Population Growth: Increase, over a specific period of time, in the number of individuals living in a country or region.Population Dynamics: The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.Population Density: Number of individuals in a population relative to space.Population Control: Includes mechanisms or programs which control the numbers of individuals in a population of humans or animals.Urbanization: The process whereby a society changes from a rural to an urban way of life. It refers also to the gradual increase in the proportion of people living in urban areas.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Conservation of Natural Resources: The protection, preservation, restoration, and rational use of all resources in the total environment.Reproduction: The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)Ecology: The branch of science concerned with the interrelationship of organisms and their ENVIRONMENT, especially as manifested by natural cycles and rhythms, community development and structure, interactions between different kinds of organisms, geographic distributions, and population alterations. (Webster's, 3d ed)Demography: Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.Environment: The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.Esocidae: A family of freshwater fish of the order ESOCIFORMES, comprising the pikes, inhabiting the waters of the Northern Hemisphere. There is one genus, Esox, with five species: northern pike, grass pickerel, chain pickerel, muskellunge, and Amur pike.Life Cycle Stages: The continuous sequence of changes undergone by living organisms during the post-embryonic developmental process, such as metamorphosis in insects and amphibians. This includes the developmental stages of apicomplexans such as the malarial parasite, PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM.Introduced Species: Non-native organisms brought into a region, habitat, or ECOSYSTEM by human activity.Organization and Administration: The planning and managing of programs, services, and resources.Climate Change: Any significant change in measures of climate (such as temperature, precipitation, or wind) lasting for an extended period (decades or longer). It may result from natural factors such as changes in the sun's intensity, natural processes within the climate system such as changes in ocean circulation, or human activities.Animal Nutrition Sciences: The study of NUTRITION PROCESSES, as well as the components of food, their actions, interaction, and balance in relation to health and disease in animals.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Fertility: The capacity to conceive or to induce conception. It may refer to either the male or female.Population: The total number of individuals inhabiting a particular region or area.Food Chain: The sequence of transfers of matter and energy from organism to organism in the form of FOOD. Food chains intertwine locally into a food web because most organisms consume more than one type of animal or plant. PLANTS, which convert SOLAR ENERGY to food by PHOTOSYNTHESIS, are the primary food source. In a predator chain, a plant-eating animal is eaten by a larger animal. In a parasite chain, a smaller organism consumes part of a larger host and may itself be parasitized by smaller organisms. In a saprophytic chain, microorganisms live on dead organic matter.Mechanics: The branch of physics which deals with the motions of material bodies, including kinematics, dynamics, and statics. When the laws of mechanics are applied to living structures, as to the locomotor system, it is referred to as BIOMECHANICAL PHENOMENA. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Primula: A plant genus of the family PRIMULACEAE. It can cause CONTACT DERMATITIS. SAPONINS have been identified in the root.Genetics, Population: The discipline studying genetic composition of populations and effects of factors such as GENETIC SELECTION, population size, MUTATION, migration, and GENETIC DRIFT on the frequencies of various GENOTYPES and PHENOTYPES using a variety of GENETIC TECHNIQUES.Human Activities: Activities performed by humans.Climate: The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Daphnia: A diverse genus of minute freshwater CRUSTACEA, of the suborder CLADOCERA. They are a major food source for both young and adult freshwater fish.Estuaries: A partially enclosed body of water, and its surrounding coastal habitats, where saltwater from the ocean mixes with fresh water from rivers or streams. The resulting mixture of seawater and fresh water is called brackish water and its salinity can range from 0.5 to 35 ppt. (accessed http://oceanservice.noaa.gov/education/kits/estuaries/estuaries01_whatis.html)Economic Development: Mobilization of human, financial, capital, physical and or natural resources to generate goods and services.Models, Statistical: Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.Birth Rate: The number of births in a given population per year or other unit of time.Geography: The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Birds: Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.United Nations: An international organization whose members include most of the sovereign nations of the world with headquarters in New York City. The primary objectives of the organization are to maintain peace and security and to achieve international cooperation in solving international economic, social, cultural, or humanitarian problems.Family Planning Services: Health care programs or services designed to assist individuals in the planning of family size. Various methods of CONTRACEPTION can be used to control the number and timing of childbirths.History, Ancient: The period of history before 500 of the common era.Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Stramenopiles: A common name (but used formally) for a group of organisms that are mostly kinds of algae including BACILLARIOPHYTA; OOMYCETES; PHAEOPHYCEAE; and CHRYSOPHYCEAE. They all contain CHLOROPLASTS that are thought to have been derived from the endosymbiosis of ancient RED ALGAE.Agriculture: The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.Predatory Behavior: Instinctual behavior pattern in which food is obtained by killing and consuming other species.Canidae: A family of terrestrial carnivores with long snouts and non-retractable claws. Members include COYOTES; DOGS; FOXES; JACKALS; RACCOON DOGS; and WOLVES.Forecasting: The prediction or projection of the nature of future problems or existing conditions based upon the extrapolation or interpretation of existing scientific data or by the application of scientific methodology.Animal Distribution: A process by which animals in various forms and stages of development are physically distributed through time and space.Herbivory: The act of feeding on plants by animals.Radiometric Dating: Techniques used to determine the age of materials, based on the content and half-lives of the RADIOACTIVE ISOTOPES they contain.Genetic Fitness: The capability of an organism to survive and reproduce. The phenotypic expression of the genotype in a particular environment determines how genetically fit an organism will be.Stochastic Processes: Processes that incorporate some element of randomness, used particularly to refer to a time series of random variables.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Wolves: Any of several large carnivorous mammals of the family CANIDAE that usually hunt in packs.Cladocera: A suborder of CRUSTACEA, order Diplostraca, comprising the water fleas. They are benthic filter feeders that consume PHYTOPLANKTON. The body is laterally compressed and enclosed in a bivalved carapace, from which the head extends.Selection, Genetic: Differential and non-random reproduction of different genotypes, operating to alter the gene frequencies within a population.Strigiformes: An order of BIRDS with the common name owls characterized by strongly hooked beaks, sharp talons, large heads, forward facing eyes, and facial disks. While considered nocturnal RAPTORS, some owls do hunt by day.Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Food Supply: The production and movement of food items from point of origin to use or consumption.Aphids: A family (Aphididae) of small insects, in the suborder Sternorrhyncha, that suck the juices of plants. Important genera include Schizaphis and Myzus. The latter is known to carry more than 100 virus diseases between plants.Platyhelminths: A phylum of acoelomate, bilaterally symmetrical flatworms, without a definite anus. It includes three classes: Cestoda, Turbellaria, and Trematoda.Fisheries: Places for cultivation and harvesting of fish, particularly in sea waters. (from McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)East Timor: A country in Southeastern Asia, northwest of Australia in the Lesser Sunda Islands at the eastern end of the Indonesian archipelago. It includes the eastern half of the island of Timor, the Oecussi (Ambeno) region on the northwest portion of the island of Timor, and the islands of Pulau Atauro and Pulau Jaco. On May 20, 2002, East Timor was internationally recognized as an independent state. This followed its declared independence from Portugal on November 20, 1975 and a period of armed conflict with Indonesia.WyomingPasseriformes: A widely distributed order of perching BIRDS, including more than half of all bird species.Atlantic OceanArchaeology: The scientific study of past societies through artifacts, fossils, etc.Cities: A large or important municipality of a country, usually a major metropolitan center.Body Size: The physical measurements of a body.Sea Lions: A group comprised of several species of aquatic carnivores in different genera, in the family Otariidae. In comparison to FUR SEALS, they have shorter, less dense hair.Toxicology: The science concerned with the detection, chemical composition, and biological action of toxic substances or poisons and the treatment and prevention of toxic manifestations.Hemiptera: A large order of insects characterized by having the mouth parts adapted to piercing or sucking. It is comprised of four suborders: HETEROPTERA, Auchenorrhyncha, Sternorrhyncha, and Coleorrhyncha.Economics: The science of utilization, distribution, and consumption of services and materials.Arvicolinae: A subfamily of MURIDAE found nearly world-wide and consisting of about 20 genera. Voles, lemmings, and muskrats are members.Trees: Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.Sex Ratio: The number of males per 100 females.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Africa, Eastern: The geographical area of Africa comprising BURUNDI; DJIBOUTI; ETHIOPIA; KENYA; RWANDA; SOMALIA; SUDAN; TANZANIA; and UGANDA.Health Manpower: The availability of HEALTH PERSONNEL. It includes the demand and recruitment of both professional and allied health personnel, their present and future supply and distribution, and their assignment and utilization.Genetic Drift: The fluctuation of the ALLELE FREQUENCY from one generation to the next.Endangered Species: An animal or plant species in danger of extinction. Causes can include human activity, changing climate, or change in predator/prey ratios.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)DNA, Mitochondrial: Double-stranded DNA of MITOCHONDRIA. In eukaryotes, the mitochondrial GENOME is circular and codes for ribosomal RNAs, transfer RNAs, and about 10 proteins.Butterflies: Slender-bodies diurnal insects having large, broad wings often strikingly colored and patterned.Weather: The state of the ATMOSPHERE over minutes to months.Far East: A geographic area of east and southeast Asia encompassing CHINA; HONG KONG; JAPAN; KOREA; MACAO; MONGOLIA; and TAIWAN.Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Beetles: INSECTS of the order Coleoptera, containing over 350,000 species in 150 families. They possess hard bodies and their mouthparts are adapted for chewing.Animal Migration: Periodic movements of animals in response to seasonal changes or reproductive instinct. Hormonal changes are the trigger in at least some animals. Most migrations are made for reasons of climatic change, feeding, or breeding.Extinction, Biological: The ceasing of existence of a species or taxonomic groups of organisms.Rain: Water particles that fall from the ATMOSPHERE.Deer: The family Cervidae of 17 genera and 45 species occurring nearly throughout North America, South America, and Eurasia, on most associated continental islands, and in northern Africa. Wild populations of deer have been established through introduction by people in Cuba, New Guinea, Australia, New Zealand, and other places where the family does not naturally occur. They are slim, long-legged and best characterized by the presence of antlers. Their habitat is forests, swamps, brush country, deserts, and arctic tundra. They are usually good swimmers; some migrate seasonally. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1362)

