Population Groups: Individuals classified according to their sex, racial origin, religion, common place of living, financial or social status, or some other cultural or behavioral attribute. (UMLS, 2003)Continental Population Groups: Groups of individuals whose putative ancestry is from native continental populations based on similarities in physical appearance.Urobilinogen: A colorless compound formed in the intestines by the reduction of bilirubin. Some is excreted in the feces where it is oxidized to urobilin. Some is reabsorbed and re-excreted in the bile as bilirubin. At times, it is re-excreted in the urine, where it may be later oxidized to urobilin.Ethnic Groups: A group of people with a common cultural heritage that sets them apart from others in a variety of social relationships.South Africa: A republic in southern Africa, the southernmost part of Africa. It has three capitals: Pretoria (administrative), Cape Town (legislative), and Bloemfontein (judicial). Officially the Republic of South Africa since 1960, it was called the Union of South Africa 1910-1960.Arabs: Members of a Semitic people inhabiting the Arabian peninsula or other countries of the Middle East and North Africa. The term may be used with reference to ancient, medieval, or modern ethnic or cultural groups. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Jews: An ethnic group with historical ties to the land of ISRAEL and the religion of JUDAISM.IsraelPrevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.IndiaAfrican Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Africa.United StatesSocioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Vulnerable Populations: Groups of persons whose range of options is severely limited, who are frequently subjected to COERCION in their DECISION MAKING, or who may be compromised in their ability to give INFORMED CONSENT.Sex Distribution: The number of males and females in a given population. The distribution may refer to how many men or women or what proportion of either in the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Rural Population: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Genetics, Population: The discipline studying genetic composition of populations and effects of factors such as GENETIC SELECTION, population size, MUTATION, migration, and GENETIC DRIFT on the frequencies of various GENOTYPES and PHENOTYPES using a variety of GENETIC TECHNIQUES.Animal Population Groups: Animals grouped according to ecological, morphological or genetic populations.European Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Europe.Transients and Migrants: People who frequently change their place of residence.Age Distribution: The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Healthcare Disparities: Differences in access to or availability of medical facilities and services.Gene Frequency: The proportion of one particular in the total of all ALLELES for one genetic locus in a breeding POPULATION.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Urban Population: The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Nutritional Requirements: The amounts of various substances in food needed by an organism to sustain healthy life.Oceanic Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the islands of the central and South Pacific, including Micronesia, Melanesia, Polynesia, and traditionally Australasia.Haplotypes: The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Population Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.Social Class: A stratum of people with similar position and prestige; includes social stratification. Social class is measured by criteria such as education, occupation, and income.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Emigration and Immigration: The process of leaving one's country to establish residence in a foreign country.Health Status Disparities: Variation in rates of disease occurrence and disabilities between population groups defined by socioeconomic characteristics such as age, ethnicity, economic resources, or gender and populations identified geographically or similar measures.Asia: The largest of the continents. It was known to the Romans more specifically as what we know today as Asia Minor. The name comes from at least two possible sources: from the Assyrian asu (to rise) or from the Sanskrit usa (dawn), both with reference to its being the land of the rising sun, i.e., eastern as opposed to Europe, to the west. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p82 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p34)GreeceAustralia: The smallest continent and an independent country, comprising six states and two territories. Its capital is Canberra.Demography: Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.Food, Fortified: Any food that has been supplemented with essential nutrients either in quantities that are greater than those present normally, or which are not present in the food normally. Fortified food includes also food to which various nutrients have been added to compensate for those removed by refinement or processing. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Asian Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the southeastern and eastern areas of the Asian continent.AfricaNutrition Policy: Guidelines and objectives pertaining to food supply and nutrition including recommendations for healthy diet.Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide: A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.Residence Characteristics: Elements of residence that characterize a population. They are applicable in determining need for and utilization of health services.