Population Dynamics: The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.Population Density: Number of individuals in a population relative to space.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Population Growth: Increase, over a specific period of time, in the number of individuals living in a country or region.Climate: The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Molecular Dynamics Simulation: A computer simulation developed to study the motion of molecules over a period of time.Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Ecology: The branch of science concerned with the interrelationship of organisms and their ENVIRONMENT, especially as manifested by natural cycles and rhythms, community development and structure, interactions between different kinds of organisms, geographic distributions, and population alterations. (Webster's, 3d ed)Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Reproduction: The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Stochastic Processes: Processes that incorporate some element of randomness, used particularly to refer to a time series of random variables.Environment: The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.Nonlinear Dynamics: The study of systems which respond disproportionately (nonlinearly) to initial conditions or perturbing stimuli. Nonlinear systems may exhibit "chaos" which is classically characterized as sensitive dependence on initial conditions. Chaotic systems, while distinguished from more ordered periodic systems, are not random. When their behavior over time is appropriately displayed (in "phase space"), constraints are evident which are described by "strange attractors". Phase space representations of chaotic systems, or strange attractors, usually reveal fractal (FRACTALS) self-similarity across time scales. Natural, including biological, systems often display nonlinear dynamics and chaos.Geography: The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)Disease Vectors: Invertebrates or non-human vertebrates which transmit infective organisms from one host to another.Animal Migration: Periodic movements of animals in response to seasonal changes or reproductive instinct. Hormonal changes are the trigger in at least some animals. Most migrations are made for reasons of climatic change, feeding, or breeding.Host-Parasite Interactions: The relationship between an invertebrate and another organism (the host), one of which lives at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.Predatory Behavior: Instinctual behavior pattern in which food is obtained by killing and consuming other species.Life Cycle Stages: The continuous sequence of changes undergone by living organisms during the post-embryonic developmental process, such as metamorphosis in insects and amphibians. This includes the developmental stages of apicomplexans such as the malarial parasite, PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM.Acari: A large, subclass of arachnids comprising the MITES and TICKS, including parasites of plants, animals, and humans, as well as several important disease vectors.Arvicolinae: A subfamily of MURIDAE found nearly world-wide and consisting of about 20 genera. Voles, lemmings, and muskrats are members.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Rain: Water particles that fall from the ATMOSPHERE.Fisheries: Places for cultivation and harvesting of fish, particularly in sea waters. (from McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Genetics, Population: The discipline studying genetic composition of populations and effects of factors such as GENETIC SELECTION, population size, MUTATION, migration, and GENETIC DRIFT on the frequencies of various GENOTYPES and PHENOTYPES using a variety of GENETIC TECHNIQUES.Conservation of Natural Resources: The protection, preservation, restoration, and rational use of all resources in the total environment.Food Chain: The sequence of transfers of matter and energy from organism to organism in the form of FOOD. Food chains intertwine locally into a food web because most organisms consume more than one type of animal or plant. PLANTS, which convert SOLAR ENERGY to food by PHOTOSYNTHESIS, are the primary food source. In a predator chain, a plant-eating animal is eaten by a larger animal. In a parasite chain, a smaller organism consumes part of a larger host and may itself be parasitized by smaller organisms. In a saprophytic chain, microorganisms live on dead organic matter.Veronica: A plant genus of the family Plantaginaceae. Members contain bis-sesquiterpene and iridoid glucosides.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Pest Control: The reduction or regulation of the population of noxious, destructive, or dangerous plants, insects, or other animals. This includes control of plants that serve as habitats or food sources for animal pests.Oceanography: The science that deals with the ocean and its phenomena. (Webster, 3d ed)Zooplankton: Minute free-floating animal organisms which live in practically all natural waters.Liliaceae: A monocot family within the order Liliales. This family is divided by some botanists into other families such as Convallariaceae, Hyacinthaceae and Amaryllidaceae. Amaryllidaceae, which have inferior ovaries, includes CRINUM; GALANTHUS; LYCORIS; and NARCISSUS and are known for AMARYLLIDACEAE ALKALOIDS.Weather: The state of the ATMOSPHERE over minutes to months.Extinction, Biological: The ceasing of existence of a species or taxonomic groups of organisms.Wolves: Any of several large carnivorous mammals of the family CANIDAE that usually hunt in packs.Phytoplankton: Free-floating minute organisms that are photosynthetic. The term is non-taxonomic and refers to a lifestyle (energy utilization and motility), rather than a particular type of organism. Most, but not all, are unicellular algae. Important groups include DIATOMS; DINOFLAGELLATES; CYANOBACTERIA; CHLOROPHYTA; HAPTOPHYTA; CRYPTOMONADS; and silicoflagellates.Fertility: The capacity to conceive or to induce conception. It may refer to either the male or female.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Microbial Interactions: The inter- and intra-relationships between various microorganisms. This can include both positive (like SYMBIOSIS) and negative (like ANTIBIOSIS) interactions. Examples include virus - bacteria and bacteria - bacteria.Models, Statistical: Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.Foxes: Any of several carnivores in the family CANIDAE, that possess erect ears and long bushy tails and are smaller than WOLVES. They are classified in several genera and found on all continents except Antarctica.Oviposition: The process of laying or shedding fully developed eggs (OVA) from the female body. The term is usually used for certain INSECTS or FISHES with an organ called ovipositor where eggs are stored or deposited before expulsion from the body.Climate Change: Any significant change in measures of climate (such as temperature, precipitation, or wind) lasting for an extended period (decades or longer). It may result from natural factors such as changes in the sun's intensity, natural processes within the climate system such as changes in ocean circulation, or human activities.Parasitic Diseases, Animal: Infections or infestations with parasitic organisms. The infestation may be experimental or veterinary.Snow: Frozen water crystals that fall from the ATMOSPHERE.Insect Vectors: Insects that transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.Biodiversity: The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.Biota: The spectrum of different living organisms inhabiting a particular region, habitat, or biotope.Birds: Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.Culicidae: A family of the order DIPTERA that comprises the mosquitoes. The larval stages are aquatic, and the adults can be recognized by the characteristic WINGS, ANIMAL venation, the scales along the wing veins, and the long proboscis. Many species are of particular medical importance.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Selection, Genetic: Differential and non-random reproduction of different genotypes, operating to alter the gene frequencies within a population.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Mediterranean SeaFresh Water: Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.Larva: Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.Feeding Behavior: Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.Demography: Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.Symbiosis: The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Antelopes: Any of various ruminant mammals of the order Bovidae. They include numerous species in Africa and the American pronghorn.Bacterial Processes: The functions, behavior, and activities of bacteria.Sex Ratio: The number of males per 100 females.Copepoda: A huge subclass of mostly marine CRUSTACEA, containing over 14,000 species. The 10 orders comprise both planktonic and benthic organisms, and include both free-living and parasitic forms. Planktonic copepods form the principle link between PHYTOPLANKTON and the higher trophic levels of the marine food chains.Snails: Marine, freshwater, or terrestrial mollusks of the class Gastropoda. Most have an enclosing spiral shell, and several genera harbor parasites pathogenic to man.Bayes Theorem: A theorem in probability theory named for Thomas Bayes (1702-1761). In epidemiology, it is used to obtain the probability of disease in a group of people with some characteristic on the basis of the overall rate of that disease and of the likelihood of that characteristic in healthy and diseased individuals. The most familiar application is in clinical decision analysis where it is used for estimating the probability of a particular diagnosis given the appearance of some symptoms or test result.Ruminants: A suborder of the order ARTIODACTYLA whose members have the distinguishing feature of a four-chambered stomach, including the capacious RUMEN. Horns or antlers are usually present, at least in males.Butterflies: Slender-bodies diurnal insects having large, broad wings often strikingly colored and patterned.