Polynesia: The collective name for the islands of the central Pacific Ocean, including the Austral Islands, Cook Islands, Easter Island, HAWAII; NEW ZEALAND; Phoenix Islands, PITCAIRN ISLAND; SAMOA; TONGA; Tuamotu Archipelago, Wake Island, and Wallis and Futuna Islands. Polynesians are of the Caucasoid race, but many are of mixed origin. Polynesia is from the Greek poly, many + nesos, island, with reference to the many islands in the group. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p966 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p426)Pacific Islands: The islands of the Pacific Ocean divided into MICRONESIA; MELANESIA; and POLYNESIA (including NEW ZEALAND). The collective name Oceania includes the aforenamed islands, adding AUSTRALIA; NEW ZEALAND; and the Malay Archipelago (INDONESIA). (Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p910, 880)Samoa: A group of islands in the southwest central Pacific, divided into AMERICAN SAMOA and the INDEPENDENT STATE OF SAMOA (Western Samoa). First European contact was made in 1722 by Jacob Roggeveen, a Dutchman. In 1768 they were named Navigators Islands by Louis de Bougainville. The present name may derive from that of a local chieftain or from a local word meaning place of the moa, a now-extinct island bird. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1061 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p481)Melanesia: The collective name for the islands of the Pacific Ocean northeast of Australia, including NEW CALEDONIA; VANUATU; New Hebrides, Solomon Islands, Admiralty Islands, Bismarck Archipelago, FIJI, etc. Melanesia (from the Greek melas, black + nesos, island) is so called from the black color of the natives who are generally considered to be descended originally from the Negroid Papuans and the Polynesians or Malays. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p748 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p344)Anthropology: The science devoted to the comparative study of man.Radioactive Fallout: The material that descends to the earth or water well beyond the site of a surface or subsurface nuclear explosion. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Chemical and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Archaeology: The scientific study of past societies through artifacts, fossils, etc.Thorium: Thorium. A radioactive element of the actinide series of metals. It has an atomic symbol Th, atomic number 90, and atomic weight 232.04. It is used as fuel in nuclear reactors to produce fissionable uranium isotopes. Because of its radioopacity, various thorium compounds are used to facilitate visualization in roentgenography.Morinda: A plant genus of the family RUBIACEAE. Members contain iridoid glycosides and ANTHRAQUINONES.Fiji: A republic consisting of an island group in Melanesia, in the southwest Pacific Ocean. Its capital is Suva. It was discovered by Abel Tasman in 1643 and was visited by Captain Cook in 1774. It was used by escaped convicts from Australia as early as 1804. It was annexed by Great Britain in 1874 but achieved independence in 1970. The name Fiji is of uncertain origin. In its present form it may represent that of Viti, the main island in the group. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p396 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p186)History, Ancient: The period of history before 500 of the common era.

*  Keyword: polynesia

The islands of Polynesia were first inhabited around 3,000 years ago, but where these people came from has long been a hot ... First Chickens in Americas Were Brought From Polynesia By JOHN NOBLE WILFORD Why did the chicken cross the Pacific Ocean? To ... Archaeologists, using new high-precision techniques, have come to the conclusion that first settlers arrived in Polynesia ... where Burley has previously documented a fishing village established 2,900 years ago as the first settlement in Polynesia, is ...
freerepublic.com/tag/polynesia/feed.rss

*  Category:Old maps of Polynesia - Wikimedia Commons

Media in category "Old maps of Polynesia". The following 7 files are in this category, out of 7 total. ... The Social and Political Systems of Central Polynesia - General Reference Map.png 10,870 × 4,658; 422 KB. ... 1855 Spruner Map of Australia and Polynesia with an overview of Discoveries and Colonization - Geographicus - ... Category:Old maps of Polynesia. From Wikimedia Commons, the free media repository ...
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Old_maps_of_Polynesia

*  Hotel Development | French Polynesia | Hilton

Hilton brands provide quality & friendly hospitality. Learn more about our midscale hotel development opportunities
hiltonworldwide.com/development/regions/asia-pacific/french-polynesia/

