Population Density: Number of individuals in a population relative to space.Population Dynamics: The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Bone Density: The amount of mineral per square centimeter of BONE. This is the definition used in clinical practice. Actual bone density would be expressed in grams per milliliter. It is most frequently measured by X-RAY ABSORPTIOMETRY or TOMOGRAPHY, X RAY COMPUTED. Bone density is an important predictor for OSTEOPOROSIS.Reindeer: A genus of deer, Rangifer, that inhabits the northern parts of Europe, Asia, and America. Caribou is the North American name; reindeer, the European. They are often domesticated and used, especially in Lapland, for drawing sleds and as a source of food. Rangifer is the only genus of the deer family in which both sexes are antlered. Most caribou inhabit arctic tundra and surrounding arboreal coniferous forests and most have seasonal shifts in migration. They are hunted extensively for their meat, skin, antlers, and other parts. (From Webster, 3d ed; Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1397)Quorum Sensing: A phenomenon where microorganisms communicate and coordinate their behavior by the accumulation of signaling molecules. A reaction occurs when a substance accumulates to a sufficient concentration. This is most commonly seen in bacteria.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Geography: The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)Geographic Information Systems: Computer systems capable of assembling, storing, manipulating, and displaying geographically referenced information, i.e. data identified according to their locations.Ecology: The branch of science concerned with the interrelationship of organisms and their ENVIRONMENT, especially as manifested by natural cycles and rhythms, community development and structure, interactions between different kinds of organisms, geographic distributions, and population alterations. (Webster's, 3d ed)Pest Control: The reduction or regulation of the population of noxious, destructive, or dangerous plants, insects, or other animals. This includes control of plants that serve as habitats or food sources for animal pests.Population Growth: Increase, over a specific period of time, in the number of individuals living in a country or region.Environment: The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.Insect Vectors: Insects that transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.Population Control: Includes mechanisms or programs which control the numbers of individuals in a population of humans or animals.4-Butyrolactone: One of the FURANS with a carbonyl thereby forming a cyclic lactone. It is an endogenous compound made from gamma-aminobutyrate and is the precursor of gamma-hydroxybutyrate. It is also used as a pharmacological agent and solvent.Climate: The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Disease Vectors: Invertebrates or non-human vertebrates which transmit infective organisms from one host to another.Conservation of Natural Resources: The protection, preservation, restoration, and rational use of all resources in the total environment.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Urbanization: The process whereby a society changes from a rural to an urban way of life. It refers also to the gradual increase in the proportion of people living in urban areas.Hydrology: Science dealing with the properties, distribution, and circulation of water on and below the earth's surface, and atmosphere.Urban Population: The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.Topography, Medical: The systematic surveying, mapping, charting, and description of specific geographical sites, with reference to the physical features that were presumed to influence health and disease. Medical topography should be differentiated from EPIDEMIOLOGY in that the former emphasizes geography whereas the latter emphasizes disease outbreaks.Crowding: An excessive number of individuals, human or animal, in relation to available space.Gastropoda: A class in the phylum MOLLUSCA comprised of SNAILS and slugs. The former have coiled external shells and the latter usually lack shells.Demography: Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.Reproduction: The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)Aedes: A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) frequently found in tropical and subtropical regions. YELLOW FEVER and DENGUE are two of the diseases that can be transmitted by species of this genus.Beetles: INSECTS of the order Coleoptera, containing over 350,000 species in 150 families. They possess hard bodies and their mouthparts are adapted for chewing.Contact Inhibition: Arrest of cell locomotion or cell division when two cells come into contact.Residence Characteristics: Elements of residence that characterize a population. They are applicable in determining need for and utilization of health services.Snails: Marine, freshwater, or terrestrial mollusks of the class Gastropoda. Most have an enclosing spiral shell, and several genera harbor parasites pathogenic to man.Competitive Behavior: The direct struggle between individuals for environmental necessities or for a common goal.Cities: A large or important municipality of a country, usually a major metropolitan center.Animal Distribution: A process by which animals in various forms and stages of development are physically distributed through time and space.Trees: Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.Body Size: The physical measurements of a body.Disease Reservoirs: Animate or inanimate sources which normally harbor disease-causing organisms and thus serve as potential sources of disease outbreaks. Reservoirs are distinguished from vectors (DISEASE VECTORS) and carriers, which are agents of disease transmission rather than continuing sources of potential disease outbreaks.Paramecium aurelia: A species of ciliated PARAMECIUM possessing two micronuclei.Rural Population: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.Hantavirus Infections: Infections with viruses of the genus HANTAVIRUS. This is associated with at least four clinical syndromes: HEMORRHAGIC FEVER WITH RENAL SYNDROME caused by viruses of the Hantaan group; a milder form of HFRS caused by SEOUL VIRUS; nephropathia epidemica caused by PUUMALA VIRUS; and HANTAVIRUS PULMONARY SYNDROME caused by SIN NOMBRE VIRUS.Cell Count: The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.Agriculture: The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.Centrifugation, Density Gradient: Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Environment Design: The structuring of the environment to permit or promote specific patterns of behavior.Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Censuses: Enumerations of populations usually recording identities of all persons in every place of residence with age or date of birth, sex, occupation, national origin, language, marital status, income, relation to head of household, information on the dwelling place, education, literacy, health-related data (e.g., permanent disability), etc. The census or "numbering of the people" is mentioned several times in the Old Testament. Among the Romans, censuses were intimately connected with the enumeration of troops before and after battle and probably a military necessity. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 3d ed; Garrison, An Introduction to the History of Medicine, 4th ed, p66, p119)Islands: Tracts of land completely surrounded by water.Human Activities: Activities performed by humans.Nymph: The immature stage in the life cycle of those orders of insects characterized by gradual metamorphosis, in which the young resemble the imago in general form of body, including compound eyes and external wings; also the 8-legged stage of mites and ticks that follows the first moult.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Bays: An area of water mostly surrounded by land, usually smaller than a gulf, and affording access to the sea.Biodiversity: The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.Ursidae: The family of carnivorous or omnivorous bears, having massive bodies, coarse heavy fur, relatively short limbs, and almost rudimentary tails.Culicidae: A family of the order DIPTERA that comprises the mosquitoes. The larval stages are aquatic, and the adults can be recognized by the characteristic WINGS, ANIMAL venation, the scales along the wing veins, and the long proboscis. Many species are of particular medical importance.Biomass: Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.Weather: The state of the ATMOSPHERE over minutes to months.