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Nigeria: A republic in western Africa, south of NIGER between BENIN and CAMEROON. Its capital is Abuja.Nutritional Status: State of the body in relation to the consumption and utilization of nutrients.Hispanic Americans: Persons living in the United States of Mexican (MEXICAN AMERICANS), Puerto Rican, Cuban, Central or South American, or other Spanish culture or origin. The concept does not include Brazilian Americans or Portuguese Americans.Health Services Accessibility: The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.New Zealand: A group of islands in the southwest Pacific. Its capital is Wellington. It was discovered by the Dutch explorer Abel Tasman in 1642 and circumnavigated by Cook in 1769. Colonized in 1840 by the New Zealand Company, it became a British crown colony in 1840 until 1907 when colonial status was terminated. New Zealand is a partly anglicized form of the original Dutch name Nieuw Zeeland, new sea land, possibly with reference to the Dutch province of Zeeland. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p842 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p378)Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).EuropeHealth Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.Geography: The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)Health Status: The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.BrazilOccupations: Crafts, trades, professions, or other means of earning a living.Indians, North American: Individual members of North American ethnic groups with ancient historic ancestral origins in Asia.TexasItalyPolymorphism, Genetic: The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.Life Style: Typical way of life or manner of living characteristic of an individual or group. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Spain: Parliamentary democracy located between France on the northeast and Portugual on the west and bordered by the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea.Alleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.Health Promotion: Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.Risk-Taking: Undertaking a task involving a challenge for achievement or a desirable goal in which there is a lack of certainty or a fear of failure. It may also include the exhibiting of certain behaviors whose outcomes may present a risk to the individual or to those associated with him or her.World Health: The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.African Americans: Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the black groups of Africa.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Environment: The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.Health Services Research: The integration of epidemiologic, sociological, economic, and other analytic sciences in the study of health services. Health services research is usually concerned with relationships between need, demand, supply, use, and outcome of health services. The aim of the research is evaluation, particularly in terms of structure, process, output, and outcome. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Seroepidemiologic Studies: EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.Food Habits: Acquired or learned food preferences.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Interviews as Topic: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.Poverty: A situation in which the level of living of an individual, family, or group is below the standard of the community. It is often related to a specific income level.Nutrition Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to the nutritional status of a human population within a given geographic area. Data from these surveys are used in preparing NUTRITION ASSESSMENTS.Genetic Markers: A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.Environmental Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.Epidemiologic Methods: Research techniques that focus on study designs and data gathering methods in human and animal populations.Wounds and Injuries: Damage inflicted on the body as the direct or indirect result of an external force, with or without disruption of structural continuity.Microsatellite Repeats: A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Mortality: All deaths reported in a given population.Educational Status: Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.Risk: The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.Genetic Predisposition to Disease: A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.Health Policy: Decisions, usually developed by government policymakers, for determining present and future objectives pertaining to the health care system.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Delivery of Health Care: The concept concerned with all aspects of providing and distributing health services to a patient population.Attitude to Health: Public attitudes toward health, disease, and the medical care system.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Mass Screening: Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Program Evaluation: Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Health Behavior: Behaviors expressed by individuals to protect, maintain or promote their health status. For example, proper diet, and appropriate exercise are activities perceived to influence health status. Life style is closely associated with health behavior and factors influencing life style are socioeconomic, educational, and cultural.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Body Mass Index: An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)Cardiovascular Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Primary Health Care: Care which provides integrated, accessible health care services by clinicians who are accountable for addressing a large majority of personal health care needs, developing a sustained partnership with patients, and practicing in the context of family and community. (JAMA 1995;273(3):192)Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Odds Ratio: The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Quality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.