*  Eddie Murphy and Tracey Edmonds wed in French Polynesia - Thaindian News

American actor Eddie Murphy wed film producer Tracey Edmonds on a private island of Bora Bora in French Polynesia on New Years ... Eddie Murphy and Tracey Edmonds wed in French Polynesia. January 3rd, 2008 - 2:33 pm ICT by admin Tweet. ... Tags: 13 years, american actor, bridesmaids, designer watches, diamond earrings, eddie murphy, film producer, french polynesia ... American actor Eddie Murphy wed film producer Tracey Edmonds on a private island of Bora Bora in French Polynesia on New Years ...
thaindian.com/newsportal/entertainment/eddie-murphy-and-tracey-edmonds-wed-in-french-polynesia_10011131.html

*  Top 10 Paea Hotels Near Punaauia Beach | French Polynesia | Hotels.com

Punaauia Beach in the Paea area, French Polynesia Are you looking for a cheap Punaauia Beach hotel, a 5 star Punaauia Beach ... French Polynesia. Our maps are based on hotel search and display areas and neighborhoods of each hotel so you can see how close ... you are from Punaauia Beach and refine your search within Paea or French Polynesia based on closest public transportation, ...
https://hotels.com/de1798776/hotels-near-punaauia-beach-punaauia-french-polynesia/

*  Papeete, French Polynesia - 2nd May - Daily Weather Averages (Weatherbase)

French Polynesia - Travel and vacation weather averages, current conditions and forecasts. ... Home > Oceania > French Polynesia Elevation: 2 meters Latitude: 17 33S Longitude: 149 36W ...
weatherbase.com/weather/weatherdaily.php3?s=173919&month=5&theday=2&cityname=Papeete, Windward Islands, French Polynesia&units=metric

*  UNdata | country profile | French Polynesia

French Polynesia Gabon Gambia Georgia Germany Ghana Gibraltar Greece Greenland Grenada Guadeloupe Guam Guatemala Guinea Guinea- ...
data.un.org/CountryProfile.aspx?crName=French Polynesia

*  Country Calling Codes - How to call Martinique from French Polynesia

Learn how to call Martinique from French Polynesia. Out complete resource guide gives you the Martinique country code & French ... How to call Martinique from French Polynesia:. 00 - French Polynesia exit code to dial first when calling international 596 - ... How to Call Martinique From French Polynesia Dial the following international dialing codes: 00 + 596 + Local Number * Do not ... The time in French Polynesia is now (CLICK FOR TIME ZONES) The time in Martinique is now 07:59:03 AM (07:59:03 AM) ...
https://countrycallingcodes.com/results.php?FromCode=French Polynesia&ToCode=Martinique

*  Country Calling Codes - How to call French Polynesia from Brunei

Out complete resource guide gives you the French Polynesia country code & Bruneian dialing code to make your international ... Learn how to call French Polynesia from Brunei. ... How to Call French Polynesia From Brunei Dial the following ... Get the mobile country codes for calling French Polynesia from Brunei. Save on your call to French Polynesia:. SpeedyPin ... The time in French Polynesia is now (CLICK FOR TIME ZONES) Mobile Codes:. ...
countrycallingcodes.com/results.php?FromCode=Brunei&ToCode=French Polynesia

*  Polynesia Stock Footage ~ Royalty Free Stock Videos | Page 2

7,533 royalty free stock videos and video clips of Polynesia. Footage starting at $15. Download high quality 4K, HD, SD & more ...
https://pond5.com/stock-video-footage/2/polynesia.html

*  Village Temanoha, Moorea Island, French Polynesia (Tahiti) - bed and breakfast

French Polynesia (Tahiti) bed and breakfast directory. Information about Village Temanoha located in Moorea Island, French Polynesia (Tahiti). Find your dream bed and breakfast here.
bnbchoices.com/tahiti/village-temanoha.bnb

