Polyphenols: A large class of organic compounds having more than one PHENOL group.Phenols: Benzene derivatives that include one or more hydroxyl groups attached to the ring structure.Flavonoids: A group of phenyl benzopyrans named for having structures like FLAVONES.Tea: The infusion of leaves of CAMELLIA SINENSIS (formerly Thea sinensis) as a beverage, the familiar Asian tea, which contains CATECHIN (especially epigallocatechin gallate) and CAFFEINE.Catechin: An antioxidant flavonoid, occurring especially in woody plants as both (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin (cis) forms.Wine: Fermented juice of fresh grapes or of other fruit or plant products used as a beverage.Biflavonoids: Dimers (homo and hetero) of FLAVONOIDS.Camellia sinensis: Camellia sinensis L. (formerly Thea sinensis) is an evergreen Asiatic shrub of the THEACEAE family. The infusion of leaves of this plant is used as Oriental TEA which contains CAFFEINE; THEOPHYLLINE; and epigallocatechin gallate.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Polymers: Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).Proanthocyanidins: Dimers and oligomers of flavan-3-ol units (CATECHIN analogs) linked mainly through C4 to C8 bonds to leucoanthocyanidins. They are structurally similar to ANTHOCYANINS but are the result of a different fork in biosynthetic pathways.Gallic Acid: A colorless or slightly yellow crystalline compound obtained from nutgalls. It is used in photography, pharmaceuticals, and as an analytical reagent.Antioxidants: Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.Quercetin: A flavonol widely distributed in plants. It is an antioxidant, like many other phenolic heterocyclic compounds. Glycosylated forms include RUTIN and quercetrin.Vitis: A plant genus in the family VITACEAE, order Rhamnales, subclass Rosidae. It is a woody vine cultivated worldwide. It is best known for grapes, the edible fruit and used to make WINE and raisins.Hydrolyzable Tannins: Polymeric derivatives of GALLIC ACID that are esters of a sugar.Tannins: Polyphenolic compounds with molecular weights of around 500-3000 daltons and containing enough hydroxyl groups (1-2 per 100 MW) for effective cross linking of other compounds (ASTRINGENTS). The two main types are HYDROLYZABLE TANNINS and CONDENSED TANNINS. Historically, the term has applied to many compounds and plant extracts able to render skin COLLAGEN impervious to degradation. The word tannin derives from the Celtic word for OAK TREE which was used for leather processing.Chlorogenic Acid: A naturally occurring phenolic acid which is a carcinogenic inhibitor. It has also been shown to prevent paraquat-induced oxidative stress in rats. (From J Chromatogr A 1996;741(2):223-31; Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 1996;60(5):765-68).Anticarcinogenic Agents: Agents that reduce the frequency or rate of spontaneous or induced tumors independently of the mechanism involved.Stilbenes: Organic compounds that contain 1,2-diphenylethylene as a functional group.Anthocyanins: A group of FLAVONOIDS derived from FLAVONOLS, which lack the ketone oxygen at the 4-position. They are glycosylated versions of cyanidin, pelargonidin or delphinidin. The conjugated bonds result in blue, red, and purple colors in flowers of plants.Cacao: A tree of the family Sterculiaceae (or Byttneriaceae), usually Theobroma cacao, or its seeds, which after fermentation and roasting, yield cocoa and chocolate.Malus: A plant genus in the family ROSACEAE, order Rosales, subclass Rosidae. It is best known as a source of the edible fruit (apple) and is cultivated in temperate climates worldwide.Grape Seed Extract: Exudate from seeds of the grape plant Vitis vinifera, composed of oils and secondary plant metabolites (BIOFLAVONOIDS and polyphenols) credited with important medicinal properties.Biological Availability: The extent to which the active ingredient of a drug dosage form becomes available at the site of drug action or in a biological medium believed to reflect accessibility to a site of action.Phytotherapy: Use of plants or herbs to treat diseases or to alleviate pain.Beverages: Liquids that are suitable for drinking. (From Merriam Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)Fruit: The fleshy or dry ripened ovary of a plant, enclosing the seed or seeds.Ellagic Acid: A fused four ring compound occurring free or combined in galls. Isolated from the kino of Eucalyptus maculata Hook and E. Hemipholia F. Muell. Activates Factor XII of the blood clotting system which also causes kinin release; used in research and as a dye.Rutin: A flavonol glycoside found in many plants, including BUCKWHEAT; TOBACCO; FORSYTHIA; HYDRANGEA; VIOLA, etc. It has been used therapeutically to decrease capillary fragility.Photinia: A plant genus of the family ROSACEAE. The common names of chokeberry or chokecherry are also used for some species of PRUNUS.Pyrogallol: A trihydroxybenzene or dihydroxy phenol that can be prepared by heating GALLIC ACID.Food Analysis: Measurement and evaluation of the components of substances to be taken as FOOD.Punicaceae: A plant family of the order Myrtales, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida that is a small family with a single genus.Curcumin: A yellow-orange dye obtained from tumeric, the powdered root of CURCUMA longa. It is used in the preparation of curcuma paper and the detection of boron. Curcumin appears to possess a spectrum of pharmacological properties, due primarily to its inhibitory effects on metabolic enzymes.Vaccinium macrocarpon: A plant species of the family VACCINIUM known for the sour fruit which is sometimes used for urinary tract infections.Flavonols: A group of 3-hydroxy-4-keto-FLAVONOIDS.Caffeic Acids: A class of phenolic acids related to chlorogenic acid, p-coumaric acid, vanillic acid, etc., which are found in plant tissues. It is involved in plant growth regulation.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Hibiscus: A plant genus of the family MALVACEAE. Members contain CITRIC ACID; MALATES; ANTHOCYANINS; FLAVONOIDS; GLYCOSIDES; DIETARY FIBER; and LIGNANS. Hibiscus sabdariffa is common constituent of HERBAL TEAS. Hibiscus cannabinus is a source of hemp fiber for TEXTILES.Blueberry Plant: Several plant species of the genus VACCINIUM known for the edible blueberry fruit.Crataegus: A genus in the family ROSACEAE of shrubs and small trees native to the North Temperate Zone. It is best known for a traditional medication for the heart.

