Population Density: Number of individuals in a population relative to space.Population Dynamics: The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Bone Density: The amount of mineral per square centimeter of BONE. This is the definition used in clinical practice. Actual bone density would be expressed in grams per milliliter. It is most frequently measured by X-RAY ABSORPTIOMETRY or TOMOGRAPHY, X RAY COMPUTED. Bone density is an important predictor for OSTEOPOROSIS.Reindeer: A genus of deer, Rangifer, that inhabits the northern parts of Europe, Asia, and America. Caribou is the North American name; reindeer, the European. They are often domesticated and used, especially in Lapland, for drawing sleds and as a source of food. Rangifer is the only genus of the deer family in which both sexes are antlered. Most caribou inhabit arctic tundra and surrounding arboreal coniferous forests and most have seasonal shifts in migration. They are hunted extensively for their meat, skin, antlers, and other parts. (From Webster, 3d ed; Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1397)Quorum Sensing: A phenomenon where microorganisms communicate and coordinate their behavior by the accumulation of signaling molecules. A reaction occurs when a substance accumulates to a sufficient concentration. This is most commonly seen in bacteria.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Geography: The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)Geographic Information Systems: Computer systems capable of assembling, storing, manipulating, and displaying geographically referenced information, i.e. data identified according to their locations.Ecology: The branch of science concerned with the interrelationship of organisms and their ENVIRONMENT, especially as manifested by natural cycles and rhythms, community development and structure, interactions between different kinds of organisms, geographic distributions, and population alterations. (Webster's, 3d ed)Pest Control: The reduction or regulation of the population of noxious, destructive, or dangerous plants, insects, or other animals. This includes control of plants that serve as habitats or food sources for animal pests.Population Growth: Increase, over a specific period of time, in the number of individuals living in a country or region.Environment: The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.Insect Vectors: Insects that transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.Population Control: Includes mechanisms or programs which control the numbers of individuals in a population of humans or animals.4-Butyrolactone: One of the FURANS with a carbonyl thereby forming a cyclic lactone. It is an endogenous compound made from gamma-aminobutyrate and is the precursor of gamma-hydroxybutyrate. It is also used as a pharmacological agent and solvent.Climate: The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Disease Vectors: Invertebrates or non-human vertebrates which transmit infective organisms from one host to another.Conservation of Natural Resources: The protection, preservation, restoration, and rational use of all resources in the total environment.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Urbanization: The process whereby a society changes from a rural to an urban way of life. It refers also to the gradual increase in the proportion of people living in urban areas.Hydrology: Science dealing with the properties, distribution, and circulation of water on and below the earth's surface, and atmosphere.Urban Population: The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.Topography, Medical: The systematic surveying, mapping, charting, and description of specific geographical sites, with reference to the physical features that were presumed to influence health and disease. Medical topography should be differentiated from EPIDEMIOLOGY in that the former emphasizes geography whereas the latter emphasizes disease outbreaks.Crowding: An excessive number of individuals, human or animal, in relation to available space.Gastropoda: A class in the phylum MOLLUSCA comprised of SNAILS and slugs. The former have coiled external shells and the latter usually lack shells.Demography: Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.Reproduction: The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)Aedes: A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) frequently found in tropical and subtropical regions. YELLOW FEVER and DENGUE are two of the diseases that can be transmitted by species of this genus.Beetles: INSECTS of the order Coleoptera, containing over 350,000 species in 150 families. They possess hard bodies and their mouthparts are adapted for chewing.Contact Inhibition: Arrest of cell locomotion or cell division when two cells come into contact.Residence Characteristics: Elements of residence that characterize a population. They are applicable in determining need for and utilization of health services.Snails: Marine, freshwater, or terrestrial mollusks of the class Gastropoda. Most have an enclosing spiral shell, and several genera harbor parasites pathogenic to man.Competitive Behavior: The direct struggle between individuals for environmental necessities or for a common goal.Cities: A large or important municipality of a country, usually a major metropolitan center.Animal Distribution: A process by which animals in various forms and stages of development are physically distributed through time and space.Trees: Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.Body Size: The physical measurements of a body.Disease Reservoirs: Animate or inanimate sources which normally harbor disease-causing organisms and thus serve as potential sources of disease outbreaks. Reservoirs are distinguished from vectors (DISEASE VECTORS) and carriers, which are agents of disease transmission rather than continuing sources of potential disease outbreaks.Paramecium aurelia: A species of ciliated PARAMECIUM possessing two micronuclei.Rural Population: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.Hantavirus Infections: Infections with viruses of the genus HANTAVIRUS. This is associated with at least four clinical syndromes: HEMORRHAGIC FEVER WITH RENAL SYNDROME caused by viruses of the Hantaan group; a milder form of HFRS caused by SEOUL VIRUS; nephropathia epidemica caused by PUUMALA VIRUS; and HANTAVIRUS PULMONARY SYNDROME caused by SIN NOMBRE VIRUS.Cell Count: The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.Agriculture: The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.Centrifugation, Density Gradient: Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Environment Design: The structuring of the environment to permit or promote specific patterns of behavior.Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Censuses: Enumerations of populations usually recording identities of all persons in every place of residence with age or date of birth, sex, occupation, national origin, language, marital status, income, relation to head of household, information on the dwelling place, education, literacy, health-related data (e.g., permanent disability), etc. The census or "numbering of the people" is mentioned several times in the Old Testament. Among the Romans, censuses were intimately connected with the enumeration of troops before and after battle and probably a military necessity. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 3d ed; Garrison, An Introduction to the History of Medicine, 4th ed, p66, p119)Islands: Tracts of land completely surrounded by water.Human Activities: Activities performed by humans.Nymph: The immature stage in the life cycle of those orders of insects characterized by gradual metamorphosis, in which the young resemble the imago in general form of body, including compound eyes and external wings; also the 8-legged stage of mites and ticks that follows the first moult.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Bays: An area of water mostly surrounded by land, usually smaller than a gulf, and affording access to the sea.Biodiversity: The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.Ursidae: The family of carnivorous or omnivorous bears, having massive bodies, coarse heavy fur, relatively short limbs, and almost rudimentary tails.Culicidae: A family of the order DIPTERA that comprises the mosquitoes. The larval stages are aquatic, and the adults can be recognized by the characteristic WINGS, ANIMAL venation, the scales along the wing veins, and the long proboscis. Many species are of particular medical importance.Biomass: Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.Weather: The state of the ATMOSPHERE over minutes to months.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Rivers: Large natural streams of FRESH WATER formed by converging tributaries and which empty into a body of water (lake or ocean).Spatio-Temporal Analysis: Techniques which study entities using their topological, geometric, or geographic properties and include the dimension of time in the analysis.Rodentia: A mammalian order which consists of 29 families and many genera.Fresh Water: Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.Deer: The family Cervidae of 17 genera and 45 species occurring nearly throughout North America, South America, and Eurasia, on most associated continental islands, and in northern Africa. Wild populations of deer have been established through introduction by people in Cuba, New Guinea, Australia, New Zealand, and other places where the family does not naturally occur. They are slim, long-legged and best characterized by the presence of antlers. Their habitat is forests, swamps, brush country, deserts, and arctic tundra. They are usually good swimmers; some migrate seasonally. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1362)Carnivora: An order of MAMMALS, usually flesh eaters with appropriate dentition. Suborders include the terrestrial carnivores Fissipedia, and the aquatic carnivores PINNIPEDIA.Models, Statistical: Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.Mosquito Control: The reduction or regulation of the population of mosquitoes through chemical, biological, or other means.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Environmental Monitoring: The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.HomoserinePredatory Behavior: Instinctual behavior pattern in which food is obtained by killing and consuming other species.Space-Time Clustering: A statistically significant excess of cases of a disease, occurring within a limited space-time continuum.Arvicolinae: A subfamily of MURIDAE found nearly world-wide and consisting of about 20 genera. Voles, lemmings, and muskrats are members.Water Supply: Means or process of supplying water (as for a community) usually including reservoirs, tunnels, and pipelines and often the watershed from which the water is ultimately drawn. (Webster, 3d ed)Birds: Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.Management Audit: Management review designed to evaluate efficiency and to identify areas in need of management improvement within the institution in order to ensure effectiveness in meeting organizational goals.Animals, Wild: Animals considered to be wild or feral or not adapted for domestic use. It does not include wild animals in zoos for which ANIMALS, ZOO is available.Colony Count, Microbial: Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Acyl-Butyrolactones: Cyclic esters of acylated BUTYRIC ACID containing four carbons in the ring.Rodent Diseases: Diseases of rodents of the order RODENTIA. This term includes diseases of Sciuridae (squirrels), Geomyidae (gophers), Heteromyidae (pouched mice), Castoridae (beavers), Cricetidae (rats and mice), Muridae (Old World rats and mice), Erethizontidae (porcupines), and Caviidae (guinea pigs).Caribbean Region: The area that lies between continental North and South America and comprises the Caribbean Sea, the West Indies, and the adjacent mainland regions of southern Mexico, Central America, Colombia, and Venezuela.Certificate of Need: A certificate issued by a governmental body to an individual or organization proposing to construct or modify a health facility, or to offer a new or different service. The process of issuing the certificate is also included.Urban Health: The status of health in urban populations.Larva: Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.Soil Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Dengue: An acute febrile disease transmitted by the bite of AEDES mosquitoes infected with DENGUE VIRUS. It is self-limiting and characterized by fever, myalgia, headache, and rash. SEVERE DENGUE is a more virulent form of dengue.Epidemiological Monitoring: Collection, analysis, and interpretation of data about the frequency, distribution, and consequences of disease or health conditions, for use in the planning, implementing, and evaluating public health programs.Insect Control: The reduction or regulation of the population of noxious, destructive, or dangerous insects through chemical, biological, or other means.Housing: Living facilities for humans.Mites: Any arthropod of the subclass ACARI except the TICKS. They are minute animals related to the spiders, usually having transparent or semitransparent bodies. They may be parasitic on humans and domestic animals, producing various irritations of the skin (MITE INFESTATIONS). Many mite species are important to human and veterinary medicine as both parasite and vector. Mites also infest plants.Oviposition: The process of laying or shedding fully developed eggs (OVA) from the female body. The term is usually used for certain INSECTS or FISHES with an organ called ovipositor where eggs are stored or deposited before expulsion from the body.