*  Fare Ie, Fare, Huahine, French Polynesia (Tahiti) - bed and breakfast

French Polynesia (Tahiti) bed and breakfast directory. Information about Fare Ie located in Fare, Huahine, French Polynesia (Tahiti). Find your dream bed and breakfast here.
bnbchoices.com/tahiti/fare-ie.bnb

*  Fare Iita, Fare, Huahine, French Polynesia (Tahiti) - bed and breakfast

French Polynesia (Tahiti) bed and breakfast directory. Information about Fare Iita located in Fare, Huahine, French Polynesia (Tahiti). Find your dream bed and breakfast here.
bnbchoices.com/tahiti/fare-iita.bnb

*  Havaiki Guest House & Pearl Farm, Fakarava, French Polynesia (Tahiti) - bed and breakfast

French Polynesia (Tahiti) bed and breakfast directory. Information about Havaiki Guest House & Pearl Farm located in Fakarava, French Polynesia (Tahiti). Find your dream bed and breakfast here.
bnbchoices.com/tahiti/havaiki.bnb

*  Pension Enite, Fare, Huahine, French Polynesia (Tahiti) - bed and breakfast

French Polynesia (Tahiti) bed and breakfast directory. Information about Pension Enite located in Fare, Huahine, French Polynesia (Tahiti). Find your dream bed and breakfast here.
bnbchoices.com/tahiti/pension-enite.bnb

*  Pension Tupuna, Fare, French Polynesia (Tahiti) - bed and breakfast

French Polynesia (Tahiti) bed and breakfast directory. Information about Pension Tupuna located in Fare, French Polynesia (Tahiti). Find your dream bed and breakfast here.
bnbchoices.com/tahiti/pension-tupuna.bnb

*  Vanira Lodge, Teahupoo, French Polynesia (Tahiti) - bed and breakfast

French Polynesia (Tahiti) bed and breakfast directory. Information about Vanira Lodge located in Teahupoo, French Polynesia (Tahiti). Find your dream bed and breakfast here.
bnbchoices.com/tahiti/vanira-lodge.bnb

*  Moorea Airport (MOZ) in Temae, French Polynesia (Google Maps) - Virtual Globetrotting

Moorea Airport (MOZ) (Google Maps). Explore Moorea Airport (MOZ) in Temae, French Polynesia as it appears on Google Maps as well as pictures, stories...
virtualglobetrotting.com/map/moorea-airport-moz/view/google/

*  The Journal of a Spiritual Wonderer: Beyond solidarity

In the hustle and bustle of the "Mother of All Festivals" it would have been understandable if most missed the arrival into Suva of the vaka (sailing canoe) O Tahiti Nui Freedom from Tahiti. On an epic journey that would take it from Tahiti to the Cook Islands to Tonga, Fiji, Vanuatu, the Philippines and eventually to Southern China as the crew seek to reverse the trail of the first Oceanic settlers.. The Fiji Islands Voyaging Society and the crew of the Uto Ni Yalo arranged a traditional welcome ceremony for the crew of O Tahiti Nui Freedom at Albert Park.. As I arrived to say the opening prayer for the ceremony, I received news that the president of the Tahitian version of the FIVS would also be present.. We were in for a surprise as this person was none other than Oscar Temaru, former President of French Polynesia and current President of the French Polynesia Assembly.. Of Tahitian, Cook Island Maohi, and Chinese ancestry, Mr Temaru has been a vocal campaigner against ...
thejournalofaspiritualwonderer.blogspot.com/2010/09/beyond-solidarity.html

*  Bertarelli Ocean Legacy: French Polynesia - Pew Trusts

The waters around French Polynesia, a French overseas territory in the South Pacific Ocean, comprise the world's largest contiguous exclusive economic zone. At 5 million square kilometers (1.9 million square miles), the territory's waters span an area as large as the landmass of the European Union. These vast and healthy waters are home to 21 species of sharks and an exceptional coral reef system that supports 176 coral and 1,024 fish species.
pewtrusts.org/en/projects/pew-bertarelli-ocean-legacy-french-polynesia

