to government authorities. The collation of information allows the authorities to monitor the disease, and provides early warning of possible outbreaks.

(1/10096) Epidemiological field studies of animal populations.

Numerous survey designs have been developed for epidemiological field studies of human populations, most of which are also applicable to field studies of animal poulations. Each design has its own advantages and disadvantages. The final design selected for a particular study depends upon such factors as the overall purpose of the study, the geographic dimensions of the study area, the diseases incidence or prevalence and species to be studied as well as the planned use for the data. Population dynamics including the distribution and density of the species to be studied are factors that should also be considered in the initial design of a study. A surveillance system, using mailed questionnaire data and a subsequent survey using direct interviews of validate the data in a statewide study of swine birth defects are used to illustrate some of the techniques that can be applied to domestic animal populations in a fairly large geographic area. The type of data collected, its use and its limitations are also considered.  (+info)

(2/10096) Constitutional, biochemical and lifestyle correlates of fibrinogen and factor VII activity in Polish urban and rural populations.

BACKGROUND: Fibrinogen and factor VII activity are known to be related to atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease, but population differences in clotting factors and modifiable characteristics that influence their levels have not been widely explored. METHODS: This paper examines correlates of plasma fibrinogen concentration and factor VII activity in 2443 men and women aged 35-64 in random samples selected from the residents in two districts in urban Warsaw (618 men and 651 women) and from rural Tarnobrzeg Province (556 men and 618 women) screened in 1987-1988, and assesses which characteristics might explain urban-rural differences. Fibrinogen and factor VII activity were determined using coagulation methods. RESULTS: Fibrinogen was 12.9 mg/dl higher in men and 14.1 mg/dl higher in women in Tarnobrzeg compared to Warsaw. Factor VII activity was higher in Warsaw (9.2% in men and 15.3% in women). After adjustment for selected characteristics, fibrinogen was higher in smokers compared to non-smokers by 28 mg/dl in men and 22 mg/dl in women. In women, a 15 mg/dl increase in HDL-cholesterol was associated with a 10 mg/dl decrease in fibrinogen (P < 0.01). After adjustment for other variables, a higher factor VII activity in Warsaw remained significant (a difference of 9.4% in men and 14.8% in women). Lower fibrinogen in Warsaw remained significant only in women (15.4 mg/dl difference). CONCLUSIONS: The study confirmed that sex, age, BMI, smoking and blood lipids are related to clotting factors. However, with the exception of gender differences and smoking, associations between clotting factors and other variables were small and of questionable practical importance.  (+info)

(3/10096) Socioeconomic inequalities and disability pension in middle-aged men.

BACKGROUND: The issue of inequalities in health has generated much discussion and socioeconomic status is considered an important variable in studies of health. It is frequently used in epidemiological studies, either as a possible risk factor or a confounder and the aim of this study was to analyse the relation between socioeconomic status and risk of disability pension. METHODS: Five complete birth year cohorts of middle-aged male residents in Malmo were invited to a health survey and 5782 with complete data constituted the cohort in this prospective study. Each subject was followed for approximately 11 years and nationwide Swedish data registers were used for surveillance. RESULTS: Among the 715 men (12%), granted disability pension during follow-up, three groups were distinguished. The cumulative incidence of disability pension among blue collar workers was 17% and among lower and higher level white collar workers, 11% and 6% respectively. With simultaneous adjustment for biological risk factors and job conditions, the relative risk for being granted a disability pension (using higher level white collar workers as reference) was 2.5 among blue collar workers and 1.6 among lower level white collar workers. CONCLUSIONS: Socioeconomic status, as defined by occupation, is a risk factor for being granted disability pension even after adjusting for work conditions and other risk factors for disease.  (+info)

(4/10096) A method for calculating age-weighted death proportions for comparison purposes.