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.BrazilHost-Parasite Interactions: The relationship between an invertebrate and another organism (the host), one of which lives at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.Transportation: The means of moving persons, animals, goods, or materials from one place to another.Bacterial Physiological Phenomena: Physiological processes and properties of BACTERIA.Introduced Species: Non-native organisms brought into a region, habitat, or ECOSYSTEM by human activity.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Grasshoppers: Plant-eating orthopterans having hindlegs adapted for jumping. There are two main families: Acrididae and Romaleidae. Some of the more common genera are: Melanoplus, the most common grasshopper; Conocephalus, the eastern meadow grasshopper; and Pterophylla, the true katydid.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Peromyscus: A genus of the subfamily SIGMODONTINAE consisting of 49 species. Two of these are widely used in medical research. They are P. leucopus, or the white-footed mouse, and P. maniculatus, or the deer mouse.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Sexual Behavior, Animal: Sexual activities of animals.Tropical Climate: A climate which is typical of equatorial and tropical regions, i.e., one with continually high temperatures with considerable precipitation, at least during part of the year. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Feeding Behavior: Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.Animal Migration: Periodic movements of animals in response to seasonal changes or reproductive instinct. Hormonal changes are the trigger in at least some animals. Most migrations are made for reasons of climatic change, feeding, or breeding.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Soil: The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.VietnamAnopheles: A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) that are known vectors of MALARIA.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Schistosomiasis: Infection with flukes (trematodes) of the genus SCHISTOSOMA. Three species produce the most frequent clinical diseases: SCHISTOSOMA HAEMATOBIUM (endemic in Africa and the Middle East), SCHISTOSOMA MANSONI (in Egypt, northern and southern Africa, some West Indies islands, northern 2/3 of South America), and SCHISTOSOMA JAPONICUM (in Japan, China, the Philippines, Celebes, Thailand, Laos). S. mansoni is often seen in Puerto Ricans living in the United States.Hantavirus: A genus of the family BUNYAVIRIDAE causing HANTAVIRUS INFECTIONS, first identified during the Korean war. Infection is found primarily in rodents and humans. Transmission does not appear to involve arthropods. HANTAAN VIRUS is the type species.Sex Ratio: The number of males per 100 females.Food Chain: The sequence of transfers of matter and energy from organism to organism in the form of FOOD. Food chains intertwine locally into a food web because most organisms consume more than one type of animal or plant. PLANTS, which convert SOLAR ENERGY to food by PHOTOSYNTHESIS, are the primary food source. In a predator chain, a plant-eating animal is eaten by a larger animal. In a parasite chain, a smaller organism consumes part of a larger host and may itself be parasitized by smaller organisms. In a saprophytic chain, microorganisms live on dead organic matter.Rhizosphere: The immediate physical zone surrounding plant roots that include the plant roots. It is an area of intense and complex biological activity involving plants, microorganisms, other soil organisms, and the soil.Pest Control, Biological: Use of naturally-occuring or genetically-engineered organisms to reduce or eliminate populations of pests.Poisson Distribution: A distribution function used to describe the occurrence of rare events or to describe the sampling distribution of isolated counts in a continuum of time or space.Crops, Agricultural: Cultivated plants or agricultural produce such as grain, vegetables, or fruit. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982)Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Pheromones: Chemical substances, excreted by an organism into the environment, that elicit behavioral or physiological responses from other organisms of the same species. Perception of these chemical signals may be olfactory or by contact.Air Pollutants: Any substance in the air which could, if present in high enough concentration, harm humans, animals, vegetation or material. Substances include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; and volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.Psychodidae: Small, hairy, moth-like flies which are of considerable public health importance as vectors of certain pathogenic organisms. Important disease-related genera are PHLEBOTOMUS, Lutzomyia, and Sergentomyia.Lipoproteins, LDL: A class of lipoproteins of small size (18-25 nm) and light (1.019-1.063 g/ml) particles with a core composed mainly of CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and smaller amounts of TRIGLYCERIDES. The surface monolayer consists mostly of PHOSPHOLIPIDS, a single copy of APOLIPOPROTEIN B-100, and free cholesterol molecules. The main LDL function is to transport cholesterol and cholesterol esters to extrahepatic tissues.Symbiosis: The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.Genetics, Population: The discipline studying genetic composition of populations and effects of factors such as GENETIC SELECTION, population size, MUTATION, migration, and GENETIC DRIFT on the frequencies of various GENOTYPES and PHENOTYPES using a variety of GENETIC TECHNIQUES.Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.Environmental Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.Adaptation, Physiological: The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.Rain: Water particles that fall from the ATMOSPHERE.Pseudomonas fluorescens: A species of nonpathogenic fluorescent bacteria found in feces, sewage, soil, and water, and which liquefy gelatin.Lactones: Cyclic esters of hydroxy carboxylic acids, containing a 1-oxacycloalkan-2-one structure. Large cyclic lactones of over a dozen atoms are MACROLIDES.Selection, Genetic: Differential and non-random reproduction of different genotypes, operating to alter the gene frequencies within a population.ScotlandAnalysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Rural Health: The status of health in rural populations.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Fishes: A group of cold-blooded, aquatic vertebrates having gills, fins, a cartilaginous or bony endoskeleton, and elongated bodies covered with scales.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Mammals: Warm-blooded vertebrate animals belonging to the class Mammalia, including all that possess hair and suckle their young.Fertility: The capacity to conceive or to induce conception. It may refer to either the male or female.Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.World Health: The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.Stochastic Processes: Processes that incorporate some element of randomness, used particularly to refer to a time series of random variables.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Insecticides: Pesticides designed to control insects that are harmful to man. The insects may be directly harmful, as those acting as disease vectors, or indirectly harmful, as destroyers of crops, food products, or textile fabrics.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Population Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.CaliforniaLipoproteins, HDL: A class of lipoproteins of small size (4-13 nm) and dense (greater than 1.063 g/ml) particles. HDL lipoproteins, synthesized in the liver without a lipid core, accumulate cholesterol esters from peripheral tissues and transport them to the liver for re-utilization or elimination from the body (the reverse cholesterol transport). Their major protein component is APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I. HDL also shuttle APOLIPOPROTEINS C and APOLIPOPROTEINS E to and from triglyceride-rich lipoproteins during their catabolism. HDL plasma level has been inversely correlated with the risk of cardiovascular diseases.EuropeCausality: The relating of causes to the effects they produce. Causes are termed necessary when they must always precede an effect and sufficient when they initiate or produce an effect. Any of several factors may be associated with the potential disease causation or outcome, including predisposing factors, enabling factors, precipitating factors, reinforcing factors, and risk factors.History, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.Linear Models: Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.United StatesMalaria: A protozoan disease caused in humans by four species of the PLASMODIUM genus: PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM VIVAX; PLASMODIUM OVALE; and PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; and transmitted by the bite of an infected female mosquito of the genus ANOPHELES. Malaria is endemic in parts of Asia, Africa, Central and South America, Oceania, and certain Caribbean islands. It is characterized by extreme exhaustion associated with paroxysms of high FEVER; SWEATING; shaking CHILLS; and ANEMIA. Malaria in ANIMALS is caused by other species of plasmodia.Tanzania: A republic in eastern Africa, south of UGANDA and north of MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Dar es Salaam. It was formed in 1964 by a merger of the countries of TANGANYIKA and ZANZIBAR.Suicide: The act of killing oneself.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Bayes Theorem: A theorem in probability theory named for Thomas Bayes (1702-1761). In epidemiology, it is used to obtain the probability of disease in a group of people with some characteristic on the basis of the overall rate of that disease and of the likelihood of that characteristic in healthy and diseased individuals. The most familiar application is in clinical decision analysis where it is used for estimating the probability of a particular diagnosis given the appearance of some symptoms or test result.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Seawater: The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.Plant Diseases: Diseases of plants.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Nitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Particulate Matter: Particles of any solid substance, generally under 30 microns in size, often noted as PM30. There is special concern with PM1 which can get down to PULMONARY ALVEOLI and induce MACROPHAGE ACTIVATION and PHAGOCYTOSIS leading to FOREIGN BODY REACTION and LUNG DISEASES.Lipoproteins, VLDL: A class of lipoproteins of very light (0.93-1.006 g/ml) large size (30-80 nm) particles with a core composed mainly of TRIGLYCERIDES and a surface monolayer of PHOSPHOLIPIDS and CHOLESTEROL into which are imbedded the apolipoproteins B, E, and C. VLDL facilitates the transport of endogenously made triglycerides to extrahepatic tissues. As triglycerides and Apo C are removed, VLDL is converted to INTERMEDIATE-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS, then to LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS from which cholesterol is delivered to the extrahepatic tissues.Biodegradation, Environmental: Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.Absorptiometry, Photon: A noninvasive method for assessing BODY COMPOSITION. It is based on the differential absorption of X-RAYS (or GAMMA RAYS) by different tissues such as bone, fat and other soft tissues. The source of (X-ray or gamma-ray) photon beam is generated either from radioisotopes such as GADOLINIUM 153, IODINE 125, or Americanium 241 which emit GAMMA RAYS in the appropriate range; or from an X-ray tube which produces X-RAYS in the desired range. It is primarily used for quantitating BONE MINERAL CONTENT, especially for the diagnosis of OSTEOPOROSIS, and also in measuring BONE MINERALIZATION.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.GermanyDogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Water Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Risk: The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.Pseudomonas: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.SwedenAlgorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Post-Synaptic Density: Cytoskeleton specialization at the cytoplasmic side of postsynaptic membrane in SYNAPSES. It is involved in neuronal signaling and NEURONAL PLASTICITY and comprised of GLUTAMATE RECEPTORS; scaffolding molecules (e.g., PSD95, PSD93), and other proteins (e.g., CaCMKII).IndiaReceptors, LDL: Receptors on the plasma membrane of nonhepatic cells that specifically bind LDL. The receptors are localized in specialized regions called coated pits. Hypercholesteremia is caused by an allelic genetic defect of three types: 1, receptors do not bind to LDL; 2, there is reduced binding of LDL; and 3, there is normal binding but no internalization of LDL. In consequence, entry of cholesterol esters into the cell is impaired and the intracellular feedback by cholesterol on 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase is lacking.Great Britain

