Polynesia: The collective name for the islands of the central Pacific Ocean, including the Austral Islands, Cook Islands, Easter Island, HAWAII; NEW ZEALAND; Phoenix Islands, PITCAIRN ISLAND; SAMOA; TONGA; Tuamotu Archipelago, Wake Island, and Wallis and Futuna Islands. Polynesians are of the Caucasoid race, but many are of mixed origin. Polynesia is from the Greek poly, many + nesos, island, with reference to the many islands in the group. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p966 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p426)Pacific Islands: The islands of the Pacific Ocean divided into MICRONESIA; MELANESIA; and POLYNESIA (including NEW ZEALAND). The collective name Oceania includes the aforenamed islands, adding AUSTRALIA; NEW ZEALAND; and the Malay Archipelago (INDONESIA). (Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p910, 880)Samoa: A group of islands in the southwest central Pacific, divided into AMERICAN SAMOA and the INDEPENDENT STATE OF SAMOA (Western Samoa). First European contact was made in 1722 by Jacob Roggeveen, a Dutchman. In 1768 they were named Navigators Islands by Louis de Bougainville. The present name may derive from that of a local chieftain or from a local word meaning place of the moa, a now-extinct island bird. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1061 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p481)Melanesia: The collective name for the islands of the Pacific Ocean northeast of Australia, including NEW CALEDONIA; VANUATU; New Hebrides, Solomon Islands, Admiralty Islands, Bismarck Archipelago, FIJI, etc. Melanesia (from the Greek melas, black + nesos, island) is so called from the black color of the natives who are generally considered to be descended originally from the Negroid Papuans and the Polynesians or Malays. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p748 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p344)Anthropology: The science devoted to the comparative study of man.Radioactive Fallout: The material that descends to the earth or water well beyond the site of a surface or subsurface nuclear explosion. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Chemical and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Archaeology: The scientific study of past societies through artifacts, fossils, etc.Thorium: Thorium. A radioactive element of the actinide series of metals. It has an atomic symbol Th, atomic number 90, and atomic weight 232.04. It is used as fuel in nuclear reactors to produce fissionable uranium isotopes. Because of its radioopacity, various thorium compounds are used to facilitate visualization in roentgenography.Morinda: A plant genus of the family RUBIACEAE. Members contain iridoid glycosides and ANTHRAQUINONES.Fiji: A republic consisting of an island group in Melanesia, in the southwest Pacific Ocean. Its capital is Suva. It was discovered by Abel Tasman in 1643 and was visited by Captain Cook in 1774. It was used by escaped convicts from Australia as early as 1804. It was annexed by Great Britain in 1874 but achieved independence in 1970. The name Fiji is of uncertain origin. In its present form it may represent that of Viti, the main island in the group. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p396 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p186)History, Ancient: The period of history before 500 of the common era.
Manuae (Cook Islands): Manuae is an uninhabited atoll in the southern group of the Cook Islands, 100 kilometres south-east of Aitutaki. It is administratively part of Aitutaki, but does not belong to any district or tapere of Aitutaki.Pacific Islands Families Study: The Pacific Islands Families Study is a long-running, cohort study of 1398 children (and their parents) of Pacific Islands origin born in Auckland, New Zealand during the year 2000.British Solomon Islands Protectorate Defence Force: The British Solomon Islands Protectorate Defence Force (BSIPDF) was the British colonial military force of the British Solomon Islands Protectorate (1889-1978). The Solomon Islands has not had military forces since it achieved independence from Britain in 1976.Medical Anthropology Quarterly: Medical Anthropology Quarterly (MAQ) is an international peer-reviewed academic journal published for the Society for Medical Anthropology by the American Anthropological Association. It publishes research and theory about human health and disease from all areas of medical anthropology.List of nuclear weapons tests: Nuclear weapons testing according to the standard definition used in treaty language for the space/time requirement is:Computational archaeology: Computational archaeology describes computer-based analytical methods for the study of long-term human behaviour and behavioural evolution. As with other sub-disciplines that have prefixed 'computational' to their name (e.Thorium: Thorium is a chemical element with symbol Th and atomic number 90. A radioactive actinide metal, thorium is one of only three radioactive elements that still occur naturally in large quantities as a primordial element (the other two being bismuth and uranium).Morinda tinctoria: Morinda tinctoria, commonly known as aal or Indian mulberry (though these common names also refer to Morinda citrifolia), is a species of flowering plant in the family Rubiaceae, native to southern Asia.Religion in Fiji: Aboriginal Fijian religion could be classified in modern terms as forms of animism or shamanism, traditions utilizing various systems of divination which strongly affected every aspect of life. Fiji was Christianized in the 19th century.Timeline of historic inventions
(1/181) Variation in oral susceptibility to dengue type 2 virus of populations of Aedes aegypti from the islands of Tahiti and Moorea, French Polynesia.