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Pacific OceanMuscidae: A family of the order DIPTERA with over 700 species. Important species that may be mechanical vectors of disease include Musca domesticus (HOUSEFLIES), Musca autumnalis (face fly), Stomoxys calcitrans (stable fly), Haematobia irritans (horn fly) and Fannia spp.Aphids: A family (Aphididae) of small insects, in the suborder Sternorrhyncha, that suck the juices of plants. Important genera include Schizaphis and Myzus. The latter is known to carry more than 100 virus diseases between plants.Body Size: The physical measurements of a body.Weevils: BEETLES in the family Curculionidae and the largest family in the order COLEOPTERA. They have a markedly convex shape and many are considered pests.Diptera: An order of the class Insecta. Wings, when present, number two and distinguish Diptera from other so-called flies, while the halteres, or reduced hindwings, separate Diptera from other insects with one pair of wings. The order includes the families Calliphoridae, Oestridae, Phoridae, SARCOPHAGIDAE, Scatophagidae, Sciaridae, SIMULIIDAE, Tabanidae, Therevidae, Trypetidae, CERATOPOGONIDAE; CHIRONOMIDAE; CULICIDAE; DROSOPHILIDAE; GLOSSINIDAE; MUSCIDAE; TEPHRITIDAE; and PSYCHODIDAE. The larval form of Diptera species are called maggots (see LARVA).Competitive Behavior: The direct struggle between individuals for environmental necessities or for a common goal.Lead Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of lead that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Pb atoms with atomic weights 194-203, 205, and 209-214 are radioactive lead isotopes.Biomass: Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.Salmon: Fish of the genera ONCORHYNCHUS and Salmo in the family SALMONIDAE. They are anadromous game fish, frequenting the coastal waters of both the North Atlantic and Pacific. They are known for their gameness as a sport fish and for the quality of their flesh as a table fish. (Webster, 3d ed).MontanaCharadriiformes: An order of BIRDS including over 300 species that primarily inhabit coastal waters, beaches, and marshes. They are comprised of shorebirds, gulls, and terns.Trees: Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.Bacteroidetes: A phylum of bacteria comprised of three classes: Bacteroides, Flavobacteria, and Sphingobacteria.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Animal Distribution: A process by which animals in various forms and stages of development are physically distributed through time and space.Ecological and Environmental Processes: Ecosystem and environmental activities, functions, or events.Endangered Species: An animal or plant species in danger of extinction. Causes can include human activity, changing climate, or change in predator/prey ratios.Aedes: A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) frequently found in tropical and subtropical regions. YELLOW FEVER and DENGUE are two of the diseases that can be transmitted by species of this genus.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Beetles: INSECTS of the order Coleoptera, containing over 350,000 species in 150 families. They possess hard bodies and their mouthparts are adapted for chewing.Insect Control: The reduction or regulation of the population of noxious, destructive, or dangerous insects through chemical, biological, or other means.Weed Control: The prevention of growth and or spread of unwanted plants.Atlantic OceanMolecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Genetic Fitness: The capability of an organism to survive and reproduce. The phenotypic expression of the genotype in a particular environment determines how genetically fit an organism will be.Ecological Systems, Closed: Systems that provide for the maintenance of life in an isolated living chamber through reutilization of the material available, in particular, by means of a cycle wherein exhaled carbon dioxide, urine, and other waste matter are converted chemically or by photosynthesis into oxygen, water, and food. (NASA Thesaurus, 1988)Methane: The simplest saturated hydrocarbon. It is a colorless, flammable gas, slightly soluble in water. It is one of the chief constituents of natural gas and is formed in the decomposition of organic matter. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Seed Dispersal: The various physical methods which include wind, insects, animals, tension, and water, by which a plant scatters its seeds away from the parent plant.Desert Climate: A type of climate characterized by insufficient moisture to support appreciable plant life. It is a climate of extreme aridity, usually of extreme heat, and of negligible rainfall. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Colony Count, Microbial: Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.Microsatellite Repeats: A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).Bioreactors: Tools or devices for generating products using the synthetic or chemical conversion capacity of a biological system. They can be classical fermentors, cell culture perfusion systems, or enzyme bioreactors. For production of proteins or enzymes, recombinant microorganisms such as bacteria, mammalian cells, or insect or plant cells are usually chosen.Oceans and Seas: A great expanse of continuous bodies of salt water which together cover more than 70 percent of the earth's surface. Seas may be partially or entirely enclosed by land, and are smaller than the five oceans (Atlantic, Pacific, Indian, Arctic, and Antarctic).Mites: Any arthropod of the subclass ACARI except the TICKS. They are minute animals related to the spiders, usually having transparent or semitransparent bodies. They may be parasitic on humans and domestic animals, producing various irritations of the skin (MITE INFESTATIONS). Many mite species are important to human and veterinary medicine as both parasite and vector. Mites also infest plants.Human Activities: Activities performed by humans.Deer: The family Cervidae of 17 genera and 45 species occurring nearly throughout North America, South America, and Eurasia, on most associated continental islands, and in northern Africa. Wild populations of deer have been established through introduction by people in Cuba, New Guinea, Australia, New Zealand, and other places where the family does not naturally occur. They are slim, long-legged and best characterized by the presence of antlers. Their habitat is forests, swamps, brush country, deserts, and arctic tundra. They are usually good swimmers; some migrate seasonally. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1362)Granulovirus: A genus of the family BACULOVIRIDAE, subfamily Eubaculovirinae, characterized by ovicylindrical occlusion bodies. The type species is Cydia pomonella granulovirus.Anopheles: A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) that are known vectors of MALARIA.Otters: Fish-eating carnivores of the family MUSTELIDAE, found on both hemispheres.Mytilus: A genus of marine mussels in the family MYTILIDAE, class BIVALVIA. The species MYTILUS EDULIS is the highly edible common mussel.RNA, Ribosomal, 16S: Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.Indian Ocean: A body of water covering approximately one-fifth of the total ocean area of the earth, extending amidst Africa in the west, Australia in the east, Asia in the north, and Antarctica in the south. Including the Red Sea and the Persian Gulf, it constitutes the third largest ocean after the ATLANTIC OCEAN and the PACIFIC OCEAN. (New Encyclopaedia Britannica Micropaedia, 15th ed, 1990, p289)Phylogeography: A field of study concerned with the principles and processes governing the geographic distributions of genealogical lineages, especially those within and among closely related species. (Avise, J.C., Phylogeography: The History and Formation of Species. Harvard University Press, 2000)Water Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Ecological and Environmental Phenomena: Ecological and environmental entities, characteristics, properties, relationships and processes.Raptors: BIRDS that hunt and kill other animals, especially higher vertebrates, for food. They include the FALCONIFORMES order, or diurnal birds of prey, comprised of EAGLES, falcons, HAWKS, and others, as well as the STRIGIFORMES order, or nocturnal birds of prey, which includes OWLS.Reproduction, Asexual: Reproduction without fusion of two types of cells, mostly found in ALGAE; FUNGI; and PLANTS. Asexual reproduction occurs in several ways, such as budding, fission, or splitting from "parent" cells. Only few groups of ANIMALS reproduce asexually or unisexually (PARTHENOGENESIS).Herbivory: The act of feeding on plants by animals.Perciformes: The most diversified of all fish orders and the largest vertebrate order. It includes many of the commonly known fish such as porgies, croakers, sunfishes, dolphin fish, mackerels, TUNA, etc.Bufonidae: The family of true toads belonging to the order Anura. The genera include Bufo, Ansonia, Nectophrynoides, and Atelopus.Greenhouse Effect: The effect of GLOBAL WARMING and the resulting increase in world temperatures. The predicted health effects of such long-term climatic change include increased incidence of respiratory, water-borne, and vector-borne diseases.Reduviidae: A family of winged insects of the suborder HETEROPTERA, called assassin bugs, because most prey on other insects. However one subfamily, TRIATOMINAE, attacks humans and other vertebrates and transmits Chagas disease.Galliformes: An order of heavy-bodied, largely terrestrial BIRDS including pheasants, TURKEYS, grouse, QUAIL, and CHICKENS.Hemiptera: A large order of insects characterized by having the mouth parts adapted to piercing or sucking. It is comprised of four suborders: HETEROPTERA, Auchenorrhyncha, Sternorrhyncha, and Coleorrhyncha.Adaptation, Physiological: The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.Game Theory: Theoretical construct used in applied mathematics to analyze certain situations in which there is an interplay between parties that may have similar, opposed, or mixed interests. In a typical game, decision-making "players," who each have their own goals, try to gain advantage over the other parties by anticipating each other's decisions; the game is finally resolved as a consequence of the players' decisions.Wasps: Any of numerous winged hymenopterous insects of social as well as solitary habits and having formidable stings.Ciliophora: A phylum of EUKARYOTES characterized by the presence of cilia at some time during the life cycle. It comprises three classes: KINETOFRAGMINOPHOREA; OLIGOHYMENOPHOREA; and POLYMENOPHOREA.Pupa: An inactive stage between the larval and adult stages in the life cycle of insects.Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.Waste Disposal, Fluid: The discarding or destroying of liquid waste products or their transformation into something useful or innocuous.Carnivora: An order of MAMMALS, usually flesh eaters with appropriate dentition. Suborders include the terrestrial carnivores Fissipedia, and the aquatic carnivores PINNIPEDIA.Introduced Species: Non-native organisms brought into a region, habitat, or ECOSYSTEM by human activity.Rickettsiaceae: A family of small, gram-negative organisms, often parasitic in humans and other animals, causing diseases that may be transmitted by invertebrate vectors.Soil Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Monte Carlo Method: In statistics, a technique for numerically approximating the solution of a mathematical problem by studying the distribution of some random variable, often generated by a computer. The name alludes to the randomness characteristic of the games of chance played at the gambling casinos in Monte Carlo. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, 1993)Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Adaptation, Biological: Changes in biological features that help an organism cope with its ENVIRONMENT. These changes include physiological (ADAPTATION, PHYSIOLOGICAL), phenotypic and genetic changes.Gene Flow: The change in gene frequency in a population due to migration of gametes or individuals (ANIMAL MIGRATION) across population barriers. In contrast, in GENETIC DRIFT the cause of gene frequency changes are not a result of population or gamete movement.Anopheles gambiae: A species of mosquito in the genus Anopheles and the principle vector of MALARIA in Africa.Animals, Wild: Animals considered to be wild or feral or not adapted for domestic use. It does not include wild animals in zoos for which ANIMALS, ZOO is available.Color: The visually perceived property of objects created by absorption or reflection of specific wavelengths of light.Wolbachia: A genus of bacteria comprised of a heterogenous group of gram-negative small rods and coccoid forms associated with arthropods. (From Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, vol 1, 1984)Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Fishes: A group of cold-blooded, aquatic vertebrates having gills, fins, a cartilaginous or bony endoskeleton, and elongated bodies covered with scales.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Bacteria, AerobicTropical Climate: A climate which is typical of equatorial and tropical regions, i.e., one with continually high temperatures with considerable precipitation, at least during part of the year. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Rodentia: A mammalian order which consists of 29 families and many genera.Host Specificity: The properties of a pathogen that makes it capable of infecting one or more specific hosts. The pathogen can include PARASITES as well as VIRUSES; BACTERIA; FUNGI; or PLANTS.Asteraceae: A large plant family of the order Asterales, subclass Asteridae, class Magnoliopsida. The family is also known as Compositae. Flower petals are joined near the base and stamens alternate with the corolla lobes. The common name of "daisy" refers to several genera of this family including Aster; CHRYSANTHEMUM; RUDBECKIA; TANACETUM.Pest Control, Biological: Use of naturally-occuring or genetically-engineered organisms to reduce or eliminate populations of pests.ArgentinaIce Cover: A thick mass of ICE formed over large regions of land; RIVERS; LAKES; ponds; or SEAWATER.DNA, Ribosomal: DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.Territoriality: Behavior in defense of an area against another individual or individuals primarily of the same species.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Seeds: The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.Rotifera: A class of minute animals of the phylum Aschelminthes.Coral Reefs: Marine ridges composed of living CORALS, coral skeletons, calcareous algae, and other organisms, mixed with minerals and organic matter. They are found most commonly in tropical waters and support other animal and plant life.Likelihood Functions: Functions constructed from a statistical model and a set of observed data which give the probability of that data for various values of the unknown model parameters. Those parameter values that maximize the probability are the maximum likelihood estimates of the parameters.Daphnia: A diverse genus of minute freshwater CRUSTACEA, of the suborder CLADOCERA. They are a major food source for both young and adult freshwater fish.Biomphalaria: A genus of planorbid freshwater snails, species of which are intermediate hosts of Schistosoma mansoni.Soil: The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Passeriformes: A widely distributed order of perching BIRDS, including more than half of all bird species.Thermodynamics: A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)Bacterial Physiological Phenomena: Physiological processes and properties of BACTERIA.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Moths: Insects of the suborder Heterocera of the order LEPIDOPTERA.Biodegradation, Environmental: Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.Songbirds: PASSERIFORMES of the suborder, Oscines, in which the flexor tendons of the toes are separate, and the lower syrinx has 4 to 9 pairs of tensor muscles inserted at both ends of the tracheal half rings. They include many commonly recognized birds such as CROWS; FINCHES; robins; SPARROWS; and SWALLOWS.BrazilWater: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)DNA Fingerprinting: A technique for identifying individuals of a species that is based on the uniqueness of their DNA sequence. Uniqueness is determined by identifying which combination of allelic variations occur in the individual at a statistically relevant number of different loci. In forensic studies, RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISM of multiple, highly polymorphic VNTR LOCI or MICROSATELLITE REPEAT loci are analyzed. The number of loci used for the profile depends on the ALLELE FREQUENCY in the population.Disease Reservoirs: Animate or inanimate sources which normally harbor disease-causing organisms and thus serve as potential sources of disease outbreaks. Reservoirs are distinguished from vectors (DISEASE VECTORS) and carriers, which are agents of disease transmission rather than continuing sources of potential disease outbreaks.Mitochondrial Dynamics: The continuous remodeling of MITOCHONDRIA shape by fission and fusion in response to physiological conditions.Eukaryota: One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and ARCHAEA), also called Eukarya. These are organisms whose cells are enclosed in membranes and possess a nucleus. They comprise almost all multicellular and many unicellular organisms, and are traditionally divided into groups (sometimes called kingdoms) including ANIMALS; PLANTS; FUNGI; and various algae and other taxa that were previously part of the old kingdom Protista.Brassica napus: A plant species of the family BRASSICACEAE best known for the edible roots.Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.Mosquito Control: The reduction or regulation of the population of mosquitoes through chemical, biological, or other means.Dengue: An acute febrile disease transmitted by the bite of AEDES mosquitoes infected with DENGUE VIRUS. It is self-limiting and characterized by fever, myalgia, headache, and rash. SEVERE DENGUE is a more virulent form of dengue.Rivers: Large natural streams of FRESH WATER formed by converging tributaries and which empty into a body of water (lake or ocean).DNA, Mitochondrial: Double-stranded DNA of MITOCHONDRIA. In eukaryotes, the mitochondrial GENOME is circular and codes for ribosomal RNAs, transfer RNAs, and about 10 proteins.Seawater: The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.Plant Diseases: Diseases of plants.Antibiosis: A natural association between organisms that is detrimental to at least one of them. This often refers to the production of chemicals by one microorganism that is harmful to another.Models, Chemical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Poaceae: A large family of narrow-leaved herbaceous grasses of the order Cyperales, subclass Commelinidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). Food grains (EDIBLE GRAIN) come from members of this family. RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL can be induced by POLLEN of many of the grasses.Body Weights and Measures: Measurements of the height, weight, length, area, etc., of the human and animal body or its parts.Insects: The class Insecta, in the phylum ARTHROPODA, whose members are characterized by division into three parts: head, thorax, and abdomen. They are the dominant group of animals on earth; several hundred thousand different kinds having been described. Three orders, HEMIPTERA; DIPTERA; and SIPHONAPTERA; are of medical interest in that they cause disease in humans and animals. (From Borror et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p1)Host-Pathogen Interactions: The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.Models, Neurological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Environmental Monitoring: The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.Polyploidy: The chromosomal constitution of a cell containing multiples of the normal number of CHROMOSOMES; includes triploidy (symbol: 3N), tetraploidy (symbol: 4N), etc.