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Rivers: Large natural streams of FRESH WATER formed by converging tributaries and which empty into a body of water (lake or ocean).Spatio-Temporal Analysis: Techniques which study entities using their topological, geometric, or geographic properties and include the dimension of time in the analysis.Rodentia: A mammalian order which consists of 29 families and many genera.Fresh Water: Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.Deer: The family Cervidae of 17 genera and 45 species occurring nearly throughout North America, South America, and Eurasia, on most associated continental islands, and in northern Africa. Wild populations of deer have been established through introduction by people in Cuba, New Guinea, Australia, New Zealand, and other places where the family does not naturally occur. They are slim, long-legged and best characterized by the presence of antlers. Their habitat is forests, swamps, brush country, deserts, and arctic tundra. They are usually good swimmers; some migrate seasonally. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1362)Carnivora: An order of MAMMALS, usually flesh eaters with appropriate dentition. Suborders include the terrestrial carnivores Fissipedia, and the aquatic carnivores PINNIPEDIA.Models, Statistical: Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.Mosquito Control: The reduction or regulation of the population of mosquitoes through chemical, biological, or other means.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Environmental Monitoring: The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.HomoserinePredatory Behavior: Instinctual behavior pattern in which food is obtained by killing and consuming other species.Space-Time Clustering: A statistically significant excess of cases of a disease, occurring within a limited space-time continuum.Arvicolinae: A subfamily of MURIDAE found nearly world-wide and consisting of about 20 genera. Voles, lemmings, and muskrats are members.Water Supply: Means or process of supplying water (as for a community) usually including reservoirs, tunnels, and pipelines and often the watershed from which the water is ultimately drawn. (Webster, 3d ed)Birds: Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.Management Audit: Management review designed to evaluate efficiency and to identify areas in need of management improvement within the institution in order to ensure effectiveness in meeting organizational goals.Animals, Wild: Animals considered to be wild or feral or not adapted for domestic use. It does not include wild animals in zoos for which ANIMALS, ZOO is available.Colony Count, Microbial: Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Acyl-Butyrolactones: Cyclic esters of acylated BUTYRIC ACID containing four carbons in the ring.Rodent Diseases: Diseases of rodents of the order RODENTIA. This term includes diseases of Sciuridae (squirrels), Geomyidae (gophers), Heteromyidae (pouched mice), Castoridae (beavers), Cricetidae (rats and mice), Muridae (Old World rats and mice), Erethizontidae (porcupines), and Caviidae (guinea pigs).Caribbean Region: The area that lies between continental North and South America and comprises the Caribbean Sea, the West Indies, and the adjacent mainland regions of southern Mexico, Central America, Colombia, and Venezuela.Certificate of Need: A certificate issued by a governmental body to an individual or organization proposing to construct or modify a health facility, or to offer a new or different service. The process of issuing the certificate is also included.Urban Health: The status of health in urban populations.Larva: Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.Soil Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Dengue: An acute febrile disease transmitted by the bite of AEDES mosquitoes infected with DENGUE VIRUS. It is self-limiting and characterized by fever, myalgia, headache, and rash. SEVERE DENGUE is a more virulent form of dengue.Epidemiological Monitoring: Collection, analysis, and interpretation of data about the frequency, distribution, and consequences of disease or health conditions, for use in the planning, implementing, and evaluating public health programs.Insect Control: The reduction or regulation of the population of noxious, destructive, or dangerous insects through chemical, biological, or other means.Housing: Living facilities for humans.Mites: Any arthropod of the subclass ACARI except the TICKS. They are minute animals related to the spiders, usually having transparent or semitransparent bodies. They may be parasitic on humans and domestic animals, producing various irritations of the skin (MITE INFESTATIONS). Many mite species are important to human and veterinary medicine as both parasite and vector. Mites also infest plants.Oviposition: The process of laying or shedding fully developed eggs (OVA) from the female body. The term is usually used for certain INSECTS or FISHES with an organ called ovipositor where eggs are stored or deposited before expulsion from the body.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.BrazilHost-Parasite Interactions: The relationship between an invertebrate and another organism (the host), one of which lives at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.Transportation: The means of moving persons, animals, goods, or materials from one place to another.Bacterial Physiological Phenomena: Physiological processes and properties of BACTERIA.Introduced Species: Non-native organisms brought into a region, habitat, or ECOSYSTEM by human activity.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Grasshoppers: Plant-eating orthopterans having hindlegs adapted for jumping. There are two main families: Acrididae and Romaleidae. Some of the more common genera are: Melanoplus, the most common grasshopper; Conocephalus, the eastern meadow grasshopper; and Pterophylla, the true katydid.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Peromyscus: A genus of the subfamily SIGMODONTINAE consisting of 49 species. Two of these are widely used in medical research. They are P. leucopus, or the white-footed mouse, and P. maniculatus, or the deer mouse.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Sexual Behavior, Animal: Sexual activities of animals.Tropical Climate: A climate which is typical of equatorial and tropical regions, i.e., one with continually high temperatures with considerable precipitation, at least during part of the year. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Feeding Behavior: Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.Animal Migration: Periodic movements of animals in response to seasonal changes or reproductive instinct. Hormonal changes are the trigger in at least some animals. Most migrations are made for reasons of climatic change, feeding, or breeding.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Soil: The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.VietnamAnopheles: A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) that are known vectors of MALARIA.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Schistosomiasis: Infection with flukes (trematodes) of the genus SCHISTOSOMA. Three species produce the most frequent clinical diseases: SCHISTOSOMA HAEMATOBIUM (endemic in Africa and the Middle East), SCHISTOSOMA MANSONI (in Egypt, northern and southern Africa, some West Indies islands, northern 2/3 of South America), and SCHISTOSOMA JAPONICUM (in Japan, China, the Philippines, Celebes, Thailand, Laos). S. mansoni is often seen in Puerto Ricans living in the United States.Hantavirus: A genus of the family BUNYAVIRIDAE causing HANTAVIRUS INFECTIONS, first identified during the Korean war. Infection is found primarily in rodents and humans. Transmission does not appear to involve arthropods. HANTAAN VIRUS is the type species.Sex Ratio: The number of males per 100 females.Food Chain: The sequence of transfers of matter and energy from organism to organism in the form of FOOD. Food chains intertwine locally into a food web because most organisms consume more than one type of animal or plant. PLANTS, which convert SOLAR ENERGY to food by PHOTOSYNTHESIS, are the primary food source. In a predator chain, a plant-eating animal is eaten by a larger animal. In a parasite chain, a smaller organism consumes part of a larger host and may itself be parasitized by smaller organisms. In a saprophytic chain, microorganisms live on dead organic matter.Rhizosphere: The immediate physical zone surrounding plant roots that include the plant roots. It is an area of intense and complex biological activity involving plants, microorganisms, other soil organisms, and the soil.Pest Control, Biological: Use of naturally-occuring or genetically-engineered organisms to reduce or eliminate populations of pests.Poisson Distribution: A distribution function used to describe the occurrence of rare events or to describe the sampling distribution of isolated counts in a continuum of time or space.Crops, Agricultural: Cultivated plants or agricultural produce such as grain, vegetables, or fruit. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982)Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Pheromones: Chemical substances, excreted by an organism into the environment, that elicit behavioral or physiological responses from other organisms of the same species. Perception of these chemical signals may be olfactory or by contact.Air Pollutants: Any substance in the air which could, if present in high enough concentration, harm humans, animals, vegetation or material. Substances include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; and volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.Psychodidae: Small, hairy, moth-like flies which are of considerable public health importance as vectors of certain pathogenic organisms. Important disease-related genera are PHLEBOTOMUS, Lutzomyia, and Sergentomyia.Lipoproteins, LDL: A class of lipoproteins of small size (18-25 nm) and light (1.019-1.063 g/ml) particles with a core composed mainly of CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and smaller amounts of TRIGLYCERIDES. The surface monolayer consists mostly of PHOSPHOLIPIDS, a single copy of APOLIPOPROTEIN B-100, and free cholesterol molecules. The main LDL function is to transport cholesterol and cholesterol esters to extrahepatic tissues.Symbiosis: The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.Genetics, Population: The discipline studying genetic composition of populations and effects of factors such as GENETIC SELECTION, population size, MUTATION, migration, and GENETIC DRIFT on the frequencies of various GENOTYPES and PHENOTYPES using a variety of GENETIC TECHNIQUES.Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.Environmental Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.Adaptation, Physiological: The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.Rain: Water particles that fall from the ATMOSPHERE.Pseudomonas fluorescens: A species of nonpathogenic fluorescent bacteria found in feces, sewage, soil, and water, and which liquefy gelatin.Lactones: Cyclic esters of hydroxy carboxylic acids, containing a 1-oxacycloalkan-2-one structure. Large cyclic lactones of over a dozen atoms are MACROLIDES.Selection, Genetic: Differential and non-random reproduction of different genotypes, operating to alter the gene frequencies within a population.ScotlandAnalysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Rural Health: The status of health in rural populations.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Fishes: A group of cold-blooded, aquatic vertebrates having gills, fins, a cartilaginous or bony endoskeleton, and elongated bodies covered with scales.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Mammals: Warm-blooded vertebrate animals belonging to the class Mammalia, including all that possess hair and suckle their young.Fertility: The capacity to conceive or to induce conception. It may refer to either the male or female.Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.World Health: The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.Stochastic Processes: Processes that incorporate some element of randomness, used particularly to refer to a time series of random variables.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Insecticides: Pesticides designed to control insects that are harmful to man. The insects may be directly harmful, as those acting as disease vectors, or indirectly harmful, as destroyers of crops, food products, or textile fabrics.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Population Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.CaliforniaLipoproteins, HDL: A class of lipoproteins of small size (4-13 nm) and dense (greater than 1.063 g/ml) particles. HDL lipoproteins, synthesized in the liver without a lipid core, accumulate cholesterol esters from peripheral tissues and transport them to the liver for re-utilization or elimination from the body (the reverse cholesterol transport). Their major protein component is APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I. HDL also shuttle APOLIPOPROTEINS C and APOLIPOPROTEINS E to and from triglyceride-rich lipoproteins during their catabolism. HDL plasma level has been inversely correlated with the risk of cardiovascular diseases.EuropeCausality: The relating of causes to the effects they produce. Causes are termed necessary when they must always precede an effect and sufficient when they initiate or produce an effect. Any of several factors may be associated with the potential disease causation or outcome, including predisposing factors, enabling factors, precipitating factors, reinforcing factors, and risk factors.History, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.Linear Models: Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.United StatesMalaria: A protozoan disease caused in humans by four species of the PLASMODIUM genus: PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM VIVAX; PLASMODIUM OVALE; and PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; and transmitted by the bite of an infected female mosquito of the genus ANOPHELES. Malaria is endemic in parts of Asia, Africa, Central and South America, Oceania, and certain Caribbean islands. It is characterized by extreme exhaustion associated with paroxysms of high FEVER; SWEATING; shaking CHILLS; and ANEMIA. Malaria in ANIMALS is caused by other species of plasmodia.Tanzania: A republic in eastern Africa, south of UGANDA and north of MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Dar es Salaam. It was formed in 1964 by a merger of the countries of TANGANYIKA and ZANZIBAR.Suicide: The act of killing oneself.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Bayes Theorem: A theorem in probability theory named for Thomas Bayes (1702-1761). In epidemiology, it is used to obtain the probability of disease in a group of people with some characteristic on the basis of the overall rate of that disease and of the likelihood of that characteristic in healthy and diseased individuals. The most familiar application is in clinical decision analysis where it is used for estimating the probability of a particular diagnosis given the appearance of some symptoms or test result.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Seawater: The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.Plant Diseases: Diseases of plants.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Nitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Particulate Matter: Particles of any solid substance, generally under 30 microns in size, often noted as PM30. There is special concern with PM1 which can get down to PULMONARY ALVEOLI and induce MACROPHAGE ACTIVATION and PHAGOCYTOSIS leading to FOREIGN BODY REACTION and LUNG DISEASES.Lipoproteins, VLDL: A class of lipoproteins of very light (0.93-1.006 g/ml) large size (30-80 nm) particles with a core composed mainly of TRIGLYCERIDES and a surface monolayer of PHOSPHOLIPIDS and CHOLESTEROL into which are imbedded the apolipoproteins B, E, and C. VLDL facilitates the transport of endogenously made triglycerides to extrahepatic tissues. As triglycerides and Apo C are removed, VLDL is converted to INTERMEDIATE-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS, then to LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS from which cholesterol is delivered to the extrahepatic tissues.Biodegradation, Environmental: Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.Absorptiometry, Photon: A noninvasive method for assessing BODY COMPOSITION. It is based on the differential absorption of X-RAYS (or GAMMA RAYS) by different tissues such as bone, fat and other soft tissues. The source of (X-ray or gamma-ray) photon beam is generated either from radioisotopes such as GADOLINIUM 153, IODINE 125, or Americanium 241 which emit GAMMA RAYS in the appropriate range; or from an X-ray tube which produces X-RAYS in the desired range. It is primarily used for quantitating BONE MINERAL CONTENT, especially for the diagnosis of OSTEOPOROSIS, and also in measuring BONE MINERALIZATION.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.GermanyDogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Water Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Risk: The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.Pseudomonas: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.SwedenAlgorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Post-Synaptic Density: Cytoskeleton specialization at the cytoplasmic side of postsynaptic membrane in SYNAPSES. It is involved in neuronal signaling and NEURONAL PLASTICITY and comprised of GLUTAMATE RECEPTORS; scaffolding molecules (e.g., PSD95, PSD93), and other proteins (e.g., CaCMKII).IndiaReceptors, LDL: Receptors on the plasma membrane of nonhepatic cells that specifically bind LDL. The receptors are localized in specialized regions called coated pits. Hypercholesteremia is caused by an allelic genetic defect of three types: 1, receptors do not bind to LDL; 2, there is reduced binding of LDL; and 3, there is normal binding but no internalization of LDL. In consequence, entry of cholesterol esters into the cell is impaired and the intracellular feedback by cholesterol on 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase is lacking.Great Britain