OBJECTIVE: To introduce a method for calculating age-weighted death proportions (wDP) for comparison purposes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A methodological study using secondary data from the municipality of Sao Paulo, Brazil (1980-1994) was carried out. First, deaths are weighted in terms of years of potential life lost before the age of 100 years. Then, in order to eliminate distortion of comparisons among proportions of years of potential life lost before the age of 100 years (pYPLL-100), the denominator is set to that of a standard age distribution of deaths for all causes. Conventional death proportions (DP), pYPLL-100, and wDP were calculated. RESULTS: Populations in which deaths from a particular cause occur at older ages exhibit lower wDP than those in which deaths occur at younger ages. The sum of all cause-specific wDP equals one only when the test population has exactly the same age distribution of deaths for all causes as that of the standard population. CONCLUSION: Age-weighted death proportions improve the information given by conventional DP, and are strongly recommended for comparison purposes.  (+info)

(5/10096) Role of schools in the transmission of measles in rural Senegal: implications for measles control in developing countries.

Patterns of measles transmission at school and at home were studied in 1995 in a rural area of Senegal with a high level of vaccination coverage. Among 209 case children with a median age of 8 years, there were no deaths, although the case fatality ratio has previously been 6-7% in this area. Forty percent of the case children had been vaccinated against measles; the proportion of vaccinated children was higher among secondary cases (47%) than among index cases (33%) (prevalence ratio = 1.36, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.04-1.76). Vaccinated index cases may have been less infectious than unvaccinated index cases, since they produced fewer clinical cases among exposed children (relative risk = 0.55, 95% CI 0.29-1.04). The secondary attack rate was lower in the schools than in the homes (relative risk = 0.31, 95% CI 0.20-0.49). The school outbreaks were protracted, with 4-5 generations of cases being seen in the two larger schools. Vaccine efficacy was found to be 57% (95% CI -23 to 85) in the schools and 74% (95% CI 62-82) in the residential compounds. Measles infection resulted in a mean of 3.8 days of absenteeism per case, though this did not appear to have an impact on the children's grades. Among the index cases, 56% of children were probably infected by neighbors in the community, and 7% were probably infected at health centers, 13% outside the community, and 24% in one of the three schools which had outbreaks during the epidemic. However, most of the school-related cases occurred at the beginning and therefore contributed to the general propagation of the epidemic. To prevent school outbreaks, it may be necessary to require vaccination prior to school entry and to revaccinate children in individual schools upon detection of cases of measles. Multidose measles vaccination schedules will be necessary to control measles in developing countries.  (+info)

(6/10096) Reliability of information on physical activity and other chronic disease risk factors among US women aged 40 years or older.

Data on chronic disease risk behaviors and related variables, including barriers to and attitudes toward physical activity, are lacking for women of some racial/ethnic groups. A test-retest study was conducted from July 1996 through June 1997 among US women (n = 199) aged 40 years or more who were white, black, American Indian/Alaska Native, or Hispanic. The sample was selected and interviews were conducted using a modified version of the methods of the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. For behavioral risk factors such as physical inactivity, smoking, and low fruit and vegetable consumption, group prevalences were generally similar between interviews 1 and 2. However, kappa values for selected physical activity variables ranged from 0.26 to 0.51 and tended to be lower for black women. Discordance was low for variables on cigarette smoking and exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (kappa = 0.64-0.92). Discordance was high (kappa = 0.33) for low consumption of fruits and vegetables. Additional variables for barriers to and access to exercise ranged widely across racial/ethnic groups and in terms of measures of agreement. These methods illustrate an efficient way to sample and assess the reliability of data collected from women of racial/ethnic minority groups.  (+info)

(7/10096) Capture-recapture models including covariate effects.

