Health Policy: Decisions, usually developed by government policymakers, for determining present and future objectives pertaining to the health care system.Policy Making: The decision process by which individuals, groups or institutions establish policies pertaining to plans, programs or procedures.Organizational Policy: A course or method of action selected, usually by an organization, institution, university, society, etc., from among alternatives to guide and determine present and future decisions and positions on matters of public interest or social concern. It does not include internal policy relating to organization and administration within the corporate body, for which ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION is available.Policy: A course or method of action selected to guide and determine present and future decisions.Environmental Policy: A course of action or principle adopted or proposed by a government, party, business, or individual that concerns human interactions with nature and natural resources.Nutrition Policy: Guidelines and objectives pertaining to food supply and nutrition including recommendations for healthy diet.Social Control Policies: Decisions for determining and guiding present and future objectives from among alternatives.Politics: Activities concerned with governmental policies, functions, etc.United StatesSmoke-Free Policy: Prohibition against tobacco smoking in specific areas to control TOBACCO SMOKE POLLUTION.Family Planning Policy: A course or method of action selected, usually by a government, to guide and determine present and future decisions on population control by limiting the number of children or controlling fertility, notably through family planning and contraception within the nuclear family.Public Health: Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.Government Regulation: Exercise of governmental authority to control conduct.Health Promotion: Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.Taxes: Governmental levies on property, inheritance, gifts, etc.State Government: The level of governmental organization and function below that of the national or country-wide government.Health Care Reform: Innovation and improvement of the health care system by reappraisal, amendment of services, and removal of faults and abuses in providing and distributing health services to patients. It includes a re-alignment of health services and health insurance to maximum demographic elements (the unemployed, indigent, uninsured, elderly, inner cities, rural areas) with reference to coverage, hospitalization, pricing and cost containment, insurers' and employers' costs, pre-existing medical conditions, prescribed drugs, equipment, and services.Commerce: The interchange of goods or commodities, especially on a large scale, between different countries or between populations within the same country. It includes trade (the buying, selling, or exchanging of commodities, whether wholesale or retail) and business (the purchase and sale of goods to make a profit). (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, p411, p2005 & p283)Federal Government: The level of governmental organization and function at the national or country-wide level.Delivery of Health Care: The concept concerned with all aspects of providing and distributing health services to a patient population.Financing, Government: Federal, state, or local government organized methods of financial assistance.Developing Countries: Countries in the process of change with economic growth, that is, an increase in production, per capita consumption, and income. The process of economic growth involves better utilization of natural and human resources, which results in a change in the social, political, and economic structures.International Cooperation: The interaction of persons or groups of persons representing various nations in the pursuit of a common goal or interest.Health Services Accessibility: The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.Public Opinion: The attitude of a significant portion of a population toward any given proposition, based upon a measurable amount of factual evidence, and involving some degree of reflection, analysis, and reasoning.Tobacco Industry: The aggregate business enterprise of agriculture, manufacture, and distribution related to tobacco and tobacco-derived products.Government: The complex of political institutions, laws, and customs through which the function of governing is carried out in a specific political unit.Conflict of Interest: A situation in which an individual might benefit personally from official or professional actions. It includes a conflict between a person's private interests and official responsibilities in a position of trust. The term is not restricted to government officials. The concept refers both to actual conflict of interest and the appearance or perception of conflict.Schools: Educational institutions.National Health Programs: Components of a national health care system which administer specific services, e.g., national health insurance.World Health: The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.Consumer Advocacy: The promotion and support of consumers' rights and interests.Health Priorities: Preferentially rated health-related activities or functions to be used in establishing health planning goals. This may refer specifically to PL93-641.Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.Administrative Personnel: Individuals responsible for the development of policy and supervision of the execution of plans and functional operations.Research: Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)Public Health Administration: Management of public health organizations or agencies.Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Evidence-Based Medicine: An approach of practicing medicine with the goal to improve and evaluate patient care. It requires the judicious integration of best research evidence with the patient's values to make decisions about medical care. This method is to help physicians make proper diagnosis, devise best testing plan, choose best treatment and methods of disease prevention, as well as develop guidelines for large groups of patients with the same disease. (from JAMA 296 (9), 2006)Social Justice: An interactive process whereby members of a community are concerned for the equality and rights of all.Health Plan Implementation: Those actions designed to carry out recommendations pertaining to health plans or programs.Human Rights: The rights of the individual to cultural, social, economic, and educational opportunities as provided by society, e.g., right to work, right to education, and right to social security.Great BritainLocal Government: Smallest political subdivisions within a country at which general governmental functions are carried-out.Consumer Participation: Community or individual involvement in the decision-making process.Social Welfare: Organized institutions which provide services to ameliorate conditions of need or social pathology in the community.Tobacco Smoke Pollution: Contamination of the air by tobacco smoke.Health Planning: Planning for needed health and/or welfare services and facilities.Canada: The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.European Union: The collective designation of three organizations with common membership: the European Economic Community (Common Market), the European Coal and Steel Community, and the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom). It was known as the European Community until 1994. It is primarily an economic union with the principal objectives of free movement of goods, capital, and labor. Professional services, social, medical and paramedical, are subsumed under labor. The constituent countries are Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. (The World Almanac and Book of Facts 1997, p842)Organizational Case Studies: Descriptions and evaluations of specific health care organizations.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Program Evaluation: Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.Internationality: The quality or state of relating to or affecting two or more nations. (After Merriam-Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)Health Care Rationing: Planning for the equitable allocation, apportionment, or distribution of available health resources.Government Agencies: Administrative units of government responsible for policy making and management of governmental activities.Universal Coverage: Health insurance coverage for all persons in a state or country, rather than for some subset of the population. It may extend to the unemployed as well as to the employed; to aliens as well as to citizens; for pre-existing conditions as well as for current illnesses; for mental as well as for physical conditions.Cost Control: The containment, regulation, or restraint of costs. Costs are said to be contained when the value of resources committed to an activity is not considered excessive. This determination is frequently subjective and dependent upon the specific geographic area of the activity being measured. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Health Expenditures: The amounts spent by individuals, groups, nations, or private or public organizations for total health care and/or its various components. These amounts may or may not be equivalent to the actual costs (HEALTH CARE COSTS) and may or may not be shared among the patient, insurers, and/or employers.Private Sector: That distinct portion of the institutional, industrial, or economic structure of a country that is controlled or owned by non-governmental, private interests.Social Responsibility: The obligations and accountability assumed in carrying out actions or ideas on behalf of others.Drug and Narcotic Control: Control of drug and narcotic use by international agreement, or by institutional systems for handling prescribed drugs. This includes regulations concerned with the manufacturing, dispensing, approval (DRUG APPROVAL), and marketing of drugs.Resource Allocation: Societal or individual decisions about the equitable distribution of available resources.Social Marketing: Use of marketing principles also used to sell products to consumers to promote ideas, attitudes and behaviors. Design and use of programs seeking to increase the acceptance of a social idea or practice by target groups, not for the benefit of the marketer, but to benefit the target audience and the general society.Environmental Health: The science of controlling or modifying those conditions, influences, or forces surrounding man which relate to promoting, establishing, and maintaining health.Interviews as Topic: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.Biomedical Research: Research that involves the application of the natural sciences, especially biology and physiology, to medicine.Costs and Cost Analysis: Absolute, comparative, or differential costs pertaining to services, institutions, resources, etc., or the analysis and study of these costs.Lobbying: A process whereby representatives of a particular interest group attempt to influence governmental decision makers to accept the policy desires of the lobbying organization.Public Sector: The area of a nation's economy that is tax-supported and under government control.Medicaid: Federal program, created by Public Law 89-97, Title XIX, a 1965 amendment to the Social Security Act, administered by the states, that provides health care benefits to indigent and medically indigent persons.