*  Publications - Dr Amanda Cross
Dietary polyphenol intake was measured using Phenol-Explorer, a database with information on the content of 502 polyphenols. ... Total polyphenol intake was not associated with CD (P trend = 0.17) or UC (P trend = 0.16). For flavones and CD, there were ... BACKGROUND: Oxidative stress may be involved in the aetiology of inflammatory bowel disease and whether dietary polyphenols, ... for polyphenol intake (categories based on quartiles) and developing CD or UC. RESULTS: In total, 110 CD (73% women) and 244 UC ...
*  Oral administration of copper to rats leads to increased lymphocyte cellular DNA degradation by dietary polyphenols:...
... we have earlier proposed a mechanism which involves the mobilization of endogenous copper ions by polyphenols leading to the ... To account for the observed anticancer properties of plant polyphenols, ... Cancer chemoprevention Copper EGCG Genistein Polyphenols Prooxidant DNA breakage Husain Y. Khan and Haseeb Zubair are ... Hadi SM, Bhat SH, Azmi AS, Hanif S, Shamim U, Ullah MF (2007) Oxidative breakage of cellular DNA by plant polyphenols: a ...
*  p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Activates eNOS in Endothelial Cells by an Estrogen Receptor α-Dependent Pathway in...
Activation of eNOS by Black Tea Polyphenols Involves Estrogen Receptors. To probe pathways involved in black tea polyphenol- ... Black Tea Polyphenols Induce ERα Phosphorylation. Phosphorylation of ERα occurs on multiple residues, including Ser-118.12 To ... Black Tea Polyphenol-Induced ERα Phosphorylation Involves p38 MAPK. Phosphorylation of ERα on Ser-118 has been linked to ... In this study we found that ERα plays a key role in mediating the activation of eNOS in response to black tea polyphenols. In ...
*  Research strategies in the study of the pro-oxidant nature of polyphenol nutraceuticals.
These plant-derived antioxidant polyphenols have a dual nature, also acting as.. ... Abstract Polyphenols of phytochemicals are thought to exhibit chemopreventive effects against cancer. ... Attention also must be directed to the influence of iron and copper ions and to the level of polyphenols, which mediate ... Abstract Polyphenols of phytochemicals are thought to exhibit chemopreventive effects against cancer. These plant-derived ...
*  Polyphenols/OPCs - Seagate - Swanson Health Products
Trusted since 1969, we offer trusted quality and great value on Polyphenols/OPCs - Seagate products. ... Shop the best Polyphenols/OPCs - Seagate products at Swanson Health Products. ...
*  Chemopreventive potential of dietary polyphenols. - Surrey Research Insight Open Access
In contrast to the observation in HCT-8 cancerous cells, polyphenol-induced apoptosis was substantially lower in ICE-6 non- ... These data thus suggest that polyphenols induce apoptosis via a pro-oxidant mechanism, which appears to involve the generation ... Magnay, Fiona-Ann. (2005) Chemopreventive potential of dietary polyphenols. Doctoral thesis, University of Surrey (United ... Potential pro-oxidant and/or antioxidant mechanisms and interactions, through which polyphenols may initiate apoptosis in HCT-8 ...
*  Polyphenols - Universität Innsbruck
Polyphenol content as key-indicator of plant litter quality and palatability for macro-decomposers. Julia Seeber, Alexander ... In the proposed study we want to analyse the polyphenol contents of fresh plant material and litter of different stages ( ... An important prerequisite for studies dealing with these interactions are the polyphenol contents of various alpine plant ... These two assays are well accepted as the two most frequently used polyphenol measurements. ...
*  tomato polyphenols - Organic Authority
Higher levels of healthy polyphenols were found in ketchups made from organically grown tomatoes than from conventional … ...
*  Polyphenols: (EUFIC)
Plant foods and a plant-based rich diet are associated with a lower risk of diseases and therefore polyphenols a crucial ... What are polyphenols?. Polyphenols are naturally present in plants. Unlike vitamins and minerals, polyphenols are not essential ... Besides, proving that polyphenols also act as antioxidants in the human body is not an easy task as polyphenols undergo changes ... Polyphenols and health. Much of the evidence that supports a protective effect of polyphenols on CVD, cancer and ...
*  Tea Polyphenols Regulate Key Mediators on Inflammatory Cardiovascular Diseases
G. R. Beecher, B. A. Warden, and H. Merken, "Analysis of tea polyphenols," Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology ... Tea Polyphenols Regulate Key Mediators on Inflammatory Cardiovascular Diseases. Jun-ichi Suzuki,1 Mitsuaki Isobe,2 Ryuichi ... Tea polyphenols known as catechins are key components with many biological functions, including anti-inflammatory, ... R. Benelli, R. Vene, D. Bisacchi, S. Garbisa, and A. Albini, "Anti-invasive effects of green tea polyphenol epigallocatechin-3- ...
*  IJMS | Free Full-Text | Biological Activities of Polyphenols from Grapes
The extraction, isolation and identification methods of polyphenols from grape as well as their bioavailability and potential ... Anthocyanins, flavanols, flavonols and resveratrol are the most important grape polyphenols because they possess many ... Xia, E.-Q.; Deng, G.-F.; Guo, Y.-J.; Li, H.-B. Biological Activities of Polyphenols from Grapes. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2010, 11, ... Xia E-Q, Deng G-F, Guo Y-J, Li H-B. Biological Activities of Polyphenols from Grapes. International Journal of Molecular ...
*  IJMS | Free Full-Text | Immunomodulating Activity of Aronia melanocarpa Polyphenols