*  South Ward population density

... population distribution, demographics, in an accurate, easy to use website. ... Access South Ward population density figures plus suburb map, boundaries, ... South Ward population density, City of Joondalup. South Ward population density Related areas. *Central Ward population density ... South Ward population density, Former Holroyd City. South Ward population density Related areas. *East Ward population density ...
profile.id.com.au/s_south-ward/population-density

*  Georges Hall population density

... population distribution, demographics, in an accurate, easy to use website. ... Access Georges Hall population density figures plus suburb map, boundaries, ... Bankstown Balance population density. Padstow population density Bankstown CBD population density. Padstow Heights population ... Potts Hill population density. Picnic Point population density Campsie - Clemton Park population density. Punchbowl population ...
profile.id.com.au/s_georges-hall/population-density

*  NeEstimator v2: re-implementation of software for the estimation of contemporary effective population size (Ne) from genetic...

Consequences of severe habitat fragmentation on density, genetics, and spatial capture-recapture analysis of a small bear ... NeEstimator v2: re-implementation of software for the estimation of contemporary effective population size (Ne) from genetic ... Fredrik Olsson, Linda Laikre, Ola Hössjer, Nils Ryman, gesp : A computer program for modelling genetic effective population ... Fanny E. Hartmann, Daniel Croll, Distinct Trajectories of Massive Recent Gene Gains and Losses in Populations of a Microbial ...
onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/1755-0998.12157/full?globalMessage=0

*  Doncaster East population density

... population distribution, demographics, in an accurate, easy to use website. ... Access Doncaster East population density figures plus suburb map, boundaries, ... Doncaster East population density, City of Manningham. Doncaster East population density Related areas. *Bulleen population ... Access Doncaster East population density figures plus suburb map, boundaries, population distribution, demographics, in an ...
profile.id.com.au/s_doncaster-east/population-density

*  Elizabeth Grove population density

... population distribution, demographics, in an accurate, easy to use website. ... Access Elizabeth Grove population density figures plus suburb map, boundaries, ... Andrews Farm population density. Elizabeth South population density Angle Vale population density. Elizabeth Vale population ... Blakeview population density. Hillbank population density Craigmore population density. Munno Para - Munno Para West - Munno ...
profile.id.com.au/s_elizabeth-grove/population-density

*  PPT - Organisms live as members of populations Population size Population density Population dispersal How do populations grow?...

Organisms live as members of populations Population size Population density Population dispersal How do populations grow?. ... Organisms live as members of populations Population size Population density Population dispersal How do populations grow? ... Organisms live as members of populations Population size Population density Population dispersal How do populations grow?. ... Organisms live as members of populations Population size Population density Population dispersal How do populations ...
slideserve.com/Jimmy/organisms-live-as-members-of-populationspopulation-sizepopulation-densitypopulation-dispersalhow-do-populations-grow

*  essays & effluvia: Population Density Electoral Map

Listed below are links to weblogs that reference Population Density Electoral Map:. » Population Density electoral map from ... Population Density Electoral Map. So you don't like the Cartograms? Are they too distorted for you? ... So you don't like the Cartograms? Are they too distroted for you? Consider controlling color for population density, which ... Cartograms of the 2004 US presidential election , Main , 2004 U.S. Presidential Election Results by County (pop density) » ...
bigpicture.typepad.com/writing/2004/11/population_dens.html

*  Urban Demographics: Map of Population Density Lines in R

About three years ago in 2014, James Cheshire created the Population Lines Print, a stylized map using lines to show population ... Online Courses Overpopulation Oxford Parking Pedestrians PhD philosophy Policy Polycentricity Population Growth Population ... Hogan database dataviz Demographic Transition Demographic Trends Density Dependency Ratio Development Economics Education ... gist with a simple and reproducible code to create a map with the same style showing the distribution of the population density ...
https://urbandemographics.blogspot.com.br/2017/04/map-of-population-density-lines-in-r.html

*  Pearcedale population density

... population distribution, demographics, in an accurate, easy to use website. ... Access Pearcedale population density figures plus suburb map, boundaries, ... Casey Foothills population density. Hallam population density Clyde - Clyde North population density. Hampton Park population ... Cranbourne East population density. Lyndhurst population density Cranbourne North population density. Narre Warren population ...
profile.id.com.au/s_pearcedale/population-density

*  Population densities Synonyms, Population densities Antonyms | Thesaurus.com

Synonyms for population densities at Thesaurus.com with free online thesaurus, antonyms, and definitions. Dictionary and Word ... Example Sentences for population densities. Population densities were ascertained on the study areas by means of the live- ...
thesaurus.com/browse/population densities

*  Population density and mortality among individuals in motor vehicle crashes | Injury Prevention

