Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length: Variation occurring within a species in the presence or length of DNA fragment generated by a specific endonuclease at a specific site in the genome. Such variations are generated by mutations that create or abolish recognition sites for these enzymes or change the length of the fragment.Polymorphism, Genetic: The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide: A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.DNA Restriction Enzymes: Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.DNA Fingerprinting: A technique for identifying individuals of a species that is based on the uniqueness of their DNA sequence. Uniqueness is determined by identifying which combination of allelic variations occur in the individual at a statistically relevant number of different loci. In forensic studies, RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISM of multiple, highly polymorphic VNTR LOCI or MICROSATELLITE REPEAT loci are analyzed. The number of loci used for the profile depends on the ALLELE FREQUENCY in the population.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Alleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism Analysis: The detection of RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISMS by selective PCR amplification of restriction fragments derived from genomic DNA followed by electrophoretic analysis of the amplified restriction fragments.Deoxyribonucleases, Type II Site-Specific: Enzyme systems containing a single subunit and requiring only magnesium for endonucleolytic activity. The corresponding modification methylases are separate enzymes. The systems recognize specific short DNA sequences and cleave either within, or at a short specific distance from, the recognition sequence to give specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. Enzymes from different microorganisms with the same specificity are called isoschizomers. EC 3.1.21.4.Gene Frequency: The proportion of one particular in the total of all ALLELES for one genetic locus in a breeding POPULATION.Bacterial Typing Techniques: Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.DNA, Ribosomal: DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Blotting, Southern: A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Nucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)RNA, Ribosomal, 16S: Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.Genetic Predisposition to Disease: A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.Genetic Markers: A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).DNA Probes: Species- or subspecies-specific DNA (including COMPLEMENTARY DNA; conserved genes, whole chromosomes, or whole genomes) used in hybridization studies in order to identify microorganisms, to measure DNA-DNA homologies, to group subspecies, etc. The DNA probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the DNA probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin. The use of DNA probes provides a specific, sensitive, rapid, and inexpensive replacement for cell culture techniques for diagnosing infections.Genetic Linkage: The co-inheritance of two or more non-allelic GENES due to their being located more or less closely on the same CHROMOSOME.DNA Transposable Elements: Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Haplotypes: The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.Deoxyribonuclease HindIII: One of the Type II site-specific deoxyribonucleases (EC 3.1.21.4). It recognizes and cleaves the sequence A/AGCTT at the slash. HindIII is from Haemophilus influenzae R(d). Numerous isoschizomers have been identified. EC 3.1.21.-.Molecular Epidemiology: The application of molecular biology to the answering of epidemiological questions. The examination of patterns of changes in DNA to implicate particular carcinogens and the use of molecular markers to predict which individuals are at highest risk for a disease are common examples.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Deoxyribonuclease EcoRI: One of the Type II site-specific deoxyribonucleases (EC 3.1.21.4). It recognizes and cleaves the sequence G/AATTC at the slash. EcoRI is from E coliRY13. Several isoschizomers have been identified. EC 3.1.21.-.DNA, Ribosomal Spacer: The intergenic DNA segments that are between the ribosomal RNA genes (internal transcribed spacers) and between the tandemly repeated units of rDNA (external transcribed spacers and nontranscribed spacers).Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Deoxyribonuclease HpaII: One of the Type II site-specific deoxyribonucleases (EC 3.1.21.4). It recognizes and cleaves the sequences C/CGG and GGC/C at the slash. HpaII is from Haemophilus parainfluenzae. Several isoschizomers have been identified. EC 3.1.21.-.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Minisatellite Repeats: Tandem arrays of moderately repetitive, short (10-60 bases) DNA sequences which are found dispersed throughout the GENOME, at the ends of chromosomes (TELOMERES), and clustered near telomeres. Their degree of repetition is two to several hundred at each locus. Loci number in the thousands but each locus shows a distinctive repeat unit.Mycobacterium tuberculosis: A species of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria that produces TUBERCULOSIS in humans, other primates, CATTLE; DOGS; and some other animals which have contact with humans. Growth tends to be in serpentine, cordlike masses in which the bacilli show a parallel orientation.Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field: Gel electrophoresis in which the direction of the electric field is changed periodically. This technique is similar to other electrophoretic methods normally used to separate double-stranded DNA molecules ranging in size up to tens of thousands of base-pairs. However, by alternating the electric field direction one is able to separate DNA molecules up to several million base-pairs in length.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Asian Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the southeastern and eastern areas of the Asian continent.Electrophoresis, Agar Gel: Electrophoresis in which agar or agarose gel is used as the diffusion medium.Caloric Restriction: Reduction in caloric intake without reduction in adequate nutrition. In experimental animals, caloric restriction has been shown to extend lifespan and enhance other physiological variables.Repetitive Sequences, Nucleic Acid: Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Pedigree: The record of descent or ancestry, particularly of a particular condition or trait, indicating individual family members, their relationships, and their status with respect to the trait or condition.DNA, Fungal: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of fungi.Soil Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Heterozygote: An individual having different alleles at one or more loci regarding a specific character.Serotyping: Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.Heterozygote Detection: Identification of genetic carriers for a given trait.Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.Polymorphism, Single-Stranded Conformational: Variation in a population's DNA sequence that is detected by determining alterations in the conformation of denatured DNA fragments. Denatured DNA fragments are allowed to renature under conditions that prevent the formation of double-stranded DNA and allow secondary structure to form in single stranded fragments. These fragments are then run through polyacrylamide gels to detect variations in the secondary structure that is manifested as an alteration in migration through the gels.Genetic Association Studies: The analysis of a sequence such as a region of a chromosome, a haplotype, a gene, or an allele for its involvement in controlling the phenotype of a specific trait, metabolic pathway, or disease.China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.RNA, Bacterial: Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Homozygote: An individual in which both alleles at a given locus are identical.RNA, Ribosomal: The most abundant form of RNA. Together with proteins, it forms the ribosomes, playing a structural role and also a role in ribosomal binding of mRNA and tRNAs. Individual chains are conventionally designated by their sedimentation coefficients. In eukaryotes, four large chains exist, synthesized in the nucleolus and constituting about 50% of the ribosome. (Dorland, 28th ed)Deoxyribonuclease BamHI: One of the Type II site-specific deoxyribonucleases (EC 3.1.21.4). It recognizes and cleaves the sequence G/GATCC at the slash. BamHI is from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens N. Numerous isoschizomers have been identified. EC 3.1.21.-.Genes, rRNA: Genes, found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, which are transcribed to produce the RNA which is incorporated into RIBOSOMES. Prokaryotic rRNA genes are usually found in OPERONS dispersed throughout the GENOME, whereas eukaryotic rRNA genes are clustered, multicistronic transcriptional units.DNA, Protozoan: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of protozoa.Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Technique: Technique that utilizes low-stringency polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification with single primers of arbitrary sequence to generate strain-specific arrays of anonymous DNA fragments. RAPD technique may be used to determine taxonomic identity, assess kinship relationships, analyze mixed genome samples, and create specific probes.Exons: The parts of a transcript of a split GENE remaining after the INTRONS are removed. They are spliced together to become a MESSENGER RNA or other functional RNA.JapanMycological Typing Techniques: Procedures for identifying types and strains of fungi.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Linkage Disequilibrium: Nonrandom association of linked genes. This is the tendency of the alleles of two separate but already linked loci to be found together more frequently than would be expected by chance alone.Chromosome Deletion: Actual loss of portion of a chromosome.RNA, Ribosomal, 23S: Constituent of 50S subunit of prokaryotic ribosomes containing about 3200 nucleotides. 23S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis.DNA Mutational Analysis: Biochemical identification of mutational changes in a nucleotide sequence.Tuberculosis: Any of the infectious diseases of man and other animals caused by species of MYCOBACTERIUM.Recombination, Genetic: Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.DNA, Mitochondrial: Double-stranded DNA of MITOCHONDRIA. In eukaryotes, the mitochondrial GENOME is circular and codes for ribosomal RNAs, transfer RNAs, and about 10 proteins.Codon: A set of three nucleotides in a protein coding sequence that specifies individual amino acids or a termination signal (CODON, TERMINATOR). Most codons are universal, but some organisms do not produce the transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER) complementary to all codons. These codons are referred to as unassigned codons (CODONS, NONSENSE).Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.X Chromosome: The female sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and all female gametes in human and other male-heterogametic species.Interspersed Repetitive Sequences: Copies of transposable elements interspersed throughout the genome, some of which are still active and often referred to as "jumping genes". There are two classes of interspersed repetitive elements. Class I elements (or RETROELEMENTS - such as retrotransposons, retroviruses, LONG INTERSPERSED NUCLEOTIDE ELEMENTS and SHORT INTERSPERSED NUCLEOTIDE ELEMENTS) transpose via reverse transcription of an RNA intermediate. Class II elements (or DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS - such as transposons, Tn elements, insertion sequence elements and mobile gene cassettes of bacterial integrons) transpose directly from one site in the DNA to another.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Crosses, Genetic: Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.DNA, Recombinant: Biologically active DNA which has been formed by the in vitro joining of segments of DNA from different sources. It includes the recombination joint or edge of a heteroduplex region where two recombining DNA molecules are connected.Molecular Typing: Using MOLECULAR BIOLOGY techniques, such as DNA SEQUENCE ANALYSIS; PULSED-FIELD GEL ELECTROPHORESIS; and DNA FINGERPRINTING, to identify, classify, and compare organisms and their subtypes.Point Mutation: A mutation caused by the substitution of one nucleotide for another. This results in the DNA molecule having a change in a single base pair.Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase (NADPH2): A flavoprotein amine oxidoreductase that catalyzes the reversible conversion of 5-methyltetrahydrofolate to 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate. This enzyme was formerly classified as EC 1.1.1.171.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Oligonucleotide Probes: Synthetic or natural oligonucleotides used in hybridization studies in order to identify and study specific nucleic acid fragments, e.g., DNA segments near or within a specific gene locus or gene. The probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin.Korea: Former kingdom, located on Korea Peninsula between Sea of Japan and Yellow Sea on east coast of Asia. In 1948, the kingdom ceased and two independent countries were formed, divided by the 38th parallel.Introns: Sequences of DNA in the genes that are located between the EXONS. They are transcribed along with the exons but are removed from the primary gene transcript by RNA SPLICING to leave mature RNA. Some introns code for separate genes.RNA, Ribosomal, 18S: Constituent of the 40S subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes. 18S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis in eukaryotes.Cosmids: Plasmids containing at least one cos (cohesive-end site) of PHAGE LAMBDA. They are used as cloning vehicles.Environmental Microbiology: The study of microorganisms living in a variety of environments (air, soil, water, etc.) and their pathogenic relationship to other organisms including man.DNA, Plant: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.Biodiversity: The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.Microsatellite Repeats: A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).European Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Europe.Hybrid Cells: Any cell, other than a ZYGOTE, that contains elements (such as NUCLEI and CYTOPLASM) from two or more different cells, usually produced by artificial CELL FUSION.Oligonucleotides: Polymers made up of a few (2-20) nucleotides. In molecular genetics, they refer to a short sequence synthesized to match a region where a mutation is known to occur, and then used as a probe (OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES). (Dorland, 28th ed)Tuberculosis, Pulmonary: MYCOBACTERIUM infections of the lung.DNA, Neoplasm: DNA present in neoplastic tissue.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Campylobacter jejuni: A species of bacteria that resemble small tightly coiled spirals. Its organisms are known to cause abortion in sheep and fever and enteritis in man and may be associated with enteric diseases of calves, lambs, and other animals.Mycobacterium: A genus of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria. Most species are free-living in soil and water, but the major habitat for some is the diseased tissue of warm-blooded hosts.Campylobacter Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus CAMPYLOBACTER.Soil: The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Length of Stay: The period of confinement of a patient to a hospital or other health facility.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Water Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Ribotyping: RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISM analysis of rRNA genes that is used for differentiating between species or strains.IndiaElectrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.BrazilGene Amplification: A selective increase in the number of copies of a gene coding for a specific protein without a proportional increase in other genes. It occurs naturally via the excision of a copy of the repeating sequence from the chromosome and its extrachromosomal replication in a plasmid, or via the production of an RNA transcript of the entire repeating sequence of ribosomal RNA followed by the reverse transcription of the molecule to produce an additional copy of the original DNA sequence. Laboratory techniques have been introduced for inducing disproportional replication by unequal crossing over, uptake of DNA from lysed cells, or generation of extrachromosomal sequences from rolling circle replication.Plant Diseases: Diseases of plants.Immunoglobulin Fab Fragments: Univalent antigen-binding fragments composed of one entire IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN and the amino terminal end of one of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS from the hinge region, linked to each other by disulfide bonds. Fab contains the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGIONS, which are part of the antigen-binding site, and the first IMMUNOGLOBULIN CONSTANT REGIONS. This fragment can be obtained by digestion of immunoglobulins with the proteolytic enzyme PAPAIN.TurkeyGenetics, Population: The discipline studying genetic composition of populations and effects of factors such as GENETIC SELECTION, population size, MUTATION, migration, and GENETIC DRIFT on the frequencies of various GENOTYPES and PHENOTYPES using a variety of GENETIC TECHNIQUES.Geologic Sediments: A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)Genes, Viral: The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Gene Library: A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.PolandGenes, Plant: The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.Flagellin: A protein with a molecular weight of 40,000 isolated from bacterial flagella. At appropriate pH and salt concentration, three flagellin monomers can spontaneously reaggregate to form structures which appear identical to intact flagella.Evaluation Studies as Topic: Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.Food Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food and food products. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms: the presence of various non-pathogenic bacteria and fungi in cheeses and wines, for example, is included in this concept.Drug Resistance, Microbial: The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Rickettsia: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria often surrounded by a protein microcapsular layer and slime layer. The natural cycle of its organisms generally involves a vertebrate and an invertebrate host. Species of the genus are the etiological agents of human diseases, such as typhus.