*  https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/releases/316250.php

It's been used to study automobile cruise control systems and population growth of certain animal species, and now researchers ... It's been used to study automobile cruise control systems and population growth of certain animal species, and now researchers ...
https://medicalnewstoday.com/releases/316250.php

*  Backtalk - Mother Jones

... to distribute free Endangered Species Condoms to highlight the connection between unsustainable human population growth and the ... Growth is the creed underlying all our environmental and social problems, and by its very nature, growth tends to wipe out the ... Like economist Kenneth Boulding once said, no one believes that growth can go on forever but a madman or an economist.. ANTHONY ... Kudos to MJ for taking on the sacred cows of overpopulation ('The Last Taboo') and economic growth ('Nothing Grows Forever'), ...
motherjones.com/mag/2010/07/backtalk/

*  Press Releases | Negative Population Growth

Negative Population Growth. Negative Population Growth, Inc. (NPG) is a national nonprofit membership organization with over ... population growth.[…]. Continue Reading → NPG Forum Paper Links Population Growth to Worsening U.S. Groundwater Scarcity. * by ... Today's news is full of stories directly related to the causes and effects of population growth.. NPG consistently stays up-to- ... Don Mann, President of Negative Population Growth, warns that illegal immigration to the U.S., after a lull in the recession of ...
npg.org/library/press-releases