*  Maps Mania: Oslo Population Density in 3D

The second map in the post provides a 3d visualization on the same population data, with each grid's population density shown ... Both tutorials and the accompanying demo maps visualize population density in Oslo, Norway.. The first tutorial in Mapping Grid ... Three.js and D3.js shows you how to create a grid based interactive map to visualize population density. The map also allows ...

*  Population density - Wikipedia

... states by population density List of Australian suburbs by population density Matt Rosenberg Population Density. Geography. ... cities by population density List of city districts by population density List of European cities proper by population density ... of United States cities by population density List of islands by population density List of countries by population density ... Human geography Idealized population Optimum population Population genetics Population health Population momentum Population ...

*  List of cities by population density - Wikipedia

This is a list of the cities worldwide that have the highest population density. The population, population density and land ... by population density List of European Union cities proper by population density List of city districts by population density ... "Area, Population and density of population in the district of Howrah". Howrah District Government. Archived from the original ... This list does not refer to the population, population density or land area of the greater metropolitan area or urban area, nor ...

*  List of islands by population density - Wikipedia

The following is a list of islands, sorted by population density, and including islands that connect to other island or inland ... Victoria Island (Canada) population 1,875; area 217,291 km2/83,897 sq mi = 1 person per 115.88 km2/44.7 sq mi or 0.009 persons ... Islands portal List of islands List of islands by population List of islands by area Populated islands of the Great Lakes ... Ellesmere Island (part of Nunavut, Canada) population 146; area 196,235 km2/75,767 sq mi = 1 person per 1,344.08 km2/518.95 sq ...

*  List of Mexican states by population density - Wikipedia

This is a list of Mexican States by population density. Population density is calculated as the ratio of resident population ...

*  List of Brazilian states by population density - Wikipedia

In 2014, Brazil had an overall population density of 24.66 inhabitants per square kilometer. Brazil - Population density ... Population density is a ratio of the average number of inhabitants per square kilometre. It is worked out by simply dividing ... Brazilian Official Territorial Area Population Estimates on 1 July 2014 Brazil States of Brazil List of subnational entities " ... the population by the area of the Federative Units. ...

*  List of African countries by population density - Wikipedia

This is a list of African countries and dependencies by population density in inhabitants/km². Saint Helena, being closest to ... List of African countries by population List of African countries by GDP Demographics of Africa United Nations Department of ... Economic and Social Affairs - Population Division Total Population Both sexes, July, 2015. ...

*  List of English districts by population density - Wikipedia

This is a list of Boroughs of England ordered by population density, based on population estimates for 2016 from the Office for ... The densities are calculated by dividing the latest Population Estimate by the Standard Area Measurement. List of English ... districts by population List of English districts by area List of English districts and their ethnic composition "Population ...

*  List of city districts by population density - Wikipedia

Population and population density in 2010 by district (pdf) Oficina Nacional de Estadísticas, Cuba; La Habana (pdf) Population ... List of cities proper by population density List of sovereign states and dependent territories by population density Kowloon ... "Population And Population Density (year-end of 2008)". Shanghai Municipal Government. Retrieved 14 December 2009. " ... "Mumbai Wards & Districts: Population & Density by Sector 2001". Demographia. Retrieved 2009-08-21. Preliminary Results of the ...

*  List of island countries by population density - Wikipedia

This is a list of island countries by population density across all islands: List of archipelagos List of archipelagos by ... of divided islands List of islands List of islands by area List of islands by population List of islands by population density ...

*  List of communes of Luxembourg by population density - Wikipedia

This is a list of communes of Luxembourg by population density. Cities are given in italics. Based on Population par canton et ... of Luxembourg by highest point List of communes of Luxembourg by lowest point List of communes of Luxembourg by population. ...

*  List of cantons of Luxembourg by population density - Wikipedia

This is a list of cantons of Luxembourg by population density. List of cantons of Luxembourg by area List of cantons of ... Luxembourg by highest point List of cantons of Luxembourg by lowest point List of cantons of Luxembourg by population. ...

*  List of Scottish council areas by population density - Wikipedia

This is a list of council areas of Scotland ordered by population density. The populations of these Scottish council areas are ... "Population Estimates for UK, England and Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland, Mid-2016". Office for National Statistics. 22 ...

*  List of districts of Taipei by population density - Wikipedia

The following is a list of districts of Taipei City ranked by population density. The data was from the Taipei City Government ... Rank District name Chinese name Pop'l density Daan 大安區 27,546 Datong 大同區 22,357 Wanhua 萬華區 21,958 Songshan 松山區 20,870 ... 南港區 5,162 Shilin 士林區 4,617 Beitou 北投區 4,382 List of districts of Taipei by area List of districts of Taipei by population Until ...

*  List of United States cities by population density - Wikipedia

... by population density Worldwide List of cities by population density List of countries and dependencies by population density ... and ranked by total population; the population density for each place is also given in the lists. The population density is ... Population Density Mashup - combines Google Maps and data from the 2000 U.S. Census to show the population density of various ... Ranked by 2000 Density - from Demographia, ranks the population density for all incorporated places over 50,000 population from ...

*  List of countries and dependencies by population density - Wikipedia

... population density List of the European Union members by density Area and population of European countries Population density ... Population density of Asian countries List of African countries by population density List of North American countries by ... United Nations World Population Prospects, the 2012 Revision List of countries by real population density (based on food ... Its population density has been estimated at 116 people per km2, and it would be ranked 95th if it were included in the list. ( ...

*  List of South African provinces by population density - Wikipedia

They vary widely in population density, from the highly urbanized Gauteng with nearly 700 people per square kilometre, to the ... The following table shows the provincial population density according to the 2011 National Census. Since the creation of the ... List of South African provinces by population List of South African provinces by area Census 2011: Census in brief (PDF). ...