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Biota: The spectrum of different living organisms inhabiting a particular region, habitat, or biotope.Archaea: One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and Eukarya), formerly called Archaebacteria under the taxon Bacteria, but now considered separate and distinct. They are characterized by: (1) the presence of characteristic tRNAs and ribosomal RNAs; (2) the absence of peptidoglycan cell walls; (3) the presence of ether-linked lipids built from branched-chain subunits; and (4) their occurrence in unusual habitats. While archaea resemble bacteria in morphology and genomic organization, they resemble eukarya in their method of genomic replication. The domain contains at least four kingdoms: CRENARCHAEOTA; EURYARCHAEOTA; NANOARCHAEOTA; and KORARCHAEOTA.Virulence: The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.Fresh Water: Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.DNA, Intergenic: Any of the DNA in between gene-coding DNA, including untranslated regions, 5' and 3' flanking regions, INTRONS, non-functional pseudogenes, and non-functional repetitive sequences. This DNA may or may not encode regulatory functions.Tunisia: A country in northern Africa between ALGERIA and LIBYA. Its capital is Tunis.Oryza sativa: Annual cereal grass of the family POACEAE and its edible starchy grain, rice, which is the staple food of roughly one-half of the world's population.Telomere: A terminal section of a chromosome which has a specialized structure and which is involved in chromosomal replication and stability. Its length is believed to be a few hundred base pairs.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Glutathione Transferase: A transferase that catalyzes the addition of aliphatic, aromatic, or heterocyclic FREE RADICALS as well as EPOXIDES and arene oxides to GLUTATHIONE. Addition takes place at the SULFUR. It also catalyzes the reduction of polyol nitrate by glutathione to polyol and nitrite.Chromosomes, Human, 13-15: The medium-sized, acrocentric human chromosomes, called group D in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 13, 14, and 15.Tandem Repeat Sequences: Copies of DNA sequences which lie adjacent to each other in the same orientation (direct tandem repeats) or in the opposite direction to each other (INVERTED TANDEM REPEATS).Chromosome Banding: Staining of bands, or chromosome segments, allowing the precise identification of individual chromosomes or parts of chromosomes. Applications include the determination of chromosome rearrangements in malformation syndromes and cancer, the chemistry of chromosome segments, chromosome changes during evolution, and, in conjunction with cell hybridization studies, chromosome mapping.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Karyotyping: Mapping of the KARYOTYPE of a cell.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 17: A specific pair of GROUP E CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Odds Ratio: The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis: A subspecies of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria. It is the etiologic agent of Johne's disease (PARATUBERCULOSIS), a chronic GASTROENTERITIS in RUMINANTS.Mycobacterium avium: A bacterium causing tuberculosis in domestic fowl and other birds. In pigs, it may cause localized and sometimes disseminated disease. The organism occurs occasionally in sheep and cattle. It should be distinguished from the M. avium complex, which infects primarily humans.Base Composition: The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.Disease Susceptibility: A constitution or condition of the body which makes the tissues react in special ways to certain extrinsic stimuli and thus tends to make the individual more than usually susceptible to certain diseases.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Genome, Bacterial: The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.Nucleic Acid Conformation: The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.Genes, ras: Family of retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (ras) originally isolated from Harvey (H-ras, Ha-ras, rasH) and Kirsten (K-ras, Ki-ras, rasK) murine sarcoma viruses. Ras genes are widely conserved among animal species and sequences corresponding to both H-ras and K-ras genes have been detected in human, avian, murine, and non-vertebrate genomes. The closely related N-ras gene has been detected in human neuroblastoma and sarcoma cell lines. All genes of the family have a similar exon-intron structure and each encodes a p21 protein.Genomic Library: A form of GENE LIBRARY containing the complete DNA sequences present in the genome of a given organism. It contrasts with a cDNA library which contains only sequences utilized in protein coding (lacking introns).Amino Acid Substitution: The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.Mycobacterium avium Complex: A complex that includes several strains of M. avium. M. intracellulare is not easily distinguished from M. avium and therefore is included in the complex. These organisms are most frequently found in pulmonary secretions from persons with a tuberculous-like mycobacteriosis. Strains of this complex have also been associated with childhood lymphadenitis and AIDS; M. avium alone causes tuberculosis in a variety of birds and other animals, including pigs.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Seawater: The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.Immunoglobulin Fragments: Partial immunoglobulin molecules resulting from selective cleavage by proteolytic enzymes or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Bacterial Outer Membrane Proteins: Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.Naegleria: A free-living soil amoeba pathogenic to humans and animals. It occurs also in water and sewage. The most commonly found species in man is NAEGLERIA FOWLERI which is the pathogen for primary amebic meningoencephalitis in primates.DNA, Archaeal: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of archaea.Borrelia burgdorferi Group: Gram-negative helical bacteria, in the genus BORRELIA, that are the etiologic agents of LYME DISEASE. The group comprises many specific species including Borrelia afzelii, Borellia garinii, and BORRELIA BURGDORFERI proper. These spirochetes are generally transmitted by several species of ixodid ticks.Muridae: A family of the order Rodentia containing 250 genera including the two genera Mus (MICE) and Rattus (RATS), from which the laboratory inbred strains are developed. The fifteen subfamilies are SIGMODONTINAE (New World mice and rats), CRICETINAE, Spalacinae, Myospalacinae, Lophiomyinae, ARVICOLINAE, Platacanthomyinae, Nesomyinae, Otomyinae, Rhizomyinae, GERBILLINAE, Dendromurinae, Cricetomyinae, MURINAE (Old World mice and rats), and Hydromyinae.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Campylobacter coli: A species of gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria isolated from the intestinal tract of swine, poultry, and man. It may be pathogenic.Calluna: A plant genus of the family ERICACEAE.Conjunctivitis, Viral: Inflammation, often mild, of the conjunctiva caused by a variety of viral agents. Conjunctival involvement may be part of a systemic infection.HLA-DQ Antigens: A group of the D-related HLA antigens found to differ from the DR antigens in genetic locus and therefore inheritance. These antigens are polymorphic glycoproteins comprising alpha and beta chains and are found on lymphoid and other cells, often associated with certain diseases.Methane: The simplest saturated hydrocarbon. It is a colorless, flammable gas, slightly soluble in water. It is one of the chief constituents of natural gas and is formed in the decomposition of organic matter. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.NevadaMicrobial Sensitivity Tests: Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).Oligodeoxyribonucleotides: A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.Electrophoresis: An electrochemical process in which macromolecules or colloidal particles with a net electric charge migrate in a solution under the influence of an electric current.Glutathione S-Transferase pi: A glutathione transferase that catalyzes the conjugation of electrophilic substrates to GLUTATHIONE. This enzyme has been shown to provide cellular protection against redox-mediated damage by FREE RADICALS.RNA Probes: RNA, usually prepared by transcription from cloned DNA, which complements a specific mRNA or DNA and is generally used for studies of virus genes, distribution of specific RNA in tissues and cells, integration of viral DNA into genomes, transcription, etc. Whereas DNA PROBES are preferred for use at a more macroscopic level for detection of the presence of DNA/RNA from specific species or subspecies, RNA probes are preferred for genetic studies. Conventional labels for the RNA probe include radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin. RNA probes may be further divided by category into plus-sense RNA probes, minus-sense RNA probes, and antisense RNA probes.Receptors, Calcitriol: Proteins, usually found in the cytoplasm, that specifically bind calcitriol, migrate to the nucleus, and regulate transcription of specific segments of DNA with the participation of D receptor interacting proteins (called DRIP). Vitamin D is converted in the liver and kidney to calcitriol and ultimately acts through these receptors.Taiwan