*  Addressing Population Growth in India | Asia Society

Addressing Population Growth in India. Video Excerpt: Kanchan Chandra and Mira Kamdar respond to a question regarding ... population growth and public health services, during a discussion about the new Indian government. (2 min., 42 sec.) ...
asiasociety.org/video/addressing-population-growth-india?page=123

*  Human Population: Growth, Demography and Carrying Capacity - ppt download

Human Population Growth Historically Early Hunter Gatherers Nomadic, With a Strong Sense of the Earth Practiced Intentional ... Population Pyramids on the Web High Growth: Afghanistan Moderate Growth: Mexico Zero Growth: U.S. Negative Growth: Italy ... Population Pyramids on the Web High Growth: Afghanistan Moderate Growth: Mexico Zero Growth: U.S. Negative Growth: Austria or ... Population Pyramids on the Web High Growth: Afghanistan Moderate Growth: Mexico Zero Growth: U.S. Negative Growth: Austria or ...
slideplayer.com/slide/2573427/

*  Population Growth and Forest Sustainability in Africa

Hence, population growth channels are a driving force by which forest-area and agricultural-land are depleted and expanded ... Using three instruments of forest exploitation, the study shows how rural, agricultural and national population growths affect ... that instruments of forest exploitation do not explain changes in forest-area and agricultural-land beyond population growth ... existing literature by providing empirical justification to hypothetical initiatives on the impact of population growth on ...
https://ideas.repec.org/p/agd/wpaper/11-017.html

*  Population growth (annual %) - Country Comparison

Annual population growth rate for year t is the exponential rate of growth of midyear population from year t-1 to t, expressed ... Population is based on the de facto definition of population, which counts all residents regardless of legal status or ... who are generally considered part of the population of the country of origin. More info » ...
indexmundi.com/facts/indicators/SP.POP.GROW/compare

*  Population growth, factor accumulation, and productivity

Nearly all of the weak correlation between the growth of output per person and population growth is the result of shifts in ... between the growth of years of schooling per worker and the population growth rate. Enrollment rates are even worse as a crude ... There is no correlation between the growth of capital per worker and population growth. The common practice of using investment ... between measures of total factory productivity growth and population growth. ...
https://ideas.repec.org/p/wbk/wbrwps/1567.html

*  Cash Benefits for Couples to Bring Down Birth Rates

In an attempt to reduce the rising population growth rate in the country, the Indian government has launched a pilot program ... In an attempt to reduce the rising population growth rate in the country, the Indian government has launched a pilot program ... India continues to boast of one of the fastest population growth rate even as a number of education programs have been launched ... Pregnancy is an experience of growth, change, enrichment and challenge. During the 40 weeks of pregnancy, the expectant mother ...
medindia.net/news/Cash-Benefits-for-Couples-to-Bring-Down-Birth-Rates-73025-1.htm

*  Population growth | VOX, CEPR's Policy Portal

... policies that reduce population growth can have a direct positive effect on income per capita as well as lowering growth of ... and this pattern of sequential city growth is more pronounced in periods of rapid growth in urban population. ... Investment and growth in advanced economies: Selected takeaways from the ECB's Sintra Forum. ... This column argues that population policies may not be subject to this trade-off. In particular, ...
voxeu.org/taxonomy/term/2418

*  Human Population Growth causes: Drastical climatic changes over the whole world through Greenhouse effect [Unknown 0.0]

Human Population Growth causes: Drastical climatic changes over the whole world through Greenhouse effect . Start the Slideshow ... Human Population Growth leads to: Widening gap between the haves and the have-nots. 37. Monitor the mighty Mountains. ... Human Population Growth causes: Melting of the Ice Caps and thus Rising of Sealevels. 38. Please comply with Endangered Species ... Human Population Growth leads to: Malnutrition, hunger and starvation in Third World countries. 45. The Secret of Life. ...
wisart.net/Presentation-Settings.aspx?slogan=Human Population Growth causes: Drastical climatic changes over the whole world through Greenhouse effect&language=EN

*  Swan rejects freeze on population growth | afr.com

Federal Treasurer Wayne Swan has rejected calls for a national population council to help state and federal governments plan ... Mr Swan said population growth, including from overseas migration, would help face the budgetary challenges of an ageing ... or a population council.. Ms Bligh also rejected a population cap, saying it was not practical given Queensland gained 2200 ... has rejected calls for a national population council to help -governments plan for growth, -saying Treasury's intergenerational ...
afr.com/news/politics/swan-rejects-freeze-on-population-growth-20100330-ivs2a

*  'Cairo-Plus-Five' Review Is Finding Political Will Strong--But Funds Lacking | Guttmacher...

... that economic development and stabilization of population growth rates are inextricably tied, and that neither is possible ... At the United Nations (UN)-sponsored International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) in Cairo, they agreed to a ... that economic development and stabilization of population growth rates are inextricably tied, and that neither is possible ... The United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) initiated the "Cairo-Plus-Five" review process last year, with a series of ...
https://guttmacher.org/gpr/1999/08/cairo-plus-five-review-finding-political-will-strong-funds-lacking

*  East Asia and Pacific Compared by People | Population growth rate: NationMaster.com

Interesting observations about People , Population growth rate. *Zimbabwe ranked first for population growth rate amongst ... South Sudan ranked third for population growth rate globally in 2013.. *East Timor ranked first for population growth rate ... Cyprus ranked first for population growth rate amongst Europe in 2013.. *Israel ranked first for population growth rate amongst ... "Countries Compared by People > Population growth rate. International Statistics at NationMaster.com", CIA World Factbooks 18 ...
nationmaster.com/country-info/group-stats/East-Asia-and-Pacific/People/Population-growth-rate

