Policy Making: The decision process by which individuals, groups or institutions establish policies pertaining to plans, programs or procedures.Health Policy: Decisions, usually developed by government policymakers, for determining present and future objectives pertaining to the health care system.Politics: Activities concerned with governmental policies, functions, etc.European Union: The collective designation of three organizations with common membership: the European Economic Community (Common Market), the European Coal and Steel Community, and the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom). It was known as the European Community until 1994. It is primarily an economic union with the principal objectives of free movement of goods, capital, and labor. Professional services, social, medical and paramedical, are subsumed under labor. The constituent countries are Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. (The World Almanac and Book of Facts 1997, p842)Environmental Health: The science of controlling or modifying those conditions, influences, or forces surrounding man which relate to promoting, establishing, and maintaining health.Public Health: Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.United StatesEvidence-Based Medicine: An approach of practicing medicine with the goal to improve and evaluate patient care. It requires the judicious integration of best research evidence with the patient's values to make decisions about medical care. This method is to help physicians make proper diagnosis, devise best testing plan, choose best treatment and methods of disease prevention, as well as develop guidelines for large groups of patients with the same disease. (from JAMA 296 (9), 2006)Health Services Research: The integration of epidemiologic, sociological, economic, and other analytic sciences in the study of health services. Health services research is usually concerned with relationships between need, demand, supply, use, and outcome of health services. The aim of the research is evaluation, particularly in terms of structure, process, output, and outcome. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Organizational Policy: A course or method of action selected, usually by an organization, institution, university, society, etc., from among alternatives to guide and determine present and future decisions and positions on matters of public interest or social concern. It does not include internal policy relating to organization and administration within the corporate body, for which ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION is available.Policy: A course or method of action selected to guide and determine present and future decisions.Decision Making: The process of making a selective intellectual judgment when presented with several complex alternatives consisting of several variables, and usually defining a course of action or an idea.Environmental Policy: A course of action or principle adopted or proposed by a government, party, business, or individual that concerns human interactions with nature and natural resources.