Capture-recapture methods are used to estimate the incidence of a disease, using a multiple-source registry. Usually, log-linear methods are used to estimate population size, assuming that not all sources of notification are dependent. Where there are categorical covariates, a stratified analysis can be performed. The multinomial logit model has occasionally been used. In this paper, the authors compare log-linear and logit models with and without covariates, and use simulated data to compare estimates from different models. The crude estimate of population size is biased when the sources are not independent. Analyses adjusting for covariates produce less biased estimates. In the absence of covariates, or where all covariates are categorical, the log-linear model and the logit model are equivalent. The log-linear model cannot include continuous variables. To minimize potential bias in estimating incidence, covariates should be included in the design and analysis of multiple-source disease registries.  (+info)

(8/10096) Cancer risk in close relatives of women with early-onset breast cancer--a population-based incidence study.

Inherited susceptibility to breast cancer is associated with an early onset and bilateral disease. The extent of familial risks has not, however, been fully assessed in population-based incidence studies. The purpose of the study was to quantify the risks for cancers of the breast, ovary and other sites of close relatives of women in whom breast cancer was diagnosed at an early age. Records collected between 1943 and 1990 at the Danish Cancer Registry were searched, and 2860 women were found in whom breast cancer was diagnosed before age 40. Population registers and parish records were used to identify 14 973 parents, siblings and offspring of these women. Cancer occurrence through to 31 December 1993 was determined within the Cancer Registry's files and compared with national incidence rates. Women with early-onset breast cancer were at a nearly fourfold increased risk of developing a new cancer later in life (268 observed vs. 68.9 expected). The excess risk was most evident for second cancer of the breast (181 vs. 24.5) and for ovarian cancer (20 vs. 3.3). For mothers and sisters, risks for cancers of the breast and ovary were significantly increased by two- to threefold. Bilateral breast cancer and breast-ovarian cancer were very strong predictors of familial risks, with one in four female relatives predicted to develop breast and/or ovarian cancer by age 75. Mothers had a slightly increased risk of colon cancer, but not endometrial cancer. The risk for breast cancer was also increased among fathers (standardized incidence ratio 2.5; 95% CI 0.5-7.4) and especially brothers (29; 7.7-74), although based on small numbers. The risk for prostatic cancer was unremarkable. In this large population-based survey, the first-degree relatives of women who developed breast cancer before age 40 were prone to ovarian cancer as well as male and female breast cancer, but not other tumours that may share susceptibility genes with breast cancer.  (+info)



post-marketing su


  • This study is a post-marketing surveillance in Japan, and it is a local prospective, company sponsored and observational study of patient who have been treated by Adalat CR for hypertension with diabetes and/or chronic kidney disease. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Safety monitoring: recording of adverse events using diary cards and recording of serious adverse events using the latest version of Korea's Post-Marketing Surveillance Serious Adverse Event Reporting Form. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Prior to enrollment of the subject into the post-marketing surveillance, the subject's parents/legally acceptable representatives will be requested to provide information regarding the enrollment of their child in a same/similar study previously. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • At the time of post-marketing surveillance (PMS) entry, the contraindications and precautions of use indicated in the local Prescribing Information should be checked and the subject must not be included in the PMS if there is any contraindication. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Participants were treated by general practitioners in clinical practice as part of the post-marketing surveillance study. (clinicaltrials.gov)

system


  • As part of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System (NNDSS) ( 1 ), viral hepatitis case-reports are received electronically from U.S. state and territorial health departments via CDC's National Electronic Telecommunications System for Surveillance (NETSS), a computerized public health surveillance system that provides CDC with data on a weekly basis. (cdc.gov)
  • This report summarizes listeriosis outbreaks reported to the Foodborne Disease Outbreak Surveillance System of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention during 1998-2008. (cdc.gov)

basis


  • The sentinel general practice network should remain the basis of influenza surveillance, as it integrates epidemiological and virological information and was able to maintain stability and continuity under pandemic pressure. (biomedcentral.com)

study


  • The target population of this study is patient who have been administered with Adalat CR for hypertension with diabetes and/or chronic kidney disease. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The study period includes the advent of PulseNet (a national molecular subtyping network for outbreak detection) in 1998 and the Listeria Initiative (enhanced surveillance for outbreak investigation) in 2004. (cdc.gov)