*  Two-phase population extinction hazard | Journal of The Royal Society Interface
... we will model population dynamics as a stochastic process. Defining a population as a group of organisms of a species occupying ... 1980 Population dynamics in variable environments. I. Long-run growth rates and extinction. Theor. Popul. Biol. 18, 314-342. ... 1988 Extinction dynamics of age-structured populations in a fluctuating environment. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 85, 7418-7421. ... 2.1where λ0 is an unknown baseline hazard shared by all populations, Xi is a vector of covariates for population i and β is a ...
*  DFO - Population Dynamics
Population Dynamics. Population dynamics is the study of population size and factors that affect animal abundance. These ... A population model is then used to determine total population size. This is done by calculating how many adults in a population ... The Baffin Bay population was estimated to be ≈ 170 000 animals in 2013. This population summers in bays and fjords of the High ... The East Greenland population is the third population and was estimated to number ≈6400 whales in 2008. Its summer range ...
*  Population Dynamics
... is an important concept in ecology and refers to the ways in which a population's ... Population dynamics is not a novel term in ecology. In fact, studying population size goes far back in scientific research. ... Furthermore, population dynamics is a rather mathematical branch of ecology because it uses equations to model how a population ... Evidently, population dynamics is a fundamental and intricate concept in ecology which is critical to learning how to manage ...
*  Unit 5 - Human Population Dynamics - Footnotes
Footnotes for Unit 5 - Human Population Dynamics. *J.P. Holdren and P.R. Ehrlich, "Human Population and the Global Environment ... Lant Pritchett, "Desired Fertility and the Impact of Population Policies," Population and Development Review, Vol. 1, No. 20, ... United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, World Population Prospects: The 2006 Revision, Population Database, ... Joseph A. McFalls, Jr., "Population: A Lively Introduction," Population Bulletin, December 2003, p. 5. ...
*  Fisheries Population Dynamics
NEED EDIT: David's research focuses on quantitative analyses of marine fisheries, with the goal of improving the quality, accuracy, and understanding of the procedures and results that are used in the management of Oregon's fisheries for groundfish (e.g., flatfish and rockfish). His other research focus seeks to understand the fishers' activities in fisheries systems, such as their choices of fishing locations and fishing gear.. ...
*  Agent-Based Modeling and Spatial Population Dynamics Workshop
Dynamics and the Metropolitan Policy Program jointly hosted an NICHD funded Agent Based Modeling and Spatial Population ... Dynamics Workshop at the Brookings Institution. Researchers from across the country attended the workshop to discuss current ... Agent-Based Modeling and Spatial Population Dynamics Workshop. 12:00 PM. - 5:00 PM. The Brookings Center on Social and Economic ... Dynamics and the Metropolitan Policy Program jointly hosted an NICHD funded Agent Based Modeling and Spatial Population ...
*  NEFSC Population Dynamics Branch: Invertebrate Task
Population Dynamics Branch: Invertebrate Task. Larry Jacobson, Ph.D., Supv., Research Fishery Biologist The Invertebrate ... and has participated in major field programs to estimate bivalve populations directly from the results of expanded research ...
*  Population dynamics - Wikipedia
... population) Pest insect population dynamics Population cycle Population dynamics of fisheries Population ecology Population ... Example scenarios are ageing populations, population growth, or population decline. Population dynamics has traditionally been ... Likewise with density dependence, whether the population density is high or low, population dynamics returns the population ... tried to simulate some of these population dynamics. In the past 30 years, population dynamics has been complemented by ...
*  'population dynamics' Protocols and Video...
Real Time Monitoring of Intracellular Bile Acid Dynamics Using a Genetically Encoded FRET-based Bile Acid Sensor', 'Isolation ... High-resolution Time-lapse Imaging and Automated Analysis of Microtubule Dynamics in Living Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial ... High-resolution Imaging and Analysis of Individual Astral Microtubule Dynamics in Budding Yeast', 'An Endothelial Planar Cell ... Single-cell Gene Expression Using Multiplex RT-qPCR to Characterize Heterogeneity of Rare Lymphoid Populations', 'Time- ...
*  Topic: Population dynamics | Global Forum on Food Security and Nutrition (FSN Forum)
By 2050, nearly 63 per cent of the total population of Southeast Asia is expected to live in urban areas. Not only is ... Between 1950 and 2000, the total population of West Africa increased fourfold, with almost one third now living in urban ... from market nodes to providers of services and goods and non-farm employment to their own population as well as that of the ... and effective policy approaches in addressing food security and nutrition in the context of changing rural-urban dynamics. The ...
*  Population dynamics and policies | UNFPA - United Nations Population Fund
Population trends and dynamics play a powerful role in development, and must therefore be factored into planning and policy ... Because population dynamics vary widely - from countries trying to provide opportunities for enormous youth populations to ... and one with enormous implications for population dynamics. The International Conference on Population and Development, the ... Population trends and dynamics play a powerful role in development, and must therefore be factored into planning and policy ...
*  Stochastic Population Dynamics in Ecology and Conservation - Oxford Scholarship
Stochastic dynamics and statistical uncertainty in population parameters are incorporated in Population Viability Analysis and ... This book provides an introduction to stochastic population dynamics, combining classical background material with a variety of ... Analysis of the stochastic dynamics of a tropical butterfly community in space and time indicates that most of the variance in ... The long-run growth rate of a population is explained and extended to include age structure with both demographic and ...
*  Diversity waves in collapse-driven population dynamics (Journal Article) | DOE PAGES
59 BASIC BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES; population genetics; species extinction; population size; carrying capacity; population dynamics ... Accepted Manuscript: Diversity waves in collapse-driven population dynamics. Title: Diversity waves in collapse-driven ... The emergent dynamics of our system is cyclic ''diversity waves'' triggered by collapses of globally dominating populations. ... In effect this means that a growth of one population, needs to be balanced by comparable reduction in populations of others. In ...
*  Physiological Ecology, Population Dynamics, and Species Interactions | Harvard Forest
Plant and animal population sizes inevitably change following habitat loss, but the mechanisms underlying these changes are ...
*  Pest insect population dynamics - Wikipedia
Density-dependent: Affect a population more or less as the population is bigger. Examples:A bigger population may be more ... The population dynamics of pest insects is a subject of interest to farmers, agricultural economists, ecologists, and those ... A bigger population may have more intraspecific competition, while a smaller population may have more interspecific competition ... If it's greater than 1, the population is increasing. In a stable population the replacement rate should hover close to 1. We ...
*  Population dynamics of fisheries - Wikipedia
... where populations are modelled and future population dynamics are projected. In population ecology and economics, the maximum ... Population dynamics describes the ways in which a given population grows and shrinks over time, as controlled by birth, death, ... The population size (usually denoted by N) is the number of individual organisms in a population. The effective population size ... Ne is usually less than N (the absolute population size). Small population size results in increased genetic drift. Population ...
*  Random Perturbations and Lattice Effects in Chaotic Population Dynamics | Science
Random Perturbations and Lattice Effects in Chaotic Population Dynamics Message Subject. (Your Name) has forwarded a page to ...
*  Using Domain Knowledge on Population Dynamics Modeling for Equation Discovery
... Book/Journal Title:. Machine Learning: ECML 2001 ... Using Domain Knowledge on Population Dynamics Modeling for Equation Discovery. Authored By:. Ljupco Todorovski and Saso ... title = "Using Domain Knowledge on Population Dynamics Modeling for Equation Discovery",. booktitle = "Machine Learning: {ECML ...
*  NEFSC: PEP Students Learn About Population Dynamics at National Workshop
PEP Students Learn About Population Dynamics at National Workshop. The Woods Hole Partnership Education Program (PEP) will be ... André Price and Nia Walker will explore the dynamics of marine populations and investigate case studies involving current ... The program has three objectives: recruiting top undergraduates into the field of fisheries population dynamics and careers ... Activities are designed to demonstrate the critical role modeling population dynamics plays in resource management decisions. ...
*  Global Population Projection Grids Based on SSPs, v1: Population Dynamics | SEDAC
Population Dynamics. Follow Us: Twitter Follow Us on Facebook YouTube Flickr , Share: Twitter Facebook *Collection Overview ... Global Population Count Grid Time Series Estimates, v1 (1970 - 2000). *Global Population Density Grid Time Series Estimates, v1 ... Global Population Projection Grids Based on SSPs, v1 (2010 - 2100). *Global Estimated Net Migration Grids By Decade, v1 (1970 ... Global Population Projection Grids Based on SSPs, v1 (2010 - 2100). *Set Overview ...
*  Sensory Cortical Population Dynamics Uniquely Track Behavior across Learning and Extinction | Journal of Neuroscience
2012) Neural population dynamics during reaching. Nature 487:51-56, doi:10.1038/nature11129, pmid:22722855. ... Sensory Cortical Population Dynamics Uniquely Track Behavior across Learning and Extinction. Anan Moran and Donald B. Katz ... Sensory Cortical Population Dynamics Uniquely Track Behavior across Learning and Extinction Message Subject (Your Name) has ... That is, the similarity of Pre and Ext population dynamics was not attributable to the few single-neuron responses that were ...
*  Modeling On-Farm Escherichia coli O157:H7 Population Dynamics
... P. Ayscue,. C. Lanzas, R. Ivanek, and Y.T. Gröhn ... 3) indicated that growth rates in feed could significantly impact the population dynamics of E. coli O157:H7 across the pen at ... CFU/g, which would translate to an apparent prevalence as high as 80%. Growth and population dynamics in the animal and ... Similarly, a large amount of data is necessary to parameterize the population dynamics of the pathogen. Fortunately, a large ...
*  PLOS ONE: Sperm Cell Population Dynamics in Ram Semen during the Cryopreservation Process
Sperm Cell Population Dynamics in Ram Semen during the Cryopreservation Process. Table 1. Head morphomertic characteristics of ...
*  Dienekes' Anthropology Blog: Population Dynamics in Prehistory and Early History (2012)
Population Dynamics in Prehistory and Early History (2012) Ed. by Kaiser, Elke / Burger, Joachim / Schier, Wolfram ISBN: 978-3- ... Dienekes' Anthropology blog is dedicated to human population genetics, physical anthropology, archaeology, and history. ...
*  Factoring population dynamics into sustainable development - Development Co-operation Report 2012 - OECD iLibrary
... the world's population is still growing at a high rate. Without a significant and rapid dro ... Although population growth has decelerated in most countries, ... Although population growth has decelerated in most countries, ... You are here: Home / Books / Development Co-operation Report / 2012 / Factoring population dynamics into sustainable ... www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/development/development-co-operation-report-2012/factoring-population-dynamics- ...