*  Matthew Hayes
When a lack of diversity in decision-making bodies signals to citizens that the policymaking process is inherently unfair, then ... Satisfaction with public policy decisions is dependent on the racial composition of decision-makers, not only on the decisions ... Satisfaction with public policy decisions is dependent on the racial composition of decision-makers, not only on the decisions ... How party polarization makes the legislative process even slower when government is divided. ...
*  Most recent papers with the keyword plant biotechnology | Read by QxMD
This paper examines the highly contested and ongoing biotechnology (Bt) policy-making process in Ghana. We analyse media ... This paper does not seek to take a position on Bt or the Bill, but to understand how policy actors influence the debate with ... is viewed in the context of Ghana's parliamentary debate on the Plant Breeders Bill and within the broader public policy-making ... Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you. ...
*  Scientific Advice for Policy Making - Papers - OECD iLibrary
The scientific community is increasingly being called upon to provide evidence and advice to government policy-makers across a ... You are here: Home / Papers / OECD Science, Technology and Industry Policy Papers / Scientific Advice for Policy Making ... Scientific Advice for Policy Making. The Role and Responsibility of Expert Bodies and Individual Scientists English ... Such advice can be a valuable, or even essential, input to sound policy-making but its impact depends on how it is formulated ...
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How is policy made, and by whom? How does Australian federalism influence the making and implementation of policy? In an ever ... Considine, M. 2005 Making Public Policy. Cambridge, Polity Press. McNay, I., and Ozgay, J., 1985, Policy making in Education. ... THE POLICY PROCESS Ball, S. Politics and Policy-Making in Education: Explorations in Policy Sociology, London: Routledge and ... Traditionally, policy analysis was often tied more or less closely to the machinery of policy making, and thus often echoed its ...
*  United States Teens | Guttmacher Institute
The Guttmacher Institute is a primary source for research and policy analysis on teens' reproductive health and rights in the ... March 2013 Policy Analysis What Women Already Know: Documenting the Social and Economic Benefits of Family Planning. Adam ... Make a gift today. *Make a monthly gift. *Other ways to give ... Heather D. Boonstra,Guttmacher Policy Review United States. * ... June 2013 Policy Analysis Obama Administration Yields to the Courts and the Evidence, Allows Emergency Contraception to Be Sold ...
*  Pharmaceutical Pricing Policies in a Global Market - Books - OECD iLibrary
Pharmaceutical policy making raises particular challenges in reconciling key objectives for health policy, such as ensuring ... Pharmaceutical policy making raises particular challenges in reconciling key objectives for health policy, such as ensuring ... You are here: Home / Books / OECD Health Policy Studies / Pharmaceutical Pricing Policies in a Global Market ... Unusually among health policy issues, it also raises international considerations that further complicate decision making, ...
*  Measuring participation as communicative action: A case study of citizen involvement in and assessment of a city's smoking...
The research setting is citizen participation in a city government's policy-making process on smoking in public places. ... Findings indicate that citizens feel participatory in a decision-making process if they recognize policy makers' validity ... A case study of citizen involvement in and assessment of a city's smoking cessation policy-making process. Journal of ... A case study of citizen involvement in and assessment of a city's smoking cessation policy-making process. ...
*  Partners in Policymaking - Wikipedia
"Partners in Policy Making: Virginia board for People with Disabilities". Virginia.gov. 2008. Retrieved 2008-09-09. "Idaho ... "Welcome to Partners in Policymaking: Online Courses". Retrieved 2008-09-09. "Welcome to Partners in Policymaking: Classroom ... communication and team-building; using assistive technology; independent living; creating inclusive communities; and employment ... Partners in Policymaking is a free program designed to teach people with disabilities and family members the power of advocacy ...
*  Scientific Integrity in Policymaking - Wikipedia
July 2004 2004 Scientist Statement on Restoring Scientific Integrity to Federal Policy Making "Scientific Integrity in Policy ... What's at stake Restoring scientific integrity to federal policy making Appendices EPA memo on climate section of the Report on ... February 2004 Scientific Integrity in Policy Making: Further Investigation of the Bush Administration's Misuse of Science, ... "Scientific Integrity in Policymaking: An Investigation into the Bush Administration's Misuse of Science" is the title of a ...
*  TEL T321 16572 Telecommunications Policymaking
The course objective is to understand how telecommunications policies are made. For example, how do decisions get made about ... telecommunications policy and how technology, politics and the law interact to affect those policies. The course will provide a ... Telecommunications , Telecommunications Policymaking. T321 , 16572 , Pierce, M.. Semester: Spring 2007 Course Code: T321 Class ... Current telecommunications policy decisions and controversies will be studied. Students will participate in in-class ...
*  Visual Culture and Public Policy Making | Erasmus University Rotterdam
New technologies for distributing but also creating visual images can have a profound impact on the way public policy is made. ... Visual Culture and Public Policy Making. Project leaders: Victor Bekkers. Postdoc Researcher: Rebecca Moody. Duration: 2009 - ... for creating and distributing visual images were looked at with the aim to find how these technologies influence public policy ... making. The relation between government and citizens was looked at but also the relation between experts and scholars among ...
*  Landscape ecology's role in policymaking
... a field that is uniquely available to address with the multiscale effects of land-use and land-cover change and inform policy ... it is a uniquely powerful tool for those who will make tomorrow's environmental and land-use policies.. To hear the whole ... The Business of Bioscience: What goes into making a Biotechnology Product. by Craig D. Shimasaki (Author). My journey into this ... Landscape ecology's role in policymaking. June 08, 2016. The BioScience Talks podcast features discussions of topical issues ...
*  Big data for policymaking: fad or fasttrack? | SpringerLink
The buzz surrounding big data has taken shape in various theoretical and practical forms when it comes to policymaking. The ... Howlett, M. (2009). Policy analytical capacity and evidence-based policy-making: Lessons from Canada. Canadian Public ... Sanderson, I. (2006). Complexity, 'practical rationality' and evidence-based policy making. Policy and Politics, 34(1), 115-132 ... Howlett, M. (2015). Policy analytical capacity: The supply and demand for policy analysis in government. Policy and Society, 34 ...