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*  Agreement on Resettlement of the Population Groups Uprooted by the Armed Conflict - Wikisource, the free online library

GUARANTEES FOR THE RESETTLEMENT OF UPROOTED POPULATION GROUPS. *3 III. PRODUCTIVE INTEGRATION OF UPROOTED POPULATION GROUPS AND ... and shall promote the reconciliation of the interests of the resettled population groups and the population groups already ... including popular resistance groups.. 2. "Resettlement" shall mean the legal process of return of uprooted population groups ... Agreement on Resettlement of the Population Groups Uprooted by the Armed Conflict ...

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BilirubinuriaHIV/AIDS in South African townships: South Africa’s HIV/AIDS epidemic, which is among the most severe in the world, is concentrated in its townships, where many black South Africans live due to the lingering effects of the Group Areas Act. A 2010 study revealed that HIV/AIDS infection in South Africa is distinctly divided along racial lines: 13.National Arab American Medical Association: United StatesJewish Community Council of Victoria: The Jewish Community Council of Victoria Inc (JCCV) is the peak representative body for Victorian Jewry, representing nearly 60 Jewish community organisations and over 52,000 Victorian Jews. The JCCV’s mission is to represent the Victorian Jewish community, the largest Jewish community in Australia, on all matters that affect its status, welfare and interests.Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center: Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center (commonly referred to as Ichilov Hospital) is the main hospital serving Tel Aviv, Israel, and its metropolitan area. It is the third-largest hospital complex in the country.Tamil Nadu Dr. M.G.R. Medical UniversityList of Parliamentary constituencies in Kent: The ceremonial county of Kent,Panmixia: Panmixia (or panmixis) means random mating.King C and Stanfield W.Nomad Rock: Nomad Rock () is an isolated rock in Bransfield Strait, 5 nautical miles (9 km) off the north coast of Trinity Peninsula and 9 nautical miles (17 km) northeast of Cape Legoupil. So named by United Kingdom Antarctic Place-Names Committee (UK-APC) because of confusion about the identity of geographic points along this coast, and because of the wandering of features and names on charts of this vicinity.Age adjustment: In epidemiology and demography, age adjustment, also called age standardization, is a technique used to allow populations to be compared when the age profiles of the populations are quite different.Genetic variation: right|thumbVibe Australia: Vibe Australia Pty Ltd (Vibe) is an Aboriginal media, communications and events management agency. Located in Darlinghurst, Sydney, New South Wales, they work with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people throughout Australia.Mayo Clinic Diet: The Mayo Clinic Diet is a diet created by Mayo Clinic. Prior to this, use of that term was generally connected to fad diets which had no association with Mayo Clinic.Proportional reporting ratio: The proportional reporting ratio (PRR) is a statistic that is used to summarize the extent to which a particular adverse event is reported for individuals taking a specific drug, compared to the frequency at which the same adverse event is reported for patients taking some other drug (or who are taking any drug in a specified class of drugs). The PRR will typically be calculated using a surveillance database in which reports of adverse events from a variety of drugs are recorded.Relative index of inequality: The relative index of inequality (RII) is a regression-based index which summarizes the magnitude of socio-economic status (SES) as a source of inequalities in health. RII is useful because it takes into account the size of the population and the relative disadvantage experienced by different groups.QRISK: QRISK2 (the most recent version of QRISK) is a prediction algorithm for cardiovascular disease (CVD) that uses traditional risk factors (age, systolic blood pressure, smoking status and ratio of total serum cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) together with body mass index, ethnicity, measures of deprivation, family history, chronic kidney disease, rheumatoid arthritis, atrial fibrillation, diabetes mellitus, and antihypertensive treatment.List of countries that regulate the immigration of felons: This is a list of countries that regulate the immigration of felons.Miss Asia Pacific 2005Athens–Lavrion Railway: Athens–Lavrion Railway was a (metric gauge) railway line connecting downtown Athens with Eastern Attica and the mining town of Lavrion in Greece.Australian National BL classMicronutrient Fortification Programs: The 2002 farm bill (P.L.MIM Pan-African Malaria Conference 2009Healthy eating pyramid: The healthy eating pyramid is a nutrition guide developed by the Harvard School of Public Health, suggesting quantities of each food category that a human should eat each day. The healthy eating pyramid is intended to provide a superior eating guide than the widespread food guide pyramid created by the USDA.WGAViewer: WGAViewer is a bioinformatics software tool which is designed to visualize, annotate, and help interpret the results generated from a genome wide association study (GWAS). Alongside the P values of association, WGAViewer allows a researcher to visualize and consider other supporting evidence, such as the genomic context of the SNP, linkage disequilibrium (LD) with ungenotyped SNPs, gene expression database, and the evidence from other GWAS projects, when determining the potential importance of an individual SNP.Closed-ended question: A closed-ended question is a question format that limits respondents with a list of answer choices from which they must choose to answer the question.Dillman D.Layout of the Port of Tianjin: The Port of Tianjin is divided into nine areas: the three core (“Tianjin Xingang”) areas of Beijiang, Nanjiang, and Dongjiang around the Xingang fairway; the Haihe area along the river; the Beitang port area around the Beitangkou estuary; the Dagukou port area in the estuary of the Haihe River; and three areas under construction (Hanggu, Gaoshaling, Nangang).Neighbourhood: A neighbourhood (Commonwealth English), or neighborhood (American English), is a geographically localised community within a larger city, town, suburb or rural