*  Population Ecology

b) Population growth models and life histories. Tradeoffs K-selected populations (equilibrium populations ... The actual growth rate of a population at any population size is expressed as ________________ Give examples where the ... Exponential growth model. Malthus. The maximum population growth rate is called _____________________________ and symbolized as ... a) The logistic growth equation: _____________________________________________________. Logistic population growth (examples ...
home.earthlink.net/~dayvdanls/population_ecology.htm

*  United States Population Growth | Visual.ly

The infographic animation displays the growth over time from the first census in 1790 through 2013, showing territories (with ... United States Population Growth. shared by jonathanorjack on Sep 06, 2013 in History ... The cartwheeling star approximates the center of population while the brackets note the only three states to ever be the most ... Without flashing full numbers, the size of the abbreviation is proportionate to the state population and the lighter the color ...
https://visual.ly/community/videographic/history/united-states-population-growth

*  Somewhat Beyond Zero Population Growth | MetaFilter

Somewhat Beyond Zero Population Growth. December 23, 2011 5:39 AM Subscribe. The New York Times brings us the top 100 massacres ... Genghis Kahn=11% of the world's population killed? Presuming that most of the culled population would be males of reproductive ... It would be cool to see a graphic that was adjusted for population inflation.. posted by swift at 6:38 AM on December 23, 2011 ... Seems like a single army would have a tough time even contacting 11% of the world's population, let alone killing them all.. ...
metafilter.com/110892/Somewhat-Beyond-Zero-Population-Growth

*  Human Population Growth causes: Melting of the Ice Caps and thus Rising of Sealevels [Unknown 0.0]

Human Population Growth causes: Melting of the Ice Caps and thus Rising of Sealevels . Start the Slideshow to view these ... Human Population Growth leads to: Widening gap between the haves and the have-nots. 86. It's the End of the World as we know it ... Human Population Growth causes: Melting of the Ice Caps and thus Rising of Sealevels. 17. Please prevent that e-waste poisons ... Human Population Growth causes: Fuel resource depletion or burn up of rare firewood. 24. Teach Africa how to use condoms ...
wisart.net/Presentation-Settings.aspx?slogan=Human Population Growth causes: Melting of the Ice Caps and thus Rising of Sealevels&language=EN

*  Plant Life: Human Population Growth

world and urban population growth. Plants, Agriculture, and Human Population. Starting about eleven thousand years ago (five ... Human Population Growth. Since the Industrial Revolution of the nineteenth century, human populations have experienced a period ... By 2002, the world population was well on its way to 7 billion, with an annual growth rate of nearly 100 million.. ... The initial population growth was slow, largely because of the way humans lived-by hunting. Such a mobile lifestyle limited the ...
lifeofplant.blogspot.co.id/2011/03/human-population-growth.html

*  Integration (population growth)

... where P is the population size and t is the time in days ... The rate of growth dP/dt of a population of bacteria is ... integration population growth. , what is intregration population. , population growth integral. , population growth and ... Integration (population growth) The rate of growth dP/dt of a population of bacteria is proportional to the square root of t, ... Population growth with non-constant growth factor. Posted in the Differential Equations Forum ...
mathhelpforum.com/calculus/67693-integration-population-growth.html

*  Mali - Urban population growth

... Urban population growth (annual %). The value for Urban population growth (annual %) in Mali ... Definition: Urban population refers to people living in urban areas as defined by national statistical offices. It is ... calculated using World Bank population estimates and urban ratios from the United Nations World Urbanization Prospects. ...
indexmundi.com/facts/mali/urban-population-growth

*  Population growth (annual %) | Data

Population growth (annual %) from The World Bank: Data ... Population growth (annual %). Derived from total population. ... Population source: ( 1 ) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, ( 2 ) United Nations Statistical ... Total Population for Age 65 and above (only 2005 and 2010) (in number of people). ... Population and Vital Statistics Report ( various years ), ( 3 ) Census reports and other statistical ...
https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.POP.GROW?order=wbapi_data_value_2009 wbapi_data_value wbapi_data_value-first&sort=asc&display=default

*  Gallery: Largest population growth by municipality

... Handout photo, Ontario Tourism. 06.15.2010. ... Toronto, Ontario - The municipality of Milton registered a growth rate of 56.5 per cent between 2006 and 2011. The population ... The Chestermere municipality logged a 49.4 per cent population increase in 2011 census when the population there went from ... Okotoks, Alberta - Okotoks registered a 42.9 per cent population increase when its population grew from 17,150 in 2006 to ...
montrealgazette.com/technology/Gallery Largest population growth municipality/6119921/story.html

*  Swedish population growth slows - The Local

The Swedish population continued to grow in 2010, but at a slower pace than 2009, according to according to new preliminary ... The Swedish population continued to grow in 2010, but at a slower pace than 2009, according to according to new preliminary ... "The high population increase is because of the continued high number of births and because immigration, despite a decrease, is ... The Swedish population will amount to 9,417,000 at the turn of 2011, an increase of 76,000 inhabitants, down from 2009's ...
https://thelocal.se/20101220/30962

*  Star Trek (2009) / Headscratchers - TV Tropes

... have little to no population growth (not including immigration), and some even have population decline. It's entirely possible ... A) Population reduction. On the reasonable assumption that most of the population lived on Vulcan, the species has been reduced ... since the populations take longer to replenish themselves). The remaining population is fragmented in colonies: less at risk ... Also, um, how many do you think is reasonable? The average Earth colony in TOS seems to have a population of a few dozen. Have ...
tvtropes.org/pmwiki/pmwiki.php/Headscratchers/StarTrek2009