*  Plus it

These examples illustrate the techniques of "reverse" genetics, restriction fragment-length polymorphism analysis, chromosomal ...
ajprenal.physiology.org/content/255/6/F1047

*  CTLA-4 Gene Polymorphism and the Risk of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus in the Chinese Population : Figure 1

Figure 1: PCR restriction fragment length polymorphism results of −1722 T to C substitution in CTLA-4 promoter region. (1) CC ...
https://hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2011/167395/fig1/

*  Distinct Biogeographic Patterns for Archaea, Bacteria, and Fungi along the Vegetation Gradient at the Continental Scale in...

... such as terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) (9). Likewise, the correlation between geographic distance ... The following parameters were used: min_seq_length 200, max_seq_length 500, min_qual_score 25, max_homopolyer 6, truncate_ambi_ ... as the longest gradient length for the preliminary DCA of archaeal communities was shorter than three (DCA1 = 2.2). All ... as the longest gradient lengths for preliminary detrended correspondence analysis (DCA) of the bacterial and fungal communities ...
msystems.asm.org/content/2/1/e00174-16

*  Restriction fragment length polymorphism Synonyms, Restriction fragment length polymorphism Antonyms | Thesaurus.com

Synonyms for restriction fragment length polymorphism at Thesaurus.com with free online thesaurus, antonyms, and definitions. ... More words related to restriction fragment length polymorphism. DNA fingerprinting noun. method of identification of ... restriction fragment length polymorphism. star. see definition of restriction fragment length polymorphism show all. noun. ... Synonyms for restriction fragment length polymorphism noun method of identification of individuals by comparing dna ...
thesaurus.com/browse/restriction fragment length polymorphism?qsrc=2446

*  Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphisms (RFLP's)

... , Short Tandem Repeats (STR) , Entamology , Common Insects , Links. ... DNA profile analysis was first made possible by the use of Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphisms (RFLP). Though it ... the STRsequences (restriction fragments) and determine how many times each sequence repeats (length polymorphisms). ... time, the DNA fragments are distributed by size (length) along the gel, with the smallest fragments near the positive electrode ...
meaganpickles.tripod.com/forensicbiology101/id12.html

*  A computer simulation analysis of the accuracy of partial genome sequencing and restriction fragment analysis in estimating...

Goldberg TL, Weigel RM, Hahn EC, Scherba G: Comparative utility of restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis and gene ... Computer simulated restriction fragment analysis. Restriction endonuclease enzymes. Commonly used restriction endonuclease ... Nucleotide sequence comparison of the mycobacterial dnaJ gene and PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis for ... The sources of error in restriction fragment analysis are well known [22-24]. Fragments of similar size in the same lane of a ...
https://bmcbioinformatics.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1471-2105-5-102

*  publications - dawnroellig

Adaptation of a group-specific polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis for ...
https://sites.google.com/site/dawnroellig/publications

*  Use of restriction fragment length polymorphisms to determine the clonal origin of human tumors | Science

Use of restriction fragment length polymorphisms to determine the clonal origin of human tumors ... Use of restriction fragment length polymorphisms to determine the clonal origin of human tumors ... Use of restriction fragment length polymorphisms to determine the clonal origin of human tumors ... Use of restriction fragment length polymorphisms to determine the clonal origin of human tumors ...
science.sciencemag.org/content/227/4687/642

*  A Novel Quantitative Hemolytic Assay Coupled with Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphisms Analysis Enabled Early Diagnosis of...

... which were identified by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis. Thus, a quantitative hemolytic assay coupled ... Restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis Is the Subject Area "Restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis" ... Correction: A Novel Quantitative Hemolytic Assay Coupled with Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphisms Analysis Enabled Early ...
journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0124655

*  Biochemistry Class notes: Application of Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP)

Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP), Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs), Chromosome walking ... Fig: Analysis of restriction fragment length polymorphism in a family with a child affected by phenylketonuria. The molecular ... Variation in DNA sequences can result in variations of restriction sites and thus length of restriction fragments. Similarly ... between individual is known as restriction fragment length polymorphism or RFLP. RFLPs results from single base changes (e.g. ...
edusanjalbiochemist.blogspot.com/2013/06/application-of-restriction-fragment.html

*  RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISMS(RFLPs) OF THE SMALL-SUBUNIT RIBOSOMAL DNA AS A TOOL FOR IDENTIFICATION OF TILAPIA SPP.

The technique of restriction fragment length polymorphisms was used to identify the specific 18S rDNA for each species. O. ... Restriction fragment length polymorphisms of the nuclear srDNA (RFLPsPCR)proved to be a good tool for checking the ... In this paper, we examined the use of polymerase chain reaction (PCR)and restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) ... This indicates the efficiencies of these restriction endonuclease enzymes in species-specific identification of Tilapia spp. ...
ejabf.journals.ekb.eg/article_1803.html

*  Genetic fingerprinting: a look inside | www.scienceinschool.org

Early genetic fingerprinting: restriction fragment length polymorphism. Image courtesy of Arno. Bachert / pixelio.de. The first ... We call this phenomenon restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP).. Figure 1: Overview about two VNTRs from two different ... This means that if you cut the genome with a particular restriction enzyme, you will get around 730 000 restriction fragments ... which means that the length of the corresponding restriction fragment will vary between individuals too (Figure 1). ...
scienceinschool.org/2012/issue22/fingerprinting

*  DNA facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about DNA

... restriction fragment length polymorphism); STR (short tandem repeat) analysis. ... The total length of DNA in a human cell is estimated at five billion subunits.) Radiation, thermal variations, or the presence ... Thus, the length of DNA differed between organisms.. Even as biochemists described DNA's chemistry, molecular physicists ... Each nucleic acid molecule consists of a long chain of alternating sugar and phosphate fragments to which are attached some ...
encyclopedia.com/science-and-technology/biology-and-genetics/genetics-and-genetic-engineering/dna

*  Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis in HIV-Negative Patients, Buenos Aires, Argentina - Volume 9, Number 8-August 2003 - Emerging...