area. Neighbourhoods are often social communities with considerable face-to-face interaction among members.Nigerian Ports Authority: The Nigerian Ports Authority (NPA) is a federal government agency that governs and operates the ports of Nigeria. The major ports controlled by the NPA include: the Lagos Port Complex and Tin Can Island Port in Lagos; Calabar Port, Delta Port, Rivers Port at Port Harcourt, and Onne Port.Vietnamese New ZealanderBehavior change (public health): Behavior change is a central objective in public health interventions,WHO 2002: World Health Report 2002 - Reducing Risks, Promoting Healthy Life Accessed Feb 2015 http://www.who.GA²LENHealth geography: Health geography is the application of geographical information, perspectives, and methods to the study of health, disease, and health care.Self-rated health: Self-rated health (also called Self-reported health, Self-assessed health, or perceived health) refers to both a single question such as “in general, would you say that you health is excellent, very good, good, fair, or poor?” and a survey questionnaire in which participants assess different dimensions of their own health.Incidence (epidemiology): Incidence is a measure of the probability of occurrence of a given medical condition in a population within a specified period of time. Although sometimes loosely expressed simply as the number of new cases during some time period, it is better expressed as a proportion or a rate with a denominator.University of CampinasRobinson Rancheria of Pomo Indians of California: The Robinson Rancheria of Pomo Indians of California is a federally recognized tribe of Eastern Pomo people in Lake County, California.California Indians and Their Reservations.University of Texas Health Science Center at HoustonTriangle of death (Italy): The triangle of death (Italian: Triangolo della morte) is an area in the Italian province of Campania comprising the municipalities of Acerra, Nola and Marigliano. The region has recently experienced increasing deaths caused by cancer and other diseases that exceeds the Italian national average.Gene polymorphismManagement of HIV/AIDS: The management of HIV/AIDS normally includes the use of multiple antiretroviral drugs in an attempt to control HIV infection. There are several classes of antiretroviral agents that act on different stages of the HIV life-cycle.List of lighthouses in Spain: This is a list of lighthouses in Spain.Infinite alleles model: The infinite alleles model is a mathematical model for calculating genetic mutations. The Japanese geneticist Motoo Kimura and American geneticist James F.Lifestyle management programme: A lifestyle management programme (also referred to as a health promotion programme, health behaviour change programme, lifestyle improvement programme or wellness programme) is an intervention designed to promote positive lifestyle and behaviour change and is widely used in the field of health promotion.Disinhibition: In psychology, disinhibition is a lack of restraint manifested in disregard for social conventions, impulsivity, and poor risk assessment. Disinhibition affects motor, instinctual, emotional, cognitive, and perceptual aspects with signs and symptoms similar to the diagnostic criteria for mania.African-American family structure: The family structure of African-Americans has long been a matter of national public policy interest.Moynihan's War on Poverty report A 1965 report by Daniel Patrick Moynihan, known as The Moynihan Report, examined the link between black poverty and family structure.Evolution in Variable EnvironmentSeroprevalence: Seroprevalence is the number of persons in a population who test positive for a specific disease based on serology (blood serum) specimens; often presented as a percent of the total specimens tested or as a proportion per 100,000 persons tested. As positively identifying the occurrence of disease is usually based upon the presence of antibodies for that disease (especially with viral infections such as Herpes Simplex and HIV), this number is not significant if the specificity of the antibody is low.Prenatal nutrition: Nutrition and weight management before and during :pregnancy has a profound effect on the development of infants. This is a rather critical time for healthy fetal development as infants rely heavily on maternal stores and nutrient for optimal growth and health outcome later in life.Psychiatric interview: The psychiatric interview refers to the set of tools that a mental health worker (most times a psychiatrist or a psychologist but at times social workers or nurses) uses to complete a psychiatric assessment.Poverty trap: A poverty trap is "any self-reinforcing mechanism which causes poverty to persist."Costas Azariadis and John Stachurski, "Poverty Traps," Handbook of Economic Growth, 2005, 326.Epidemiological method: The science of epidemiology has matured significantly from the times of Hippocrates and John Snow. The techniques for gathering and analyzing epidemiological data vary depending on the type of disease being monitored but each study will have overarching similarities.National Center for Injury Prevention and Control: The U.S.Microsatellite: A microsatellite is a tract of repetitive DNA in which certain DNA motifs (ranging in length from 2–5 base pairs) are repeated, typically 5-50 times. Microsatellites occur at thousands of locations in the human genome and they are notable for their high mutation rate and high diversity in the population.Regression dilution: Regression dilution, also known as regression attenuation, is the biasing of the regression slope towards zero (or the underestimation of its absolute value), caused by errors in the independent variable.Mortality rate: Mortality rate, or death rate, is a measure of the number of deaths (in general, or due to a specific cause) in a particular population, scaled to the size of that population, per unit of time. Mortality rate is typically expressed in units of deaths per 1,000 individuals per year; thus, a mortality rate of 9.Health policy: Health policy can be defined as the "decisions, plans, and actions that are undertaken to achieve specific health care goals within a society."World Health Organization.Generalizability theory: Generalizability theory, or G Theory, is a statistical framework for conceptualizing, investigating, and designing reliable observations. It is used to determine the reliability (i.Global Health Delivery Project