*  US bill restricts use of science in environmental policymaking | New Scientist
The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is facing a future in which its hands will be tied on making many policies if a ... While the EPA does make background data available when possible, there are situations where it is impractical or impossible to ... He previously sponsored a similar bill, the Secret Science Reform Act, which made many of the same demands. ... "Allowing EPA's data to be independently reviewed promotes sound science that will restore confidence in the EPA decision-making ...
*  PLOS Medicine: Can Foreign Policy Make a Difference to Health?
Sigrun Møgedal and Benedikte Alveberg provide a diplomatic perspective on how foreign policy can make a difference to global ... PLOS Medicine publishes research and commentary of general interest with clear implications for patient care, public policy or ...
*  Financial services: Agreement on the involvement of consumers in policymaking - Consilium
The Council and the European Parliament agreed on a programme to promote the involvement of consumers in policymaking in ... Follow the latest developments on policy-making and on legislation under negotiation. ... Policies * Policies. The Council of the EU and the European Council work on a wide range of issues affecting the interests of ... Corporate policies. Data protection. Transparency. Visual identity. Contact us. How to reach us. General enquiries. Visit the ...
*  The Art of Policy Making: What's Science got to do with it? - President's Office - Simon Fraser University
Moreover, as a citizen, I have become increasingly interested in how science is treated in policy debates and in policy-making ... It is for this reason that policy-making, while it must take account of science, is not a science. It's more in the nature of ... As the title of my presentation suggests, I plan to speak today about the art of policy-making … and its relation to science. ... Only through that kind of engagement can we assure that the policies we create will be remembered not as so much paint spilled ...
*  Office of Trade and Manufacturing Policy - Wikipedia
The Office of Trade and Manufacturing Policy (OTMP) is an office established within the White House Office by US President ... "Establishment of Office of Trade and Manufacturing Policy" (PDF). Federal Register. Washington, D.C.: National Archives and ... "Presidential Executive Order on the Establishment of Office of Trade and Manufacturing Policy". whitehouse.gov. Washington, D.C ... List of executive actions by Donald Trump Navarro, Peter (May 2, 2017). "Trump trade chief: Our trade policy is already working ...
*  Nutrition planning and policy making in less developed countries
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*  Call Out the Imbalance in Current Policy Making for Pain Management and Prescription Opioid Use
PAINS most recent policy and educational brief, Recognizing the Needs of Pain Patients in Substance Use Policy, makes this very ... It is obvious that most of those making policy at the federal level have chosen to forgo the importance of balance. ... Call Out the Imbalance in Current Policy Making for Pain Management and Prescription Opioid Use. * ... "directed the committee to make recommendations to the FDA and other policy makers that would properly balance the needs of pain ...
*  Heroin Use May Reduce In Zurish, Study Says ( An alternative heroin policy made in Zu...)
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*  Medicare Policy Making: Quick Primer on Federal Medicare Statutes, Rules, and Waivers | Piper Report
Previous articleMedicaid Policy Making: A Primer on the Mechanisms for Federal and State Medicaid Policies ... Home Pharma and Biotech Coverage and Reimbursement Medicare Policy Making: Quick Primer on Federal Medicare Statutes, Rules, ... To learn more, read my earlier post on expansion of OMB's review authority and implications for policy making by CMS and the ... Following my earlier quick primers on Medicaid policy making and Medicare and Medicaid waivers, here is a similar briefing on ...
*  Considering economic analyses in the revision of the preventive vaccination law: A new direction for health policy-making in...
In order to understand the vaccine policy-making process, a review was made of all the documents that were distributed and ... This research offers a firsthand account of the recent changes in vaccine policies by examining the decision-making process ... In 2010, policy makers decided for the first time ever to commission economic analyses as a reference in their consideration of ... of evaluation methods and the implications of using cost-effectiveness analyses on the future of Japanese health policy-making. ...
*  Pathways of undue influence in health policy-making: a main actor's perspective | Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health
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Chronic care: Chronic care refers to medical care which addresses pre-existing or long term illness, as opposed to acute care which is concerned with short term or severe illness of brief duration. Chronic medical conditions include asthma, diabetes, emphysema, chronic bronchitis, congestive heart disease, cirrhosis of the liver, hypertension and depression.Health policy: Health policy can be defined as the "decisions, plans, and actions that are undertaken to achieve specific health care goals within a society."World Health Organization.Opinion polling in the Philippine presidential election, 2010: Opinion polling (popularly known as surveys in the Philippines) for the 2010 Philippine presidential election is managed by two major polling firms: Social Weather Stations and Pulse Asia, and several minor polling firms. The polling firms conducted surveys both prior and after the deadline for filing of certificates of candidacies on December 1, 2009.European Union climate and energy package: The European plan on climate change consists of a range of measures adopted by the members of the European Union to fight against climate change. The plan was launched in March 2007, and after months of tough negotiations between the member countries, it was adopted by the European Parliament on December 2008.Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory: right|300px|thumb|Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory logo.Public Health Act: Public Health Act is a stock short title used in the United Kingdom for legislation relating to public health.List of Parliamentary constituencies in Kent: The ceremonial county of Kent,Bestbets: BestBETS (Best Evidence Topic Reports) is a system designed by emergency physicians at Manchester Royal Infirmary, UK. It was conceived as a way of allowing busy clinicians to solve real clinical problems using published evidence.The Final Decision: The Final Decision is an episode from season 1 of the animated TV series X-Men Animated Series.Canadian House of Commons Standing Committee on Environment and Sustainable Development: The Canadian House of Commons Standing Committee on Environment and Sustainable Development (ENVI) is a standing committee in the Canadian House of Commons.