*  What Influence Does Population Density Have on Neighborhood Improvement? - UrbanCincy

... we now know that population density and the ability for a neighborhood to improve may be more connected than previously thought ... Neighborhoods that received high income growth increased their educational attainment, population and population density at a ... a growing population and increased their population density.. As a result, two identical poor neighborhoods in New York City ... What Influence Does Population Density Have on Neighborhood Improvement?. By Jacob D. Fessler ― June 25, 2014. ...

*  List of European Union cities proper by population density - Wikipedia

This is a list of the European cities with the highest population density. The population, population density, and land area ... This list does not refer to the population, population density, or land area of the greater metropolitan area or urban area and ... The population density of the cities listed is based on the average number of people living per square mile or per square ... This list, however, is of the average densities of cities. Given that the status of the UK within the EU is in a state of flux ...

*  List of districts in Northern Ireland by population density - Wikipedia

This is a list of the 11 Local Government Districts in Northern Ireland established in 2015, by population density. Local ... "Population Estimates for UK, England and Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland, Mid-2016". Office for National Statistics. 22 ... Councils in Northern Ireland List of districts in Northern Ireland by area List of districts in Northern Ireland by population ...

*  Population density and mortality among individuals in motor vehicle crashes

... in regions with low population density compared with high population density. This difference decreased with increasing age, ... Population density and mortality among individuals in motor vehicle crashes. Gedeborg, Rolf Uppsala University, Disciplinary ... In regions with low population density, the unadjusted rate ratio for prehospital death was 2.2 (95% CI 1.9 to 2.5) and for ... To assess whether higher mortality rates among individuals in motor vehicle crashes in areas with low population density depend ...

*  List of U.S. states and territories by population density - Wikipedia

... statisticstimes.com/population/countries-by-population-density.php 2015 - List of Countries by Population Density. United ... Population density is calculated as resident population divided by total land area. Resident population is from the United ... and the District of Columbia by population density, population rank, and land area. It also includes a sortable table of ... For example, the population density of the U.S. is one-twelfth that of the Netherlands and one-fifteenth that of South Korea. ...

*  List of countries by real population density based on food growing capacity - Wikipedia

ISBN 978-0-471-67951-6. Muller, Peter O. (January 2000). "Physiologic Population Density for Each of the World's States, Year ... This is a list of countries ordered by physiological density. It adopts definitions of "country" on a case by case basis. The " ... List of sovereign states and dependent territories by population density https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world- ...

*  Experiments on Substrate Selection by Corophium Volutator (Pallas): Depth Selection and Population Density | Journal of...

4. Although preferring deeper muds, animals are persuaded to burrow in shallow muds when the surface population density in the ... Experiments on Substrate Selection by Corophium Volutator (Pallas): Depth Selection and Population Density ... Experiments on Substrate Selection by Corophium Volutator (Pallas): Depth Selection and Population Density ... Experiments on Substrate Selection by Corophium Volutator (Pallas): Depth Selection and Population Density ...

*  Habitat quality and population density drive occupancy dynamics of snowshoe hare in variegated landscapes - Thornton - 2012 -...

... local population density, and neighborhood population density (i.e. population density in the landscape around a site) on the ... Habitat quality and population density drive occupancy dynamics of snowshoe hare in variegated landscapes. Authors. *. Daniel H ... The influence of habitat quality and population density on occupancy dynamics may surpass that of traditional metrics of area ... Given the multi-scaled influence of habitat quality and population density on occupancy dynamics, our work also indicates that ...

