Polyphenols: A large class of organic compounds having more than one PHENOL group.Phenols: Benzene derivatives that include one or more hydroxyl groups attached to the ring structure.Flavonoids: A group of phenyl benzopyrans named for having structures like FLAVONES.Tea: The infusion of leaves of CAMELLIA SINENSIS (formerly Thea sinensis) as a beverage, the familiar Asian tea, which contains CATECHIN (especially epigallocatechin gallate) and CAFFEINE.Catechin: An antioxidant flavonoid, occurring especially in woody plants as both (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin (cis) forms.Wine: Fermented juice of fresh grapes or of other fruit or plant products used as a beverage.Biflavonoids: Dimers (homo and hetero) of FLAVONOIDS.Camellia sinensis: Camellia sinensis L. (formerly Thea sinensis) is an evergreen Asiatic shrub of the THEACEAE family. The infusion of leaves of this plant is used as Oriental TEA which contains CAFFEINE; THEOPHYLLINE; and epigallocatechin gallate.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Polymers: Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).Proanthocyanidins: Dimers and oligomers of flavan-3-ol units (CATECHIN analogs) linked mainly through C4 to C8 bonds to leucoanthocyanidins. They are structurally similar to ANTHOCYANINS but are the result of a different fork in biosynthetic pathways.Gallic Acid: A colorless or slightly yellow crystalline compound obtained from nutgalls. It is used in photography, pharmaceuticals, and as an analytical reagent.Antioxidants: Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.Quercetin: A flavonol widely distributed in plants. It is an antioxidant, like many other phenolic heterocyclic compounds. Glycosylated forms include RUTIN and quercetrin.Vitis: A plant genus in the family VITACEAE, order Rhamnales, subclass Rosidae. It is a woody vine cultivated worldwide. It is best known for grapes, the edible fruit and used to make WINE and raisins.Hydrolyzable Tannins: Polymeric derivatives of GALLIC ACID that are esters of a sugar.Tannins: Polyphenolic compounds with molecular weights of around 500-3000 daltons and containing enough hydroxyl groups (1-2 per 100 MW) for effective cross linking of other compounds (ASTRINGENTS). The two main types are HYDROLYZABLE TANNINS and CONDENSED TANNINS. Historically, the term has applied to many compounds and plant extracts able to render skin COLLAGEN impervious to degradation. The word tannin derives from the Celtic word for OAK TREE which was used for leather processing.Chlorogenic Acid: A naturally occurring phenolic acid which is a carcinogenic inhibitor. It has also been shown to prevent paraquat-induced oxidative stress in rats. (From J Chromatogr A 1996;741(2):223-31; Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 1996;60(5):765-68).Anticarcinogenic Agents: Agents that reduce the frequency or rate of spontaneous or induced tumors independently of the mechanism involved.Stilbenes: Organic compounds that contain 1,2-diphenylethylene as a functional group.Anthocyanins: A group of FLAVONOIDS derived from FLAVONOLS, which lack the ketone oxygen at the 4-position. They are glycosylated versions of cyanidin, pelargonidin or delphinidin. The conjugated bonds result in blue, red, and purple colors in flowers of plants.Cacao: A tree of the family Sterculiaceae (or Byttneriaceae), usually Theobroma cacao, or its seeds, which after fermentation and roasting, yield cocoa and chocolate.Malus: A plant genus in the family ROSACEAE, order Rosales, subclass Rosidae. It is best known as a source of the edible fruit (apple) and is cultivated in temperate climates worldwide.Grape Seed Extract: Exudate from seeds of the grape plant Vitis vinifera, composed of oils and secondary plant metabolites (BIOFLAVONOIDS and polyphenols) credited with important medicinal properties.Biological Availability: The extent to which the active ingredient of a drug dosage form becomes available at the site of drug action or in a biological medium believed to reflect accessibility to a site of action.Phytotherapy: Use of plants or herbs to treat diseases or to alleviate pain.Beverages: Liquids that are suitable for drinking. (From Merriam Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)Fruit: The fleshy or dry ripened ovary of a plant, enclosing the seed or seeds.Ellagic Acid: A fused four ring compound occurring free or combined in galls. Isolated from the kino of Eucalyptus maculata Hook and E. Hemipholia F. Muell. Activates Factor XII of the blood clotting system which also causes kinin release; used in