... production in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 macrophages and effects on cell viability of these polyphenols were studied. Several of the ... This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Phenolics and Polyphenols) View Full-Text , Download PDF [529 KB, uploaded ... Immunomodulating Activity of Aronia melanocarpa Polyphenols. Giang T. T. Ho 1,* , Marie Bräunlich 1. ... "Immunomodulating Activity of Aronia melanocarpa Polyphenols." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 15, no. 7: 11626-11636. ...
*  Loquat polyphenols exhibits selective cytotoxicity against oral tumor
These polyphenols have also been assessed for cytotoxic activity against two human oral tumor (human squamous cell carcinoma ... Loquat polyphenols exhibits selective cytotoxicity against oral tumor cell lines. - GreenMedInfo Summary ... Polyphenols from Eriobotrya japonica and their cytotoxicity against human oral tumor cell lines. ...
*  Polyphenols in Sorghum and Iron Absorption - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov
Polyphenols are a huge group of plant metabolites with varying chemical structures. Depending on their structure, the level of ... Is There a Dose-dependant Effect of Sorghum Polyphenols on Human Iron Absorption and Can it be Overcome by Sodium Iron EDTA or ... Iron Absorption in Presence of Polyphenols Dietary Supplement: labeled iron solutions Early Phase 1 ... Some sorghum varieties are known to contain high levels of polyphenols which have an inhibitory effect on iron absorption in ...
*  Patente US4555563 - Imide functional polyphenols; thermosettable compositions containing same ... - Google Patentes
Imide functional polyphenols are prepared by reacting an excess of a phenol with an unsaturated diimide which is prepared by ... The diimide polyphenol was prepared using the method of Example 3-A and 3-B. The diimide polyphenol, bisphenol A diglycidyl ... C. Preparation of Polycyanate of the Imide Functional Polyphenol. A portion of the diimide polyphenol (43.9 grams, 0.085 mole) ... C. Preparation of Polycyanate of the Imide Functional Polyphenol. A portion of the diimide polyphenol (72.97 grams, 0.1360 mole ...
*  Polyphenols side effects - Doctor answers
Polyphenols side effects - Sustonon, side effects? Sustanon. Sustanon is an anabolic steroid, side effects include breast ...
*  Plant Polyphenols Don't Help Heart Health - AnabolicMinds.com
Research has called into question the role of plant polyphenols in cardiovascular health, by finding that their supposed anti- ... Research has called into question the role of plant polyphenols in cardiovascular health, by finding that their supposed anti- ... mainly polyphenols, also have been shown to affect human platelet function in vitro and in vivo, said de Roos and her ...
*  The anti-obesity effect of wheat polyphenols
... have discovered that wheat polyphenols have effects that improve the rhythm of activity and suppress obesity and glucose ... The anti-obesity effect of wheat polyphenols. July 1, 2013, Advanced Industrial Science and Technology ... Figure 3: Suppression effect of wheat polyphenols on fatty liver. In addition, the changes in body weight of the mice that ... and Oriental Yeast in order to uncover the molecular mechanisms of the effects that wheat polyphenols have in improving the ...
*  Green tea polyphenols thwart prostate cancer development at multiple levels | EurekAlert! Science News
The polyphenols present in green tea help prevent the spread of prostate cancer by targeting molecular pathways that shut down ... PHILADELPHIA - The polyphenols present in green tea help prevent the spread of prostate cancer by targeting molecular pathways ... The green tea polyphenols contributed to minimizing tumor development by governing the amount of vascular endothelial growth ... Green tea polyphenols thwart prostate cancer development at multiple levels. American Association for Cancer Research ...
*  IJMS | Free Full-Text | Polyphenols from Cocoa and Vascular Health-A Critical Review
If dietary cocoa polyphenol intake is due to chocolate its high energy content needs to be taken into account. In order to ... In vitro as well as cell culture data indicate that cocoa polyphenols may exhibit antioxidant and anti-inflammatory, as well as ... However cocoa polyphenol concentrations, as used in many cell culture studies, are not physiologically achievable. ... Human studies regarding the effect of cocoa polyphenols on vascular health are often underpowered and lack a rigorous study ...
*  Polyphenol antioxidants inhibit iron absorption
Penn State nutritional scientists found that eating certain polyphenols decreased the amount ... ... Health benefits from polyphenol antioxidants -- substances found in many fruits and vegetables -- may come at a cost to some ... Polyphenol antioxidants inhibit iron absorption. August 23, 2010 Health benefits from polyphenol antioxidants -- substances ... This iron-polyphenol complex cannot enter the blood stream. Instead, it is excreted in the feces when cells are sloughed off ...
*  Frontiers | Cocoa and Dark Chocolate Polyphenols: From Biology to Clinical Applications | Immunology
In particular, cocoa polyphenols induce release of nitric oxide (NO) through activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase ... In particular, cocoa polyphenols induce release of nitric oxide (NO) through activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase ... In fact, cocoa and dark chocolate polyphenols exert anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities switching on some important ... In fact, cocoa and dark chocolate polyphenols exert anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities switching on some important ...