Threshold host density: Threshold host density (NT), in the context of wildlife disease ecology, refers to the concentration of a population of a particular organism as it relates to disease. Specifically, the threshold host density (NT) of a species refers to the minimum concentration of individuals necessary to sustain a given disease within a population.Matrix population models: Population models are used in population ecology to model the dynamics of wildlife or human populations. Matrix population models are a specific type of population model that uses matrix algebra.EcosystemQuantitative computed tomographyThe White ReindeerFour Seasons Baltimore and Residences: Four Seasons Hotel Baltimore is currently a 22 story highrise hotel complex building which opened on November 14, 2011. The building's construction began back in 2007 and went through several changes.Health geography: Health geography is the application of geographical information, perspectives, and methods to the study of health, disease, and health care.List of geographic information systems software: GIS software encompasses a broad range of applications which involve the use of a combination of digital maps and georeferenced data. GIS software can be sorted into different categories.Spatial ecology: Spatial ecology is a specialization in ecology and geography that is concerned with the identification of spatial patterns and their relationships to ecological phenomena. Ecological events can be explained through the detection of patterns at a given spatial scale: local, regional, or global.Mechanical pest control: Mechanical pest control is the management and control of pests using physical means such as fences, barriers or electronic wires. It includes also weeding and change of temperature to control pests.Food Race: American environmental author Daniel Quinn coined the term Food Race (by analogy to the Cold War's "nuclear arms race") to describe an understanding of the current overpopulation emergency as a perpetually escalating crisis between growing human population and growing food production, fueled by the latter. Quinn argues that as the worldwide human population increases, the typical international response is to more intensely produce and distribute food to feed these greater numbers of people.Evolution in Variable EnvironmentAcyl-homoserine-lactone synthase: Acyl-homoserine-lactone synthase (, acyl-homoserine lactone synthase, acyl homoserine lactone synthase, acyl-homoserinelactone synthase, acylhomoserine lactone synthase, AHL synthase, AHS, AHSL synthase, AhyI, AinS, AinS protein, autoinducer synthase, autoinducer synthesis protein rhlI, EsaI, ExpISCC1, ExpISCC3065, LasI, LasR, LuxI, LuxI protein, LuxM, N-acyl homoserine lactone synthase, RhlI, YspI, acyl-[acyl carrier protein]:S-adenosyl-L-methionine acyltranserase (lactone-forming, methylthioadenosine-releasing)) is an enzyme with system name acyl-(acyl-carrier protein):S-adenosyl-L-methionine acyltranserase (lactone-forming, methylthioadenosine-releasing). This eHadley Centre for Climate Prediction and Research: 140px|rightDitch: A ditch is a small to moderate depression created to channel water. A ditch can be used for drainage, to drain water from low-lying areas, alongside roadways or fields, or to channel water from a more distant source for plant irrigation.Meramec Conservation AreaMatrix model: == Mathematics and physics ==Social determinants of obesity: While genetic influences are important to understanding obesity, they cannot explain the current dramatic increase seen within specific countries or globally. It is accepted that calorie consumption in excess of calorie expenditure leads to obesity, however what has caused shifts in these two factors on a global scale is much debated.Outline of hydrology: The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to hydrology:Respiratory system of gastropods: The respiratory system of gastropods varies greatly in form. These variations were once used as a basis for dividing the group into subclasses.Reproductive toxicity: Reproductive toxicity is a hazard associated with some chemical substances, that they will interfere in some way with normal reproduction; such substances are called reprotoxic. It includes adverse effects on sexual function and fertility in adult males and females, as well as developmental toxicity in the offspring.Aedes aegyptiAdalia bipunctata: Adalia bipunctata, commonly known as the two-spot ladybird, two-spotted ladybug or two-spotted lady beetle, is a carnivorous beetle of the family Coccinellidae that is found throughout the holarctic region. It is very common in western and central Europe.Neighbourhood: A neighbourhood (Commonwealth English), or neighborhood (American English), is a geographically localised community within a larger city, town, suburb or rural area. Neighbourhoods are often social communities with considerable face-to-face interaction among members.Planorbella trivolvis: Planorbella trivolvis is a species of freshwater air-breathing snail, an aquatic pulmonate gastropod mollusk in the family Planorbidae, the ram's horn snails, or planorbids, which all have sinistral or left-coiling shells.Peat swamp forest: Peat swamp forests are tropical moist forests where waterlogged soil prevents dead leaves and wood from fully decomposing. Over time, this creates a thick layer of acidic peat.Restricted isometry property: In linear algebra, the restricted isometry property characterizes matrices which are nearly orthonormal, at least when operating on sparse vectors. The concept was introduced by Emmanuel Candès and Terence TaoE.Colt Crag Reservoir: Colt Crag Reservoir is a relatively shallow reservoir in Northumberland, England adjacent to the A68 road, and north of Corbridge. The A68 road at this point runs along the course of Dere Street, a Roman road.Lancia Aurelia: The Lancia Aurelia is a grand tourer that was produced by the Italian manufacturer Lancia. Designed by Vittorio Jano, the Aurelia was launched in 1950 and production lasted until the summer of 1958.Neuromorphology: Neuromorphology (from Greek νεῦρον, neuron, "nerve"; μορφή, morphé, “form”; -λογία, -logia, “study of”[is the study of nervous system] form, shape, and structure. The study involves looking at a particular part of the nervous system from a [[Molecular biology|molecular and cellular level and connecting it to a physiological and anatomical point of view.Chilalo Agricultural Development Union: Chilalo Agricultural Development Union (CADU) is the first comprehensive package project established in Arsi Zone, Oromia Region, Ethiopia to modernize traditional subsistence agriculture. The major components of the package programmes include fertilizers, ameliorated seeds, farm credits, marketing facilities, better tools and implements, and improved storage facilities.Buoyant density ultracentrifugation: Buoyant density centrifugation uses the concept of buoyancy to separate molecules in solution. Usually a caesium chloride (CsCl) solution is used, but in the general case it's usually approximately the same density as the molecules that are to be centrifuged.Lough TaltVon Neumann regular ring: In mathematics, a von Neumann regular ring is a ring R such that for every a in R there exists an x in R such that . To avoid the possible confusion with the regular rings and regular local rings of commutative algebra (which are unrelated notions), von Neumann regular rings are also called absolutely flat rings, because these rings are characterized by the fact that every left module is flat.Pyrites Island: Pyrites Island () is the largest of three small islands lying northeast of Gam Point and forming the east side of Esther Harbor, off the north coast of King George Island in the South Shetland Islands. In 1913–14, the rocky extremity of Gam Point and the adjoining islands to the northwest and southeast were named Esther, Pyritis (sic) or Pyritic Islands by Scottish geologist David Ferguson, who reported they were composed of pyrites and vein quartz.Appropriation (By Any Other Name): June 13, 2005Ukiah Ambulance: Ukiah Ambulance is now Medstar Ambulance of Mendocino County Inc., a private non-profit ground transport ambulance provider serving central and southern Mendocino County.Temporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studyingHudson Bay Mountain: Hudson Bay Mountain is an ultra prominent peak located above Smithers, British Columbia, Canada. It is the location of the Hudson Bay Mountain Resort (formerly Ski Smithers) ski resort.Alliance for Zero Extinction: Formed in 2000 and launched globally in 2005, the Alliance for Zero Extinction (AZE) comprises 100 non-governmental biodiversity conservation organizations working to prevent species extinctions by identifying and safeguarding sites where species evaluated to be Endangered or Critically Endangered under International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) criteria only exist at one location on earth."Zero Extinction - Home.Yamaha Grizzly 600: The Yamaha Grizzly is a large utility all-terrain vehicle manufactured by the Yamaha Motor Company. It has a 595cc four-stroke engine from the XT600.Psorophora howardiiCitizen Weather Observer Program: The Citizen Weather Observer Program (CWOP) is a network of privately owned electronic weather stations concentrated in the United States but also located in over 150 countries. Network participation allows volunteers with computerized weather stations to send automated surface weather observations to the National Weather Service (NWS) by way of the Meteorological Assimilation Data Ingest System (MADIS).List of rivers of Brazil: This is a list of rivers in Brazil.WormsgrabenBulloo-Bancannia drainage basin: The Bulloo-Bancannia drainage basin is a drainage basin that covers part of western Queensland and New South Wales. It is adjacent to the much larger Lake Eyre basin.Deer farm: A deer farm is a fenced piece of land suitable for grazing that is populated with deer such as elk, moose, and even reindeer raised for the purpose of hunting tourism or as livestock. This practice is very different from the way such Arctic communities like the Laplanders migrate in open country with their herds of reindeer.East Sussex Cricket Ground: East Sussex Cricket Ground was a cricket ground in St Leonards-on-Sea, Sussex. The ground was located at the site of a racecourse which had moved after 1826 from the Bulverhythe Salts.Inverse probability weighting: Inverse probability weighting is a statistical technique for calculating statistics standardized to a population different from that in which the data was collected. Study designs with a disparate sampling population and population of target inference (target population) are common in application.Eagle's minimal essential medium: Eagle's minimal essential medium (EMEM) is a cell culture medium developed by Harry Eagle that can be used to maintain cells in tissue culture.Autoinducer-2Intraguild predation: Intraguild predation, or IGP, is the killing and eating of potential competitors. This interaction represents a combination of predation and competition, because both species rely on the same prey resources and also benefit from preying upon one another.Geographical cluster: A geographical cluster is a localised anomaly, usually an excess of something given the distribution or variation of something else. Often it is considered as an incidence rate that is unusual in that there is more of some variable than might be expected.Staphylococcus microti: Staphylococcus microti is a Gram positive, coagulase-negative member of the bacterial genus Staphylococcus consisting of clustered cocci. This species was originally isolated from viscera of the common vole, Microtus arvalis.Public water systemBird trapping: Bird trapping techniques to capture wild birds include a wide range of techniques that have their origins in the hunting of birds for food. While hunting for food does not require birds to be caught alive, some trapping techniques capture birds without harming them and are of use in ornithology research.Quorum-quenching N-acyl-homoserine lactonase: Quorum-quenching N-acyl-homoserine lactonase (, acyl homoserine degrading enzyme, acyl-homoserine lactone acylase, AHL lactonase, AHL-degrading enzyme, AHL-inactivating enzyme, AHLase, AhlD, AhlK, AiiA, AiiA lactonase, AiiA-like protein, AiiB, AiiC, AttM, delactonase, lactonase-like enzyme, N-acyl homoserine lactonase, N-acyl homoserine lactone hydrolase, N-acyl-homoserine lactone lactonase, N-acyl-L-homoserine lactone hydrolase, quorum-quenching lactonase, quorum-quenching N-acyl homoserine lactone hydrolase) is an enzyme with system name N-acyl-L-homoserine-lactone lactonohydrolase.{{cite journal | title = The molecular structure and catalytic mechanism of a quorum-quenching N-acyl-L-homoserine lactone hydrolase |author = Kim, M.Caribbean Basin Economic Recovery Act of 1983Andesobia jelskiiGemmatimonadetes: The Gemmatimonadetes are a family of bacteria, given their own phylum (Gemmatimonadetes). This bacterium makes up about 2% of soil bacterial communities and has been identified as one of the top nine phyla found in soils; yet, there are currently only six cultured isolates.Dengue fever outbreaksNational Healthy Homes Hero Award: National Healthy Homes Hero Award is an award presented by a consortium of agencies at the United States' National Healthy Homes Conference. The first year this award was presented was in 2011.Brevipalpus: Brevipalpus is a genus of mites in the family Tenuipalpidae, the flat mites.Brevipalpus californicus.University of CampinasPacific ElectricLists of invasive species: These are lists of invasive species by country or region. A species is regarded as invasive if it has been introduced by human action to a location, area, or region where it did not previously occur naturally (i.List of locust species: This is a list of locust species. These are Orthoptera that swarm and cause significant economic losses to agricultural crops.

(1/3450) Capture-recapture models including covariate effects.

Capture-recapture methods are used to estimate the incidence of a disease, using a multiple-source registry. Usually, log-linear methods are used to estimate population size, assuming that not all sources of notification are dependent. Where there are categorical covariates, a stratified analysis can be performed. The multinomial logit model has occasionally been used. In this paper, the authors compare log-linear and logit models with and without covariates, and use simulated data to compare estimates from different models. The crude estimate of population size is biased when the sources are not independent. Analyses adjusting for covariates produce less biased estimates. In the absence of covariates, or where all covariates are categorical, the log-linear model and the logit model are equivalent. The log-linear model cannot include continuous variables. To minimize potential bias in estimating incidence, covariates should be included in the design and analysis of multiple-source disease registries.  (+info)

(2/3450) Estimating the effective number of breeders from heterozygote excess in progeny.

The heterozygote-excess method is a recently published method for estimating the effective population size (Ne). It is based on the following principle: When the effective number of breeders (Neb) in a population is small, the allele frequencies will (by chance) be different in males and females, which causes an excess of heterozygotes in the progeny with respect to Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium expectations. We evaluate the accuracy and precision of the heterozygote-excess method using empirical and simulated data sets from polygamous, polygynous, and monogamous mating systems and by using realistic sample sizes of individuals (15-120) and loci (5-30) with varying levels of polymorphism. The method gave nearly unbiased estimates of Neb under all three mating systems. However, the confidence intervals on the point estimates of Neb were sufficiently small (and hence the heterozygote-excess method useful) only in polygamous and polygynous populations that were produced by <10 effective breeders, unless samples included > approximately 60 individuals and 20 multiallelic loci.  (+info)

(3/3450) Climatic and environmental patterns associated with hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, Four Corners region, United States.

To investigate climatic, spatial, temporal, and environmental patterns associated with hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) cases in the Four Corners region, we collected exposure site data for HPS cases that occurred in 1993 to 1995. Cases clustered seasonally and temporally by biome type and geographic location, and exposure sites were most often found in pinyon-juniper woodlands, grasslands, and Great Basin desert scrub lands, at elevations of 1,800 m to 2,500 m. Environmental factors (e.g., the dramatic increase in precipitation associated with the 1992 to 1993 El Nino) may indirectly increase the risk for Sin Nombre virus exposure and therefore may be of value in designing disease prevention campaigns.  (+info)

(4/3450) Long-term studies of hantavirus reservoir populations in the southwestern United States: rationale, potential, and methods.