Food Race: American environmental author Daniel Quinn coined the term Food Race (by analogy to the Cold War's "nuclear arms race") to describe an understanding of the current overpopulation emergency as a perpetually escalating crisis between growing human population and growing food production, fueled by the latter. Quinn argues that as the worldwide human population increases, the typical international response is to more intensely produce and distribute food to feed these greater numbers of people.Matrix population models: Population models are used in population ecology to model the dynamics of wildlife or human populations. Matrix population models are a specific type of population model that uses matrix algebra.Threshold host density: Threshold host density (NT), in the context of wildlife disease ecology, refers to the concentration of a population of a particular organism as it relates to disease. Specifically, the threshold host density (NT) of a species refers to the minimum concentration of individuals necessary to sustain a given disease within a population.Social determinants of obesity: While genetic influences are important to understanding obesity, they cannot explain the current dramatic increase seen within specific countries or globally. It is accepted that calorie consumption in excess of calorie expenditure leads to obesity, however what has caused shifts in these two factors on a global scale is much debated.EcosystemMeramec Conservation AreaReproductive toxicity: Reproductive toxicity is a hazard associated with some chemical substances, that they will interfere in some way with normal reproduction; such substances are called reprotoxic. It includes adverse effects on sexual function and fertility in adult males and females, as well as developmental toxicity in the offspring.Spatial ecology: Spatial ecology is a specialization in ecology and geography that is concerned with the identification of spatial patterns and their relationships to ecological phenomena. Ecological events can be explained through the detection of patterns at a given spatial scale: local, regional, or global.Evolution in Variable EnvironmentLucius Vitellius the ElderInfrastructure Lifecycle Management: Infrastructure Lifecycle Management (ILM) is a term coined by the real estate sector. It covers the management of all core processes around planning, construction, operation, maintenance and commercialization of buildings or property.Lists of invasive species: These are lists of invasive species by country or region. A species is regarded as invasive if it has been introduced by human action to a location, area, or region where it did not previously occur naturally (i.Climate change in the United Kingdom: Climate change in the United Kingdom has been a subject of protests and controversies, and various policies have been developed to mitigate its effects. It is estimated to demand at least 80-85% emission reductions in the EU during 2008-2050 with reductions as soon as technically possible.Michael Colgan (nutritionist)Matrix model: == Mathematics and physics ==Low Fertility Cohorts Study: The Low Fertility Cohorts Study, 1978: A Survey of White, Ever-Married Women Belonging to the 1901-1910 United States Birth Cohorts,Data Sharing For Demographic Research consists of personal interviews of white, ever-married women born between July 1, 1900, and June 30, 1910. In 1978, a national survey of 1,049 married women between the ages of 68 and 78 were interviewed between the months of March and July in order to investigate low fertility during the 1920s and 1930s and the women of childbearing age during those decades.Microbial food web: The microbial food web refers the combined trophic interactions among microbes in aquatic environments. These microbes include viruses, bacteria, algae, heterotrophic protists (such as ciliates and flagellates).Twist compression tester: The Twist Compression Tester ("TCT") is a hydraulically operated bench-top apparatus used to evaluate the level of friction and/or wear between two materials under lubricated or non-lubricated conditions.Primula rosea: Primula rosea, the Himalayan meadow primrose, is a flowering plant species in the genus Primula.Panmixia: Panmixia (or panmixis) means random mating.King C and Stanfield W.Appropriation (By Any Other Name): June 13, 2005Hadley Centre for Climate Prediction and Research: 140px|rightDaphnia lumholtzi: Daphnia lumholtzi is a small, invasive water flea that originates in the tropical and subtropical lakes of Africa, Asia, and Australia. As an invasive species, Daphnia lumholtzi disrupts aquatic habitats by spreading throughout the warmer waters of lakes and reservoirs.Rogerstown Estuary: Rogerstown Estuary (Irish: Inbhear Bhaile Roiséir) is an estuary in Ireland. It is situated just north of the Donabate-Portrane peninsula, and also south of Rush, on Ireland's east coast about north of Dublin.Hesquiaht First NationInverse probability weighting: Inverse probability weighting is a statistical technique for calculating statistics standardized to a population different from that in which the data was collected. Study designs with a disparate sampling population and population of target inference (target population) are common in application.Health geography: Health geography is the application of geographical information, perspectives, and methods to the study of health, disease, and health care.Bird trapping: Bird trapping techniques to capture wild birds include a wide range of techniques that have their origins in the hunting of birds for food. While hunting for food does not require birds to be caught alive, some trapping techniques capture birds without harming them and are of use in ornithology research.Universal Declaration on the Eradication of Hunger and Malnutrition: The Universal Declaration on the Eradication of Hunger and Malnutrition was adopted by governments attending the 1974 World Food Conference. In it, states recognised that it is the common purpose of all nations to eliminate hunger and malnutrition.Timeline of historic inventionsVon Neumann regular ring: In mathematics, a von Neumann regular ring is a ring R such that for every a in R there exists an x in R such that . To avoid the possible confusion with the regular rings and regular local rings of commutative algebra (which are unrelated notions), von Neumann regular rings are also called absolutely flat rings, because these rings are characterized by the fact that every left module is flat.Nannochloropsis: Nannochloropsis is a genus of alga comprising 6 known species. The genus in the current taxonomic classification was first termed by Hibberd (1981).Chilalo Agricultural Development Union: Chilalo Agricultural Development Union (CADU) is the first comprehensive package project established in Arsi Zone, Oromia Region, Ethiopia to modernize traditional subsistence agriculture. The major components of the package programmes include fertilizers, ameliorated seeds, farm credits, marketing facilities, better tools and implements, and improved storage facilities.Intraguild predation: Intraguild predation, or IGP, is the killing and eating of potential competitors. This interaction represents a combination of predation and competition, because both species rely on the same prey resources and also benefit from preying upon one another.CoproliteChemical defense: Chemical defense is the use of chemical compounds by plants and animals to deter herbivory and predation. Chemical defenses can also be used in competitive interactions to prevent overgrowth or maintain spatial dominance.RhodolithDoob decomposition theorem: In the theory of stochastic processes in discrete time, a part of the mathematical theory of probability, the Doob decomposition theorem gives a unique decomposition of every adapted and integrable stochastic process as the sum of a martingale and a predictable process (or "drift") starting at zero. The theorem