research and as a dye.Rutin: A flavonol glycoside found in many plants, including BUCKWHEAT; TOBACCO; FORSYTHIA; HYDRANGEA; VIOLA, etc. It has been used therapeutically to decrease capillary fragility.Photinia: A plant genus of the family ROSACEAE. The common names of chokeberry or chokecherry are also used for some species of PRUNUS.Pyrogallol: A trihydroxybenzene or dihydroxy phenol that can be prepared by heating GALLIC ACID.Food Analysis: Measurement and evaluation of the components of substances to be taken as FOOD.Punicaceae: A plant family of the order Myrtales, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida that is a small family with a single genus.Curcumin: A yellow-orange dye obtained from tumeric, the powdered root of CURCUMA longa. It is used in the preparation of curcuma paper and the detection of boron. Curcumin appears to possess a spectrum of pharmacological properties, due primarily to its inhibitory effects on metabolic enzymes.Vaccinium macrocarpon: A plant species of the family VACCINIUM known for the sour fruit which is sometimes used for urinary tract infections.Flavonols: A group of 3-hydroxy-4-keto-FLAVONOIDS.Caffeic Acids: A class of phenolic acids related to chlorogenic acid, p-coumaric acid, vanillic acid, etc., which are found in plant tissues. It is involved in plant growth regulation.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Hibiscus: A plant genus of the family MALVACEAE. Members contain CITRIC ACID; MALATES; ANTHOCYANINS; FLAVONOIDS; GLYCOSIDES; DIETARY FIBER; and LIGNANS. Hibiscus sabdariffa is common constituent of HERBAL TEAS. Hibiscus cannabinus is a source of hemp fiber for TEXTILES.Blueberry Plant: Several plant species of the genus VACCINIUM known for the edible blueberry fruit.Crataegus: A genus in the family ROSACEAE of shrubs and small trees native to the North Temperate Zone. It is best known for a traditional medication for the heart.
Health effects of natural phenols and polyphenols: Because of the large structural diversity and extensive metabolism of dietary polyphenols, it is difficult to determine their fate in vivo and assert specific health effects. Although many are speculated to be part of the health-promoting effects of consuming fruits and vegetables, no evidence exists to date that dietary polyphenols actually provide health benefits.AlkylphenolGreen tea extractEpigallocatechin gallateRice wineBiflavonoid: Biflavonoids are a type of flavonoids with the general formula scheme (C6-C3-C6)2.Sinecatechins: Sinecatechins (USAN, trade names Veregen and Polyphenon E) is a specific water extract of green tea leaves from Camellia sinensis that is the active ingredient in an ointment approved by the FDA in 2006 as a botanical drug to treat genital warts.Masters KP New Drug Reviews: Sinecatechins (Veregen) for External Genital and Perianal Warts.PhytomedicinePolymer blend: A polymer blend or polymer mixture is a member of a class of materials analogous to metal alloys, in which at least two polymers are blended together to create a new material with different physical properties. Section 3.Cinnamtannin B1Trihydroxybenzoic acid: Trihydroxybenzoic acid may refer to the following phenolic acids :TroloxQuercetinViticulture: Viticulture (from the Latin word for vine) is the science, production, and study of grapes. It deals with the series of events that occur in the vineyard.Ellagitannin: The ellagitannins are a diverse class of hydrolyzable tannins, a type of polyphenol formed primarily from the oxidative linkage of galloyl groups in 1,2,3,4,6-pentagalloyl glucose. Ellagitannins differ from gallotannins, in that their galloyl groups are linked through C-C bonds, whereas the galloyl groups in gallotannins are linked by depside bonds.TanninChlorogenic acidVitisin B (stilbenoid): Vitisin B}}Anthocyanin 5-O-glucosyltransferase: Anthocyanin 5-O-glucosyltransferase is an enzyme that forms anthocyanin 3,5-O-diglucoside from anthocyanin 3-O-glucoside.White chocolate: White chocolate is a chocolate derivative. It commonly consists of cocoa butter, sugar and milk solids and is characterized by a pale yellow or ivory appearance.Sooty blotch and flyspeck: Sooty blotch and flyspeck (SBFS) or 'apple summer disease' is a plant disease caused by a complex of saprophytic fungi which colonize the epicuticular wax layer of apple (Malus x domestica Borkh.).Grape seed extract: Grape seed extract (GSE) is industrial derivatives from whole grape seeds.First pass effect: The first-pass effect (also known as first-pass metabolism or presystemic metabolism) is a phenomenon of