(1/616) Rural and urban fatal pedestrian crashes among United States American Indians and Alaskan Natives.

The Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) and the Web-based Injury Statistics Query and Reporting System (WISQARS) were used to compare fatal pedestrian crashes in American Indians and Alaskan Natives (AI/AN) between urban and rural locations for 2000-2001. There were significant differences between urban and rural crashes for driver, pedestrian, environmental, and engineering factors. Rural pedestrian crashes more often occurred on highways (p<0.0001) lacking traffic control devices (p<0.0001) and artificial lighting (p<0.0001). Alcohol was a significant cofactor in both environments (40% urban vs. 55% rural; p=0.0239). Prevention of AI/AN deaths should include engineering countermeasures specific to the needs of rural (lighting) and urban (medians with barriers) environments and address drinking behavior in both populations.  (+info)

(2/616) The complex ecology of hantavirus in Paraguay.

Following an outbreak of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) in the Paraguayan Chaco in 1995, Calomys laucha was identified as the rodent host for the hantavirus associated with these cases. To explore the possibility of additional hantaviruses in Paraguay, we collected 636 mammals from 10 of the 17 departments. Plasma from 27 animals in Alto Paraguay and Boquer6n in the Chaco and Neembucu and Itapua in the eastern region had antibody to Andes virus antigens. Of these 27, five individuals (among four species) were positive for hantavirus RNA. Sera were collected from indigenous people in eastern Paraguay to ascertain whether persons were being infected with hantavirus outside of the Chaco. Seventeen percent were antibody-positive. These results suggest that several different hantaviruses are co-circulating in Paraguay, and that HPS cases occurring in eastern Paraguay may result from exposure to hantaviruses that are distinct from those in the Chaco.  (+info)

(3/616) Epizootic activity of Murray Valley encephalitis and Kunjin viruses in an aboriginal community in the southeast Kimberley region of Western Australia: results of mosquito fauna and virus isolation studies.