Health effects of natural phenols and polyphenols: Because of the large structural diversity and extensive metabolism of dietary polyphenols, it is difficult to determine their fate in vivo and assert specific health effects. Although many are speculated to be part of the health-promoting effects of consuming fruits and vegetables, no evidence exists to date that dietary polyphenols actually provide health benefits.AlkylphenolGreen tea extractEpigallocatechin gallateRice wineBiflavonoid: Biflavonoids are a type of flavonoids with the general formula scheme (C6-C3-C6)2.Sinecatechins: Sinecatechins (USAN, trade names Veregen and Polyphenon E) is a specific water extract of green tea leaves from Camellia sinensis that is the active ingredient in an ointment approved by the FDA in 2006 as a botanical drug to treat genital warts.Masters KP New Drug Reviews: Sinecatechins (Veregen) for External Genital and Perianal Warts.PhytomedicinePolymer blend: A polymer blend or polymer mixture is a member of a class of materials analogous to metal alloys, in which at least two polymers are blended together to create a new material with different physical properties. Section 3.Cinnamtannin B1Trihydroxybenzoic acid: Trihydroxybenzoic acid may refer to the following phenolic acids :TroloxQuercetinViticulture: Viticulture (from the Latin word for vine) is the science, production, and study of grapes. It deals with the series of events that occur in the vineyard.Ellagitannin: The ellagitannins are a diverse class of hydrolyzable tannins, a type of polyphenol formed primarily from the oxidative linkage of galloyl groups in 1,2,3,4,6-pentagalloyl glucose. Ellagitannins differ from gallotannins, in that their galloyl groups are linked through C-C bonds, whereas the galloyl groups in gallotannins are linked by depside bonds.TanninChlorogenic acidVitisin B (stilbenoid): Vitisin B}}Anthocyanin 5-O-glucosyltransferase: Anthocyanin 5-O-glucosyltransferase is an enzyme that forms anthocyanin 3,5-O-diglucoside from anthocyanin 3-O-glucoside.White chocolate: White chocolate is a chocolate derivative. It commonly consists of cocoa butter, sugar and milk solids and is characterized by a pale yellow or ivory appearance.Sooty blotch and flyspeck: Sooty blotch and flyspeck (SBFS) or 'apple summer disease' is a plant disease caused by a complex of saprophytic fungi which colonize the epicuticular wax layer of apple (Malus x domestica Borkh.).Grape seed extract: Grape seed extract (GSE) is industrial derivatives from whole grape seeds.First pass effect: The first-pass effect (also known as first-pass metabolism or presystemic metabolism) is a phenomenon of drug metabolism whereby the concentration of a drug is greatly reduced before it reaches the systemic circulation. It is the fraction of drug lost during the process of absorption which is generally related to the liver and gut wall.College of Practitioners of PhytotherapySports drink: Sports drinks are beverages whose stated purpose is to help athletes replace water, electrolytes, and energy after training or competition, though their efficacy for that purpose has been questioned, particularly after exercise which is only moderate.Fruit snack: A fruit snack is a processed food eaten as a snack in the United States. Fruit snacks are very similar to gummi candies.Photinia serratifolia: Photinia serratifolia (syn. Photinia serrulata), commonly called Taiwanese photinia or Chinese photinia is a flowering shrub or tree in the Rosaceae family of flowering plants, found in mixed forests of China, Taiwan, Japan, the Philippines, Indonesia, and India.Pelobacter acidigallici: Pelobacter acidigallici is the type species in the bacteria genus Pelobacter.Punicacortein DStephens Cur: The Stephens Cur (aka Stephens' Stock Cur), is a scent hound that belongs to the Cur dog breed. They were originally bred by the Stephens family in southeastern Kentucky.The Cranberries discography: The Cranberries is an Irish rock band formed in Limerick in 1989, originally under the name The Cranberry Saw Us. Although widely associated with alternative rock, the band's sound incorporates post-punk and rock elements.Flavonols: Flavonols are a class of flavonoids that have the 3-hydroxyflavone backbone (IUPAC name : 3-hydroxy-2-phenylchromen-4-one). Their diversity stems from the different positions the phenolic -OH groups.Mayo Clinic Diet: The Mayo Clinic Diet is a diet created by Mayo Clinic. Prior to this, use of that term was generally connected to fad diets which had no association with Mayo Clinic.Roselle (plant): Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa) is a species of Hibiscus native to West Africa,"Roselle" Encyclopædia Britannica used for the production of bast fibre and as an infusion, in which it may also be known as carcade. It is an annual or perennial herb or woody-based subshrub, growing to tall.Normal as Blueberry Pie – A Tribute to Doris Day: [ Allmusic review]Crataegus × mordenensis: Crataegus × mordenensis, Morden Hawthorn, is a hybrid that arose between two species in the genus Crataegus (Hawthorn), Crataegus laevigata and Crataegus succulenta. This hybrid was first raised at the Agriculture Canada Plant Breeding Station in Morden, Manitoba, in 1935.