was proved by and is named for Joseph L.Genetic variation: right|thumbCalifornia Wolf Center: California Wolf Center is a 501(c)3 nonprofit located 50 miles east of San Diego, near the town of Julian, California. It is a one-of-a-kind, conservation, education, and research center dedicated to wolf recovery in the wild.MoinaSelection (relational algebra): In relational algebra, a selection (sometimes called a restriction to avoid confusion with SQL's use of SELECT) is a unary operation written asDelay line memory: Delay line memory is a form of computer memory, now obsolete, that was used on some of the earliest digital computers. Like many modern forms of electronic computer memory, delay line memory was a refreshable memory, but as opposed to modern random-access memory, delay line memory was sequential-access.Food desert: A food desert is a geographic area where affordable and nutritious food is difficult to obtain, particularly for those without access to an automobile.USDA Defines Food Deserts | American Nutrition Association Some research links food deserts to diet-related health problems and health disparities in affected populations, but this phenomenon has been disputed.Acyrthosiphon pisum: Acyrthosiphon pisum, commonly known as the pea aphid (and colloquially known as the green dolphin, pea louse, and clover louse ), is a sap-sucking insect in the Aphididae family. It feeds on several species of legumes (plant family Fabaceae) worldwide, including forage crops, such as pea, clover, alfalfa, and broad bean, and ranks among the aphid species of major agronomical importance.Microcotyle: Microcotyle is a genus which belongs to the phylum Platyhelminthes and class Monogenea. It is an ectoparasite that affects its host by attaching itself as a larva on the gills of the fish and grows into adult stage.Sustainable Fisheries Act of 1996: The Sustainable Fisheries Act of 1996 is an amendment to the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act, a law governing the management of marine fisheries in the United States. Another major amendment to this legislation was later made under the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Reauthorization Act of 2006.Australia–East Timor relations: Australia–East Timor relations refer to the bilateral relations between Australia and East Timor. Both countries are near neighbors with close political and trade ties.Environment of Wyoming: Wyoming [the Continental Divide], and its abrupt topographic relief includes alternating basins and mountain ranges. Major mountain ranges include the [[Beartooth Mountains|Beartooth, Gros Ventre, Teton, Wind River, Bighorn, Sierra Madre, and Medicine Bow.Skylark launch tower: A Skylark tower is a tower used for the launch of earlier versions of Skylark rockets. As Skylark rockets have no guidance system and accelerate slowly, they require a safe launch tower with a height of at least 24 metres with a guidance system.In Memory of Celtic Frost: In Memory of... Celtic Frost is a Celtic Frost tribute album released in 1996.Computational archaeology: Computational archaeology describes computer-based analytical methods for the study of long-term human behaviour and behavioural evolution. As with other sub-disciplines that have prefixed 'computational' to their name (e.Restricted isometry property: In linear algebra, the restricted isometry property characterizes matrices which are nearly orthonormal, at least when operating on sparse vectors. The concept was introduced by Emmanuel Candès and Terence TaoE.Marineland, NapierJournal of Medical Toxicology: The Journal of Medical Toxicology is a peer-reviewed medical journal on medical toxicology and the official journal of the American College of Medical Toxicology. It publishes original articles, illustrative cases, review articles, and other special features that are related to the clinical diagnosis and management of patients with exposure to various poisons.Silverleaf whiteflyMcCloskey critique: The McCloskey critique refers to a critique of post-1940s "official modernist" methodology in economics, inherited from logical positivism in philosophy. The critique maintains that the methodology neglects how economics can be done, is done, and should be done to advance the subject.Staphylococcus microti: Staphylococcus microti is a Gram positive, coagulase-negative member of the bacterial genus Staphylococcus consisting of clustered cocci. This species was originally isolated from viscera of the common vole, Microtus arvalis.Peat swamp forest: Peat swamp forests are tropical moist forests where waterlogged soil prevents dead leaves and wood from fully decomposing. Over time, this creates a thick layer of acidic peat.Victor Willard: Victor M. Willard (1813 – December 10, 1869) was an American farmer from Waterford, Wisconsin who spent two years (1849–1850) as a Free Soil Party member of the Wisconsin State Senate from the 17th District.Natrocarbonatite: Natrocarbonatite is a rare carbonatite lava which erupts from the Ol Doinyo Lengai volcano in Tanzania within the East African Rift of eastern Africa.Minati SenMicroevolution: Microevolution is the change in allele frequencies that occur over time within a population.Microevolution: What is microevolution?Four Seasons Baltimore and Residences: Four Seasons Hotel Baltimore is currently a 22 story highrise hotel complex building which opened on November 14, 2011. The building's construction began back in 2007 and went through several changes.Haplogroup L0 (mtDNA)Monarch Butterfly Biosphere ReserveCitizen Weather Observer Program: The Citizen Weather Observer Program (CWOP) is a network of privately owned electronic weather stations concentrated in the United States but also located in over 150 countries. Network participation allows volunteers with computerized weather stations to send automated surface weather observations to the National Weather Service (NWS) by way of the Meteorological Assimilation Data Ingest System (MADIS).Far East Movement discography: The discography of Far East Movement, an American electronic pop rap group, consists of four studio albums, four extended plays, four mixtapes, eighteen singles (including three as featured artists) and thirty-three music videos. The group formed in 2003 in Los Angeles and released their first mixtape, Audio-Bio, in 2005, with their first studio album Folk Music following in 2006.Interval boundary element method: Interval boundary element method is classical boundary element method with the interval parameters.
Adalia bipunctata: Adalia bipunctata, commonly known as the two-spot ladybird, two-spotted ladybug or two-spotted lady beetle, is a carnivorous beetle of the family Coccinellidae that is found throughout the holarctic region. It is very common in western and central Europe.Geolocation software: In computing, geolocation software is used to deduce the geolocation (geographic location) of another party. For example, on the Internet, one geolocation approach is to identify the subject party's IP address, then determine what country (including down to the city and post/ZIP code level), organization, or user the IP address has been assigned to, and finally, determine that party's location.Cambrian–Ordovician extinction eventThe Rain Rain Rain Came Down Down Down: "The Rain Rain Rain Came Down Down Down" is a narrative song from the Walt Disney musical film featurette, Winnie the Pooh and the Blustery Day. The song is also incorporated into the 1977 musical film The Many Adventures of Winnie the Pooh which is an amalgamation of three Winnie-the-Pooh featurettes including "Blustery Day".Deer farm: A deer farm is a fenced piece of land suitable for grazing that is populated with deer such as elk, moose, and even reindeer raised for the purpose of hunting tourism or as livestock. This practice is very different from the way such Arctic communities like the Laplanders migrate in open country with their herds of reindeer.