(1/1177) Tobacco control advocates must demand high-quality media campaigns: the California experience.

OBJECTIVE: To document efforts on the part of public officials in California to soften the media campaign's attack on the tobacco industry and to analyse strategies to counter those efforts on the part of tobacco control advocates. METHODS: Data were gathered from interviews with programme participants, direct observation, written materials, and media stories. In addition, internal documents were released by the state's Department of Health Services in response to requests made under the California Public Records Act by Americans for Nonsmokers' Rights. Finally, a draft of the paper was circulated to 11 key players for their comments. RESULTS: In 1988 california voters enacted Proposition 99, an initiative that raised the tobacco tax by $0.25 and allocated 20% of the revenues to anti-tobacco education. A media campaign, which was part of the education programme, directly attacked the tobacco industry, exposing the media campaign to politically based efforts to shut it down or soften it. Through use of outsider strategies such as advertising, press conferences, and public meetings, programme advocates were able to counter the efforts to soften the campaign. CONCLUSION: Anti-tobacco media campaigns that expose industry manipulation are a key component of an effective tobacco control programme. The effectiveness of these campaigns, however, makes them a target for elimination by the tobacco industry. The experience from California demonstrates the need for continuing, aggressive intervention by nongovernmental organisations in order to maintain the quality of anti-tobacco media campaigns.  (+info)

(2/1177) Reforming the health sector in developing countries: the central role of policy analysis.

Policy analysis is an established discipline in the industrialized world, yet its application to developing countries has been limited. The health sector in particular appears to have been neglected. This is surprising because there is a well recognized crisis in health systems, and prescriptions abound of what health policy reforms countries should introduce. However, little attention has been paid to how countries should carry out reforms, much less who is likely to favour or resist such policies. This paper argues that much health policy wrongly focuses attention on the content of reform, and neglects the actors involved in policy reform (at the international, national sub-national levels), the processes contingent on developing and implementing change and the context within which policy is developed. Focus on policy content diverts attention from understanding the processes which explain why desired policy outcomes fail to emerge. The paper is organized in 4 sections. The first sets the scene, demonstrating how the shift from consensus to conflict in health policy established the need for a greater emphasis on policy analysis. The second section explores what is meant by policy analysis. The third investigates what other disciplines have written that help to develop a framework of analysis. And the final section suggests how policy analysis can be used not only to analyze the policy process, but also to plan.  (+info)

(3/1177) Whose policy is it anyway? International and national influences on health policy development in Uganda.

As national resources for health decline, so dependence on international resources to finance the capital and recurrent costs is increasing. This dependence, combined with an increasing emphasis on policy-based, as opposed to project-based, lending and grant-making has been accompanied by greater involvement of international actors in the formation of national health policy. This paper explores the process of health policy development in Uganda and examines how major donors are influencing and conflicting with national policy-making bodies. Focusing on two examples of user fees and drugs policies, it argues that while the content of international prescriptions to strengthen the health system may not be bad in itself, the process by which they are applied potentially threatens national sovereignty and weakens mechanisms for ensuring accountability. It concludes by proposing that in order to increase the sustainability of policy reforms, much greater emphasis should be placed on strengthening national capacity for policy analysis and research, building up policy networks and enhancing the quality of information available to the public concerning key policy changes.  (+info)

(4/1177) Overview: health financing reforms in Africa.


(5/1177) The fall and rise of cost sharing in Kenya: the impact of phased implementation.