... in regions with low population density compared with high population density. This difference decreased with increasing age, ... In regions with low population density, the unadjusted rate ratio for prehospital death was 2.2 (95% CI 1.9 to 2.5) and for ... Conclusions The inverse relationship between population density and mortality among individuals in motor vehicle crashes is ... Results Crude mortality rates following motor vehicle crashes were inversely related to regional population density. ...
injuryprevention.bmj.com/content/16/5/302.full

*  population density | Britannica.com

in infectious disease: Population density Density of population does not of itself determine the ease with which infection ... Relatively large animals also tend to have relatively low population densities; thus, a viable population of, say, elephants ... Changes in population density and the introduction of new species can cause the extinction of other species. In the process, ... Population density. THIS IS A DIRECTORY PAGE. Britannica does not currently have an article on this topic. ...
https://britannica.com/science/population-density

*  Ferntree Gully population density

... population distribution, demographics, in an accurate, easy to use website. ... Access Ferntree Gully population density figures plus suburb map, boundaries, ... Ferntree Gully population density, City of Knox. Ferntree Gully population density Related areas. *Bayswater population density ... Access Ferntree Gully population density figures plus suburb map, boundaries, population distribution, demographics, in an ...
profile.id.com.au/s_ferntree-gully/population-density

*  Frankston Heights population density

... population distribution, demographics, in an accurate, easy to use website. ... Access Frankston Heights population density figures plus suburb map, boundaries, ... Frankston Heights population density, Frankston City. Frankston Heights population density Related areas. *Carrum Downs ... Access Frankston Heights population density figures plus suburb map, boundaries, population distribution, demographics, in an ...
profile.id.com.au/s_frankston-heights/population-density

*  Honduras population density Map • mappery

mappery is a diverse collection of real life maps contributed by map lovers worldwide. Find and explore maps by keyword, location, or by browsing a map.
mappery.com/Honduras-population-density-Map?nearest

*  City of Roseville, California - Population Density

City of Roseville 311 Vernon St., Roseville, CA 95678. Phone: 916-774-5200. ...
roseville.ca.us/ed/demographics/city_demographics/population/population_density.asp?grpxver=mob

*  Middle East by Population Density Quiz - By gmish504

Can you name the Middle East by Population Density per square mile? Test your knowledge on this geography quiz to see how you ... Tags:Population Quiz, east, middle, Middle East, mile, Population Density, square. Top Quizzes Today. Top Quizzes Today in ... Geography Quiz / Middle East by Population Density. Random Geography or Population Quiz ... Can you name the Middle East by Population Density per square mile?. by gmish504 ...
https://sporcle.com/games/gmish504/middleeastpopdensity

*  Population density (people per sq. km of land area) | Data

Population density (people per sq. km of land area) from The World Bank: Data ... Population density (people per sq. km of land area). Food and Agriculture Organization and World Bank population estimates. ... Rural population living in areas where elevation is below 5 meters (% of total population). ... Urban population living in areas where elevation is below 5 meters (% of total population). ...
https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/EN.POP.DNST?page=5

*  JoVE | Peer Reviewed Scientific Video Journal - Methods and Protocols

However, M. annularis and M. faveolata exhibit significant differences in the tissue density and 3D distribution of these key ... By using the following approach, populations of large numbers (thousands to hundreds of thousands) of individual molecules are ... This includes differentiation from a stem cell population, mitotic amplification, and meiosis. In addition, post-meiotic germ ... Complimentary FM and TPLSM reveal subtle submillimeter scale changes in cellular distribution and density in nondecalcified ...
https://jove.com/visualize/abstract/23300962/long-term-in-vivo-imaging-of-multiple-organs-at-the-single-cell-level

*  ADS Bibliographic Codes: Refereed Publications

Lectures on Density Wave Theory 2002LNP 583 Lectures on Quark Matter 2003LNP 619 Lectures on Solar Physics LeEne Leningrad ... From the Realm of the Nebulae to Populations of Galaxies 2000LNP 556 From the Sun to the Great Attractor 1981LNP 137 From ... High Energy Density Physics 2005etsm conf High Energy Gamma-ray Experiments HEPNP High Energy Physics and Nuclear Physics ... Density-Matrix Renormalization, a New Numerical Method in Physics 1983LNP 178 Detectors in Heavy-Ion Reactions DeHyZ Deutsche ...
adsabs.harvard.edu/abs_doc/refereed.html

*  PPT - Micronutrients Vitamins and Minerals PowerPoint Presentation - ID:4023338

Vitamin K has also been linked to bone density. * People with low levels of vitamin K have lower bone density, which can be ... The age range of the target population for vitamin-A intervention programs is usually from birth to seven years. ...
slideserve.com/lonato/micronutrients-vitamins-and-minerals

*  Personality, Gender, and Age in the Language of Social Media: The Open-Vocabulary Approach

Through media such as Facebook and Twitter, used regularly by more than 1/7th of the world's population [4], variation in mood ... Gelfand A, Smith A (1990) Sampling-based approaches to calculating marginal densities. Journal of the American statistical ... Furthermore, previous research has suggested populations for online studies and Facebook are quite representative [23], [24]. ...
pubmedcentralcanada.ca/pmcc/articles/PMC3783449/?lang=en-ca

*  Ofd1, a human disease gene, regulates the length and distal structure of centrioles

Population Doubling Studies, FACS, and Microtubule Regrowth Assays. Population doubling: Cell lines were grown in T25 flasks, ... Whereas wild type distal appendages showed the characteristic elongated triangular shape with increased density on one end, ...
pubmedcentralcanada.ca/pmcc/articles/PMC2841064/?lang=en-ca

*  Phyllocnistis citrella (citrus leaf miner)

All the treatments reduced the P. citrella population, with neem seed extract being the most effective.. Pheromonal Control ... This restricts growth to the season when P. citrella moths are at lowest density. In addition, fertilization and the avoidance ... 1985) found Japanese populations of P. citrella were attracted to traps baited with (Z,Z)-7,11-hexadecadienal; however, ... Damage to young trees can be severe and populations can increase dramatically under heavy pesticide regimes such as those ...
cabi.org/isc/datasheet/40831

*  PPT - Chapter 5 PowerPoint Presentation - ID:4621979

Population ecology (chapter 14 -- sect 3 and 4) intro to chapter 16 - human pops each population has a density a dispersion a ... Population Ecology (chapter 14 -- sect 3 and 4) Intro to Chapter 16 - Human pops - ...
slideserve.com/bart/chapter-5