drug metabolism whereby the concentration of a drug is greatly reduced before it reaches the systemic circulation. It is the fraction of drug lost during the process of absorption which is generally related to the liver and gut wall.College of Practitioners of PhytotherapySports drink: Sports drinks are beverages whose stated purpose is to help athletes replace water, electrolytes, and energy after training or competition, though their efficacy for that purpose has been questioned, particularly after exercise which is only moderate.Fruit snack: A fruit snack is a processed food eaten as a snack in the United States. Fruit snacks are very similar to gummi candies.Photinia serratifolia: Photinia serratifolia (syn. Photinia serrulata), commonly called Taiwanese photinia or Chinese photinia is a flowering shrub or tree in the Rosaceae family of flowering plants, found in mixed forests of China, Taiwan, Japan, the Philippines, Indonesia, and India.Pelobacter acidigallici: Pelobacter acidigallici is the type species in the bacteria genus Pelobacter.Punicacortein DStephens Cur: The Stephens Cur (aka Stephens' Stock Cur), is a scent hound that belongs to the Cur dog breed. They were originally bred by the Stephens family in southeastern Kentucky.The Cranberries discography: The Cranberries is an Irish rock band formed in Limerick in 1989, originally under the name The Cranberry Saw Us. Although widely associated with alternative rock, the band's sound incorporates post-punk and rock elements.Flavonols: Flavonols are a class of flavonoids that have the 3-hydroxyflavone backbone (IUPAC name : 3-hydroxy-2-phenylchromen-4-one). Their diversity stems from the different positions the phenolic -OH groups.Mayo Clinic Diet: The Mayo Clinic Diet is a diet created by Mayo Clinic. Prior to this, use of that term was generally connected to fad diets which had no association with Mayo Clinic.Roselle (plant): Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa) is a species of Hibiscus native to West Africa,"Roselle" Encyclopædia Britannica used for the production of bast fibre and as an infusion, in which it may also be known as carcade. It is an annual or perennial herb or woody-based subshrub, growing to tall.Normal as Blueberry Pie – A Tribute to Doris Day: [ Allmusic review]Crataegus × mordenensis: Crataegus × mordenensis, Morden Hawthorn, is a hybrid that arose between two species in the genus Crataegus (Hawthorn), Crataegus laevigata and Crataegus succulenta. This hybrid was first raised at the Agriculture Canada Plant Breeding Station in Morden, Manitoba, in 1935.
(1/1083) Prevention of collagen-induced arthritis in mice by a polyphenolic fraction from green tea.
Identification of common dietary substances capable of affording protection or modulating the onset and severity of arthritis may have important human health implications. An antioxidant-rich polyphenolic fraction isolated from green tea (green tea polyphenols, GTPs) has been shown to possess anti-inflammatory and anticarcinogenic properties in experimental animals. In this study we determined the effect of oral consumption of GTP on collagen-induced arthritis in mice. In three independent experiments mice given GTP in water exhibited significantly reduced incidence of arthritis (33% to 50%) as compared with mice not given GTP in water (84% to 100%). The arthritis index also was significantly lower in GTP-fed animals. Western blot analysis showed a marked reduction in the expression of inflammatory mediators such as cyclooxygenase 2, IFN-gamma, and tumor necrosis factor alpha in arthritic joints of GTP-fed mice. Histologic and immunohistochemical analysis of the arthritic joints in GTP-fed mice demonstrated only marginal joint infiltration by IFN-gamma and tumor necrosis factor alpha-producing cells as opposed to massive cellular infiltration and fully developed pannus in arthritic joints of non-GTP-fed mice. The neutral endopeptidase activity was approximately 7-fold higher in arthritic joints of non-GTP-fed mice in comparison to nonarthritic joints of unimmunized mice whereas it was only 2-fold higher in the arthritic joints of GTP-fed mice. Additionally, total IgG and type II collagen-specific IgG levels were lower in serum and arthritic joints of GTP-fed mice. Taken together our studies suggest that a polyphenolic fraction from green tea that is rich in antioxidants may be useful in the prevention of onset and severity of arthritis. (+info)
(2/1083) Suppression of extracellular signals and cell proliferation by the black tea polyphenol, theaflavin-3,3'-digallate.