We undertook annual surveys of flavivirus activity in the community of Billiluna in the southeast Kimberley region of Western Australia between 1989 and 2001 [corrected]. Culex annulirostris was the dominant mosquito species, particularly in years of above average rains and flooding. Murray Valley encephalitis (MVE) virus was isolated in 8 of the 13 years of the study from seven mosquito species, but more than 90% of the isolates were from Cx. annulirostris. The results suggest that MVE virus is epizootic in the region, w ith activity only apparent in years with average or above average rainfall and increased numbers of Cx. annulirostris. High levels of MVE virus activity and associated human cases were detected only once (in 1993) during the survey period. Activity of MVE virus could only be partially correlated with wet season rainfall and flooding, suggesting that a number of other factors must also be considered to accurately predict MVE virus activity at such communities.  (+info)

(4/616) Impact of shared epitope genotype and ethnicity on erosive disease: a meta-analysis of 3,240 rheumatoid arthritis patients.

OBJECTIVE: The strongest known genetic association in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is with HLA-DRB1 alleles that share a similar amino acid sequence, termed the shared epitope (SE). Although many studies have examined the association of the SE with disease severity, the results have been inconsistent, which may reflect the relatively small sample sizes or ethnic differences. The aim of this study was to assess the association of HLA-DRB1 SE alleles and genotype with the development of bony erosions in RA by meta-analysis. METHODS: We identified English-language articles published between January 1, 1987 and June 1, 1999 through Medline, EMBase, and manual searches of 6 relevant journals. Included were studies in which molecular typing of HLA-DRB1 alleles was performed and in which the presence or absence of bony erosions was reported. Data were extracted from the studies, and erosions were coded as present or absent. Authors were contacted for missing information and data on individual patients. RESULTS: A total of 29 studies and 3,240 patients were available for analysis. The summary odds ratios (ORs), when all patients were evaluated as a single group, demonstrated a significant association of the presence of the SE (2 or 1 versus 0 SE alleles) with erosions (OR 2.0; 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.8-2.2), although significant heterogeneity was present (P = 0.002). Subgroup analyses demonstrated the important influence of ethnic background. For example, no association of the SE with erosions was demonstrated in Greeks (OR 0.8 [95% CI 0.2-1.5]). In contrast, there was a striking dose-dependent relationship in southern European Caucasians and Asians, with ORs as high as 6.2 and 5.4, respectively, in patients with 2 SE alleles. Although our ability to assess the relationship between SE genotype and erosions was limited, particular importance of the DRB1*0401 SE allele was suggested in an analysis restricted to northern European Caucasians. CONCLUSION: The SE is associated with the development of erosive disease in many ethnic groups; however, striking exceptions exist. These variations may be due to allele differences between populations, such as the frequency of DRB1*0401 among different ethnic groups. Further study to better understand the genetic and environmental differences between these populations may provide insight into mechanisms that influence the clinical expression of RA.  (+info)

(5/616) A myopic shift in Australian Aboriginals: 1977-2000.

BACKGROUND/AIMS: The prevalence of myopia has been reported to have increased in a number of population groups. We compared the refraction of Australian Aboriginal adults in 2000 with data collected in 1977 to assess whether there had been a change in the prevalence of myopia. METHOD: Australian Aboriginal adults aged 20 to 30 years old were selected from Central Australian communities in 2000. Refraction was determined by noncycloplegic autorefraction. This was compared to mydriatic retinoscopy data collected in 1977. "Observer trials" were undertaken to assess the comparability of noncycloplegic autorefraction measurements and cycloplegic retinoscopy. Spherical equivalence cylinder and spheric were determined for all right and left eyes and compared using an analysis of variance. RESULTS: A total of 128 adults (58 males, 70 females) were examined in 2000 and compared with 161 adults (107 males, 54 females) examined in 1977. The mean spherical equivalent in 2000 was -0.55 D +/- 0.88 D and in 1977 was +0.54 D +/- 0.81 D. The difference of -1.09 D was highly significant (F = 126, P < .001). Intraclass correlation coefficients showed good agreement between noncycloplegic autorefraction and cycloplegic retinoscopy. Neither gender, schooling, nor diabetes was associated with an increased risk of myopia. CONCLUSIONS: There appears to have been a significant shift toward myopia in Australian Aboriginals between 1977 and 2000. The cause of this myopic shift is unknown but mirrors that observed in other populations in recent years.  (+info)

(6/616) The hypertriglyceridaemic waist in New Zealand Maori.