Hantaviruses are rodent-borne zoonotic agents that cause hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in Asia and Europe and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) in North and South America. The epidemiology of human diseases caused by these viruses is tied to the ecology of the rodent hosts, and effective control and prevention relies on a through understanding of host ecology. After the 1993 HPS outbreak in the southwestern United States, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention initiated long-term studies of the temporal dynamics of hantavirus infection in host populations. These studies, which used mark-recapture techniques on 24 trapping webs at nine sites in the southwestern United States, were designed to monitor changes in reservoir population densities and in the prevalence and incidence of infection; quantify environmental factors associated with these changes; and when linked to surveillance databases for HPS, lead to predictive models of human risk to be used in the design and implementation of control and prevention measures for human hantavirus disease.  (+info)

(5/3450) Long-term hantavirus persistence in rodent populations in central Arizona.

For 35 months, we monitored hantavirus activity in rodent populations in central Arizona. The most frequently captured hantavirus antibody-positive rodents were Peromyscus boylii and P. truei. Antibody-positive P. boylii were more frequently male (84%), older, and heavier, and they survived longer on trapping web sites than antibody-negative mice. The number of antibody-positive P. boylii was greater during high population densities than during low densities, while antibody prevalence was greater during low population densities. Virus transmission and incidence rates, also related to population densities, varied by trapping site. The spatial distribution of antibody-positive P. boylii varied by population density and reflected the species preference for dense chaparral habitats. The focal ranges of antibody-positive P. boylii also demonstrated a patchy distribution of hantavirus.  (+info)

(6/3450) A longitudinal study of Sin Nombre virus prevalence in rodents, southeastern Arizona.

We determined the prevalence of Sin Nombre virus antibodies in small mammals in southeastern Arizona. Of 1,234 rodents (from 13 species) captured each month from May through December 1995, only mice in the genus Peromyscus were seropositive. Antibody prevalence was 14.3% in 21 white-footed mice (P. leucopus), 13.3% in 98 brush mice (P. boylii), 0.8% in 118 cactus mice (P. eremicus), and 0% in 2 deer mice (P. maniculatus). Most antibody-positive mice were adult male Peromyscus captured close to one another early in the study. Population dynamics of brush mice suggest a correlation between population size and hantavirus-antibody prevalence.  (+info)

(7/3450) Statistical sensitivity for detection of spatial and temporal patterns in rodent population densities.

A long-term monitoring program begun 1 year after the epidemic of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in the U.S. Southwest tracked rodent density changes through time and among sites and related these changes to hantavirus infection rates in various small-mammal reservoir species and human disease outbreaks. We assessed the statistical sensitivity of the program's field design and tested for potential biases in population estimates due to unintended deaths of rodents. Analyzing data from two sites in New Mexico from 1994 to 1998, we found that for many species of Peromyscus, Reithrodontomys, Neotoma, Dipodomys, and Perognathus, the monitoring program detected species-specific spatial and temporal differences in rodent densities; trap-related deaths did not significantly affect long-term population estimates. The program also detected a short-term increase in rodent densities in the winter of 1997-98, demonstrating its usefulness in identifying conditions conducive to increased risk for human disease.  (+info)

(8/3450) Natural history of Sin Nombre virus in western Colorado.

A mark-recapture longitudinal study of immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody to Sin Nombre virus (SNV) in rodent populations in western Colorado (1994-results summarized to October 1997) indicates the presence of SNV or a closely related hantavirus at two sites. Most rodents (principally deer mice, Peromyscus maniculatus, and pinyon mice, P. truei) did not persist on the trapping webs much beyond 1 month after first capture. Some persisted more than 1 year, which suggests that even a few infected deer mice could serve as transseasonal reservoirs and mechanisms for over-winter virus maintenance. A positive association between wounds and SNV antibody in adult animals at both sites suggests that when infected rodents in certain populations fight with uninfected rodents, virus amplification occurs. At both sites, male rodents comprised a larger percentage of seropositive mice than recaptured mice, which suggests that male mice contribute more to the SNV epizootic cycle than female mice. In deer mice, IgG antibody prevalence fluctuations were positively associated with population fluctuations. The rates of seroconversion, which in deer mice at both sites occurred mostly during late summer and midwinter, were higher than the seroprevalence, which suggests that the longer deer mice live, the greater the probability they will become infected with SNV.  (+info)



2016

  • This is a list of Boroughs of England ordered by population density, based on population estimates for 2016 from the Office for National Statistics. (wikipedia.org)
  • http://www12.statcan.gc.ca/census-recensement/2016/dp-pd/hlt-fst/pd-pl/Table.cfm?Lang=Eng&T=1701&SR=1&S=10&O=D&RPP=25&PR=0&CMA=0#map-popup 2007 Census of Population Census Bureau of the Philippines. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2016. At least a dozen barangays have population densities over 200,000 people per square km, which are very small sections or neighborhoods (not city districts) within Manila, with the highest that of Barangay 717 at 277,007.3 people per square km. (wikipedia.org)
  • The populations of these Scottish council areas are mid-year estimates for 2016 from the Office for National Statistics. (wikipedia.org)
  • The 2016 Estimated Resident Population for Western Rural is 3,074, with a population density of 0.02 persons per hectare. (id.com.au)
  • The 2016 Estimated Resident Population for the Limestone Coast region is 66,683, with a population density of 0.03 persons per hectare. (id.com.au)

Puerto Rico

  • The five boroughs of New York City, and the census-designated places of Puerto Rico that have densities over 10,000, are also listed in separate tables below. (wikipedia.org)
  • The following lists the census-designated places in Puerto Rico that have a population density of over 10,000 people per square mile as of the 2000 U.S. Census. (wikipedia.org)
  • Resident population is from the United States Census Bureau estimates for July 1, 2015 (for the 50 states, the District of Columbia and Puerto Rico), and from the 2015 United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs for the other territories. (wikipedia.org)

dynamics

  • The influence of habitat quality and population density on occupancy dynamics may surpass that of traditional metrics of area and isolation, but often this is not considered explicitly in studies of spatially structured populations. (wiley.com)
  • It follows that occupancy dynamics may be driven by disparate processes depending on how extinction or colonization relate to habitat quality and population density. (wiley.com)
  • Given the multi-scaled influence of habitat quality and population density on occupancy dynamics, our work also indicates that research on snowshoe hare must extend beyond simply assessing local factors to understand the spatial dynamics of populations. (wiley.com)
  • Density-dependent population dynamics and dispersal in heterogeneous metapopulations. (ox.ac.uk)
  • 4. Density-dependent processes leading to the regulation of local population dynamics in our experimental systems were strongest in homogeneity or temporal heterogeneity treatments. (ox.ac.uk)

World Population Prospects

  • World Population Prospects, Table A.1" (PDF). (wikipedia.org)
  • United Nations World Population Prospects Archived December 29, 2010, at the Wayback Machine. (wikipedia.org)

Estimates

  • Retrieved 17 July 2009 Combination of the islands of Malé, Villingilli, Hulhumalé, and Hulhule (Capital District) PEPANNRES - Annual Estimates of the Resident Population: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2014 - 2014 Population Estimates for New Jersey municipalities, United States Census Bureau. (wikipedia.org)
  • The District of Columbia would be included in the list, but Washington, D.C. misses the 10,000 mark as it has a population density of 9,800 people per square mile as of the 2010 U.S. Census (as of 2013 American Community Survey estimates, however, Washington now has a density of 10,528 people per square mile). (wikipedia.org)
  • Where there is not such updated national data available, figures are based on the 2015 estimates provided by the Population Division of the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2015 Population Estimates. (wikipedia.org)

inhabitants

  • In comparison, based on a world population of seven billion, the world's inhabitants, as a loose crowd taking up ten square feet (one square metre) per person (Jacobs Method), would occupy a space a little larger than Delaware's land area. (wikipedia.org)
  • Population density is a ratio of the average number of inhabitants per square kilometre. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2014, Brazil had an overall population density of 24.66 inhabitants per square kilometer. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is a list of African countries and dependencies by population density in inhabitants/km². (wikipedia.org)
  • This is a list of countries and dependent territories ranked by population density, measured by the number of human inhabitants per square kilometer. (wikipedia.org)

extinction

  • Low densities may cause an extinction vortex and lead to further reduced fertility. (wikipedia.org)
  • We examined the relative influence of area, structural isolation, habitat quality, local population density, and neighborhood population density (i.e. population density in the landscape around a site) on the probability of extinction and colonization of snowshoe hare Lepus americanus across an expansive forest mosaic landscape (encompassing the northern third of Idaho). (wiley.com)
  • Habitat quality and population density were highly influential in determining extinction and colonization, whereas patch area and isolation were much less important. (wiley.com)
  • Sites with heavier vegetative cover at the site or landscape-level were more likely to be colonized and less likely to go extinct, and sites with greater local population density in the previous time step had lower probability of extinction. (wiley.com)
  • We found a significant interaction between local and neighborhood population density on extinction in 1 yr, suggesting that the strength of demographic rescue may vary dependent on local site densities. (wiley.com)

districts

  • This list does not refer to the population, population density or land area of the greater metropolitan area or urban area, nor particular districts in any of the cities listed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Geography portal World's largest municipalities by population List of cities proper by population List of sovereign states and dependent territories by population density List of European Union cities proper by population density List of city districts by population density List of United States cities by population density "2010 Census of Population and Housing: National Capital Region" (PDF). (wikipedia.org)
  • The following is a list of districts of Taipei City ranked by population density. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is a list of the 11 Local Government Districts in Northern Ireland established in 2015, by population density. (wikipedia.org)

spatial

  • As a result of this, the variation between local population sizes was greatest when there was spatial heterogeneity in which mean resource abundance varied from patch to patch. (ox.ac.uk)
  • In contrast, spatial and spatio-temporal time series were adequately described using density-independent population processes. (ox.ac.uk)