Twenty three samples of Aedes aegypti populations from the islands of Tahiti and Moorea (French Polynesia) were tested for their oral susceptibility to dengue type 2 virus. The high infection rates obtained suggest that the artificial feeding protocol used was more efficient than those previously described. Statistical analysis of the results allowed us to define two distinct geographic areas on Tahiti with respect to the susceptibility of Ae. aegypti: the east coast, with homogeneous infection rates, and the west coast, with heterogeneous infection rates. No geographic differences could be demonstrated on Moorea. The possible mechanisms of this phenomenon are discussed in connection with recent findings on the variability of susceptibility of Ae. aegypti to insecticides. (+info)
(2/181) The molecular genetics of European ancestry.
In an earlier paper we proposed, on the basis of mitochondrial control region variation, that the bulk of modern European mitochondrial DNA(mtDNA) diversity had its roots in the European Upper Palaeolithic. Refining the mtDNA phylogeny and enlarging the sample size both within Europe and the Middle East still support this interpretation and indicate three separate phases of colonization: (i) the Early Upper Palaeolithic about 50,000 BP; (ii) the Late Upper Palaeolithic 11,000-14,000 BP; and (iii) the Neolithic from 8500 BP. (+info)
(3/181) Breast cancer in Maori and non-Maori women.
BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is more common in Maori than in non-Maori women under the age of 40 years and is equally common in older women, despite Maori being generally of lower socioeconomic status and having had a higher fertility rate than non-Maori. METHODS: Data from a nationwide population-based case-control study of breast cancer in New Zealand women aged 25-54 years were used to compare the age-adjusted distribution of reproductive and other risk factors for breast cancer in self-identified Maori and non-Maori women from the control group. Separate analyses also were carried out for women aged 25-39 years and for those aged 40-54 years. The risk of breast cancer according to the proportion of Maori ancestry was estimated using multiple logistic regression simultaneously adjusting for several risk factors. RESULTS: Significant differences were found between self-identified Maori and non-Maori women in the age-adjusted frequencies for education level, socioeconomic status, age at first full-term pregnancy, parity, and duration of breastfeeding; the profile in all instances suggesting a lower risk of breast cancer for Maori than for non-Maori. There were no significant differences with respect to age at menarche, surgery for benign breast disease or a family history of breast cancer. Significantly more Maori than non-Maori were in the highest quartile of recent body mass index. Women self-identified as Maori has an approximately twofold higher risk of breast cancer than non-Maori women. CONCLUSIONS: Maori have high rates of breast cancer despite having a more favourable profile than non-Maori for most identified risk factors. (+info)
(4/181) Hepatitis B carriage explains the excess rate of hepatocellular carcinoma for Maori, Pacific Island and Asian people compared to Europeans in New Zealand.
BACKGROUND: The aim of this research was to determine the hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) carrier prevalence among cases of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and the population attributable risk of HBsAg carriage for HCC, by ethnicity in New Zealand. METHODS: The hospital notes of HCC cases registered with the New Zealand Cancer Registry, for the years 1987-1994 inclusive, were viewed to determine the HBsAg status. Results The HBsAg status was determined for 193 cases of HCC. The HBsAg carrier prevalence for non-Europeans with HCC was markedly higher than that for Europeans, being 76.7% for Maori, 80.0% for Pacific Island people, and 88.5% for Asians, compared to 6.0% for Europeans. In addition to the effect of ethnicity, HCC cases aged <60 years were more likely to be HBsAg carriers than those aged > or = 60 years. The estimated population attributable risk of HBsAg for HCC, within each ethnic group, was only marginally less than the HBsAg prevalence due to the high relative risk of HBsAg carriage for HCC. The standardized incidence rate ratios of HCC for Maori, Pacific Island people and Asians compared to Europeans were 9.6, 20.4, and 22.3, respectively. Hepatocellular carcinoma attributable to HBsAg carriage explained 79%, 83%, and 92% of the excess standardized rate of HCC, compared to Europeans, for Maori, Pacific Island people, and Asians, respectively. Conclusions The HBsAg carrier prevalence in non-European cases of HCC in New Zealand is between 75% and 90%. HBsAg carriage explains the majority of the excess rate of HCC in non-Europeans compared to Europeans in New Zealand. (+info)
(5/181) Identification and phylogenetic characterization of a human T-cell leukaemia virus type I isolate from a native inhabitant (Rapa Nui) of Easter Island.