... caused 24 of the 49 initial MDRTB cases available for restriction fragment length polymorphism. Of those, 21 were diagnosed in ... Alito A, Morcillo N, Scipioni S, Dolmann A, Romano MI, Cataldi A, The IS6110 restriction fragment length polymorphism in ... RFLP, restriction fragment length polymorphism. Tables. *Table 1. Demographic, clinical, and bacteriologic features of acquired ... data). An IS6110 restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) study conducted in the first half of the decade of a sample of ...
https://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/9/8/02-0474_article

*  Abbreviations, Acronyms and Symbols - Edward G. Miner Library

RFLPrestriction fragment length polymorphism. *RFPright frontoposterior (fetal position). *RFTrenal function test; right ...
https://urmc.rochester.edu/libraries/miner/resources/abbreviationglossary/

*  Human cytomegalovirus glycoprotein B genotype correlates with different symptoms of infected infants.

... urine specimens from 208 infected infants using nested polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism. ... Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length. Urine / virology. Viral Envelope Proteins / genetics*. Chemical. Reg. No./Substance ...
biomedsearch.com/nih/Human-cytomegalovirus-glycoprotein-B-genotype/17356299.html

*  Three common functional polymorphisms in microRNA encoding genes in the susceptibility to hepatocellular carcinoma: a...

... polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism; primer introduced restriction analysis-PCR; single ... Three common functional polymorphisms in microRNA encoding genes in the susceptibility to hepatocellular carcinoma: a ... The aims of this review and meta-analysis are to assess whether common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the genes ... However, we failed to find any significant correlations between the miR-499 C polymorphism and HCC risks. When further ...
https://ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23791656?access_num=23791656&link_type=MED&dopt=Abstract

*  Chapter 26: Tall Fescue as Turf in the United States | Forage Information System | Oregon State University

Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) molecular markers are being used to distinguish cultivars. Late-summer or early ... Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) molecular markers are being used to distinguish cultivars. Late-summer or early ... Restriction fragment length polymorphism; RTF, rhizomatous tall fescue; TGR, Turfgrass growth regulator. ...
forages.oregonstate.edu/tallfescuemonograph/turf/abstract

*  Biosimilars (2009 - 2014)

RFLP - Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism. RHDNASE - Recombinant Human DNase. RMS - Relapsing Multiple Sclerosis. SBIR - ...
https://marketpublishers.com/report/medicine_pharmaceuticals_biotechnology/healthcare_equipment_services/biosimilars_2009_2014.html

*  Population differences and learning effects in walnut feeding technique by the Japanese squirrel | SpringerLink

... genetic diversity determined by restriction fragment length polymorphisms. Genome 37:690-699PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar ...
https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10164-011-0267-z

*  Human Biological Variation - James H. Mielke; Lyle W. Konigsberg; John H. Relethford - Oxford University Press

Restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLP). Insertions and deletions ( Interspersed nuclear elements: SINEs and LINEs. ... Genetic Polymorphisms in the Blood. ABO, Hh (FUT1), Secretor (FUT2), and Lewis (FUT3) Systems. The ABO histo-blood group system ... Detection of Genetic Polymorphisms. Some Plasma Proteins. Haptoglobin (alpha-2-globulins). Transferrin (Tf). Group-specific ... Lactase Restriction and Persistence. Taste: Phenylthiocarbamide (6-N-PROPYLTHIOURACIL). Variation in Ear Wax, or Cerumen. ...
https://global.oup.com/academic/product/human-biological-variation-9780195387407?cc=us&lang=en&%0D%0Atab=overview

*  Molecular Analysis of Genetic Markers for Non‐Hodgkin Lymphomas - Current Protocols

Jarcho, J. (2000). Restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. Current Protocols in Human Genetics, 1, 2.7.1-2.7.15. doi ... Victor, K. D., & Capra, J. D. (1994). An apparently common mechanism of generating antibody diversity: Length variation of the ... Larsen, L. A., Christiansen, M., Vuust, J., & Andersen, P. S. (2003). Single‐strand conformation polymorphism analysis using ... strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis and SSCP‐hybrid methods. Current Protocols in Human Genetics, 15, 7.4:7.4.1- ...
currentprotocols.com/WileyCDA/CPUnit/refId-hg1014.html?quicktabs_cp=abstract

*  Comparing DNA Using Gel Electrophoresis: Part 1

This procedure, called restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), has significant drawbacks. In particular, it requires ... The resulting segments would have highly specific lengths because the restriction enzymes work at precise locations. Different ... Each DNA sample's segments have a unique length or combination of lengths. ... In PCR, small fragments of DNA called primers are mixed with the sample DNA, a number of free bases (A, C, T, and G) for raw ...
brighthub.com/science/genetics/articles/39971.aspx

*  African Journal of Biotechnology - bacterial species identification getting easier

... restriction fragment length polymorphisms; HTS, high-throughput sequencing. ...
academicjournals.org/journal/AJB/article-abstract/D0EE3FE30501

*  Hitoshi Oshitani

Detection of amantadine-resistant influenza A virus strains in nursing homes by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism ... 2009 virus by a RT-PCR/restriction fragment length polymorphism assay. Nao Nukiwa. Department of Virology, Tohoku University ...
https://labome.org/expert/japan/tohoku/oshitani/hitoshi-oshitani-963227.html