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Guidelines as Topic: A systematic statement of policy rules or principles. Guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by convening expert panels. The text may be cursive or in outline form but is generally a comprehensive guide to problems and approaches in any field of activity. For guidelines in the field of health care and clinical medicine, PRACTICE GUIDELINES AS TOPIC is available.World Health Organization: A specialized agency of the United Nations designed as a coordinating authority on international health work; its aim is to promote the attainment of the highest possible level of health by all peoples.Information Dissemination: The circulation or wide dispersal of information.Poverty: A situation in which the level of living of an individual, family, or group is below the standard of the community. It is often related to a specific income level.Insurance Coverage: Generally refers to the amount of protection available and the kind of loss which would be paid for under an insurance contract with an insurer. (Slee & Slee, Health Care Terms, 2d ed)Cost-Benefit Analysis: A method of comparing the cost of a program with its expected benefits in dollars (or other currency). The benefit-to-cost ratio is a measure of total return expected per unit of money spent. This analysis generally excludes consideration of factors that are not measured ultimately in economic terms. Cost effectiveness compares alternative ways to achieve a specific set of results.Alcoholic Beverages: Drinkable liquids containing ETHANOL.Conservation of Natural Resources: The protection, preservation, restoration, and rational use of all resources in the total environment.Qualitative Research: Any type of research that employs nonnumeric information to explore individual or group characteristics, producing findings not arrived at by statistical procedures or other quantitative means. (Qualitative Inquiry: A Dictionary of Terms Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1997)Program Development: The process of formulating, improving, and expanding educational, managerial, or service-oriented work plans (excluding computer program development).EuropeUnited Nations: An international organization whose members include most of the sovereign nations of the world with headquarters in New York City. The primary objectives of the organization are to maintain peace and security and to achieve international cooperation in solving international economic, social, cultural, or humanitarian problems.Workplace: Place or physical location of work or employment.Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.History, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.Health Services Needs and Demand: Health services required by a population or community as well as the health services that the population or community is able and willing to pay for.State Health Plans: State plans prepared by the State Health Planning and Development Agencies which are made up from plans submitted by the Health Systems Agencies and subject to review and revision by the Statewide Health Coordinating Council.Insurance, Health: Insurance providing coverage of medical, surgical, or hospital care in general or for which there is no specific heading.RestaurantsDecision Making: The process of making a selective intellectual judgment when presented with several complex alternatives consisting of several variables, and usually defining a course of action or an idea.Disclosure: Revealing of information, by oral or written communication.Insurance, Health, Reimbursement: Payment by a third-party payer in a sum equal to the amount expended by a health care provider or facility for health services rendered to an insured or program beneficiary. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988)Law Enforcement: Organized efforts to insure obedience to the laws of a community.Community Health Planning: Planning that has the goals of improving health, improving accessibility to health services, and promoting efficiency in the provision of services and resources on a comprehensive basis for a whole community. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988, p299)Cooperative Behavior: The interaction of two or more persons or organizations directed toward a common goal which is mutually beneficial. An act or instance of working or acting together for a common purpose or benefit, i.e., joint action. (From Random House Dictionary Unabridged, 2d ed)Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Fees and Charges: Amounts charged to the patient as payer for health care services.Smoking Cessation: Discontinuation of the habit of smoking, the inhaling and exhaling of tobacco smoke.Health Manpower: The availability of HEALTH PERSONNEL. It includes the demand and recruitment of both professional and allied health personnel, their present and future supply and distribution, and their assignment and utilization.Health Education: Education that increases the awareness and favorably influences the attitudes and knowledge relating to the improvement of health on a personal or community basis.State Medicine: A system of medical care regulated, controlled and financed by the government, in which the government assumes responsibility for the health needs of the population.Government Programs: Programs and activities sponsored or administered by local, state, or national governments.School Health Services: Preventive health services provided for students. It excludes college or university students.Social Change: Social process whereby the values, attitudes, or institutions of society, such as education, family, religion, and industry become modified. It includes both the natural process and action programs