(1/431) Evolution by small steps and rugged landscapes in the RNA virus phi6.

Fisher's geometric model of adaptive evolution argues that adaptive evolution should generally result from the substitution of many mutations of small effect because advantageous mutations of small effect should be more common than those of large effect. However, evidence for both evolution by small steps and for Fisher's model has been mixed. Here we report supporting results from a new experimental test of the model. We subjected the bacteriophage phi6 to intensified genetic drift in small populations and caused viral fitness to decline through the accumulation of a deleterious mutation. We then propagated the mutated virus at a range of larger population sizes and allowed fitness to recover by natural selection. Although fitness declined in one large step, it was usually recovered in smaller steps. More importantly, step size during recovery was smaller with decreasing size of the recovery population. These results confirm Fisher's main prediction that advantageous mutations of small effect should be more common. We also show that the advantageous mutations of small effect are compensatory mutations whose advantage is conditional (epistatic) on the presence of the deleterious mutation, in which case the adaptive landscape of phi6 is likely to be very rugged.  (+info)

(2/431) Declining survival probability threatens the North Atlantic right whale.

The North Atlantic northern right whale (Eubalaena glacialis) is considered the most endangered large whale species. Its population has recovered only slowly since the cessation of commercial whaling and numbers about 300 individuals. We applied mark-recapture statistics to a catalog of photographically identified individuals to obtain the first statistically rigorous estimates of survival probability for this population. Crude survival decreased from about 0.99 per year in 1980 to about 0.94 in 1994. We combined this survival trend with a reported decrease in reproductive rate into a branching process model to compute population growth rate and extinction probability. Population growth rate declined from about 1. 053 in 1980 to about 0.976 in 1994. Under current conditions the population is doomed to extinction; an upper bound on the expected time to extinction is 191 years. The most effective way to improve the prospects of the population is to reduce mortality. The right whale is at risk from entanglement in fishing gear and from collisions with ships. Reducing this human-caused mortality is essential to the viability of this population.  (+info)

(3/431) Awareness of and attitude of elderly subjects regarding health care and welfare in rapidly ageing population in Japan.

OBJECTIVES: We aimed to obtain information on the degree of knowledge and understanding about the current systems of health care and welfare held by the elderly, in order to achieve comprehensiveness in family practice. METHOD: We conducted a study on the awareness of healthy elderly persons by direct interview. The study was carried out in Kuni Village in a remote mountainous region in Japan, where the elderly population accounts for 24.8% of the total population. The subjects were self-dependent in their daily living activities and were aged 65 years and older. RESULTS: The subjects' knowledge of health care and welfare systems was generally good, and the degree of their utilization of these systems was also good. But 83.3% of those who did not want to utilize the welfare system indicated their preference to depend on their family for support. CONCLUSION: Family physicians must endeavour to offer comprehensive care to their patients by including these systems for rapidly ageing communities.  (+info)

(4/431) Light on population health status.

A new approach to illustrating and analysing health status is presented which allows comparisons of various aspects of health in a population at different times and in different populations during given periods. Both quantitative and qualitative elements can be represented, the impact of interventions can be monitored, and the extent to which objectives are achieved can be assessed. The practical application of the approach is demonstrated with reference to the health profiles to Tunisia in 1966 and 1994.  (+info)

(5/431) Health of the elderly in a community in transition: a survey in Thiruvananthapuram City, Kerala, India.

Results of a survey to assess the health and functional status of the elderly (defined as those who are 60 years or older) in Thiruvananthapuram city, the capital of Kerala state, India, are discussed. As the process of development results in longevity without concomitant economic success, traditional support systems break down. The differences in status of the elderly dependent on gender and socioeconomic class are highlighted. Women are poorer and generally suffer more morbidity than men in old age, even though their death rates are lower. The better-off among the elderly enjoy a quality of life much superior to their poor brethren. Thus, in transitional societies such as Kerala, socioeconomic status and gender play a significant role in determining the quality of life of the elderly, a finding which may have some policy implications.  (+info)

(6/431) Driving through: postpartum care during World War II.

In 1996, public outcry over shortened hospital stays for new mothers and their infants led to the passage of a federal law banning "drive-through deliveries." This recent round of brief postpartum stays is not unprecedented. During World War II, a baby boom overwhelmed maternity facilities in American hospitals. Hospital births became more popular and accessible as the Emergency Maternal and Infant Care program subsidized obstetric care for servicemen's wives. Although protocols before the war had called for prolonged bed rest in the puerperium, medical theory was quickly revised as crowded hospitals were forced to discharge mothers after 24 hours. To compensate for short inpatient stays, community-based services such as visiting nursing care, postnatal homes, and prenatal classes evolved to support new mothers. Fueled by rhetoric that identified maternal-child health as a critical factor in military morale, postpartum care during the war years remained comprehensive despite short hospital stays. The wartime experience offers a model of alternatives to legislation for ensuring adequate care of postpartum women.  (+info)

(7/431) The dynamics of mass migration.