Matrix population models: Population models are used in population ecology to model the dynamics of wildlife or human populations. Matrix population models are a specific type of population model that uses matrix algebra.Threshold host density: Threshold host density (NT), in the context of wildlife disease ecology, refers to the concentration of a population of a particular organism as it relates to disease. Specifically, the threshold host density (NT) of a species refers to the minimum concentration of individuals necessary to sustain a given disease within a population.EcosystemMatrix model: == Mathematics and physics ==Four Seasons Baltimore and Residences: Four Seasons Hotel Baltimore is currently a 22 story highrise hotel complex building which opened on November 14, 2011. The building's construction began back in 2007 and went through several changes.Food Race: American environmental author Daniel Quinn coined the term Food Race (by analogy to the Cold War's "nuclear arms race") to describe an understanding of the current overpopulation emergency as a perpetually escalating crisis between growing human population and growing food production, fueled by the latter. Quinn argues that as the worldwide human population increases, the typical international response is to more intensely produce and distribute food to feed these greater numbers of people.Hadley Centre for Climate Prediction and Research: 140px|rightAMBER: AMBER (an acronym for Assisted Model Building with Energy Refinement) is a family of force fields for molecular dynamics of biomolecules originally developed by Peter Kollman's group at the University of California, San Francisco. AMBER is also the name for the molecular dynamics software package that simulates these force fields.Interval boundary element method: Interval boundary element method is classical boundary element method with the interval parameters.
Spatial ecology: Spatial ecology is a specialization in ecology and geography that is concerned with the identification of spatial patterns and their relationships to ecological phenomena. Ecological events can be explained through the detection of patterns at a given spatial scale: local, regional, or global.Von Neumann regular ring: In mathematics, a von Neumann regular ring is a ring R such that for every a in R there exists an x in R such that . To avoid the possible confusion with the regular rings and regular local rings of commutative algebra (which are unrelated notions), von Neumann regular rings are also called absolutely flat rings, because these rings are characterized by the fact that every left module is flat.Reproductive toxicity: Reproductive toxicity is a hazard associated with some chemical substances, that they will interfere in some way with normal reproduction; such substances are called reprotoxic. It includes adverse effects on sexual function and fertility in adult males and females, as well as developmental toxicity in the offspring.Doob decomposition theorem: In the theory of stochastic processes in discrete time, a part of the mathematical theory of probability, the Doob decomposition theorem gives a unique decomposition of every adapted and integrable stochastic process as the sum of a martingale and a predictable process (or "drift") starting at zero. The theorem was proved by and is named for Joseph L.Evolution in Variable EnvironmentNonlinear system: In physics and other sciences, a nonlinear system, in contrast to a linear system, is a system which does not satisfy the superposition principle – meaning that the output of a nonlinear system is not directly proportional to the input.Health geography: Health geography is the application of geographical information, perspectives, and methods to the study of health, disease, and health care.Ditch: A ditch is a small to moderate depression created to channel water. A ditch can be used for drainage, to drain water from low-lying areas, alongside roadways or fields, or to channel water from a more distant source for plant irrigation.Geolocation software: In computing, geolocation software is used to deduce the geolocation (geographic location) of another party. For example, on the Internet, one geolocation approach is to identify the subject party's IP address, then determine what country (including down to the city and post/ZIP code level), organization, or user the IP address has been assigned to, and finally, determine that party's location.Intraguild predation: Intraguild predation, or IGP, is the killing and eating of potential competitors. This interaction represents a combination of predation and competition, because both species rely on the same prey resources and also benefit from preying upon one another.Infrastructure Lifecycle Management: Infrastructure Lifecycle Management (ILM) is a term coined by the real estate sector. It covers the management of all core processes around planning, construction, operation, maintenance and commercialization of buildings or property.Dermanyssus gallinae: Dermanyssus gallinae (also known as the red mite, poultry mite, red poultry mite, roost mite and chicken mite) is an ectoparasite of poultry and other bird species.Staphylococcus microti: Staphylococcus microti is a Gram positive, coagulase-negative member of the bacterial genus Staphylococcus consisting of clustered cocci. This species was originally isolated from viscera of the common vole, Microtus arvalis.Branching order of bacterial phyla (Gupta, 2001): There are several models of the Branching order of bacterial phyla, one of these was proposed in 2001 by Gupta based on conserved indels or protein, termed "protein signatures", an alternative approach to molecular phylogeny. Some problematic exceptions and conflicts are present to these conserved indels, however, they are in agreement with several groupings of classes and phyla.Genetic variation: right|thumbThe Rain Rain Rain Came Down Down Down: "The Rain Rain Rain Came Down Down Down" is a narrative song from the Walt Disney musical film featurette, Winnie the Pooh and the Blustery Day. The song is also incorporated into the 1977 musical film The Many Adventures of Winnie the Pooh which is an amalgamation of three Winnie-the-Pooh featurettes including "Blustery Day".Sustainable Fisheries Act of 1996: The Sustainable Fisheries Act of 1996 is an amendment to the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act, a law governing the management of marine fisheries in the United States. Another major amendment to this legislation was later made under the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Reauthorization Act of 2006.Panmixia: Panmixia (or panmixis) means random mating.King C and Stanfield W.Meramec Conservation AreaMicrobial food web: The microbial food web refers the combined trophic interactions among microbes in aquatic environments. These microbes include viruses, bacteria, algae, heterotrophic protists (such as ciliates and flagellates).Veronica LakeTemporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studyingMechanical pest control: Mechanical pest control is the management and control of pests using physical means such as fences, barriers or electronic wires. It includes also weeding and change of temperature to control pests.Acoustical oceanography: Acoustical oceanography is the use of underwater sound to study the sea, its boundaries and its contents.Erythronium japonicum: Katakuri (Erythronium japonicum; ) is a pink-flowered species trout lily, belonging to the Lily family and native to Japan, Korea, the Russian Far East (Sakhalin Island, Kuril Islands) and northeastern China (Jilin and Liaoning).Flora of China v 24 p 126Kew World Checklist of Selected Plant Families It is a spring ephemeral, blooming April–June in woodlands.Citizen Weather Observer Program: The Citizen Weather Observer Program (CWOP) is a network of privately owned electronic weather stations concentrated in the United States but also located in over 150 countries. Network participation allows volunteers with computerized weather stations to send automated surface weather observations to the National Weather Service (NWS) by way of the Meteorological Assimilation Data Ingest System (MADIS).Cambrian–Ordovician extinction eventCalifornia Wolf Center: California Wolf Center is a 501(c)3 nonprofit located 50 miles east of San Diego, near the town of Julian, California. It is a one-of-a-kind, conservation, education, and research center dedicated to wolf recovery in the wild.PhytoplanktonLow Fertility Cohorts Study: The Low Fertility Cohorts Study, 1978: A Survey of White, Ever-Married Women Belonging to the 1901-1910 United States Birth Cohorts,Data Sharing For Demographic Research consists of personal interviews of white, ever-married women born between July 1, 1900, and June 30, 1910. In 1978, a national survey of 1,049 married women between the