Previous studies in our laboratory have shown that the major green tea polyphenol, (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), suppressed autophosphorylation of epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor induced by EGF in human A431 epidermoid carcinoma cells. In this study, we examined the inhibitory effects of black tea polyphenols, including theaflavin (TF-1), a mixture (TF-2) of theaflavin-3-gallate (TF-2a) and theaflavin-3'-gallate (TF-2b), theaflavin-3,3'-digallate (TF-3) and the thearubigin fraction on the autophosphorylation of the EGF and PDGF receptors in A431 cells and mouse NIH3T3 fibroblast cells, respectively. First, we examined the effects of these polyphenols on the proliferation of A431 and NIH3T3 cells. Both EGCG and TF-3 strongly inhibited the proliferation of A431 and NIH3T3 cells more than the other theaflavins did. In cultured cells with pre-treatment of tea polyphenol, TF-3 was stronger than EGCG on the reduction of EGF receptor and PDGF receptor autophosphorylation induced by EGF and PDGF, respectively. Other theaflavins slightly reduced the autophosphorylation of the EGF and PDGF receptors; furthermore, TF-3 could reduce autophosphorylation of the EGF receptor (or PDGF receptor) even with co-treatment with EGF (or PDGF) and TF-3, but EGCG was inactive under these conditions. In addition, TF-3 was stronger than EGCG in blocking EGF binding to its receptor. These results suggest that not only the green tea polyphenol, EGCG, but also the black tea polyphenol, TF-3, have an antiproliferative activity on tumor cells, and the molecular mechanisms of antiproliferation may block the growth factor binding to its receptor and thus suppress mitogenic signal transduction. (+info)
(3/1083) Prostate cancer chemoprevention by green tea: in vitro and in vivo inhibition of testosterone-mediated induction of ornithine decarboxylase.
Recently, we have shown that ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), a rate-controlling enzyme in the polyamine biosynthetic pathway, is overexpressed in prostate cancer (PCA) and prostatic fluid in humans (R. R. Mohan et al., Clin. Cancer Res., 5: 143-147, 1999). ODC is also characterized as an androgen-responsive gene, and the androgenic stimulation regulates the development and growth of both normal and tumorigenic prostate cells. Thus, chemopreventive approaches aimed toward the modulation of ODC could be effective against PCA. Green tea polyphenols (GTPs) possess strong chemopreventive properties against a variety of animal tumor models and in some human epidemiological studies. At least two epidemiological studies have suggested that people who consume tea regularly may have a decreased risk of PCA. In this study, we investigated the effect of GTPs against testosterone-mediated induction of ODC in human prostate carcinoma cells, LNCaP as an in vitro model, and in Cpb:WU rats and C57BL/6 mice as in vivo models. Treatment of LNCaP cells with testosterone resulted in induction of ODC activity in a dose-dependent manner. Pretreatment of the cells with GTPs resulted in a significant inhibition of testosterone-caused induction of ODC activity in a dose-dependent manner. Similar effects of GTPs were observed in anchorage-independent growth assay of LNCaP cells where pretreatment of the cells with GTP was found to result in dose-dependent inhibition of colony formation. Testosterone treatment of the cells resulted in a significant increase in the level of ODC mRNA, and this increase was almost completely abolished by prior treatment of the cells with GTPs. The administration of testosterone (10 mg/kg body weight, i.p.) to sham-operated and castrated Cpb:WU rats resulted in 2- and 38-fold increases in ODC activity, respectively, in the ventral prostate. Oral feeding of 0.2% GTPs in drinking water for 7 days before testosterone administration resulted in 20 and 54% decreases in testosterone-caused induction of ODC activity in sham-operated and castrated rats, respectively. Similar results were obtained with C57BL/6 mice, where testosterone treatment at similar dosage resulted in a 2-fold increase in ODC activity in the ventral prostate and prior oral feeding with 0.2% GTPs resulted in 40% inhibition in this induction. (+info)
(4/1083) Histological analysis and ancient DNA amplification of human bone remains found in caius iulius polybius house in pompeii.