Amplified fragment length polymorphismGene polymorphismThermal cyclerWGAViewer: WGAViewer is a bioinformatics software tool which is designed to visualize, annotate, and help interpret the results generated from a genome wide association study (GWAS). Alongside the P values of association, WGAViewer allows a researcher to visualize and consider other supporting evidence, such as the genomic context of the SNP, linkage disequilibrium (LD) with ungenotyped SNPs, gene expression database, and the evidence from other GWAS projects, when determining the potential importance of an individual SNP.Restriction fragment: A restriction fragment is a DNA fragment resulting from the cutting of a DNA strand by a restriction enzyme (restriction endonucleases), a process called restriction. Each restriction enzyme is highly specific, recognising a particular short DNA sequence, or restriction site, and cutting both DNA strands at specific points within this site.Symmetry element: A symmetry element is a point of reference about which symmetry operations can take place. In particular, symmetry elements can be centers of inversion, axes of rotation and mirror planes.Coles PhillipsInfinite alleles model: The infinite alleles model is a mathematical model for calculating genetic mutations. The Japanese geneticist Motoo Kimura and American geneticist James F.Homing endonuclease: The homing endonucleases are a collection of endonucleases encoded either as freestanding genes within introns, as fusions with host proteins, or as self-splicing inteins. They catalyze the hydrolysis of genomic DNA within the cells that synthesize them, but do so at very few, or even singular, locations.DNA sequencer: A DNA sequencer is a scientific instrument used to automate the DNA sequencing process. Given a sample of DNA, a DNA sequencer is used to determine the order of the four bases: G (guanine), C (cytosine), A (adenine) and T (thymine).Amplified Ribosomal DNA Restriction Analysis: Amplified rDNA (Ribosomal DNA) Restriction Analysis is the extension of the technique of RFLP (restriction fragment length polymorphism) to the gene encoding the small (16s) ribosomal subunit of bacteria. The technique involves an enzymatic amplification using primers directed at the conserved regions at the ends of the 16s gene, followed by digestion using tetracutter Restriction enzymes.Chromosome regionsGenetic variation: right|thumbBranching order of bacterial phyla (Gupta, 2001): There are several models of the Branching order of bacterial phyla, one of these was proposed in 2001 by Gupta based on conserved indels or protein, termed "protein signatures", an alternative approach to molecular phylogeny. Some problematic exceptions and conflicts are present to these conserved indels, however, they are in agreement with several groupings of classes and phyla.DNA condensation: DNA condensation refers to the process of compacting DNA molecules in vitro or in vivo. Mechanistic details of DNA packing are essential for its functioning in the process of gene regulation in living systems.Genetic linkage: Genetic linkage is the tendency of alleles that are located close together on a chromosome to be inherited together during the meiosis phase of sexual reproduction. Genes whose loci are nearer to each other are less likely to be separated onto different chromatids during chromosomal crossover, and are therefore said to be genetically linked.Composite transposon: A composite transposon is similar in function to simple transposons and Insertion Sequence (IS) elements in that it has protein coding DNA segments flanked by inverted, repeated sequences that can be recognized by transposase enzymes. A composite transposon, however, is flanked by two separate IS elements which may or may not be exact replicas.Ligation-independent cloning: Ligation-independent cloning (LIC) is a form of molecular cloning that is able to be performed without the use of restriction endonucleases or DNA ligase. This allows genes that have restriction sites to be cloned without worry of chopping up the insert.Restriction site: Restriction sites, or restriction recognition sites, are locations on a DNA molecule containing specific (4-8 base pairs in length) sequences of nucleotides, which are recognized by restriction enzymes. These are generally palindromic sequences (because restriction enzymes usually bind as homodimers), and a particular restriction enzyme may cut the sequence between two nucleotides within its recognition site, or somewhere nearby.Community Fingerprinting: Community fingerprinting refers to a set of molecular biology techniques that can be used to quickly profile the diversity of a microbial community. Rather than directly identifying or counting individual cells in an environmental sample, these techniques show how many variants of a gene are present.Nested case-control study: A nested case control (NCC) study is a variation of a case-control study in which only a subset of controls from the cohort are compared to the incident cases. In a case-cohort study, all incident cases in the cohort are compared to a random subset of participants who do not develop the disease of interest.Protein primary structure: The primary structure of a peptide or protein is the linear sequence of its amino acid structural units, and partly comprises its overall biomolecular structure. By convention, the primary structure of a protein is reported starting from the amino-terminal (N) end to the carboxyl-terminal (C) end.Silent mutation: Silent mutations are mutations in DNA that do not significantly alter the phenotype of the organism in which they occur. Silent mutations can occur in non-coding regions (outside of genes or within introns), or they may occur within exons.Multiple Loci VNTR Analysis: Multiple Loci VNTR Analysis (MLVA ) is a method employed for the genetic analysis of particular microorganisms, such as pathogenic bacteria, that takes advantage of the polymorphism of tandemly repeated DNA sequences. A "VNTR" is a "variable-number tandem repeat".Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex: Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex refers to a genetically related group of Mycobacterium species that can cause tuberculosis in humans or other organisms.Pulsenet: PulseNet is a network run by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) which brings together public health and food regulatory agency laboratories around the United States.http://www.Exogenous bacteria: Exogenous bacteria are microorganisms introduced to closed biological systems from the external world. They exist in aquatic and terrestrial environments, as well as the atmosphere.CALERIE: CALERIE (Comprehensive Assessment of Long-term Effects of Reducing Intake of Energy) is a trial currently underway in the U.S.Direct repeat: Direct repeats are a type of genetic sequence that consists of two or more repeats of a specific sequence.Triparental mating: Triparental mating is a form of Bacterial conjugation where a conjugative plasmid present in one bacterial strain assists the transfer of a mobilizable plasmid present in a second bacterial strain into a third bacterial strain. Plasmids are introduced into bacteria for such purposes as transformation, cloning, or transposon mutagenesis.Phenotype microarray: The phenotype microarray approach is a technology for high-throughput phenotyping of cells.Pedigree chart: A pedigree chart is a diagram that shows the occurrence and appearance or phenotypes of a particular gene or organism and its ancestors from one generation to the next,pedigree chart Genealogy Glossary - About.com, a part of The New York Times Company.Gemmatimonadetes: The Gemmatimonadetes are a family of bacteria, given their own phylum (Gemmatimonadetes). This bacterium makes up about 2% of soil bacterial communities and has been identified as one of the top nine phyla found in soils; yet, there are currently only six cultured isolates.Single-strand conformation polymorphism: Single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP), or single-strand chain polymorphism, is defined as conformational difference of single-stranded nucleotide sequences of identical length as induced by differences in the sequences under certain experimental conditions. This property allows sequences to be distinguished by means of gel electrophoresis, which separates fragments according to their different conformations.Layout of the Port of Tianjin: The Port of Tianjin is divided into nine areas: the three core (“Tianjin Xingang”) areas of Beijiang, Nanjiang, and Dongjiang around the Xingang fairway; the Haihe area along the river; the Beitang port area around the Beitangkou estuary; the Dagukou port area in the estuary of the Haihe River; and three areas under construction (Hanggu, Gaoshaling, Nangang).Transfer-messenger RNA: Transfer-messenger RNA (abbreviated tmRNA, also known as 10Sa RNA and by its genetic name SsrA) is a bacterial RNA molecule with dual tRNA-like and messenger RNA-like properties. The tmRNA forms a ribonucleoprotein complex (tmRNP) together with Small Protein B (SmpB), Elongation Factor Tu (EF-Tu), and ribosomal protein S1.MT-RNR2: Mitochondrially encoded 16S RNA (often abbreviated as 16S) is a mitochondrial ribosomal RNA (rRNA) that in humans is encoded by the MT-RNR2 gene. The MT-RNR2 gene also encodes the Humanin polypeptide that has been the target of Alzheimer's disease research.Isocaudomer: Isocaudomers are pairs of restriction enzymes that have slightly different recognition sequences but upon cleavage generate identical termini. For example the enzymes Mbo I and BamH I are isocaudomers:RAPD: RAPD (pronounced "rapid") stands for 'Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA'. It is a type of PCR reaction, but the segments of DNA that are amplified are random.Alternative splicing: Alternative splicing is a regulated process during gene expression that results in a single gene coding for multiple proteins. In this process, particular exons of a gene may be included within or excluded from the final, processed messenger RNA (mRNA) produced from that gene.Niigata UniversityEcosystemList of strains of Escherichia coli: Escherichia coli is a well studied bacterium that was first identified by Theodor Escherich, after whom it was later named.Ferric uptake regulator family: In molecular biology, the ferric uptake regulator (FUR) family of proteins includes metal ion uptake regulator proteins. These are responsible for controlling the intracellular concentration of iron in many bacteria.Disequilibrium (medicine): Disequilibrium}}Tuberculosis managementRecombination (cosmology): In cosmology, recombination refers to the epoch at which charged electrons and protons first became bound to form electrically neutral hydrogen atoms.Note that the term recombination is a misnomer, considering that it represents the first time that electrically neutral hydrogen formed.National Outbreak Reporting System: ==The National Outbreak Reporting System (NORS)==Haplogroup L0 (mtDNA)Codon Adaptation Index: The Codon Adaptation Index (CAI) is the most widespread technique for analyzing Codon usage bias. As opposed to other measures of codon usage bias, such as the 'effective number of codons' (Nc), which measure deviation from a uniform bias (null hypothesis), CAI measures the deviation of a given protein coding gene sequence with respect to a reference set of genes.Beef cattle: Beef cattle are cattle raised for meat production (as distinguished from dairy cattle, used for milk production). The meat of adult cattle is known as beef.QRISK: QRISK2 (the most recent version of QRISK) is a prediction algorithm for cardiovascular disease (CVD) that uses traditional risk factors (age, systolic blood pressure, smoking status and ratio of total serum cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) together with body mass index, ethnicity, measures of deprivation, family history, chronic kidney disease, rheumatoid arthritis, atrial fibrillation, diabetes mellitus, and antihypertensive treatment.Smith–Fineman–Myers syndrome: Smith–Fineman–Myers syndrome (SFMS1), also called X-linked mental retardation-hypotonic facies syndrome 1 (MRXHF1), Carpenter–Waziri syndrome, Chudley–Lowry syndrome, SFMS, Holmes–Gang syndrome and Juberg–Marsidi syndrome (JMS), is a rare X-linked recessive congenital disorder that causes birth defects. This syndrome was named after 3 men, Richard D.GC box: In molecular biology, a GC box is a distinct pattern of nucleotides found in the promoter region of some eukaryotic genes upstream of the TATA box and approximately 110 bases upstream from the transcription initiation site. It has a consensus sequence GGGCGG which is position dependent and orientation independent.Point mutationParaHox: The ParaHox gene cluster is an array of homeobox genes (involved in morphogenesis, the regulation of patterns of anatomical development) from the Gsx, Xlox (Pdx) and Cdx gene families.Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase: Methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is the rate-limiting enzyme in the methyl cycle, and it is encoded by the MTHFR gene. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase catalyzes the conversion of 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate to 5-methyltetrahydrofolate, a cosubstrate for homocysteine remethylation to methionine.