ages of 68 and 78 were interviewed between the months of March and July in order to investigate low fertility during the 1920s and 1930s and the women of childbearing age during those decades.Molecular evolution: Molecular evolution is a change in the sequence composition of cellular molecules such as DNA, RNA, and proteins across generations. The field of molecular evolution uses principles of evolutionary biology and population genetics to explain patterns in these changes.Inverse probability weighting: Inverse probability weighting is a statistical technique for calculating statistics standardized to a population different from that in which the data was collected. Study designs with a disparate sampling population and population of target inference (target population) are common in application.Silver fox (animal): The silver fox is a melanistic form of red fox (Vulpes vulpes). Silver foxes display a great deal of pelt variation: some are completely black except for a white coloration on the tip of the tail, some are bluish-grey, and some may have a cinereous color on the sides.Climate change in the United Kingdom: Climate change in the United Kingdom has been a subject of protests and controversies, and various policies have been developed to mitigate its effects. It is estimated to demand at least 80-85% emission reductions in the EU during 2008-2050 with reductions as soon as technically possible.Dactylogyrus: Dactylogyrus is a genus of the Dactylogyridae family. They are commonly known as gill flukesSnow pea: The snow pea (Pisum sativum var. saccharatum) is a legume, more specifically a variety of pea eaten whole in its pod while still unripe.Alliance for Zero Extinction: Formed in 2000 and launched globally in 2005, the Alliance for Zero Extinction (AZE) comprises 100 non-governmental biodiversity conservation organizations working to prevent species extinctions by identifying and safeguarding sites where species evaluated to be Endangered or Critically Endangered under International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) criteria only exist at one location on earth."Zero Extinction - Home.Bird trapping: Bird trapping techniques to capture wild birds include a wide range of techniques that have their origins in the hunting of birds for food. While hunting for food does not require birds to be caught alive, some trapping techniques capture birds without harming them and are of use in ornithology research.Psorophora howardiiPermissive temperature: The permissive temperature is the temperature at which a temperature sensitive mutant gene product takes on a normal, functional phenotype.http://www.Selection (relational algebra): In relational algebra, a selection (sometimes called a restriction to avoid confusion with SQL's use of SELECT) is a unary operation written asExogenous bacteria: Exogenous bacteria are microorganisms introduced to closed biological systems from the external world. They exist in aquatic and terrestrial environments, as well as the atmosphere.List of drainage basins by area: The list of drainage basins by area identifies basins (also known as watersheds or catchments), sorted by area, which drain to oceans, mediterranean seas, rivers, lakes and other water bodies. All basins larger than are included as well as selected smaller basins.Bulloo-Bancannia drainage basin: The Bulloo-Bancannia drainage basin is a drainage basin that covers part of western Queensland and New South Wales. It is adjacent to the much larger Lake Eyre basin.Andesobia jelskiiSymbiosis Center of Health Care: Symbiosis Center of Health Care (SCHC) is an organization under Symbiosis Society which takes care of health of symbiosis family be it student or staff.http://www.Antelope: An antelope is a member of a number of even-toed ungulate species indigenous to various regions in Africa and Eurasia. Antelopes comprise a wastebasket taxon (miscellaneous group) within the family Bovidae, encompassing those Old World species that are not cattle, sheep, buffalo, bison, or goats.Victor Willard: Victor M. Willard (1813 – December 10, 1869) was an American farmer from Waterford, Wisconsin who spent two years (1849–1850) as a Free Soil Party member of the Wisconsin State Senate from the 17th District.Ellobiopsis: Ellobiopsis is a genus of alveolae parasitic protozoa.Planorbella trivolvis: Planorbella trivolvis is a species of freshwater air-breathing snail, an aquatic pulmonate gastropod mollusk in the family Planorbidae, the ram's horn snails, or planorbids, which all have sinistral or left-coiling shells.Hyperparameter: In Bayesian statistics, a hyperparameter is a parameter of a prior distribution; the term is used to distinguish them from parameters of the model for the underlying system under analysis.Ruminant: Ruminants are mammals that are able to acquire nutrients from plant-based food by fermenting it in a specialized stomach prior to digestion, principally through microbial actions. The process typically requires the fermented ingesta (known as cud) to be regurgitated and chewed again.Monarch Butterfly Biosphere ReserveDNA sequencer: A DNA sequencer is a scientific instrument used to automate the DNA sequencing process. Given a sample of DNA, a DNA sequencer is used to determine the order of the four bases: G (guanine), C (cytosine), A (adenine) and T (thymine).Ecosystem of the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre: The North Pacific Subtropical Gyre (NPSG) is the largest contiguous ecosystem on earth. In oceanography, a subtropical gyre is a ring-like system of ocean currents rotating clockwise in the Northern Hemisphere and counterclockwise in the Southern Hemisphere caused by the Coriolis Effect.Philornis downsi: Philornis downsi is a species of fly (Diptera, Muscidae) that was first recorded in Trinidad and Brazil in the 1990s.Dudaniec RY, Fessl B & Kleindorfer S.Acyrthosiphon pisum: Acyrthosiphon pisum, commonly known as the pea aphid (and colloquially known as the green dolphin, pea louse, and clover louse ), is a sap-sucking insect in the Aphididae family. It feeds on several species of legumes (plant family Fabaceae) worldwide, including forage crops, such as pea, clover, alfalfa, and broad bean, and ranks among the aphid species of major agronomical importance.Restricted isometry property: In linear algebra, the restricted isometry property characterizes matrices which are nearly orthonormal, at least when operating on sparse vectors. The concept was introduced by Emmanuel Candès and Terence TaoE.Rice weevilChrysomya albiceps: Chrysomya albiceps is a species belonging to the blow fly family, Calliphoridae. It is of great medical and sanitary importance, being associated with myiasis in Africa and America although it plays a more significant role as a predator of other dipteran larvae.Central Park Medical UnitDiseases and parasites in salmonWaterfalls of Montana: There are at least 120 named waterfalls in Montana.Kittiwake: The kittiwakes (genus Rissa) are two closely related seabird species in the gull family Laridae, the black-legged kittiwake (R. tridactyla) and the red-legged kittiwake (R.Peat swamp forest: Peat swamp forests are tropical moist forests where waterlogged soil prevents dead leaves and wood from fully decomposing. Over time, this creates a thick layer of acidic peat.Alkaliflexus: Alkaliflexus is a genus in the phylum Bacteroidetes (Bacteria).Clonal Selection Algorithm: In artificial immune systems, Clonal selection algorithms are a class of algorithms inspired by the clonal selection theory of acquired immunity that explains how B and T lymphocytes improve their response to antigens over time called affinity maturation. These algorithms focus on the Darwinian attributes of the theory where selection is inspired by the affinity of antigen-antibody interactions, reproduction is inspired by cell division, and variation is inspired by somatic hypermutation.Clean Water State Revolving Fund: The Clean Water State Revolving Fund (CWSRF) is a self-perpetuating loan assistance authority for water quality improvement projects in the United States. The fund is administered by the Environmental Protection Agency and state agencies.Aedes aegyptiReaction coordinateAdalia bipunctata: Adalia bipunctata, commonly known as the two-spot ladybird, two-spotted ladybug or two-spotted lady beetle, is a carnivorous beetle of the family Coccinellidae that is found throughout the holarctic region. It is very common in western and central Europe.Weed control: Weed control is the botanical component of pest control, which attempts to stop weeds, especially noxious or injurious weeds, from competing with domesticated plants and livestock. Many strategies have been developed in order to contain these plants.In Memory of Celtic Frost: In Memory of... Celtic Frost is a Celtic Frost tribute album released in 1996.Coles Phillips