(1/1083) Prevention of collagen-induced arthritis in mice by a polyphenolic fraction from green tea.

Identification of common dietary substances capable of affording protection or modulating the onset and severity of arthritis may have important human health implications. An antioxidant-rich polyphenolic fraction isolated from green tea (green tea polyphenols, GTPs) has been shown to possess anti-inflammatory and anticarcinogenic properties in experimental animals. In this study we determined the effect of oral consumption of GTP on collagen-induced arthritis in mice. In three independent experiments mice given GTP in water exhibited significantly reduced incidence of arthritis (33% to 50%) as compared with mice not given GTP in water (84% to 100%). The arthritis index also was significantly lower in GTP-fed animals. Western blot analysis showed a marked reduction in the expression of inflammatory mediators such as cyclooxygenase 2, IFN-gamma, and tumor necrosis factor alpha in arthritic joints of GTP-fed mice. Histologic and immunohistochemical analysis of the arthritic joints in GTP-fed mice demonstrated only marginal joint infiltration by IFN-gamma and tumor necrosis factor alpha-producing cells as opposed to massive cellular infiltration and fully developed pannus in arthritic joints of non-GTP-fed mice. The neutral endopeptidase activity was approximately 7-fold higher in arthritic joints of non-GTP-fed mice in comparison to nonarthritic joints of unimmunized mice whereas it was only 2-fold higher in the arthritic joints of GTP-fed mice. Additionally, total IgG and type II collagen-specific IgG levels were lower in serum and arthritic joints of GTP-fed mice. Taken together our studies suggest that a polyphenolic fraction from green tea that is rich in antioxidants may be useful in the prevention of onset and severity of arthritis.  (+info)

(2/1083) Suppression of extracellular signals and cell proliferation by the black tea polyphenol, theaflavin-3,3'-digallate.

Previous studies in our laboratory have shown that the major green tea polyphenol, (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), suppressed autophosphorylation of epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor induced by EGF in human A431 epidermoid carcinoma cells. In this study, we examined the inhibitory effects of black tea polyphenols, including theaflavin (TF-1), a mixture (TF-2) of theaflavin-3-gallate (TF-2a) and theaflavin-3'-gallate (TF-2b), theaflavin-3,3'-digallate (TF-3) and the thearubigin fraction on the autophosphorylation of the EGF and PDGF receptors in A431 cells and mouse NIH3T3 fibroblast cells, respectively. First, we examined the effects of these polyphenols on the proliferation of A431 and NIH3T3 cells. Both EGCG and TF-3 strongly inhibited the proliferation of A431 and NIH3T3 cells more than the other theaflavins did. In cultured cells with pre-treatment of tea polyphenol, TF-3 was stronger than EGCG on the reduction of EGF receptor and PDGF receptor autophosphorylation induced by EGF and PDGF, respectively. Other theaflavins slightly reduced the autophosphorylation of the EGF and PDGF receptors; furthermore, TF-3 could reduce autophosphorylation of the EGF receptor (or PDGF receptor) even with co-treatment with EGF (or PDGF) and TF-3, but EGCG was inactive under these conditions. In addition, TF-3 was stronger than EGCG in blocking EGF binding to its receptor. These results suggest that not only the green tea polyphenol, EGCG, but also the black tea polyphenol, TF-3, have an antiproliferative activity on tumor cells, and the molecular mechanisms of antiproliferation may block the growth factor binding to its receptor and thus suppress mitogenic signal transduction.  (+info)

(3/1083) Prostate cancer chemoprevention by green tea: in vitro and in vivo inhibition of testosterone-mediated induction of ornithine decarboxylase.

Recently, we have shown that ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), a rate-controlling enzyme in the polyamine biosynthetic pathway, is overexpressed in prostate cancer (PCA) and prostatic fluid in humans (R. R. Mohan et al., Clin. Cancer Res., 5: 143-147, 1999). ODC is also characterized as an androgen-responsive gene, and the androgenic stimulation regulates the development and growth of both normal and tumorigenic prostate cells. Thus, chemopreventive approaches aimed toward the modulation of ODC could be effective against PCA. Green tea polyphenols (GTPs) possess strong chemopreventive properties against a variety of animal tumor models and in some human epidemiological studies. At least two epidemiological studies have suggested that people who consume tea regularly may have a decreased risk of PCA. In this study, we investigated the effect of GTPs against testosterone-mediated induction of ODC in human prostate carcinoma cells, LNCaP as an in vitro model, and in Cpb:WU rats and C57BL/6 mice as in vivo models. Treatment of LNCaP cells with testosterone resulted in induction of ODC activity in a dose-dependent manner. Pretreatment of the cells with GTPs resulted in a significant inhibition of testosterone-caused induction of ODC activity in a dose-dependent manner. Similar effects of GTPs were observed in anchorage-independent growth assay of LNCaP cells where pretreatment of the cells with GTP was found to result in dose-dependent inhibition of colony formation. Testosterone treatment of the cells resulted in a significant increase in the level of ODC mRNA, and this increase was almost completely abolished by prior treatment of the cells with GTPs. The administration of testosterone (10 mg/kg body weight, i.p.) to sham-operated and castrated Cpb:WU rats resulted in 2- and 38-fold increases in ODC activity, respectively, in the ventral prostate. Oral feeding of 0.2% GTPs in drinking water for 7 days before testosterone administration resulted in 20 and 54% decreases in testosterone-caused induction of ODC activity in sham-operated and castrated rats, respectively. Similar results were obtained with C57BL/6 mice, where testosterone treatment at similar dosage resulted in a 2-fold increase in ODC activity in the ventral prostate and prior oral feeding with 0.2% GTPs resulted in 40% inhibition in this induction.  (+info)

(4/1083) Histological analysis and ancient DNA amplification of human bone remains found in caius iulius polybius house in pompeii.