The combined effects of increasing demand for health services and declining real public resources have recently led many governments in the developing world to explore various health financing alternatives. Faced with a significant decline during the 1980s in its real per capita expenditures, the Kenya Ministry of Health (MOH) introduced a new cost sharing programme in December 1989. The programme was part of a comprehensive health financing strategy which also included social insurance, efficiency measures, and private sector development. Early implementation problems led to the suspension in September 1990 of the outpatient registration fee, the major revenue source at the time. In 1991, the Ministry initiated a programme of management improvement and gradual re-introduction of an outpatient fee, but this time as a treatment fee. The new programme was carried out in phases, beginning at the national and provincial levels and proceeding to the local level. The impact of these changes was assessed with national revenue collection reports, quality of care surveys in 6 purposively selected indicator districts, and time series analysis of monthly utilization in these same districts. In contrast to the significant fall in revenue experienced over the period of the initial programme, the later management improvements and fee adjustments resulted in steady increases in revenue. As a percentage of total non-staff expenditures, fiscal year 1993-1994 revenue is estimated to have been 37% at provincial general hospitals, 20% at smaller hospitals, and 21% at health centres. Roughly one third of total revenue is derived from national insurance claims. Quality of care measures, though in some respects improved with cost sharing, were in general somewhat mixed and inconsistent. The 1989 outpatient registration fee led to an average reduction in utilization of 27% at provincial hospitals, 45% at district hospitals, and 33% at health centres. In contrast, phased introduction of the outpatient treatment fee beginning in 1992, combined with somewhat broader exemptions, was associated with much smaller decreases in outpatient utilization. It is suggested that implementing user fees in phases by level of health facility is important to gain patient acceptance, to develop the requisite management systems, and to orient ministry staff to the new systems.  (+info)

(6/1177) Organisation of asthma care: what difference does it make? A systematic review of the literature.

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effectiveness of different forms of organisation (delivery) of asthma care. METHODS: A systematic review of the published evidence of effectiveness organisational methods of asthma management. Searches on computerised databases including Medline, CINAHL, and HELMIS, and relevant citations and letters to experts were used to identify relevant studies. RESULTS: 27 studies were identified that evaluated different organisational methods of delivery across both primary and secondary sectors, such as shared care, general practice asthma clinics, outpatient programmes, inpatient admissions policies, and the use of specialists. Only one third of the studies used a randomised controlled trial and many had small sample sizes. No conclusive evidence was found to favour any particular organisational form, although limited evidence would suggest that specialist care is better than general care and that shared care can be as effective as hospital led care. CONCLUSIONS: There is little good published research evaluating different ways of organising the delivery of asthma care. There is need for quality research on organisational methods of delivery of asthma care that could be used to inform policy makers, in particular examining whether patients treated by healthcare professional with expertise and interest in asthma will experience better outcomes.  (+info)

(7/1177) HMOs and the efficiency of healthcare delivery.

HMOs and other forms of managed care continue to grow rapidly and remain the centerpiece of this nation's policies for health system reform. Despite a growing public and legislative backlash at managed care, there is no comprehensive theory of HMOs to guide policymakers and analysts. It is not yet clear whether managed care improves society's allocation of resources to and within the health sector. After examining HMOs within the context of Coase's theory of the firm, I argue that HMOs share characteristics with collective goods. This framework, and the expanded agency role of physicians under managed care, is used to evaluate the equity and efficiency characteristics of a system of competing HMOs. Other concerns that are increasingly associated with managed care also are addressed.  (+info)

(8/1177) Eradicating guinea worm without wells: unrealized hopes of the Water Decade.

At the start of the United Nations International Drinking Water Supply and Sanitation Decade in the 1980s, guinea worm disease was targeted as the major indicator of the success of the Decade's efforts to promote safe water. By the late 1980s, most of the guinea worm endemic countries in Africa and South Asia had established guinea worm eradication programmes that included water supply as one of their main technical strategies. By surveying the water supply situation in Ifeloju Local Government Area (LGA) in Oyo State, Nigeria, in June 1996, as a case study, it was possible to determine the role that water supply has played in the eradication effort. Although two major agencies, the former Directorate for Food, Roads and Rural Infrastructure and UNICEF, provided hand dug and bore-hole wells respectively in many parts of the LGA, coverage of the smaller farm hamlets has been minor compared to efforts in the larger towns. This is ironic because the farm hamlets served as a reservoir for the disease in the 1980s, such that when the piped water system in the towns broke down, guinea worm was easily reintroduced into the towns. The survey of 188 ever-endemic hamlets with an estimated population of 23,556 found that 74.3% of the people still drink only pond water. Another 11.3% have wells that have become dysfunctional. Only 14.4% of this rural population has access' to functioning wells. Guinea worm was eliminated from 107 of the hamlets mainly by the use of cloth filters and chemical treatment of ponds. While this proves that it is possible to eradicate guinea worm, it fails to leave behind the legacy of reliable, safe water supplies that was the hope of the Water Decade.  (+info)

  • large
  • The empirical analysis pointed on the existence of large differences in the level of implementation of flexicurity policies across EU Member States, by which the least successful are NMS, especially with regard to active labour market and lifelong learning programs. (repec.org)
  • Nonetheless, his popular-vote totals were large enough to encourage him to make another attempt. (britannica.com)