*  Cruising aboard the m/s Paul Gauguin in 2018 - LuxuryFeed.com

Cruising aboard the m/s Paul Gauguin in 2018 By Paul Johnson on Jun 17, 2017 in Cruises & Boat Travel , Oceania , Pacific Islands , Regions , Speciality Travel - Read 599 times Tweet Dip your toes into a world of South Pacific wonder and be forever changed by her beauty. Let your senses be astounded on board the m/s Paul Gauguin. The multiple award-winning luxury cruise company, Paul Gauguin Cruises, have recently debuted their 2018 Tahiti, French Polynesia & South Pacific Brochure. Even reading the brochure online will transport you to this tropical paradise. Shimmering like a string of prized Tahitian pearls "The 118 islands and atolls of French Polynesia shimmer like a string of prized Tahitian pearls," the brochures enchantingly describes on page 14. That line alone in the wonderfully written and styled magazine brochure is enough to convince me to book a cruise. Frenc... Full article: http://www.aluxurytravelblog.com/2017/06/17/cruising-aboa... ...
luxuryfeed.com/pages/97121137-cruising-aboard-the-m-slash-s-paul-gauguin-in-2018

*  Flag Counter » French Polynesia

The French annexed various Polynesian island groups during the 19th century. In September 1995, France stirred up widespread protests by resuming nuclear testing on the Mururoa Atoll after a three-year moratorium. The tests were halted in January 1996. In recent years, French Polynesia's autonomy has been considerably expanded ...
flagcounter.com/factbook/pf/mXC

*  Holiday accommodations in Mulifanua Polynesia | Zoover

Accommodations Mulifanua Samoa Polynesia? Read reviews on Zoover about 2 accommodations Mulifanua Samoa Polynesia. Zoover Holiday Reviews.
zoover.co.uk/polynesia/samoa/mulifanua

*  Island Retreat Paradise In French Polynesia To Be Sold 23 August 2017 By Celebrity Favoured Global Luxury Property Marketplace...

Motu Tiano offers spacious living and separate staff quarters, and benefits from the unique feature of a personal wharf, equipped for yacht mooring and offering direct access to the ocean, ideal for those with a passion for water sports. The property's lush tropical gardens include palm trees and allow for views across the lagoon to the mountains beyond.
adnkronos.com/immediapress/architettura-e-edilizia/2017/07/11/island-retreat-paradise-french-polynesia-sold-august-celebrity-favoured-global-luxury-property-marketplace-concierge-auctions_JhqJzuJbyMgTsARbZp9vuN.html

*  WHKMLA : History of French Polynesia, 1889-1918

Over the last decade the Internet has undergone rapid development; WHKMLA is in the process of restructuring; files with lack of depth are being removed, while the emphasis instead is being laid on providing a detailed list of links and printed references ...
zum.de/whkmla/region/pacific/frpolyn18891918.html

*  Voyage of RediscoveryA Cultural Odyssey through Polynesia - California Scholarship

In the summer of 1985, a mostly Hawai'ian crew set out aboard Hōkūle'a, a reconstructed ancient double canoe, to demonstrate what skeptics had steadfastly denied: that their ancestors, sailing in such canoes and navigating solely by reading stars, ocean swells, and other natural signs, could intentionally have sailed across the Pacific, exploring the vast oceanic realm of Polynesia and discovering and settling all its inhabitable islands. Their round-trip odyssey from Hawai'i to Aotearoa (New Zealand), across 12,000 nautical miles, dramatically refuted all theories declaring that-because of their unseaworthy canoes and inaccurate navigational methods-the ancient Polynesians could only have been pushed accidentally to their islands by the vagaries of wind and current. This book provides an account of this remarkable journey through the Pacific, including tales of a curiosity attack by sperm whales and the crew's welcome to Aotearoa by Maori tribesmen, who dubbed them their ...
california.universitypressscholarship.com/view/10.1525/california/9780520080027.001.0001/upso-9780520080027