Thirteen skeletons found in the Caius Iulius Polybius house, which has been the object of intensive study since its discovery in Pompeii 250 years ago, have provided an opportunity to study either bone diagenesis by histological investigation or ancient DNA by polymerase chain reaction analysis. DNA analysis was done by amplifying both X- and Y-chromosomes amelogenin loci and Y-specific alphoid repeat locus. The von Willebrand factor (vWF) microsatellite locus on chromosome 12 was also analyzed for personal identification in two individuals showing alleles with 10/11 and 12/12 TCTA repeats, respectively. Technical problems were the scarcity of DNA content from osteocytes, DNA molecule fragmentation, microbial contamination which change bone structure, contaminating human DNA which results from mishandling, and frequent presence of Taq DNA polymerase inhibiting molecules like polyphenols and heavy metals. The results suggest that the remains contain endogenous human DNA that can be amplified and analyzed. The amplifiability of DNA corresponds to the bone preservation and dynamics of the burial conditions subsequent to the 79 A.D. eruption.  (+info)

(5/1083) Quinol-glutathione conjugate-induced mutation spectra in the supF gene replicated in human AD293 cells and bacterial MBL50 cells.

Hydroquinone is a nephrocarcinogen in rats but generally tests negative in standard mutagenicity assays. However, 2,3,5-tris-(glutathion-S-yl)hydroquinone, a potent nephrotoxic metabolite of hydroquinone, and 2-bromo-bis-(glutathion-S-yl)hydroquinone, another cytotoxic quinol-glutathione (GSH) conjugate, cause extensive single strand breaks in DNA in a manner that is dependent on the formation of reactive oxygen species. We, therefore, investigated whether quinol-GSH conjugates have the potential to behave as genotoxicants. The shuttle vector pSP189, containing the supF gene, was treated with 2,3,5-tris-(glutathion-S-yl)hydroquinone and replicated in both human AD293 cells and Escherichia coli MBL50 cells. The mutation frequency increased 4.6- and 2.6-fold in human AD293 and bacterial MBL50 cells, respectively. Base substitutions were the major type of mutations, and they occurred predominantly at G:C sites in both cell types. A high frequency of deletions (30%), including < 10- and > 10-bp deletions, were observed in AD293-replicated plasmids. The most common types of mutations in AD293 cells were G:C to A:T transitions (33.8%) and G:C to T:A (29.4%) and G:C to C:G (19.1%) transversions. In MBL50 cells, the major mutations were G:C to T:A (33.8%) and G:C to C:G (31.3%) transversions and G:C to A:T transitions (27.5%). The mutation spectra were similar to those reported for *OH-induced mutations, suggesting that *OH generated from polyphenolic-GSH conjugates not only plays a role in cytotoxicity but also provides a basis for their mutagenicity and carcinogenicity.  (+info)

(6/1083) Dietary supplementation of grape polyphenols to rats ameliorates chronic ethanol-induced changes in hepatic morphology without altering changes in hepatic lipids.

Increase in oxidative stress after chronic ethanol consumption can result in hepatic injury. Because polyphenolic compounds can offer antioxidant protection to the cardiovascular system, this study was designed to investigate whether dietary supplementation of polyphenols from grapes may ameliorate hepatic injury resulting from chronic ethanol consumption. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were administered the following diets for 2 mo: 1) Lieber-DeCarli (L-D) diet with isocaloric amount of maltose instead of ethanol (Basal), 2) the L-D diet with 50g/L ethanol (EtOH); 3) L-D diet with 50 mg/L of grape polyphenols (GP) and 4) ethanol diet with GP (EtOH + GP). Rats given EtOH or EtOH + GP diets had significantly more hepatic triacylglycerols (P < 0.0001) and lipid peroxidation products (P < 0.01) compared with those given the Basal and GP diets. In addition, ethanol ingestion also decreased significantly (P < 0.01) the proportion of 16:0 and increased 18:0 and 18:1 in hepatic phospholipids, suggesting a perturbation of the de novo fatty acid biosynthesis pathways. However, GP supplementation alone and GP added to the ethanol diet did not alter the lipid changes mediated by ethanol except for the levels of 22:6(n-3) which were significantly (P < 0.05) higher in the EtOH + GP group than in the EtOH group. Despite a lack of gross lipid changes, histologic assessment showed significantly (P < 0.05) less hepatic damage in the GP + EtOH group compared with the EtOH group. These results clearly distinguished ethanol-mediated changes in hepatic morphology from the changes in hepatic lipids and further demonstrated the ability of GP to ameliorate hepatic damage resulting from chronic ethanol consumption.  (+info)

(7/1083) Polyphenol tannic acid inhibits hydroxyl radical formation from Fenton reaction by complexing ferrous ions.

Tannic acid (TA), a plant polyphenol, has been described as having antimutagenic, anticarcinogenic and antioxidant activities. Since it is a potent chelator of iron ions, we decided to examine if the antioxidant activity of TA is related to its ability to chelate iron ions. The degradation of 2-deoxyribose induced by 6 microM Fe(II) plus 100 microM H2O2 was inhibited by TA, with an I50 value of 13 microM. Tannic acid was over three orders of magnitude more efficient in protecting against 2-deoxyribose degradation than classical *OH scavengers. The antioxidant potency of TA was inversely proportional to Fe(II) concentration, demonstrating a competition between H2O2 and AT for reaction with Fe(II). On the other hand, the efficiency of TA was nearly unchanged with increasing concentrations of the *OH detector molecule, 2-deoxyribose. These results indicate that the antioxidant activity of TA is mainly due to iron chelation rather than *OH scavenging. TA also inhibited 2-deoxyribose degradation mediated by Fe(III)-EDTA (iron = 50 microM) plus ascorbate. The protective action of TA was significantly higher with 50 microM EDTA than with 500 microM EDTA, suggesting that TA removes Fe(III) from EDTA and forms a complex with iron that cannot induce *OH formation. We also provided evidence that TA forms a stable complex with Fe(II), since excess ferrozine (14 mM) recovered 95-96% of the Fe(II) from 10 microM TA even after a 30-min exposure to 100-500 microM H2O2. Addition of Fe(III) to samples containing TA caused the formation of Fe(II)n-TA, complexes, as determined by ferrozine assays, indicating that TA is also capable of reducing Fe(III) ions. We propose that when Fe(II) is complexed to TA, it is unable to participate in Fenton reactions and mediate *OH formation. The antimutagenic and anticarcinogenic activity of TA, described elsewhere, may be explained (at least in part) by its capacity to prevent Fenton reactions.  (+info)

(8/1083) Red wine inhibits monocyte chemotactic protein-1 expression and modestly reduces neointimal hyperplasia after balloon injury in cholesterol-Fed rabbits.