Wayback Machine

  • Chiffre global de la population par commune, Situation au 1/07/2009 (pdf-file) Archived 19 April 2009 at the Wayback Machine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Census Volume 1 Question 1 Population, Households and Density by Sublocations - 2009 Archived 2012-01-13 at the Wayback Machine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Retrieved on 2012-01-21 Surat Municipal Corporation - Wardwise Area, Population & Density (1901 to 2001) Archived 2010-09-07 at the Wayback Machine. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2002 Population and Housing Census - Village Statistics Archived 2010-02-10 at the Wayback Machine. (wikipedia.org)

ratio

  • Population density is calculated as the ratio of resident population divided by total land area. (wikipedia.org)
  • In regions with low population density, the unadjusted rate ratio for prehospital death was 2.2 (95% CI 1.9 to 2.5) and for hospital death 1.5 (95% CI 1.1 to 1.9), compared with a high-density population. (diva-portal.org)

area

  • Population density is population divided by total land area or water volume, as appropriate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Examples of the causes in low population densities include: Increased problems with locating sexual mates Increased inbreeding For humans, population density is the number of people per unit of area, usually quoted per square kilometer or square mile (which may include or exclude, for example, areas of water or glaciers). (wikipedia.org)
  • These territories have a relatively small area and a high urbanization level, with an economically specialized city population drawing also on rural resources outside the area, illustrating the difference between high population density and overpopulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • City population and especially area are, however, heavily dependent on the definition of "urban area" used: densities are almost invariably higher for the central city area than when suburban settlements and the intervening rural areas are included, as in the areas of agglomeration or metropolitan area, the latter sometimes including neighboring cities. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] Although arithmetic density is the most common way of measuring population density, several other methods have been developed to provide a more accurate measure of population density over a specific area. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Monaco government uses a smaller surface area figure resulting in a population density of 18,078 per km2 Human Population. (wikipedia.org)
  • The largest cities in the world by land area, population and density. (wikipedia.org)
  • The population, population density and land area for the cities listed are based on the entire city proper, the defined boundary or border of a city or the city limits of the city. (wikipedia.org)
  • Population and area at the 2011-05-24 Census. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is worked out by simply dividing the population by the area of the Federative Units. (wikipedia.org)
  • The densities are calculated by dividing the latest Population Estimate by the Standard Area Measurement. (wikipedia.org)
  • La Habana (pdf) Population and area 2009-12-31. (wikipedia.org)
  • Statistisk årsbok för Stockholm 2012 (pdf) Population and area 2010-12-31. (wikipedia.org)
  • The population density is calculated by dividing the population by the land area so that it represents the number of people living in one square mile of land area. (wikipedia.org)
  • The population densities listed in the table below do not work out to be exactly the result of dividing the listed population by the listed land area because the land areas have been rounded off to two decimal places, but the population densities were calculated before rounding the land area figures. (wikipedia.org)
  • Excludes Crimea Including the population and area of Autonomous Republic of Crimea and City of Sevastopol, Ukraine's administrative areas on the Crimean Peninsula which are claimed by Russia. (wikipedia.org)
  • List of South African provinces by population List of South African provinces by area Census 2011: Census in brief (PDF). (wikipedia.org)
  • This list does not refer to the population, population density, or land area of the greater metropolitan area or urban area and also does not target a particular city district of any of the cities listed. (wikipedia.org)
  • This article includes a sortable table listing the 50 United States, territories, and the District of Columbia by population density, population rank, and land area. (wikipedia.org)
  • It also includes a sortable table of Density by states, divisions, regions and territories by population rank and land area, and a sortable table for Density by states, divisions, regions and territories in square miles and square kilometers. (wikipedia.org)
  • The population was relatively stable between 1991 and 2006, and then increased slightly between 2006 and 2011 as new dwellings were added to the area. (id.com.au)

high

  • However, over half[citation needed] of the Earth's land mass consists of areas inhospitable to human habitation, such as deserts and high mountains, and population tends to cluster around seaports and fresh-water sources. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cities with high population densities are, by some, considered to be overpopulated, though this will depend on factors like quality of housing and infrastructure and access to resources. (wikipedia.org)
  • But perhaps the most striking evidence, at the local level, is how much population density correlates with a neighborhood's likeliness to achieve high income growth. (urbancincy.com)
  • Neighborhoods that had no improvement had, on average, a density of 12,028 people per square mile in 1980, while neighborhoods with high improvement had an average density more than double that of 30,399 people per square mile. (urbancincy.com)
  • Neighborhoods that received high income growth increased their educational attainment, population and population density at a much higher rate than what the report classifies as no-improvement neighborhoods. (urbancincy.com)
  • While the average income of an MSA in 1980 may not be a good predictor of whether a neighborhood will experience high or low growth, neighborhoods that experienced high income growth were located in regions that experienced higher growth in income, a growing population and increased their population density. (urbancincy.com)
  • At 25 years of age, predicted prehospital mortality was 9% lower (95% CI 5% to 12%) in regions with low population density compared with high population density. (diva-portal.org)
  • This would be explained by a pattern of territorial behaviour which shows itself only at relatively high population densities. (biologists.org)
  • Sites embedded in high density neighborhoods also were less likely to go extinct, but not more likely to be colonized. (wiley.com)

suburbs

  • For instance, Milwaukee has a greater population density when just the inner city is measured, and the surrounding suburbs excluded. (wikipedia.org)

neighborhoods

  • These trends have wide implications for American policy regarding poverty and urban development, but appear to be less relevant in the Cincinnati region where very few neighborhoods have any sizable Hispanic population . (urbancincy.com)

Census Bureau

  • United States Census Bureau, Population Division. (wikipedia.org)

world's

  • Physiologic Population Density for Each of the World's States, Year 2000" (DOC). (wikipedia.org)

Estimate

  • website= (help) Statistical Pocket Book, 2011 (pdf-file) 2011 Population Estimate. (wikipedia.org)

higher

  • We do not know whether higher population densities were a cause or merely correlated with a neighborhood's ability to improve, but we do know, thanks to this data from the Federal Reserve, that the two issues appear to be more connected than what we may have previously thought. (urbancincy.com)
  • To assess whether higher mortality rates among individuals in motor vehicle crashes in areas with low population density depend on injury type and severity or are related to the performance of emergency medical services (EMS). (diva-portal.org)
  • The transformed values for nematode population density (IvLRr) before fumigation were higher at 30 and 40 cm depths than at a 15 cm depth. (fcla.edu)
  • Larger populations were associated with higher resource availabilities. (ox.ac.uk)

ethnic

  • In this article, it is argued that population density, ethnic groups and the size of SADC countries are important factors to be considered in the demarcation of each country into manageable administrative regions. (journals.co.za)

experimental

  • Each was paired with a reference site that held sheep at two (summer) to three times (winter) the density on the experimental sites. (wiley.com)
  • 5. Experimental metapopulations showed varying degrees of density-dependent dispersal. (ox.ac.uk)

mortality

  • Crude mortality rates following motor vehicle crashes were inversely related to regional population density. (diva-portal.org)
  • However, after controlling for regional differences in age, gender and the type/severity of injuries among 6884 individuals in motor vehicle crashes, low population density was no longer associated with increased mortality. (diva-portal.org)
  • The inverse relationship between population density and mortality among individuals in motor vehicle crashes is related to pre-crash factors that influence the type and severity of injuries and not to differences in EMS. (diva-portal.org)
  • Associated with this, we found that these systems were best described using mathematical models with density dependence acting on mortality. (ox.ac.uk)

urbanization

  • Lirias: Urbanization, Community Size and Population Density: Is There a Rural-Urban Divide in Participation in Voluntary Organizations or Social Network Formation? (kuleuven.be)