We specify a set of equations defining a dynamic model of international migration and estimate its parameters by using data specially collected in Mexico. We then used it to project the a hypothetical Mexican community population forward in time. Beginning with a stable population of 10,000 people, we project ahead 50 years under three different assumptions: no international migration; constant probabilities of in- and out-migration, and dynamic schedules of out- and in-migration that change as migratory experience accumulates. This exercise represents an attempt to model the self-feeding character of international migration noted by prior observers and theorists. Our model quantifies the mechanisms of cumulative causation predicted by social capital theory and illustrates the shortcomings of standard projection methodologies. The failure to model dynamically changing migration schedules yields a 5% overstatement of the projected size of the Mexican population after 50 years, an 11% understatement of the total number of U.S. migrants, a 15% understatement of the prevalence of U.S. migratory experience in the Mexican population, and an 85% understatement of the size of the Mexican population living in the United States.  (+info)

(8/431) Food safety in the 21st century.

The global importance of food safety is not fully appreciated by many public health authorities despite a constant increase in the prevalence of foodborne illness. Numerous devastating outbreaks of salmonellosis, cholera, enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli infections, hepatitis A and other diseases have occurred in both industrialized and developing countries. In addition, many of the re-emerging or newly recognized pathogens are foodborne or have the potential of being transmitted by food and/or drinking water. More foodborne pathogens can be expected because of changing production methods, processes, practices and habits. During the early 21st century, foodborne diseases can be expected to increase, especially in developing countries, in part because of environmental and demographic changes. These vary from climatic changes, changes in microbial and other ecological systems, to decreasing freshwater supplies. However, an even greater challenge to food safety will come from changes resulting directly in degradation of sanitation and the immediate human environment. These include the increased age of human populations, unplanned urbanization and migration and mass production of food due to population growth and changed food habits. Mass tourism and the huge international trade in food and feed is causing food and feedborne pathogens to spread transnationally. As new toxic agents are identified and new toxic effects recognized, the health and trade consequences of toxic chemicals in food will also have global implications. Meeting the huge challenge of food safety in the 21st century will require the application of new methods to identify, monitor and assess foodborne hazards. Both traditional and new technologies for assuring food safety should be improved and fully exploited. This needs to be done through legislative measures where suitable, but with much greater reliance on voluntary compliance and education of consumers and professional food handlers. This will be an important task for the primary health care system aiming at "health for all".  (+info)



Rapid


  • Rapid population growth can be seen as threatening by neighboring countries. (nationmaster.com)
  • Unfortunately, rapid urbanization and population growth is expected to put pressure on the global food system while contributing to undernutrition through the lack of access to water, sanitation and health services. (thp.org)
  • The report also notes that a major problem arising from rapid urbanization and population growth is the stress put on land and water systems. (thp.org)
  • Furthermore, a high mortality rate among the very young, the old, the ill, and the disabled acted as a natural barrier to rapid population growth. (blogspot.co.id)

sustainable


  • a green economy promoting sustainable development and the growing population needs. (repec.org)

rate


  • The growth rate is a factor in determining how great a burden would be imposed on a country by the changing needs of its people for infrastructure (e.g., schools, hospitals, housing, roads), resources (e.g., food, water, electricity), and jobs. (nationmaster.com)
  • Zimbabwe ranked first for population growth rate amongst Christian countries in 2013. (nationmaster.com)
  • Israel ranked first for population growth rate amongst High income OECD countries in 2013. (nationmaster.com)
  • Qatar ranked second for population growth rate amongst Muslim countries in 2013. (nationmaster.com)
  • Turkey ranked first for population growth rate amongst NATO countries in 2013. (nationmaster.com)
  • South Sudan ranked third for population growth rate globally in 2013. (nationmaster.com)
  • By 2002, the world population was well on its way to 7 billion, with an annual growth rate of nearly 100 million. (blogspot.co.id)

forest


  • Recent distressing trends in climate change, population explosion and deforestation inspired this paper, which completes existing literature by providing empirical justification to hypothetical initiatives on the impact of population growth on forest sustainability in Africa. (repec.org)
  • Using three instruments of forest exploitation, the study shows how rural, agricultural and national population growths affect forest-area and agricultural-land. (repec.org)
  • In this particular study the findings indicate that instruments of forest exploitation do not explain changes in forest-area and agricultural-land beyond population growth mechanisms. (repec.org)
  • Hence, population growth channels are a driving force by which forest-area and agricultural-land are depleted and expanded respectively. (repec.org)
  • Population growth and forest sustainability in Africa ," International Journal of Green Economics , Inderscience Enterprises Ltd, vol. 6(2), pages 145-166. (repec.org)
  • Population growth and forest sustainability in Africa ," MPRA Paper 35179, University Library of Munich, Germany. (repec.org)
  • Environmentally, tropospheric ozone affects processes that producers use to make food, damages leaves of plants, and reduces forest growth and crop yields. (mixbook.com)

annual


  • The average annual percent change in the population, resulting from a surplus (or deficit) of births over deaths and the balance of migrants entering and leaving a country. (nationmaster.com)

world


  • Pinch the data connection line of electronic graphical Presentation Pillars in cities or along highways and show the world the real cause of traffic jams: extreme population density. (wisart.net)
  • By 1650, the world population had reached 500 million. (blogspot.co.id)

Finance


  • Law,Finance, Economic Growth and Welfare: Why Does Legal Origin Matter? (repec.org)

plants


  • The growing population has changed the landscape, distribution, and diversity of plants dramatically. (blogspot.co.id)

country


  • Long-term effects of population growth on aggregate investment dynamics: Selected country evidence for Africa ," African Journal of Economic and Management Studies , Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 6(3), pages 225-250, September. (repec.org)