BACKGROUND: Wine consumption decreases the risk of myocardial infarction. Intimal hyperplasia contributes to restenosis after angioplasty. Local ethanol delivery inhibits intimal hyperplasia after balloon injury in rabbit iliac and pig coronary arteries. The effects of wine consumption on intimal response and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) expression were studied in cholesterol-fed rabbits. METHODS AND RESULTS: Male rabbits were fed a 2% cholesterol diet together with red wine (12.5% vol, 5 mL/kg body wt per day; n=7), white wine (13.3% vol, 5 mL/kg body wt per day; n=7), or no wine as a control (n=8) for 6 weeks. A balloon injury of the abdominal aorta was performed at the end of the third week. Abdominal aortas were harvested at the end of 6 weeks. Neointimal hyperplasia was measured morphometrically. MCP-1 expression was determined by Northern blot, in situ hybridization, and immunohistochemistry. Rabbits fed red wine had significantly less neointimal hyperplasia than did control rabbits (intima/media area ratio 0.59+/-0.05 [red wine group] versus 0.79+/-0.07 [control group], P<0.05). However, rabbits fed white wine showed a trend (but not significant) toward less intimal response compared with control rabbits (intima/media area ratio 0.65+/-0.04 [white wine group] versus 0.79+/-0.07 [control group], P=0.165). Both red wine and white wine significantly reduced MCP-1 mRNA and protein expression in the aorta. CONCLUSIONS: Long-term consumption of red wine and white wine inhibits MCP-1 expression, and in the small number of animals studied, red wine modestly reduces neointimal hyperplasia. Since red wine exhibits higher antioxidant capacity than does white wine, the decreased intimal response might be partly attributed to its antioxidant effects.  (+info)