Human T-cell leukaemia virus type I (HTLV-I) is endemic in Melanesia, one of the three ethnogeographic regions of the Pacific; in the other two regions, Polynesia and Micronesia, the incidence of the virus is relatively low. In an effort to gain new insights into the prevalence of HTLV-I in the Pacific region, we did a seroepidemiological survey on Easter Island, which is located on the eastern edge of Polynesia. Of 138 subjects surveyed, including 108 Rapa Nui (the native inhabitants of this island), we identified one HTLV-I-seropositive Rapa Nui. The new HTLV-I isolate derived from this carrier (E-12) was phylogenetically analysed to ascertain the origin and past dissemination of HTLV-I in the island. The analysis demonstrated that isolate E-12 belongs to subgroup A of the Cosmopolitan group, and that it differs from HTLV-Is found in Melanesia, which are highly divergent variants. In subgroup A, E-12 grouped with South American HTLV-Is including those from Amerindians. This result suggests that this isolate originated in South America rather than in Melanesia. (+info)
(6/181) Identification of Treponema pallidum subspecies pallidum in a 200-year-old skeletal specimen.
Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum, the causative agent of venereal syphilis, was detected in a 200-year-old skeletal specimen from Easter Island. An initial diagnosis of treponemal infection was confirmed by extensive purification of immunoglobulin that reacted strongly with T. pallidum antigen. Extracted DNA exhibited a single-base polymorphism that distinguished T.p. subsp. pallidum from 4 other human and nonhuman treponemes. Extensive precautions against contamination of the subject matter with modern treponemal DNA were employed, including analysis of archaeological and modern specimens in 2 geographically separate laboratories. Molecular determination of historical disease states by using skeletal material can significantly enhance our understanding of the pathology and spread of infectious diseases. (+info)
(7/181) Dengue: an evaluation of dengue severity in French Polynesia based on an analysis of 403 laboratory-confirmed cases.
We conducted a retrospective study of 403 laboratory-confirmed dengue cases hospitalized in Tahiti between August 1989 and March 1997. According to standard WHO criteria, 337 of these cases were dengue fever (DF) and 64 were dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF). Of the 10 fatal cases, 6 were DF and 4 were DHF. As an alternative, we used a correspondence analysis procedure to define dengue severity based on basic clinical and biological criteria for which we assigned a severity score, and then selected the 50 most severe cases from this analysis. Of the latter, 17 patients had been classified as DF and 33 as DHF by the WHO criteria. From this analysis, haemorrhages and decreased platelets counts associated with hepatic disorders are the main criteria associated with the severe dengue cases. Thus in our study population, the WHO classification does not account for the overall severity of dengue; hepatic failure should be considered as a specific severe form of dengue since plasma leakage, which is the pathophysiological hallmark of DHF, is only one of the pathogenic mechanisms leading to severity. (+info)
(8/181) Short report: microsatellite sequences as markers for population genetic studies of the mosquito Aedes aegypti, the vector of dengue viruses.
We report the isolation of microsatellites from an enriched library of genomic repeated sequences, using a biotin-labeled oligonucleotide bound to streptavidin-coated magnetic particles. Four microsatellites were obtained from a partial library of 120 recombinant clones. This more efficient and rapid method to obtain these specific repeated sequences is preferred to the conventional isolation procedure based on the construction of a genomic library. Microsatellite markers would be promising molecular tools for the study of genetic variability of mosquito populations. Analyses of genetic structure and gene flow would provide information on the distance, direction and rate of dispersal of genes in Aedes aegypti populations. Knowledge on gene dispersal patterns is required to develop vector control strategies. (+info)