Thirteen skeletons found in the Caius Iulius Polybius house, which has been the object of intensive study since its discovery in Pompeii 250 years ago, have provided an opportunity to study either bone diagenesis by histological investigation or ancient DNA by polymerase chain reaction analysis. DNA analysis was done by amplifying both X- and Y-chromosomes amelogenin loci and Y-specific alphoid repeat locus. The von Willebrand factor (vWF) microsatellite locus on chromosome 12 was also analyzed for personal identification in two individuals showing alleles with 10/11 and 12/12 TCTA repeats, respectively. Technical problems were the scarcity of DNA content from osteocytes, DNA molecule fragmentation, microbial contamination which change bone structure, contaminating human DNA which results from mishandling, and frequent presence of Taq DNA polymerase inhibiting molecules like polyphenols and heavy metals. The results suggest that the remains contain endogenous human DNA that can be amplified and analyzed. The amplifiability of DNA corresponds to the bone preservation and dynamics of the burial conditions subsequent to the 79 A.D. eruption. (+info)
(5/1083) Quinol-glutathione conjugate-induced mutation spectra in the supF gene replicated in human AD293 cells and bacterial MBL50 cells.
Hydroquinone is a nephrocarcinogen in rats but generally tests negative in standard mutagenicity assays. However, 2,3,5-tris-(glutathion-S-yl)hydroquinone, a potent nephrotoxic metabolite of hydroquinone, and 2-bromo-bis-(glutathion-S-yl)hydroquinone, another cytotoxic quinol-glutathione (GSH) conjugate, cause extensive single strand breaks in DNA in a manner that is dependent on the formation of reactive oxygen species. We, therefore, investigated whether quinol-GSH conjugates have the potential to behave as genotoxicants. The shuttle vector pSP189, containing the supF gene, was treated with 2,3,5-tris-(glutathion-S-yl)hydroquinone and replicated in both human AD293 cells and Escherichia coli MBL50 cells. The mutation frequency increased 4.6- and 2.6-fold in human AD293 and bacterial MBL50 cells, respectively. Base substitutions were the major type of mutations, and they occurred predominantly at G:C sites in both cell types. A high frequency of deletions (30%), including < 10- and > 10-bp deletions, were observed in AD293-replicated plasmids. The most common types of mutations in AD293 cells were G:C to A:T transitions (33.8%) and G:C to T:A (29.4%) and G:C to C:G (19.1%) transversions. In MBL50 cells, the major mutations were G:C to T:A (33.8%) and G:C to C:G (31.3%) transversions and G:C to A:T transitions (27.5%). The mutation spectra were similar to those reported for *OH-induced mutations, suggesting that *OH generated from polyphenolic-GSH conjugates not only plays a role in cytotoxicity but also provides a basis for their mutagenicity and carcinogenicity. (+info)
(6/1083) Dietary supplementation of grape polyphenols to rats ameliorates chronic ethanol-induced changes in hepatic morphology without altering changes in hepatic lipids.
Increase in oxidative stress after chronic ethanol consumption can result in hepatic injury. Because polyphenolic compounds can offer antioxidant protection to the cardiovascular system, this study was designed to investigate whether dietary supplementation of polyphenols from grapes may ameliorate hepatic injury resulting from chronic ethanol consumption. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were administered the following diets for 2 mo: 1) Lieber-DeCarli (L-D) diet with isocaloric amount of maltose instead of ethanol (Basal), 2) the L-D diet with 50g/L ethanol (EtOH); 3) L-D diet with 50 mg/L of grape polyphenols (GP) and 4) ethanol diet with GP (EtOH + GP). Rats given EtOH or EtOH + GP diets had significantly more hepatic triacylglycerols (P < 0.0001) and lipid peroxidation products (P < 0.01) compared with those given the Basal and GP diets. In addition, ethanol ingestion also decreased significantly (P < 0.01) the proportion of 16:0 and increased 18:0 and 18:1 in hepatic phospholipids, suggesting a perturbation of the de novo fatty acid biosynthesis pathways. However, GP supplementation alone and GP added to the ethanol diet did not alter the lipid changes mediated by ethanol except for the levels of 22:6(n-3) which were significantly (P < 0.05) higher in the EtOH + GP group than in the EtOH group. Despite a lack of gross lipid changes, histologic assessment showed significantly (P < 0.05) less hepatic damage in the GP + EtOH group compared with the EtOH group. These results clearly distinguished ethanol-mediated changes in hepatic morphology from the changes in hepatic lipids and further demonstrated the ability of GP to ameliorate hepatic damage resulting from chronic ethanol consumption. (+info)
(7/1083) Polyphenol tannic acid inhibits hydroxyl radical formation from Fenton reaction by complexing ferrous ions.