*  Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences

Our data provide a number of important new insights into the enigmatic multi-archipelago distribution of P. hyalina. They rule out convergent evolution as a possible explanation, establish Tahiti as the source island and the other six as founder islands, and suggest that all six founders received live colonizing snails (directly or indirectly) from Tahiti within the past 30 kyr. These data, in conjunction with archaeological evidence for a prehistoric multi-archipelago distribution (Kirch et al. 1995; Orliac 1997), provide a compelling case for the introduction of this snail from Tahiti to the Australs and Cooks by prehistoric Polynesians.. The P. hyalina results are important because they provide qualitatively new material evidence of directional interaction among these central Eastern Polynesian archipelagoes. They complement and reinforce earlier material reconstructions of known (Cooks, Societies) or suspected (Cooks, Societies, Australs) regional interaction spheres ...
rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/274/1627/2907.full

*  University and Jepson Herbaria: Danica Harbaugh's keynote address at Sandalwood conference

Group photo of the 50 attendees, which included participants from Australia, India, China, Indonesia, French Polynesia, Vanuatu, Niue, Papua New Guinea, Fiji, Cook Islands, Soloman Islands, Tonga, and Samoa.. ...
ucjeps.berkeley.edu/news/item_harbaugh_keynote/

*  sea-cucumber-moorea-photo-003117f.jpg | Matthew Meier Photography

Moorea, French Polynesia; a Sea Cucumber (Bohadschia argus) on the sandy bottom near the coral reef , Copyright © Matthew Meier, matthewmeierphoto.com All Rights Reserved
https://matthewmeierphoto.photoshelter.com/image/I0000TsAstrTbkas

*  Whole Health Source: The Tokelau Island Migrant Study: Background and Overview

The varying cultures and resource bases of islands in the Pacific have influenced the degree to which their populations have been modernized and thus exposed to Western diseases. At one end of the spectrum are relatively traditional subsistence societies such as those on Tokelau and on the low islands- for example Pukapuka, Manihiki, and Rakahanga in the Northern Cook Islands. These atolls are characterized by the almost complete absence of soil, by the inhabitants' dependence on coconut in varied forms, and by a bountiful supply of fish as a major part of the traditional diet. Their populations are notable for their low levels of blood pressure, high rates of infectious disease, and low rates of coronary heart disease, obesity and diabetes. At the other end of the spectrum are those Polynesian societies, such as the Hawaiians and the Maori of New Zealand, who were submerged by 'Western' settlers and the dominating cultures they brought with them. These populations have inevitably acquired ...
wholehealthsource.blogspot.com.es/2009/01/tokelau-island-migrant-study-background.html

*  Treaty between the United States of America and the Cook Islands on Friendship and Delimitation of the Maritime Boundary...

Article II 9. The geodetic and computational bases used are the World Geodetic System, 1972 (WGS 72) and the following charts and aerial plans: 10. Rose Island - U.S. Chart NOS 83484, 6th ad., 11. March 26/77, 1:80,000 - local datum; 12. Manua Islands - U.S. Chart NOS 83484, 6th ad. 13. March 26/77, 1:80,000 - corrected for WGS 72, 1980; 14. Swains Island - U.S. Chart NOS 83484, 6th ad., 15. March 26/77, 1:40,000 - astro datum 1939; 16. Palmerston Atoll - Aerial Plan No. 1036/8H (N.Z. Lands & Survey), 1:50,400, 1976 - local datum; 17. Suwarrow (Suvorov) Atoll - Aerial Plan No. 1036/8E (N.Z. Lands & Survey), 1:50,400, 1975 - local datum; Nassau Island - Aerial Plan No. 1036/8B (N.Z. Lands & 18. Survey), 1:148,000, 1974 - local datum; 19. Pukapuka (Danger) Island - Aerial Plan No. 1036/8D (N.Z. Lands & Survey), 1:28,800, 1975 - local datum; 20. Niue - British Admiralty Chart BA 968, 16th ad., 21. March 1979, 1:150,000, corrections to 1979 - local datum; 22. Fakaofo Atoll - Aerial Plan No. 1036/7C ...
paclii.org/pits/en/treaty_database/1980/6.html