The objective of this study was to find a simple practical method of predicting insulin resistance in New Zealand Maori. Thirty-six Maori participants had insulin sensitivity measured using a euglycaemic insulin clamp. Several clinical and easily measured laboratory variables were compared, singly and in combination, with this measure of insulin sensitivity usually regarded as the gold standard. The combination of either fasting insulin and triglycerides or waist circumference and triglycerides, were the best simple methods for predicting insulin resistance in Maori. As insulin assays are not always available and are often not standardised, measurement of waist circumference and triglycerides provides a practical method for predicting insulin sensitivity in New Zealand Maori.  (+info)

(7/616) Kusunda: an Indo-Pacific language in Nepal.

The Kusunda people of central Nepal have long been regarded as a relic tribe of South Asia. They are, or were until recently, seminomadic hunter-gatherers, living in jungles and forests, with a language that shows no similarities to surrounding languages. They are often described as shorter and darker than neighboring tribes. Our research indicates that the Kusunda language is a member of the Indo-Pacific family. This is a surprising finding inasmuch as the Indo-Pacific family is located on New Guinea and surrounding islands. The possibility that Kusunda is a remnant of the migration that led to the initial peopling of New Guinea and Australia warrants additional investigation from both a linguistic and genetic perspective.  (+info)

(8/616) Arctic indigenous peoples experience the nutrition transition with changing dietary patterns and obesity.

Indigenous Peoples globally are part of the nutrition transition. They may be among the most extreme for the extent of dietary change experienced in the last few decades. In this paper, we report survey data from 44 representative communities from 3 large cultural areas of the Canadian Arctic: the Yukon First Nations, Dene/Metis, and Inuit communities. Dietary change was represented in 2 ways: 1) considering the current proportion of traditional food (TF) in contrast to the precontact period (100% TF); and 2) the amount of TF consumed by older vs. younger generations. Total diet, TF, and BMI data from adults were investigated. On days when TF was consumed, there was significantly less (P < 0.01) fat, carbohydrate, and sugar in the diet, and more protein, vitamin A, vitamin D, vitamin E, riboflavin, vitamin B-6, iron, zinc, copper, magnesium, manganese, phosphorus, potassium, and selenium. Vitamin C and folate, provided mainly by fortified food, and fiber were higher (P < 0.01) on days without TF for Inuit. Only 10-36% of energy was derived from TF; adults > 40 y old consistently consumed more (P < 0.05) TF than those younger. Overall obesity (BMI > or = 30 kg/m(2)) of Arctic adults exceeded all-Canadian rates. Measures to improve nutrient-dense market food (MF) availability and use are called for, as are ways to maintain or increase TF use.  (+info)


  • The research should aim to identify differences in effectiveness among groups, based on characteristics such as socioeconomic status, age, gender and ethnicity.Outcomes may include vitamin D status, user adherence or any unintentional consequences. (nice.org.uk)
  • Whereas the genotype distribution was comparable to the Caucasian groups, there was a significant difference in the number of copies, which indicated a genetic link between Tswana and African-American populations despite differences in cultural lifestyle associated with their geographical location. (scielo.org.za)


  • Group Work with Populations at Risk, Second Edition is a fundamental resource for social workers and those in related health professions. (englishtips.org)


  • Does effectiveness vary by age, gender, ethnicity, socioeconomic or other specific population characteristics (such as depression or a disability)? (nice.org.uk)