(1/8395) Identification of DNA polymorphisms associated with the V type alpha1-antitrypsin gene.

alpha1-Antitrypsin (alpha1-AT) is a highly polymorphic protein. The V allele of alpha1-AT has been shown to be associated with focal glomerulosclerosis (FGS) in Negroid and mixed race South African patients. To identify mutations and polymorphisms in the gene for the V allele of alpha1-AT in five South African patients with FGS nephrotic syndrome DNA sequence analysis and restriction fragment length polymorphisms of the coding exons were carried out. Four of the patients were heterozygous for the BstEII RFLP in exon III [M1(Val213)(Ala213)] and one patient was a M1(Ala213) homozygote. The mutation for the V allele was identified in exon II as Gly-148 (GGG)-->Arg (AGG) and in all patients was associated with a silent mutation at position 158 (AAC-->AAT). The patient who was homozygous for (Ala213) also had a silent mutation at position 256 in exon III (GAT-->GAC) which was not present in any of the other four patients. Although the V allele of alpha1-AT is not associated with severe plasma deficiency, it may be in linkage disequilibrium with other genes on chromosome 14 that predispose to FGS. Furthermore, the associated silent mutation at position 158 and the Ala213 polymorphism are of interest, as these could represent an evolutionary intermediate between the M1(Ala213) and M1(Val213) subtypes.  (+info)

(2/8395) Identification of a cytolethal distending toxin gene locus and features of a virulence-associated region in Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans.

A genetic locus for a cytolethal distending toxin (CDT) was identified in a polymorphic region of the chromosome of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, a predominant oral pathogen. The locus was comprised of three open reading frames (ORFs) that had significant amino acid sequence similarity and more than 90% sequence identity to the cdtABC genes of some pathogenic Escherichia coli strains and Haemophilus ducreyi, respectively. Sonic extracts from recombinant E. coli, containing the A. actinomycetemcomitans ORFs, caused the distension and killing of Chinese hamster ovary cells characteristic of a CDT. Monoclonal antibodies made reactive with the CdtA, CdtB, and CdtC proteins of H. ducreyi recognized the corresponding gene products from the recombinant strain. CDT-like activities were no longer expressed by the recombinant strain when an OmegaKan-2 interposon was inserted into the cdtA and cdtB genes. Expression of the CDT-like activities in A. actinomycetemcomitans was strain specific. Naturally occurring expression-negative strains had large deletions within the region of the cdt locus. The cdtABC genes were flanked by an ORF (virulence plasmid protein), a partial ORF (integrase), and DNA sequences (bacteriophage integration site) characteristic of virulence-associated regions. These results provide evidence for a functional CDT in a human oral pathogen.  (+info)

(3/8395) Role of the angiotensin type 2 receptor gene in congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract, CAKUT, of mice and men.

Angiotensin type 2 receptor gene null mutant mice display congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT). Various features of mouse CAKUT impressively mimic human CAKUT. Studies of the human type 2 receptor (AGTR2) gene in two independent cohorts found that a significant association exists between CAKUT and a nucleotide transition within the lariat branchpoint motif of intron 1, which perturbs AGTR2 mRNA splicing efficiency. AGTR2, therefore, has a significant ontogenic role for the kidney and urinary tract system. Studies revealed that the establishment of CAKUT is preceded by delayed apoptosis of undifferentiated mesenchymal cells surrounding the urinary tract during key ontogenic events, from the ureteral budding to the expansive growth of the kidney and ureter.  (+info)

(4/8395) Diversity of rhizobia associated with Amorpha fruticosa isolated from Chinese soils and description of Mesorhizobium amorphae sp. nov.