*  Supporting Regional Cooperation in the Pacific Oceanscape | Conservation International - YouTube

The ultimate time for us to undergo this expedition would be approximately 3 months starting in early July. Our science demands a rigorous work schedule. Marine Biologist, Nan Hauser has conducted research in the Southern Cook Islands for seventeen years with unprecedented data and outstanding results leading to over 44 published papers along with informative reports. Because of the vast differences of the two groups and over two million square kilometers of EEZ, it has been impossible logistically and financially for Nan and her team to reach the northern group. No survey has ever been conducted on the marine mammals in this Northern area made up of six exquisitely beautiful islands and a submerged reef. The Cook Islands is declared a whale sanctuary, a shark sanctuary, and a marine park. Unfortunately we observe the killing of cetaceans, turtles and sharks by illegal fishing vessels and long liners. It has been imperative in the past seventeen years to be the liaison between cetaceans and the ...
whaleresearch.org/future-projects/

*  TAHITIAN South Sea PEARL 18.3mm Charcoal Silver Black Baroque 3.77g full drilled

NATURAL CHARCOAL SILVER BLACK TAHITIAN BAROQUE SOUTH SEA PEARL CULTURED in Tahiti Item # : 150 0950 ___________________
agustuscollection.ecrater.com/p/26037263/tahitian-south-sea-pearl-183mm

*  Easter Island - Ageing Rock Stars - Foreign Correspondent - ABC

At the heart of the bird man cult was an annual do or die race to determine which clan would hold power for the following year. The chiefs would choose their bravest warriors and they had to be pretty brave to scramble down the cliffs at the edge of the crater there, then swim across often treacherous waters to the islands and find the first egg of the sooty Tern. If they could get that bird egg back in one piece, their chief was effectively king for a year ...
abc.net.au/foreign/content/2013/s3855458.htm

Manuae (Cook Islands): Manuae is an uninhabited atoll in the southern group of the Cook Islands, 100 kilometres south-east of Aitutaki. It is administratively part of Aitutaki, but does not belong to any district or tapere of Aitutaki.Pacific Islands Families Study: The Pacific Islands Families Study is a long-running, cohort study of 1398 children (and their parents) of Pacific Islands origin born in Auckland, New Zealand during the year 2000.British Solomon Islands Protectorate Defence Force: The British Solomon Islands Protectorate Defence Force (BSIPDF) was the British colonial military force of the British Solomon Islands Protectorate (1889-1978). The Solomon Islands has not had military forces since it achieved independence from Britain in 1976.Medical Anthropology Quarterly: Medical Anthropology Quarterly (MAQ) is an international peer-reviewed academic journal published for the Society for Medical Anthropology by the American Anthropological Association. It publishes research and theory about human health and disease from all areas of medical anthropology.List of nuclear weapons tests: Nuclear weapons testing according to the standard definition used in treaty language for the space/time requirement is:Computational archaeology: Computational archaeology describes computer-based analytical methods for the study of long-term human behaviour and behavioural evolution. As with other sub-disciplines that have prefixed 'computational' to their name (e.Thorium: Thorium is a chemical element with symbol Th and atomic number 90. A radioactive actinide metal, thorium is one of only three radioactive elements that still occur naturally in large quantities as a primordial element (the other two being bismuth and uranium).Morinda tinctoria: Morinda tinctoria, commonly known as aal or Indian mulberry (though these common names also refer to Morinda citrifolia), is a species of flowering plant in the family Rubiaceae, native to southern Asia.Religion in Fiji: Aboriginal Fijian religion could be classified in modern terms as forms of animism or shamanism, traditions utilizing various systems of divination which strongly affected every aspect of life. Fiji was Christianized in the 19th century.Timeline of historic inventions

(1/181) Variation in oral susceptibility to dengue type 2 virus of populations of Aedes aegypti from the islands of Tahiti and Moorea, French Polynesia.