Areas

  • Retrieved 17 June 2009 Table PL-P5 NTA: Total Population and Persons Per Acre - New York City Neighborhood Tabulation Areas*, 2010, Population Division - New York City Department of City Planning, February 2012. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is a list of council areas of Scotland ordered by population density. (wikipedia.org)
  • the exact land areas are the figures used for calculating the population densities seen in the table below. (wikipedia.org)
  • The low number reveals the north dakota population density that communities live often in rural rather than urban areas. (blogspot.com)

influence

  • What Influence Does Population Density Have on Neighborhood Improvement? (urbancincy.com)
  • Here you can see the latest Influence Population Size Density Proximity Talent Clubs Likelihood articles that have been published worldwide. (bioportfolio.com)
  • We have published hundreds of Influence Population Size Density Proximity Talent Clubs Likelihood news stories on BioPortfolio along with dozens of Influence Population Size Density Proximity Talent Clubs Likelihood Clinical Trials and PubMed Articles about Influence Population Size Density Proximity Talent Clubs Likelihood for you to read. (bioportfolio.com)
  • In addition to the medical data, news and clinical trials, BioPortfolio also has a large collection of Influence Population Size Density Proximity Talent Clubs Likelihood Companies in our database. (bioportfolio.com)
  • You can also find out about relevant Influence Population Size Density Proximity Talent Clubs Likelihood Drugs and Medications on this site too. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Influence of population size, density, and proximity to talent clubs on the likelihood of becoming elite youth athlete. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The influence of season and host size on the parasite population density and the dispersion pattern of the parasite in the host population were analysed. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Influence of Plant Population Density on Growth and Yield of Stevia (Stevia Rebaudiana Bertoni L. (ijabbr.com)
  • Influence of Plant Population Density on Growth and Yield of Stevia (Stevia Rebaudiana Bertoni L.). International Journal of Advanced Biological and Biomedical Research , 6(1), 383-390. (ijabbr.com)

average

  • The population density of the cities listed is based on the average number of people living per square mile or per square kilometre. (wikipedia.org)
  • This list, however, is of the average densities of cities. (wikipedia.org)

yield

  • Yield and yield components of rose-scented geranium ( Pelargonium graveolens ) as influenced by plant population density in Ethiopia. (ijabbr.com)
  • Effect of density of planting on yield and essential oil components of fennel ( Foeniculum vulgare Mill Var. (ijabbr.com)
  • Yield in 2006, which was a very hot and dry year, was predicted adequately (R2 = 0.67) by a linear model based on the preplant population density of R . reniformis, with a very steep slope (-2.8 kg lint/ha per R . reniformis/100 cm3 soil). (fcla.edu)
  • However, no relationship between nematode density and yield was seen in 2007, which had cooler weather for most of the season. (fcla.edu)

relatively stable

  • The population of the Region was relatively stable during the 1990s at about 60,000 people, and then increased gradually to nearly 62,000 in 2011. (id.com.au)

however

  • The state's other neighbors include Minnesota, South Dakota holds the north dakota population density to get there remember you did not only because someone chooses rural life over urban life does not mean, however, that health insurance in ND. (blogspot.com)

cities

  • This is a list of the cities worldwide that have the highest population density. (wikipedia.org)
  • dead link] "Cities having population 1 lakh and above, Census 2011" (PDF). (wikipedia.org)
  • Cite error: The named reference http://worldpopulationreview.com/world-cities/kathmandu-population/ was invoked but never defined (see the help page). (wikipedia.org)
  • Below is a list of the most densely populated cities in the United States which have a population density over 10,000 people per square mile and have a total population of over 75,000 according to the 2010 Census. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is a list of the European cities with the highest population density. (wikipedia.org)
  • Traditional sociological insights assume that cities are characterized by lower levels of voluntary engagement as it is expected that community size and population density are negatively associated with network and mobilization opportunities. (kuleuven.be)
  • We provide a new assessment of the effect of hospital proximity in an emergency situation-road-traffic accidents-exploiting the exogenous variation in the proximity to cities that are legally allowed to have a hospital on the basis of their population size. (bioportfolio.com)

size

  • Minimum viable population size. (wikipedia.org)
  • The population density of the United States is relatively low compared to many other developed countries due to its size. (wikipedia.org)
  • The analysis shows that neither population density nor community size have an effect on scope or intensity of participation in voluntary associations. (kuleuven.be)
  • These limitations contribute to an incomplete understanding of how size affects the transfer of energy through individuals, populations, and communities. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Local net dispersal each week was primarily driven by the local population size and secondarily affected by neighbourhood population density. (ox.ac.uk)

effect

  • Previous studies have found significant differences in the likelihood of becoming an elite athlete depending on community population sizes and densities, an effect known as the place of early development, or birthplace effect. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Effect of black plastic mulch and plant density on the growth of weeds and stevia. (ijabbr.com)

measurement

  • Thus, this number by itself does not give any helpful measurement of human population density. (wikipedia.org)

shows

  • The first tutorial in Mapping Grid-Based statistics using OpenLayers, Three.js and D3.js shows you how to create a grid based interactive map to visualize population density. (blogspot.com)
  • The following table shows the provincial population density according to the 2011 National Census. (wikipedia.org)
  • This series of cartograms shows some imbalanced populations (such as the pictured Australia) by highlighting countries that have established forward capitals. (scoop.it)

rate

  • The burgeoning rate of about $41,000 in 2005, North Dakota car insurance quote, you need a large one at that, so it's important to think about where the north dakota population density and home value prices and the north dakota population density of alternative fuel sources coming from soybeans and corn, which have been a drawing point for a North Dakota healthcare insurance is not entirely true. (blogspot.com)
  • The burgeoning rate of about $41,000 in 2005, North Dakota itself - a prudent move today, when the north dakota population density is verging on bankruptcy. (blogspot.com)
  • If this rate is lower than the north dakota population density be Swedish massage, deep tissue massage, hydrotherapy, reflexology, and sports massage, as well as money for the north dakota population density to provide funding. (blogspot.com)

people per square mile

  • The following is a list of incorporated places in the United States with a population density of over 10,000 people per square mile. (wikipedia.org)
  • Census-designated places that have a population density of over 10,000 people per square mile are listed in a separate table below. (wikipedia.org)
  • The following is a list of unincorporated census-designated places with population densities of over 10,000 people per square mile as of the 2010 U.S. Census. (wikipedia.org)
  • The City of Cincinnati, by comparison, has a population density around 3,810 people per square mile. (urbancincy.com)

Results

  • Preliminary Results of the 2011 Population Census. (wikipedia.org)

animals

  • 5. Analysis of the distribution of animals at low densities indicates some tendency towards gregariousness. (biologists.org)
  • 6. Because of the periodic tendency for animals to vacate their burrows and burrow elsewhere, more than 50% of burrows at very low surface-population densities ( ca . 0.01 animals/cm. 2 ) may be unoccupied. (biologists.org)
  • With the north dakota population density is also home to 365 species of animals. (blogspot.com)

given

  • the population density for each place is also given in the lists. (wikipedia.org)

City

  • The following lists the population densities of the five boroughs of New York City as of the 2010 U.S. Census. (wikipedia.org)
  • More than one third of the population live in the City of Mount Gambier. (id.com.au)

local

  • 3. At the local scale, population sizes differed between patches depending on the type of heterogeneity. (ox.ac.uk)

different

  • The performance of stevia crops transplanted in different densities and double spacing. (ijabbr.com)

sizes

  • Variation in population sizes within patches was largest when there was temporal heterogeneity. (ox.ac.uk)

data

  • The second map in the post provides a 3d visualization on the same population data, with each grid's population density shown as a 3d tower or block on the map. (blogspot.com)
  • Models with density-dependent and density-independent birth, death and emigration terms were investigated and, in each case, the model that best described the empirical data was identified. (ox.ac.uk)

countries

  • see also List of countries by population). (wikipedia.org)
  • dead link] 2015 List of Countries by Population Density [for territories]. (wikipedia.org)
  • http://statisticstimes.com/population/countries-by-population-density.php 2015 - List of Countries by Population Density. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is a list of countries ordered by physiological density. (wikipedia.org)

type

  • it is a quantity of type number density. (wikipedia.org)
  • This state has a large sum of money over a 10 year span when thinking of moving to a few attractions unique to each type of abandoned asset, before they are true destinations from the north dakota population density and development stages to the north dakota population density with prime pheasant hunting. (blogspot.com)

lead

  • This would lead to substrate depth influencing the age structure of populations in the field. (biologists.org)
  • 6 This study demonstrates that agri-environment schemes, which encourage extensive management of grazing land, can benefit at least some organisms of conservation importance and lead to some recovery of populations. (wiley.com)