(1/4953) Prediction of genetic contributions and generation intervals in populations with overlapping generations under selection.

A method to predict long-term genetic contributions of ancestors to future generations is studied in detail for a population with overlapping generations under mass or sib index selection. An existing method provides insight into the mechanisms determining the flow of genes through selected populations, and takes account of selection by modeling the long-term genetic contribution as a linear regression on breeding value. Total genetic contributions of age classes are modeled using a modified gene flow approach and long-term predictions are obtained assuming equilibrium genetic parameters. Generation interval was defined as the time in which genetic contributions sum to unity, which is equal to the turnover time of genes. Accurate predictions of long-term genetic contributions of individual animals, as well as total contributions of age classes were obtained. Due to selection, offspring of young parents had an above-average breeding value. Long-term genetic contributions of youngest age classes were therefore higher than expected from the age class distribution of parents, and generation interval was shorter than the average age of parents at birth of their offspring. Due to an increased selective advantage of offspring of young parents, generation interval decreased with increasing heritability and selection intensity. The method was compared to conventional gene flow and showed more accurate predictions of long-term genetic contributions.  (+info)

(2/4953) Ancestral Asian source(s) of new world Y-chromosome founder haplotypes.

Haplotypes constructed from Y-chromosome markers were used to trace the origins of Native Americans. Our sample consisted of 2,198 males from 60 global populations, including 19 Native American and 15 indigenous North Asian groups. A set of 12 biallelic polymorphisms gave rise to 14 unique Y-chromosome haplotypes that were unevenly distributed among the populations. Combining multiallelic variation at two Y-linked microsatellites (DYS19 and DXYS156Y) with the unique haplotypes results in a total of 95 combination haplotypes. Contra previous findings based on Y- chromosome data, our new results suggest the possibility of more than one Native American paternal founder haplotype. We postulate that, of the nine unique haplotypes found in Native Americans, haplotypes 1C and 1F are the best candidates for major New World founder haplotypes, whereas haplotypes 1B, 1I, and 1U may either be founder haplotypes and/or have arrived in the New World via recent admixture. Two of the other four haplotypes (YAP+ haplotypes 4 and 5) are probably present because of post-Columbian admixture, whereas haplotype 1G may have originated in the New World, and the Old World source of the final New World haplotype (1D) remains unresolved. The contrasting distribution patterns of the two major candidate founder haplotypes in Asia and the New World, as well as the results of a nested cladistic analysis, suggest the possibility of more than one paternal migration from the general region of Lake Baikal to the Americas.  (+info)

(3/4953) Long-term studies of hantavirus reservoir populations in the southwestern United States: rationale, potential, and methods.

Hantaviruses are rodent-borne zoonotic agents that cause hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in Asia and Europe and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) in North and South America. The epidemiology of human diseases caused by these viruses is tied to the ecology of the rodent hosts, and effective control and prevention relies on a through understanding of host ecology. After the 1993 HPS outbreak in the southwestern United States, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention initiated long-term studies of the temporal dynamics of hantavirus infection in host populations. These studies, which used mark-recapture techniques on 24 trapping webs at nine sites in the southwestern United States, were designed to monitor changes in reservoir population densities and in the prevalence and incidence of infection; quantify environmental factors associated with these changes; and when linked to surveillance databases for HPS, lead to predictive models of human risk to be used in the design and implementation of control and prevention measures for human hantavirus disease.  (+info)

(4/4953) Long-term hantavirus persistence in rodent populations in central Arizona.

For 35 months, we monitored hantavirus activity in rodent populations in central Arizona. The most frequently captured hantavirus antibody-positive rodents were Peromyscus boylii and P. truei. Antibody-positive P. boylii were more frequently male (84%), older, and heavier, and they survived longer on trapping web sites than antibody-negative mice. The number of antibody-positive P. boylii was greater during high population densities than during low densities, while antibody prevalence was greater during low population densities. Virus transmission and incidence rates, also related to population densities, varied by trapping site. The spatial distribution of antibody-positive P. boylii varied by population density and reflected the species preference for dense chaparral habitats. The focal ranges of antibody-positive P. boylii also demonstrated a patchy distribution of hantavirus.  (+info)

(5/4953) A longitudinal study of Sin Nombre virus prevalence in rodents, southeastern Arizona.

We determined the prevalence of Sin Nombre virus antibodies in small mammals in southeastern Arizona. Of 1,234 rodents (from 13 species) captured each month from May through December 1995, only mice in the genus Peromyscus were seropositive. Antibody prevalence was 14.3% in 21 white-footed mice (P. leucopus), 13.3% in 98 brush mice (P. boylii), 0.8% in 118 cactus mice (P. eremicus), and 0% in 2 deer mice (P. maniculatus). Most antibody-positive mice were adult male Peromyscus captured close to one another early in the study. Population dynamics of brush mice suggest a correlation between population size and hantavirus-antibody prevalence.  (+info)

(6/4953) The changing elderly population and future health care needs.

The impending growth of the elderly population requires both fiscal and substantive changes in Medicare and Medicaid that are responsive to cost issues and to changing patterns of need. More emphasis is required on chronic disease management, on meaningful integration between acute and long-term care services, and on improved coordination between Medicare and Medicaid initiatives. This paper reviews various trends, including the growth in managed-care approaches, experience with social health maintenance organizations and Program of All-Inclusive Care for the Elderly demonstrations, and the need for a coherent long-term care policy. Such policies, however, transcend health care and require a broad range of community initiatives.  (+info)

(7/4953) Sex-biased dispersal in sperm whales: contrasting mitochondrial and nuclear genetic structure of global populations.

The social organization of most mammals is characterized by female philopatry and male dispersal. Such sex-biased dispersal can cause the genetic structure of populations to differ between the maternally inherited mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and the bi-parental nuclear genome. Here we report on the global genetic structure of oceanic populations of the sperm whale, one of the most widely distributed mammalian species. Groups of females and juveniles are mainly found at low latitudes, while males reach polar waters, returning to tropical and subtropical waters to breed. In comparisons between oceans, we did not find significant heterogeneity in allele frequencies of microsatellite loci (exact test; p = 0.23). Estimates of GST = 0.001 and RST = 0.005 also indicated negligible if any nuclear DNA differentiation. We have previously reported significant differentiation between oceans in mtDNA sequences. These contrasting patterns suggest that interoceanic movements have been more prevalent among males than among females, consistent with observations of females being the philopatric sex and having a more limited latitudinal distribution than males. Consequently, the typical mammalian dispersal pattern may have operated on a global scale in sperm whales.  (+info)

(8/4953) Patient health management: a promising paradigm in Canadian healthcare.