Tannic acid (TA), a plant polyphenol, has been described as having antimutagenic, anticarcinogenic and antioxidant activities. Since it is a potent chelator of iron ions, we decided to examine if the antioxidant activity of TA is related to its ability to chelate iron ions. The degradation of 2-deoxyribose induced by 6 microM Fe(II) plus 100 microM H2O2 was inhibited by TA, with an I50 value of 13 microM. Tannic acid was over three orders of magnitude more efficient in protecting against 2-deoxyribose degradation than classical *OH scavengers. The antioxidant potency of TA was inversely proportional to Fe(II) concentration, demonstrating a competition between H2O2 and AT for reaction with Fe(II). On the other hand, the efficiency of TA was nearly unchanged with increasing concentrations of the *OH detector molecule, 2-deoxyribose. These results indicate that the antioxidant activity of TA is mainly due to iron chelation rather than *OH scavenging. TA also inhibited 2-deoxyribose degradation mediated by Fe(III)-EDTA (iron = 50 microM) plus ascorbate. The protective action of TA was significantly higher with 50 microM EDTA than with 500 microM EDTA, suggesting that TA removes Fe(III) from EDTA and forms a complex with iron that cannot induce *OH formation. We also provided evidence that TA forms a stable complex with Fe(II), since excess ferrozine (14 mM) recovered 95-96% of the Fe(II) from 10 microM TA even after a 30-min exposure to 100-500 microM H2O2. Addition of Fe(III) to samples containing TA caused the formation of Fe(II)n-TA, complexes, as determined by ferrozine assays, indicating that TA is also capable of reducing Fe(III) ions. We propose that when Fe(II) is complexed to TA, it is unable to participate in Fenton reactions and mediate *OH formation. The antimutagenic and anticarcinogenic activity of TA, described elsewhere, may be explained (at least in part) by its capacity to prevent Fenton reactions. (+info)
(8/1083) Red wine inhibits monocyte chemotactic protein-1 expression and modestly reduces neointimal hyperplasia after balloon injury in cholesterol-Fed rabbits.
BACKGROUND: Wine consumption decreases the risk of myocardial infarction. Intimal hyperplasia contributes to restenosis after angioplasty. Local ethanol delivery inhibits intimal hyperplasia after balloon injury in rabbit iliac and pig coronary arteries. The effects of wine consumption on intimal response and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) expression were studied in cholesterol-fed rabbits. METHODS AND RESULTS: Male rabbits were fed a 2% cholesterol diet together with red wine (12.5% vol, 5 mL/kg body wt per day; n=7), white wine (13.3% vol, 5 mL/kg body wt per day; n=7), or no wine as a control (n=8) for 6 weeks. A balloon injury of the abdominal aorta was performed at the end of the third week. Abdominal aortas were harvested at the end of 6 weeks. Neointimal hyperplasia was measured morphometrically. MCP-1 expression was determined by Northern blot, in situ hybridization, and immunohistochemistry. Rabbits fed red wine had significantly less neointimal hyperplasia than did control rabbits (intima/media area ratio 0.59+/-0.05 [red wine group] versus 0.79+/-0.07 [control group], P<0.05). However, rabbits fed white wine showed a trend (but not significant) toward less intimal response compared with control rabbits (intima/media area ratio 0.65+/-0.04 [white wine group] versus 0.79+/-0.07 [control group], P=0.165). Both red wine and white wine significantly reduced MCP-1 mRNA and protein expression in the aorta. CONCLUSIONS: Long-term consumption of red wine and white wine inhibits MCP-1 expression, and in the small number of animals studied, red wine modestly reduces neointimal hyperplasia. Since red wine exhibits higher antioxidant capacity than does white wine, the decreased intimal response might be partly attributed to its antioxidant effects. (+info)