Twenty three samples of Aedes aegypti populations from the islands of Tahiti and Moorea (French Polynesia) were tested for their oral susceptibility to dengue type 2 virus. The high infection rates obtained suggest that the artificial feeding protocol used was more efficient than those previously described. Statistical analysis of the results allowed us to define two distinct geographic areas on Tahiti with respect to the susceptibility of Ae. aegypti: the east coast, with homogeneous infection rates, and the west coast, with heterogeneous infection rates. No geographic differences could be demonstrated on Moorea. The possible mechanisms of this phenomenon are discussed in connection with recent findings on the variability of susceptibility of Ae. aegypti to insecticides.  (+info)

(2/181) The molecular genetics of European ancestry.

In an earlier paper we proposed, on the basis of mitochondrial control region variation, that the bulk of modern European mitochondrial DNA(mtDNA) diversity had its roots in the European Upper Palaeolithic. Refining the mtDNA phylogeny and enlarging the sample size both within Europe and the Middle East still support this interpretation and indicate three separate phases of colonization: (i) the Early Upper Palaeolithic about 50,000 BP; (ii) the Late Upper Palaeolithic 11,000-14,000 BP; and (iii) the Neolithic from 8500 BP.  (+info)

(3/181) Breast cancer in Maori and non-Maori women.

BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is more common in Maori than in non-Maori women under the age of 40 years and is equally common in older women, despite Maori being generally of lower socioeconomic status and having had a higher fertility rate than non-Maori. METHODS: Data from a nationwide population-based case-control study of breast cancer in New Zealand women aged 25-54 years were used to compare the age-adjusted distribution of reproductive and other risk factors for breast cancer in self-identified Maori and non-Maori women from the control group. Separate analyses also were carried out for women aged 25-39 years and for those aged 40-54 years. The risk of breast cancer according to the proportion of Maori ancestry was estimated using multiple logistic regression simultaneously adjusting for several risk factors. RESULTS: Significant differences were found between self-identified Maori and non-Maori women in the age-adjusted frequencies for education level, socioeconomic status, age at first full-term pregnancy, parity, and duration of breastfeeding; the profile in all instances suggesting a lower risk of breast cancer for Maori than for non-Maori. There were no significant differences with respect to age at menarche, surgery for benign breast disease or a family history of breast cancer. Significantly more Maori than non-Maori were in the highest quartile of recent body mass index. Women self-identified as Maori has an approximately twofold higher risk of breast cancer than non-Maori women. CONCLUSIONS: Maori have high rates of breast cancer despite having a more favourable profile than non-Maori for most identified risk factors.  (+info)

(4/181) Hepatitis B carriage explains the excess rate of hepatocellular carcinoma for Maori, Pacific Island and Asian people compared to Europeans in New Zealand.

BACKGROUND: The aim of this research was to determine the hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) carrier prevalence among cases of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and the population attributable risk of HBsAg carriage for HCC, by ethnicity in New Zealand. METHODS: The hospital notes of HCC cases registered with the New Zealand Cancer Registry, for the years 1987-1994 inclusive, were viewed to determine the HBsAg status. Results The HBsAg status was determined for 193 cases of HCC. The HBsAg carrier prevalence for non-Europeans with HCC was markedly higher than that for Europeans, being 76.7% for Maori, 80.0% for Pacific Island people, and 88.5% for Asians, compared to 6.0% for Europeans. In addition to the effect of ethnicity, HCC cases aged <60 years were more likely to be HBsAg carriers than those aged > or = 60 years. The estimated population attributable risk of HBsAg for HCC, within each ethnic group, was only marginally less than the HBsAg prevalence due to the high relative risk of HBsAg carriage for HCC. The standardized incidence rate ratios of HCC for Maori, Pacific Island people and Asians compared to Europeans were 9.6, 20.4, and 22.3, respectively. Hepatocellular carcinoma attributable to HBsAg carriage explained 79%, 83%, and 92% of the excess standardized rate of HCC, compared to Europeans, for Maori, Pacific Island people, and Asians, respectively. Conclusions The HBsAg carrier prevalence in non-European cases of HCC in New Zealand is between 75% and 90%. HBsAg carriage explains the majority of the excess rate of HCC in non-Europeans compared to Europeans in New Zealand.  (+info)

(5/181) Identification and phylogenetic characterization of a human T-cell leukaemia virus type I isolate from a native inhabitant (Rapa Nui) of Easter Island.