  • intake
  • Also, after comparing the accumulation of fat in the liver, it was clear that the simultaneous intake of wheat polyphenols suppressed fat accumulation caused by a high-fat, high-sucrose diet (Fig. 3). (medicalxpress.com)
  • The reviewers stated that research to date had been of poor quality and that large and rigorous trials are needed better to study the science, and to investigate possible adverse effects associated with excessive polyphenol intake. (wikipedia.org)
  • cocoa
  • Several molecular targets (e.g., nuclear factor kappa B, endothelial nitric oxide synthase, angiotensin converting enzyme) have been recently identified which may partly explain potential beneficial cardiovascular effects of cocoa polyphenols. (mdpi.com)
  • However cocoa polyphenol concentrations, as used in many cell culture studies, are not physiologically achievable. (mdpi.com)
  • Human studies regarding the effect of cocoa polyphenols on vascular health are often underpowered and lack a rigorous study design. (mdpi.com)
  • In order to determine potential health benefits of cocoa polyphenols large scale, long term, randomized, placebo controlled studies, (ideally with a cross-over design) as well as prospective studies are warranted. (mdpi.com)
  • In particular, cocoa polyphenols induce release of nitric oxide (NO) through activation of endothelial NO synthase which, in turn, accounts for vasodilation and cardioprotective effects. (frontiersin.org)
  • With special reference to cocoa, polyphenols are constituents of the beans and their derivatives from the Theobroma cacao tree. (frontiersin.org)
  • compounds
  • The WBSSH describes the polyphenol class as: generally moderately water-soluble compounds with molecular weight of 500-4000 Da with >12 phenolic hydroxyl groups with 5-7 aromatic rings per 1000 Da where the limits to these ranges are somewhat flexible. (wikipedia.org)
  • Polyphenol oxidase (PPO or monophenol monooxygenase or Polyphenol oxidase I, chloroplastic) is a tetramer that contains four atoms of copper per molecule, and binding sites for two aromatic compounds and oxygen. (wikipedia.org)
  • Edible plants also contain thousands of compounds generally called phytochemicals which have unknown effects on disease or health, including a diverse class with non-nutrient status called polyphenols, which remain poorly understood as of 2017. (wikipedia.org)
  • exert
  • Unlike vitamins and minerals, polyphenols are not essential nutrients meaning that they are not required by the human body for sustaining life but they can exert beneficial functions. (eufic.org)
  • It is thought that polyphenols may exert a cardio protective effect via several pathways. (eufic.org)
  • consumption
  • The consumption of whole-wheat flour, which contains polyphenols, is expected to possibly prevent metabolic disorders such as diabetes, obesity, and the metabolic syndrome. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Glucose tolerance tests to investigate the effect of wheat polyphenols on glucose metabolic function in mice showed that the decline in glucose tolerance that occurred over 10 weeks due to a high-fat, high-sucrose diet had been suppressed by the simultaneous consumption of wheat polyphenols (Fig. 2). (medicalxpress.com)
  • The most common UV/Vis spectrophotometry assay involves the monitoring of the formation of o-quinones, which are the products of polyphenol oxidase-catalysed reactions, or the consumption of the substrate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other possible effects may result from consumption of foods rich in polyphenols, but are not yet proved scientifically in humans so are not allowed as health statements by regulatory authorities like the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). (wikipedia.org)
  • humans
  • Quite interestingly, Morabito and associates ( 6 ) have demonstrated that polyphenols contained in fruit juices prevent the post-prandial metabolic stress in humans as well as inflammatory disease outcome. (frontiersin.org)
  • biological
  • 1 Polyphenols have been recognised for their antioxidant properties and as they are the most widespread substances with antioxidant potential in our diet, their biological activities are being investigated by many researchers. (eufic.org)
  • Tea polyphenols known as catechins are key components with many biological functions, including anti-inflammatory, antioxidative, and anticarcinogenic effects. (hindawi.com)
  • Li, H.-B. Biological Activities of Polyphenols from Grapes. (mdpi.com)
  • Xia E-Q, Deng G-F, Guo Y-J, Li H-B. Biological Activities of Polyphenols from Grapes. (mdpi.com)
  • citation needed] The polyphenol content of wines is usually evaluated by the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent which correlates well with alternative chemical and biological procedures for determining antioxidant potential. (wikipedia.org)
  • tumor
  • Polyphenols from Eriobotrya japonica and their cytotoxicity against human oral tumor cell lines. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • These polyphenols have also been assessed for cytotoxic activity against two human oral tumor (human squamous cell carcinoma and human salivary gland tumor) cell lines. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • PHILADELPHIA - The polyphenols present in green tea help prevent the spread of prostate cancer by targeting molecular pathways that shut down the proliferation and spread of tumor cells, as well as inhibiting the growth of tumor nurturing blood vessels, according to research published in the December 1 issue of Cancer Research. (eurekalert.org)
  • and Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio, documented the role of green tea polyphenols (GTP) in modulating the insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1)-driven molecular pathway in prostate tumor cells in a mouse model for human prostate cancer. (eurekalert.org)
  • The green tea polyphenols contributed to minimizing tumor development by governing the amount of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the serum of the prostate cancer mouse model. (eurekalert.org)
  • olive oil
  • To date the European Food Safety Authority, which is scientifically assessing health claims made on food products, has rejected all claims on polyphenols except for olive oil. (eufic.org)
  • metabolism
  • Polyphenols have been known to have many beneficial effects for human health, such as preventing or delaying certain types of cancer, enhancing bone metabolism and improving bone mineral density , and decreasing risk of heart disease," said Okhee Han, assistant professor of nutritional sciences. (medicalxpress.com)
  • effects
  • Studying and isolating the effects of polyphenols is not as easy task, and more research is needed. (eufic.org)
  • 2012). Molecular mechanisms of the cardiovascular protective effects of polyphenols. (eufic.org)
  • In this work, the complement-modulating activities, the inhibitory activities on nitric oxide (NO) production in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 macrophages and effects on cell viability of these polyphenols were studied. (mdpi.com)
  • Researchers from the National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), have discovered that wheat polyphenols have effects that improve the rhythm of activity and suppress obesity and glucose intolerance in model mice of diet-induced obesity, in collaboration with Nisshin Seifun Group Inc. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Some polyphenols, particularly from the flavan-3-ol (catechin-type), have both anticarcinogenic-proapoptotic and mutagenic effects. (wikipedia.org)
  • Researchers
  • In this study, the researchers used model mice of diet-induced obesity that exhibited a nocturnal shift in activity as well as glucose intolerance and obesity in order to evaluate the functionality of wheat polyphenols. (medicalxpress.com)
  • novel
  • The present invention provides a class of novel imide functional polyphenols as well as thermosettable polycyanates and polyepoxides thereof. (google.es)
  • The results demonstrate a novel functionality of wheat polyphenols contained in the outer layers of wheat. (medicalxpress.com)
  • occurs
  • Currently, lack of knowledge about safety suggests that polyphenol levels should not exceed that which occurs in a normal diet. (wikipedia.org)
  • found
  • Penn State nutritional scientists found that eating certain polyphenols decreased the amount of iron the body absorbs, which can increase the risk of developing an iron deficiency. (medicalxpress.com)
  • The phenolic unit can be found dimerized or further polymerized, creating a new class of polyphenol. (wikipedia.org)
  • natural
  • The definition further states that polyphenols display unique physical and chemical behaviors related to their high molecular weights and profusion of phenolic substructures-precipitation of proteins and particular amine-containing organics (e.g., particular alkaloid natural products), and formation of particular metal complexes (e.g., intense blue-black iron(III) complexes). (wikipedia.org)
  • Natural polyphenols molecular formulas are generally formed from C, H and O.[according to whom? (wikipedia.org)
  • high
  • The mice were divided into three groups: a normal diet group, a high-fat, high-sucrose diet group, and a group with a high-fat, high-sucrose diet containing 0.4% wheat polyphenols. (medicalxpress.com)
  • In addition, the changes in body weight of the mice that consumed a high-fat, high-sucrose diet containing wheat polyphenols were almost the same as the body weight changes of the mice that consumed a normal diet, which demonstrates that wheat polyphenols suppress weight gain caused by a high-fat, high-sucrose diet (Fig. 1). (medicalxpress.com)
  • People at high risk of developing iron deficiency - such as pregnant women and young children - should be aware of what polyphenols they are consuming. (medicalxpress.com)
  • levels
  • The study will include 32 apparently healthy young women which will consume sorghum porridges with different polyphenol levels and sorghum porridges fortified with ferrous sulfate as compared to NaFeEDTA. (clinicaltrials.gov)