Threshold host density: Threshold host density (NT), in the context of wildlife disease ecology, refers to the concentration of a population of a particular organism as it relates to disease. Specifically, the threshold host density (NT) of a species refers to the minimum concentration of individuals necessary to sustain a given disease within a population.Matrix population models: Population models are used in population ecology to model the dynamics of wildlife or human populations. Matrix population models are a specific type of population model that uses matrix algebra.EcosystemQuantitative computed tomographyThe White ReindeerFour Seasons Baltimore and Residences: Four Seasons Hotel Baltimore is currently a 22 story highrise hotel complex building which opened on November 14, 2011. The building's construction began back in 2007 and went through several changes.Health geography: Health geography is the application of geographical information, perspectives, and methods to the study of health, disease, and health care.List of geographic information systems software: GIS software encompasses a broad range of applications which involve the use of a combination of digital maps and georeferenced data. GIS software can be sorted into different categories.Spatial ecology: Spatial ecology is a specialization in ecology and geography that is concerned with the identification of spatial patterns and their relationships to ecological phenomena. Ecological events can be explained through the detection of patterns at a given spatial scale: local, regional, or global.Mechanical pest control: Mechanical pest control is the management and control of pests using physical means such as fences, barriers or electronic wires. It includes also weeding and change of temperature to control pests.Food Race: American environmental author Daniel Quinn coined the term Food Race (by analogy to the Cold War's "nuclear arms race") to describe an understanding of the current overpopulation emergency as a perpetually escalating crisis between growing human population and growing food production, fueled by the latter. Quinn argues that as the worldwide human population increases, the typical international response is to more intensely produce and distribute food to feed these greater numbers of people.Evolution in Variable EnvironmentAcyl-homoserine-lactone synthase: Acyl-homoserine-lactone synthase (, acyl-homoserine lactone synthase, acyl homoserine lactone synthase, acyl-homoserinelactone synthase, acylhomoserine lactone synthase, AHL synthase, AHS, AHSL synthase, AhyI, AinS, AinS protein, autoinducer synthase, autoinducer synthesis protein rhlI, EsaI, ExpISCC1, ExpISCC3065, LasI, LasR, LuxI, LuxI protein, LuxM, N-acyl homoserine lactone synthase, RhlI, YspI, acyl-[acyl carrier protein]:S-adenosyl-L-methionine acyltranserase (lactone-forming, methylthioadenosine-releasing)) is an enzyme with system name acyl-(acyl-carrier protein):S-adenosyl-L-methionine acyltranserase (lactone-forming, methylthioadenosine-releasing). This eHadley Centre for Climate Prediction and Research: 140px|rightDitch: A ditch is a small to moderate depression created to channel water. A ditch can be used for drainage, to drain water from low-lying areas, alongside roadways or fields, or to channel water from a more distant source for plant irrigation.Meramec Conservation AreaMatrix model: == Mathematics and physics ==Social determinants of obesity: While genetic influences are important to understanding obesity, they cannot explain the current dramatic increase seen within specific countries or globally. It is accepted that calorie consumption in excess of calorie expenditure leads to obesity, however what has caused shifts in these two factors on a global scale is much debated.Outline of hydrology: The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to hydrology:Respiratory system of gastropods: The respiratory system of gastropods varies greatly in form. These variations were once used as a basis for dividing the group into subclasses.Reproductive toxicity: Reproductive toxicity is a hazard associated with some chemical substances, that they will interfere in some way with normal reproduction; such substances are called reprotoxic. It includes adverse effects on sexual function and fertility in adult males and females, as well as developmental toxicity in the offspring.Aedes aegyptiAdalia bipunctata: Adalia bipunctata, commonly known as the two-spot ladybird, two-spotted ladybug or two-spotted lady beetle, is a carnivorous beetle of the family Coccinellidae that is found throughout the holarctic region. It is very common in western and central Europe.Neighbourhood: A neighbourhood (Commonwealth English), or neighborhood (American English), is a geographically localised community within a larger city, town, suburb or rural area. Neighbourhoods are often social communities with considerable face-to-face interaction among members.Planorbella trivolvis: Planorbella trivolvis is a species of freshwater air-breathing snail, an aquatic pulmonate gastropod mollusk in the family Planorbidae, the ram's horn snails, or planorbids, which all have sinistral or left-coiling shells.Peat swamp forest: Peat swamp forests are tropical moist forests where waterlogged soil prevents dead leaves and wood from fully decomposing. Over time, this creates a thick layer of acidic peat.Restricted isometry property: In linear algebra, the restricted isometry property characterizes matrices which are nearly orthonormal, at least when operating on sparse vectors. The concept was introduced by Emmanuel Candès and Terence TaoE.Colt Crag Reservoir: Colt Crag Reservoir is a relatively shallow reservoir in Northumberland, England adjacent to the A68 road, and north of Corbridge. The A68 road at this point runs along the course of Dere Street, a Roman road.Lancia Aurelia: The Lancia Aurelia is a grand tourer that was produced by the Italian manufacturer Lancia. Designed by Vittorio Jano, the Aurelia was launched in 1950 and production lasted until the summer of 1958.Neuromorphology: Neuromorphology (from Greek νεῦρον, neuron, "nerve"; μορφή, morphé, “form”; -λογία, -logia, “study of”[is the study of nervous system] form, shape, and structure. The study involves looking at a particular part of the nervous system from a [[Molecular biology|molecular and cellular level and connecting it to a physiological and anatomical point of view.Chilalo Agricultural Development Union: Chilalo Agricultural Development Union (CADU) is the first comprehensive package project established in Arsi Zone, Oromia Region, Ethiopia to modernize traditional subsistence agriculture. The major components of the package programmes include fertilizers, ameliorated seeds, farm credits, marketing facilities, better tools and implements, and improved storage facilities.Buoyant density ultracentrifugation: Buoyant density centrifugation uses the concept of buoyancy to separate molecules in solution. Usually a caesium chloride (CsCl) solution