Fifty-five Chinese isolates from nodules of Amorpha fruticosa were characterized and compared with the type strains of the species and genera of bacteria which form nitrogen-fixing symbioses with leguminous host plants. A polyphasic approach, which included RFLP of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA genes, multilocus enzyme electrophoresis (MLEE), DNA-DNA hybridization, 16S rRNA gene sequencing, electrophoretic plasmid profiles, cross-nodulation and a phenotypic study, was used in the comparative analysis. The isolates originated from several different sites in China and they varied in their phenotypic and genetic characteristics. The majority of the isolates had moderate to slow growth rates, produced acid on YMA and harboured a 930 kb symbiotic plasmid (pSym). Five different RFLP patterns were identified among the 16S rRNA genes of all the isolates. Isolates grouped by PCR-RFLP of the 16S rRNA genes were also separated into groups by variation in MLEE profiles and by DNA-DNA hybridization. A representative isolate from each of these DNA homology groups had a separate position in a phylogenetic tree as determined from sequencing analysis of the 16S rRNA genes. A new species, Mesorhizobium amorphae, is proposed for the majority of the isolates, which belonged to a moderately slow- to slow-growing, acid-producing group based upon their distinct phylogenetic position, their unique electrophoretic type, their low DNA homology with reference strains representing the species within the genus Mesorhizobium and their distinct phenotypic features. Strain ACCC 19665 was chosen as the type strain for M. amorphae sp. nov.  (+info)

(5/8395) RFLP of rRNA genes and sequencing of the 16S-23S rDNA intergenic spacer region of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria: a phylogenetic approach.

It has been established that 16S rRNA gene-based phylogeny gives a low resolution between members of the chemoautotrophic ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) belonging to the beta-subclass of the Proteobacteria. In this study, 12 isolates of AOB were ribotyped, and the sequences of the 16S-23S rDNA intergenic spacer region (ISR) were determined and used in a phylogenetic study. 16S and 23S rDNA ribotyping revealed that the AOB studied contain only one rrn operon per genome, in contrast to most bacteria, which have 5-10 copies of the rRNA genes per genome. It is likely that the presence of only one set of rRNA genes is related to the slow growth of the AOB. The 16S and 23S rRNA genes of the AOB were shown to be arranged in the classical way: a 16S rRNA gene, an ISR and a 23S rRNA gene. Despite the close phylogenetic relationship among the AOB, the relative location of the rRNA genes in the genome appears to vary considerably. The size of the ISR was approximately 400 bp in the Nitrosomonas isolates and 645-694 bp in the Nitrosospira isolates, suggesting a species-specific size difference in the ISR. The ISR contained two potential tRNA genes in the 5' end in all isolates studied. The similarity values between the ISR sequences of the AOB are low (42.9-96.2%) compared with the 16S rDNA sequence similarity values, and therefore the ISR sequences are valuable as a complementary phylogenetic tool in combination with 16S rRNA gene sequences. The phylogenetic analysis of the AOB based on ISR sequences confirms the 16S rRNA gene-based phylogeny but has the benefit of giving a higher resolution.  (+info)

(6/8395) Identification of yeasts by RFLP analysis of the 5.8S rRNA gene and the two ribosomal internal transcribed spacers.

The identification and classification of yeasts have traditionally been based on morphological, physiological and biochemical traits. Various kits have been developed as rapid systems for yeast identification, but mostly for clinical diagnosis. In recent years, different molecular biology techniques have been developed for yeast identification, but there is no available database to identify a large number of species. In the present study, the restriction patterns generated from the region spanning the internal transcribed spacers (ITS1 and ITS2) and the 5.8S rRNA gene were used to identify a total of 132 yeast species belonging to 25 different genera, including teleomorphic and anamorphic ascomycetous and basidiomycetous yeasts. In many cases, the size of the PCR products and the restriction patterns obtained with endonucleases CfoI, HaeIII and HinfI yielded a unique profile for each species. Accordingly, the use of this molecular approach is proposed as a new rapid and easy method of routine yeast identification.  (+info)

(7/8395) Epidemiological characterization of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolated in the North West of England by protein A (spa) and coagulase (coa) gene polymorphisms.

In a comparative study, isolates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) with known pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and bacteriophage type were analysed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLP) for additional discriminatory subtyping information. PFGE was previously performed using standardized, commercially available kits and pre-programmed software. Isolates were examined for coagulase (coa) and protein A (spa) gene polymorphisms following PCR amplification of the coa hypervariable and spa repeat regions. Coa gene RFLPs produced a total of 38 distinct combined patterns after digestion with HaeIII and AluI and identified the predominant epidemic (EMRSA) types 15 and 16. A unique HaeIII restriction site was identified by RFLP and sequence analysis in the coa gene for EMRSA 15 but not EMRSA 16. The spa gene PCR yielded a total of 14 different profiles ranging from 3-18 repeats with the 2 predominant EMRSA types falling into 2 distinct groups. PCR detection of coa and spa polymorphisms offer a rapid preliminary strain identification and discriminatory subtyping information for surveillance of MRSA.  (+info)

(8/8395) Molecular cloning and characterization of three cDNAs encoding putative mitogen-activated protein kinase kinases (MAPKKs) in Arabidopsis thaliana.

We isolated three Arabidopsis thaliana cDNA clones (ATMKK3, ATMKK4 and ATMKK5) encoding protein kinases with extensive homology to the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinases (MAPKKs) of various organisms in the catalytic domain. ATMKK3 shows high homology (85% identity) to NPK2, a tobacco MAPKK homologue. ATMKK4 and 5 are closely related to each other (84% identity). Phylogenetic analysis showed that the plant MAPKKs constitute at least three subgroups. The recombinant ATMKK3 and ATMKK4 were expressed as a fusion protein with glutathione S-transferase (GST) in Escherichia coli. Affinity purified GST-ATMKK3 and GST-ATMKK4 proteins contained phosphorylation activity, which shows that both the ATMKK3 and ATMKK4 genes encode functional protein kinases. Northern blot analysis revealed that the ATMKK3 gene expressed in all the organs. The levels of ATMKK4 and 5 mRNAs were relatively higher in steins and leaves than in flowers and roots. We determined the map positions of the ATMKK3, 4 and 5 genes on Arabidopsis chromosomes by RFLP mapping using P1 genomic clones.  (+info)



analysis


  • These examples illustrate the techniques of "reverse" genetics, restriction fragment-length polymorphism analysis, chromosomal walking, and cDNA library screening with oligonucleotides and antibodies. (physiology.org)
  • DNA profile analysis was first made possible by the use of Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphisms (RFLP). (tripod.com)
  • In DNA profiling by RFLP analysis, scientists use specific restriction enzymes to cut STRs out of the DNA molecules. (tripod.com)