Human T-cell leukaemia virus type I (HTLV-I) is endemic in Melanesia, one of the three ethnogeographic regions of the Pacific; in the other two regions, Polynesia and Micronesia, the incidence of the virus is relatively low. In an effort to gain new insights into the prevalence of HTLV-I in the Pacific region, we did a seroepidemiological survey on Easter Island, which is located on the eastern edge of Polynesia. Of 138 subjects surveyed, including 108 Rapa Nui (the native inhabitants of this island), we identified one HTLV-I-seropositive Rapa Nui. The new HTLV-I isolate derived from this carrier (E-12) was phylogenetically analysed to ascertain the origin and past dissemination of HTLV-I in the island. The analysis demonstrated that isolate E-12 belongs to subgroup A of the Cosmopolitan group, and that it differs from HTLV-Is found in Melanesia, which are highly divergent variants. In subgroup A, E-12 grouped with South American HTLV-Is including those from Amerindians. This result suggests that this isolate originated in South America rather than in Melanesia.  (+info)

(6/181) Identification of Treponema pallidum subspecies pallidum in a 200-year-old skeletal specimen.

Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum, the causative agent of venereal syphilis, was detected in a 200-year-old skeletal specimen from Easter Island. An initial diagnosis of treponemal infection was confirmed by extensive purification of immunoglobulin that reacted strongly with T. pallidum antigen. Extracted DNA exhibited a single-base polymorphism that distinguished T.p. subsp. pallidum from 4 other human and nonhuman treponemes. Extensive precautions against contamination of the subject matter with modern treponemal DNA were employed, including analysis of archaeological and modern specimens in 2 geographically separate laboratories. Molecular determination of historical disease states by using skeletal material can significantly enhance our understanding of the pathology and spread of infectious diseases.  (+info)

(7/181) Dengue: an evaluation of dengue severity in French Polynesia based on an analysis of 403 laboratory-confirmed cases.

We conducted a retrospective study of 403 laboratory-confirmed dengue cases hospitalized in Tahiti between August 1989 and March 1997. According to standard WHO criteria, 337 of these cases were dengue fever (DF) and 64 were dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF). Of the 10 fatal cases, 6 were DF and 4 were DHF. As an alternative, we used a correspondence analysis procedure to define dengue severity based on basic clinical and biological criteria for which we assigned a severity score, and then selected the 50 most severe cases from this analysis. Of the latter, 17 patients had been classified as DF and 33 as DHF by the WHO criteria. From this analysis, haemorrhages and decreased platelets counts associated with hepatic disorders are the main criteria associated with the severe dengue cases. Thus in our study population, the WHO classification does not account for the overall severity of dengue; hepatic failure should be considered as a specific severe form of dengue since plasma leakage, which is the pathophysiological hallmark of DHF, is only one of the pathogenic mechanisms leading to severity.  (+info)

(8/181) Short report: microsatellite sequences as markers for population genetic studies of the mosquito Aedes aegypti, the vector of dengue viruses.

We report the isolation of microsatellites from an enriched library of genomic repeated sequences, using a biotin-labeled oligonucleotide bound to streptavidin-coated magnetic particles. Four microsatellites were obtained from a partial library of 120 recombinant clones. This more efficient and rapid method to obtain these specific repeated sequences is preferred to the conventional isolation procedure based on the construction of a genomic library. Microsatellite markers would be promising molecular tools for the study of genetic variability of mosquito populations. Analyses of genetic structure and gene flow would provide information on the distance, direction and rate of dispersal of genes in Aedes aegypti populations. Knowledge on gene dispersal patterns is required to develop vector control strategies.  (+info)



French Polynesia


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