is used, but in the general case it's usually approximately the same density as the molecules that are to be centrifuged.Lough TaltVon Neumann regular ring: In mathematics, a von Neumann regular ring is a ring R such that for every a in R there exists an x in R such that . To avoid the possible confusion with the regular rings and regular local rings of commutative algebra (which are unrelated notions), von Neumann regular rings are also called absolutely flat rings, because these rings are characterized by the fact that every left module is flat.Pyrites Island: Pyrites Island () is the largest of three small islands lying northeast of Gam Point and forming the east side of Esther Harbor, off the north coast of King George Island in the South Shetland Islands. In 1913–14, the rocky extremity of Gam Point and the adjoining islands to the northwest and southeast were named Esther, Pyritis (sic) or Pyritic Islands by Scottish geologist David Ferguson, who reported they were composed of pyrites and vein quartz.Appropriation (By Any Other Name): June 13, 2005Ukiah Ambulance: Ukiah Ambulance is now Medstar Ambulance of Mendocino County Inc., a private non-profit ground transport ambulance provider serving central and southern Mendocino County.Temporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studyingHudson Bay Mountain: Hudson Bay Mountain is an ultra prominent peak located above Smithers, British Columbia, Canada. It is the location of the Hudson Bay Mountain Resort (formerly Ski Smithers) ski resort.Alliance for Zero Extinction: Formed in 2000 and launched globally in 2005, the Alliance for Zero Extinction (AZE) comprises 100 non-governmental biodiversity conservation organizations working to prevent species extinctions by identifying and safeguarding sites where species evaluated to be Endangered or Critically Endangered under International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) criteria only exist at one location on earth."Zero Extinction - Home.Yamaha Grizzly 600: The Yamaha Grizzly is a large utility all-terrain vehicle manufactured by the Yamaha Motor Company. It has a 595cc four-stroke engine from the XT600.Psorophora howardiiCitizen Weather Observer Program: The Citizen Weather Observer Program (CWOP) is a network of privately owned electronic weather stations concentrated in the United States but also located in over 150 countries. Network participation allows volunteers with computerized weather stations to send automated surface weather observations to the National Weather Service (NWS) by way of the Meteorological Assimilation Data Ingest System (MADIS).List of rivers of Brazil: This is a list of rivers in Brazil.WormsgrabenBulloo-Bancannia drainage basin: The Bulloo-Bancannia drainage basin is a drainage basin that covers part of western Queensland and New South Wales. It is adjacent to the much larger Lake Eyre basin.Deer farm: A deer farm is a fenced piece of land suitable for grazing that is populated with deer such as elk, moose, and even reindeer raised for the purpose of hunting tourism or as livestock. This practice is very different from the way such Arctic communities like the Laplanders migrate in open country with their herds of reindeer.East Sussex Cricket Ground: East Sussex Cricket Ground was a cricket ground in St Leonards-on-Sea, Sussex. The ground was located at the site of a racecourse which had moved after 1826 from the Bulverhythe Salts.Inverse probability weighting: Inverse probability weighting is a statistical technique for calculating statistics standardized to a population different from that in which the data was collected. Study designs with a disparate sampling population and population of target inference (target population) are common in application.Eagle's minimal essential medium: Eagle's minimal essential medium (EMEM) is a cell culture medium developed by Harry Eagle that can be used to maintain cells in tissue culture.Autoinducer-2Intraguild predation: Intraguild predation, or IGP, is the killing and eating of potential competitors. This interaction represents a combination of predation and competition, because both species rely on the same prey resources and also benefit from preying upon one another.Geographical cluster: A geographical cluster is a localised anomaly, usually an excess of something given the distribution or variation of something else. Often it is considered as an incidence rate that is unusual in that there is more of some variable than might be expected.Staphylococcus microti: Staphylococcus microti is a Gram positive, coagulase-negative member of the bacterial genus Staphylococcus consisting of clustered cocci. This species was originally isolated from viscera of the common vole, Microtus arvalis.Public water systemBird trapping: Bird trapping techniques to capture wild birds include a wide range of techniques that have their origins in the hunting of birds for food. While hunting for food does not require birds to be caught alive, some trapping techniques capture birds without harming them and are of use in ornithology research.Quorum-quenching N-acyl-homoserine lactonase: Quorum-quenching N-acyl-homoserine lactonase (, acyl homoserine degrading enzyme, acyl-homoserine lactone acylase, AHL lactonase, AHL-degrading enzyme, AHL-inactivating enzyme, AHLase, AhlD, AhlK, AiiA, AiiA lactonase, AiiA-like protein, AiiB, AiiC, AttM, delactonase, lactonase-like enzyme, N-acyl homoserine lactonase, N-acyl homoserine lactone hydrolase, N-acyl-homoserine lactone lactonase, N-acyl-L-homoserine lactone hydrolase, quorum-quenching lactonase, quorum-quenching N-acyl homoserine lactone hydrolase) is an enzyme with system name N-acyl-L-homoserine-lactone lactonohydrolase.{{cite journal | title = The molecular structure and catalytic mechanism of a quorum-quenching N-acyl-L-homoserine lactone hydrolase |author = Kim, M.Caribbean Basin Economic Recovery Act of 1983Andesobia jelskiiGemmatimonadetes: The Gemmatimonadetes are a family of bacteria, given their own phylum (Gemmatimonadetes). This bacterium makes up about 2% of soil bacterial communities and has been identified as one of the top nine phyla found in soils; yet, there are currently only six cultured isolates.Dengue fever outbreaksNational Healthy Homes Hero Award: National Healthy Homes Hero Award is an award presented by a consortium of agencies at the United States' National Healthy Homes Conference. The first year this award was presented was in 2011.Brevipalpus: Brevipalpus is a genus of mites in the family Tenuipalpidae, the flat mites.Brevipalpus californicus.University of CampinasPacific ElectricLists of invasive species: These are lists of invasive species by country or region. A species is regarded as invasive if it has been introduced by human action to a location, area, or region where it did not previously occur naturally (i.List of locust species: This is a list of locust species. These are Orthoptera that swarm and cause significant economic losses to agricultural crops.