Disease management, or the focused application of resources to achieve desired health outcomes, began in Canada in 1971 with the introduction of a universal healthcare program and a single government payor. Although relatively unfocused and nonrestrictive by contemporary standards, this program was successful in terms of outcomes. However, it is expensive, and Canada's rapidly aging population is fueling a growing demand for more efficacious medical therapies. As a result, isolated services are being restricted in an effort to reduce costs. As a result of these changes and low prescription and patient compliance rates for efficacious therapies, total system costs have risen, there is a growing concern about deterioration of health outcomes, and stakeholders are dissatisfied. To optimize healthcare outcomes and reduce costs, a new paradigm--patient health management (PHM)--has emerged. With PHM, clinical and cost outcomes are continually measured and communicated to providers in an attempt to promote more efficacious care. PHM also seeks to avoid restrictive practices that are now associated with detrimental health outcomes and increased costs. PHM has proved successful when applied to acute and chronic cardiac disease treatment. It remains untested for most other diseases, but available data suggest that the comprehensive, evidence-based disease and systems management that characterizes PHM is likely to achieve the best health outcomes for the most people at the lowest possible costs.  (+info)

  • mortality
  • The model achieves this by adjusting the mortality rate of the adults so that the modeled population produces the observed number of pups. (gc.ca)
  • It was in 1662 that John Graunt was fascinated by mortality rates in Britain and made a treatise for the population of Britain to analyse what influenced the age of death. (brainmass.com)
  • world's
  • Promoting better market access and market performance for smallholder agricultural producers and the provision of access to better quality and lower price food for the majority of the world's population requires the strengthening of rural-urban linkages and putting 'place-based development' at. (fao.org)
  • organisms
  • A cohort life table tracks organisms through the stages of life, while a static life table shows the distribution of life stages among the population at a single point in time. (wikipedia.org)
  • The population size (usually denoted by N) is the number of individual organisms in a population. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bacteria are single-cell organisms and the most numerous denizens of agriculture, with populations ranging from 100 million to 3 billion in a gram. (wikipedia.org)
  • Environmental
  • To provide global urban, rural, and total population projection grids based on Shared Socioeconomic Pathways (SSPs) data at a resolution of one-eighth degree (7.5 arc-minutes) for climate, socioeconomic, environmental, and other related research. (ciesin.org)
  • Water troughs and contaminated pen floors appeared to be particularly influential sources driving E. coli O157:H7 population dynamics and thus would serve as prime environmental targets for interventions to effectively reduce the E. coli O157:H7 load at the pen level. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • capita
  • d N d T = r N {\displaystyle {\dfrac {dN}{dT}}=rN} where d N d T {\displaystyle {\dfrac {dN}{dT}}} is the rate of population growth per unit time, r is the maximum per capita growth rate, and N is the population size. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fertility
  • Before then, a population can continue to grow with the total fertility rate at or below 2.1, depending on its age structure, a manifestation of the concept of population momentum described earlier. (learner.org)
  • demographic
  • The goal of the graduate training program is to produce social scientists, fully trained in their discipline, with broad knowledge in population studies and specialized skills in statistical and demographic techniques, who can undertake independent research on a wide range of population topics. (wikipedia.org)
  • behavior
  • These data suggest that population coding is linked to behavior with a fidelity that single-neuron coding is not. (jneurosci.org)
  • We conclude that, despite the fact that single-neuron responses change with each new experience, ensemble response dynamics continue to accurately and stably reflect a sensory stimulus' relationship to behavior. (jneurosci.org)
  • size
  • Population dynamics is the study of population size and factors that affect animal abundance. (gc.ca)
  • A population model is then used to determine total population size. (gc.ca)
  • Information on population size has been obtained from aerial surveys to count the number of pups, total counts of pups born in a colony, or through mark-recapture experiments. (gc.ca)
  • In fact, studying population size goes far back in scientific research. (brainmass.com)
  • The harvestable surplus is the number of individuals that can be harvested from the population without affecting long term stability (average population size). (wikipedia.org)
  • The effective population size (Ne) was defined by Sewall Wright, who wrote two landmark papers on it (Wright 1931, 1938). (wikipedia.org)
  • Ne is usually less than N (the absolute population size). (wikipedia.org)
  • Population bottlenecks are when population size reduces for a short period of time. (wikipedia.org)
  • VPA is virtual in the sense that the population size is not observed or measured directly but is inferred or back-calculated to have been a certain size in the past in order to support the observed fish catches and an assumed death rate owing to non-fishery related causes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Population size and structure impact a country's economy as well as its ability to provide social protections and access to health care, education, housing, sanitation, water, food and energy. (unfpa.org)
  • rate
  • Although drastically reduced in numbers from hunting, the St Lawrence Estuary beluga population was stable or increasing at a very slow rate since the end of the hunt in the 1960s and numbered around 1000 individuals in the early 2000s. (gc.ca)
  • This is therefore the theoretical maximum rate of increase of a population per individual. (wikipedia.org)
  • The basic reproductive rate R 0 {\displaystyle R_{0}} , also known as the replacement rate of a population, is the ratio of daughters to mothers. (wikipedia.org)
  • In a stable population the replacement rate should hover close to 1. (wikipedia.org)
  • A fishery population is affected by three dynamic rate functions: Birth rate or recruitment. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nieuw-Lekkerland had the second highest Natural Growth Rate of Population in Netherlands in 2007. (wikipedia.org)
  • aquatic
  • A fishery is an area with an associated fish or aquatic population which is harvested for its commercial or recreational value. (wikipedia.org)
  • Matters
  • Nancy Birdsall and Steven W. Sinding, "How and Why Population Matters: New Findings, New Issues," in Nancy Birdsall, Allen C. Kelley, and Steven W. Sinding, eds. (learner.org)
  • Population Matters (Oxford University Press, 2003), p. 14. (learner.org)
  • Conservation
  • André Price and Nia Walker will explore the dynamics of marine populations and investigate case studies involving current issues in marine conservation and fisheries management. (noaa.gov)
  • urban
  • By 2050, nearly 63 per cent of the total population of Southeast Asia is expected to live in urban areas. (fao.org)
  • Evidence suggests that efforts to limit urban population growth, for example by restricting internal migration, have had limited success, if any. (unfpa.org)
  • To this end, countries need to collect disaggregated population data on a regular basis and use this data for planning at the national, local, rural and urban levels. (unfpa.org)
  • The Global Population Projection Grids Based on Shared Socioeconomic Pathways (SSPs), 2010-2100 consists of global spatial population projections at a resolution of one-eighth degree (7.5 arc-minutes) for urban, rural, and total population, consistent both quantitatively and qualitatively, with the SSPs at ten-year intervals for 2010-2100. (ciesin.org)
  • extinction
  • But despite the fact that, as expected, postextinction single-neuron responses did not resemble "naive responses," ensemble response dynamics changed with learning and reverted with extinction: both the speed of stimulus processing and the relationships among ensemble responses to the different stimuli tracked behavioral relevance. (jneurosci.org)
  • affect
  • Research also examines factors that may affect population parameters such as energy intake or disease. (gc.ca)
  • spatial
  • This data set is produced based on a clear need for plausible alternative projections of spatial distribution of the population that can represent patterns of development consistent with the SSPs. (ciesin.org)
  • targets
  • UNFPA supports countries in their efforts to formulate people-centred development strategies, goals and targets that account for and address population dynamics. (unfpa.org)
  • In order to more effectively identify targets for intervention strategies, we aimed to (1) assess the role of various feedlot habitats in E. coli O157:H7 propagation and (2) provide a framework for examining the relative contributions of animals and the surrounding environment to observed pathogen dynamics. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • future
  • In the future, humans would be unable to feed large populations. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a reference standard, MVP is usually given with a population survival probability of somewhere between ninety and ninety-five percent and calculated for between one hundred and one thousand years into the future. (wikipedia.org)
  • rates
  • The harp seal population is monitored through a combination of aerial surveys that determine how many pups are born in a year, and the collection of seals by hunters to obtain information on age at maturity and age specific reproductive rates. (gc.ca)
  • This is done by calculating how many adults in a population would be required to produce the number of pups that are counted during the surveys, given the reproductive rates that are obtained from the sampling program. (gc.ca)
  • directly
  • The Program also conducts considerable research and development of new methods for stock assessment research, and has participated in major field programs to estimate bivalve populations directly from the results of expanded research vessel survey catches. (noaa.gov)
  • Brain function has frequently been suggested to be better understood in terms of the dynamics of population/network coding: of activities of neurons related directly to one another (e.g. (jneurosci.org)
  • individuals
  • However, since then the population has declined, possibly to as low as 889 individuals in 2012. (gc.ca)
  • Virtual population analysis (VPA) is a cohort modeling technique commonly used in fisheries science for reconstructing historical fish numbers at age using information on death of individuals each year. (wikipedia.org)