  • 3. Uprooted population groups deserve special attention, in view of the consequences they have suffered from being uprooted, through the implementation of a comprehensive, exceptional strategy which ensures, in the shortest possible time, their relocation in conditions of security and dignity and their free and full integration into the social, economic and political life of the country. (wikisource.org)


  • UNFPA , in partnership with the PARIS21 Census Task Team and Statistics South Africa , and in cooperation with the US Bureau of Census and DFID , organised an International Expert Group Seminar on Population Census Data Dissemination and Use held on 10-12 November 2003, in the Saint Georges Hotel and Conference Centre in Pretoria, South Africa. (paris21.org)


  • The Parties reiterate their decision to comply fully with the Comprehensive Agreement on Human Rights, which took effect on 29 March 1994, promoting respect for the human rights of uprooted populations, one of the vulnerable sectors which deserve particular attention, with special vigilance. (wikisource.org)


  • 4. Uprooted population groups shall participate in decision-making concerning the design, implementation and supervision of the comprehensive resettlement strategy and its specific projects. (wikisource.org)
  • Accessible and practical as well as theoretically sound, it is an essential reference for students and practitioners with little specific training in group work. (englishtips.org)
  • Specific resources for further study and materials for use with each population are essential chapter components. (englishtips.org)
  • With new chapters on internet self-help groups, group work with Asian-American immigrants, community and organizational factors, victims of school and community violence, and evidence-based practice, this nuts-and-bolts resource offers students and professionals clear, practical guidelines for applying specific skills and assessment measures to a broad range of group work environments. (englishtips.org)


  • 2. "Resettlement" shall mean the legal process of return of uprooted population groups and individuals to their place of origin or another place of their choice in Guatemalan territory, and their relocation and integration therein, in accordance with the Political Constitution of the Republic of Guatemala. (wikisource.org)
  • 5. A comprehensive strategy will be possible only within the perspective of a sustained, sustainable and equitable development of the resettlement areas for the benefit of all the population groups and individuals residing in them in the framework of a national development plan. (wikisource.org)
  • Using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based restriction fragment length polymorphism method, we set out to determine the SULT1A1 genotype and allele frequency distributions in the largest sample studied to date: a homogeneous South African Tswana population of 1867 individuals from the Prospective Urban and Rural Epidemiological (PURE) study, and found the SULT1A1*1 and SULT1A1*2 alleles present at a frequency of 0.68 and 0.32, respectively. (scielo.org.za)
  • However, studies carried out previously on South African subjects contained individuals from different population groups (Black and mixed-race groups) 21 and only a limited number of cases were included in a study on Nigerian and African-American groups. (scielo.org.za)


  • 6. The implementation of the strategy shall not be discriminatory and shall promote the reconciliation of the interests of the resettled population groups and the population groups already living in the resettlement areas. (wikisource.org)


  • Previous studies on gene mapping have firmly established variation in segments of the DNA structure amongst different population groups. (scielo.org.za)


  • Our findings correspond with an earlier study on a small African- American group, but differ from those based on two Caucasian groups. (scielo.org.za)
  • Crohn's disease in the over-60 age group: a population based study. (biomedsearch.com)
  • METHODS: The study included a population based inception cohort of all incident CD cases diagnosed in Brittany (France) between 1994 and 1997. (biomedsearch.com)


  • The recommendations apply to all at-risk groups, but there is a particular need for research in people over 65, people with darker skin and people living in institutions. (nice.org.uk)
  • 1. For the purposes of this Agreement, the term "uprooted population" shall include all persons who have been uprooted for reasons connected with the armed conflict, whether they live within or outside Guatemala, and shall include, in particular, refugees, returnees and internally displaced persons, either dispersed or in groups, including popular resistance groups. (wikisource.org)


  • ensure that quality and timely population-based data are disseminated and used for national planning, poverty reduction strategies, monitoring of national and international development goals. (paris21.org)


  • 2. Full respect for the human rights of the uprooted population shall be an essential condition for the resettlement of this population. (wikisource.org)


  • How effective and cost effective are interventions to increase vitamin D access, uptake, adherence or status among identified at-risk groups? (nice.org.uk)