(1/3450) Capture-recapture models including covariate effects.

Capture-recapture methods are used to estimate the incidence of a disease, using a multiple-source registry. Usually, log-linear methods are used to estimate population size, assuming that not all sources of notification are dependent. Where there are categorical covariates, a stratified analysis can be performed. The multinomial logit model has occasionally been used. In this paper, the authors compare log-linear and logit models with and without covariates, and use simulated data to compare estimates from different models. The crude estimate of population size is biased when the sources are not independent. Analyses adjusting for covariates produce less biased estimates. In the absence of covariates, or where all covariates are categorical, the log-linear model and the logit model are equivalent. The log-linear model cannot include continuous variables. To minimize potential bias in estimating incidence, covariates should be included in the design and analysis of multiple-source disease registries.  (+info)

(2/3450) Estimating the effective number of breeders from heterozygote excess in progeny.

The heterozygote-excess method is a recently published method for estimating the effective population size (Ne). It is based on the following principle: When the effective number of breeders (Neb) in a population is small, the allele frequencies will (by chance) be different in males and females, which causes an excess of heterozygotes in the progeny with respect to Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium expectations. We evaluate the accuracy and precision of the heterozygote-excess method using empirical and simulated data sets from polygamous, polygynous, and monogamous mating systems and by using realistic sample sizes of individuals (15-120) and loci (5-30) with varying levels of polymorphism. The method gave nearly unbiased estimates of Neb under all three mating systems. However, the confidence intervals on the point estimates of Neb were sufficiently small (and hence the heterozygote-excess method useful) only in polygamous and polygynous populations that were produced by <10 effective breeders, unless samples included > approximately 60 individuals and 20 multiallelic loci.  (+info)

(3/3450) Climatic and environmental patterns associated with hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, Four Corners region, United States.

To investigate climatic, spatial, temporal, and environmental patterns associated with hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) cases in the Four Corners region, we collected exposure site data for HPS cases that occurred in 1993 to 1995. Cases clustered seasonally and temporally by biome type and geographic location, and exposure sites were most often found in pinyon-juniper woodlands, grasslands, and Great Basin desert scrub lands, at elevations of 1,800 m to 2,500 m. Environmental factors (e.g., the dramatic increase in precipitation associated with the 1992 to 1993 El Nino) may indirectly increase the risk for Sin Nombre virus exposure and therefore may be of value in designing disease prevention campaigns.  (+info)

(4/3450) Long-term studies of hantavirus reservoir populations in the southwestern United States: rationale, potential, and methods.

Hantaviruses are rodent-borne zoonotic agents that cause hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in Asia and Europe and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) in North and South America. The epidemiology of human diseases caused by these viruses is tied to the ecology of the rodent hosts, and effective control and prevention relies on a through understanding of host ecology. After the 1993 HPS outbreak in the southwestern United States, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention initiated long-term studies of the temporal dynamics of hantavirus infection in host populations. These studies, which used mark-recapture techniques on 24 trapping webs at nine sites in the southwestern United States, were designed to monitor changes in reservoir population densities and in the prevalence and incidence of infection; quantify environmental factors associated with these changes; and when linked to surveillance databases for HPS, lead to predictive models of human risk to be used in the design and implementation of control and prevention measures for human hantavirus disease.  (+info)

(5/3450) Long-term hantavirus persistence in rodent populations in central Arizona.

For 35 months, we monitored hantavirus activity in rodent populations in central Arizona. The most frequently captured hantavirus antibody-positive rodents were Peromyscus boylii and P. truei. Antibody-positive P. boylii were more frequently male (84%), older, and heavier, and they survived longer on trapping web sites than antibody-negative mice. The number of antibody-positive P. boylii was greater during high population densities than during low densities, while antibody prevalence was greater during low population densities. Virus transmission and incidence rates, also related to population densities, varied by trapping site. The spatial distribution of antibody-positive P. boylii varied by population density and reflected the species preference for dense chaparral habitats. The focal ranges of antibody-positive P. boylii also demonstrated a patchy distribution of hantavirus.  (+info)

(6/3450) A longitudinal study of Sin Nombre virus prevalence in rodents, southeastern Arizona.

We determined the prevalence of Sin Nombre virus antibodies in small mammals in southeastern Arizona. Of 1,234 rodents (from 13 species) captured each month from May through December 1995, only mice in the genus Peromyscus were seropositive. Antibody prevalence was 14.3% in 21 white-footed mice (P. leucopus), 13.3% in 98 brush mice (P. boylii), 0.8% in 118 cactus mice (P. eremicus), and 0% in 2 deer mice (P. maniculatus). Most antibody-positive mice were adult male Peromyscus captured close to one another early in the study. Population dynamics of brush mice suggest a correlation between population size and hantavirus-antibody prevalence.  (+info)

(7/3450) Statistical sensitivity for detection of spatial and temporal patterns in rodent population densities.

A long-term monitoring program begun 1 year after the epidemic of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in the U.S. Southwest tracked rodent density changes through time and among sites and related these changes to hantavirus infection rates in various small-mammal reservoir species and human disease outbreaks. We assessed the statistical sensitivity of the program's field design and tested for potential biases in population estimates due to unintended deaths of rodents. Analyzing data from two sites in New Mexico from 1994 to 1998, we found that for many species of Peromyscus, Reithrodontomys, Neotoma, Dipodomys, and Perognathus, the monitoring program detected species-specific spatial and temporal differences in rodent densities; trap-related deaths did not significantly affect long-term population estimates. The program also detected a short-term increase in rodent densities in the winter of 1997-98, demonstrating its usefulness in identifying conditions conducive to increased risk for human disease.  (+info)

(8/3450) Natural history of Sin Nombre virus in western Colorado.

A mark-recapture longitudinal study of immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody to Sin Nombre virus (SNV) in rodent populations in western Colorado (1994-results summarized to October 1997) indicates the presence of SNV or a closely related hantavirus at two sites. Most rodents (principally deer mice, Peromyscus maniculatus, and pinyon mice, P. truei) did not persist on the trapping webs much beyond 1 month after first capture. Some persisted more than 1 year, which suggests that even a few infected deer mice could serve as transseasonal reservoirs and mechanisms for over-winter virus maintenance. A positive association between wounds and SNV antibody in adult animals at both sites suggests that when infected rodents in certain populations fight with uninfected rodents, virus amplification occurs. At both sites, male rodents comprised a larger percentage of seropositive mice than recaptured mice, which suggests that male mice contribute more to the SNV epizootic cycle than female mice. In deer mice, IgG antibody prevalence fluctuations were positively associated with population fluctuations. The rates of seroconversion, which in deer mice at both sites occurred mostly during late summer and midwinter, were higher than the seroprevalence, which suggests that the longer deer mice live, the greater the probability they will become infected with SNV.  (+info)



traffic


  • Pinch the data connection line of electronic graphical Presentation Pillars in cities or along highways and show the world the real cause of traffic jams: extreme population density. (wisart.net)