initiated by members of the community.Food Services: Functions, equipment, and facilities concerned with the preparation and distribution of ready-to-eat food.Legislation as Topic: The enactment of laws and ordinances and their regulation by official organs of a nation, state, or other legislative organization. It refers also to health-related laws and regulations in general or for which there is no specific heading.Organizational Innovation: Introduction of changes which are new to the organization and are created by management.Health Care Surveys: Statistical measures of utilization and other aspects of the provision of health care services including hospitalization and ambulatory care.Advisory Committees: Groups set up to advise governmental bodies, societies, or other institutions on policy. (Bioethics Thesaurus)Legislation, Drug: Laws concerned with manufacturing, dispensing, and marketing of drugs.Democracy: A system of government in which there is free and equal participation by the people in the political decision-making process.Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).Child Welfare: Organized efforts by communities or organizations to improve the health and well-being of the child.CaliforniaSocial Control, Formal: Control which is exerted by the more stable organizations of society, such as established institutions and the law. They are ordinarily embodied in definite codes, usually written.Health Care Costs: The actual costs of providing services related to the delivery of health care, including the costs of procedures, therapies, and medications. It is differentiated from HEALTH EXPENDITURES, which refers to the amount of money paid for the services, and from fees, which refers to the amount charged, regardless of cost.Diffusion of Innovation: The broad dissemination of new ideas, procedures, techniques, materials, and devices and the degree to which these are accepted and used.Research Support as Topic: Financial support of research activities.Australia: The smallest continent and an independent country, comprising six states and two territories. Its capital is Canberra.Organizational Objectives: The purposes, missions, and goals of an individual organization or its units, established through administrative processes. It includes an organization's long-range plans and administrative philosophy.Evidence-Based Practice: A way of providing health care that is guided by a thoughtful integration of the best available scientific knowledge with clinical expertise. This approach allows the practitioner to critically assess research data, clinical guidelines, and other information resources in order to correctly identify the clinical problem, apply the most high-quality intervention, and re-evaluate the outcome for future improvement.Marketing: Activity involved in transfer of goods from producer to consumer or in the exchange of services.Health Planning Councils: Organized groups serving in advisory capacities related to health planning activities.Models, Organizational: Theoretical representations and constructs that describe or explain the structure and hierarchy of relationships and interactions within or between formal organizational entities or informal social groups.Investments: Use for articles on the investing of funds for income or profit.Food Supply: The production and movement of food items from point of origin to use or consumption.Quality of Health Care: The levels of excellence which characterize the health service or health care provided based on accepted standards of quality.Health Personnel: Men and women working in the provision of health services, whether as individual practitioners or employees of health institutions and programs, whether or not professionally trained, and whether or not subject to public regulation. (From A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, 1976)Confidentiality: The privacy of information and its protection against unauthorized disclosure.Practice Guidelines as Topic: Directions or principles presenting current or future rules of policy for assisting health care practitioners in patient care decisions regarding diagnosis, therapy, or related clinical circumstances. The guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by the convening of expert panels. The guidelines form a basis for the evaluation of all aspects of health care and delivery.Attitude of Health Personnel: Attitudes of personnel toward their patients, other professionals, toward the medical care system, etc.Health Status Disparities: Variation in rates of disease occurrence and disabilities between population groups defined by socioeconomic characteristics such as age, ethnicity, economic resources, or gender and populations identified geographically or similar measures.Interinstitutional Relations: The interactions between representatives of institutions, agencies, or organizations.Labor Unions: Organizations comprising wage and salary workers in health-related fields for the purpose of improving their status and conditions. The concept includes labor union activities toward providing health services to members.Dissent and Disputes: Differences of opinion or disagreements that may arise, for example, between health professionals and patients or their families, or against a political regime.Science: The study of natural phenomena by observation, measurement, and experimentation.Drug Industry: That segment of commercial enterprise devoted to the design, development, and manufacture of chemical products for use in the diagnosis and treatment of disease, disability, or other dysfunction, or to improve function.Attitude to Health: Public attitudes toward health, disease, and the medical care system.Social Planning: Interactional process combining investigation, discussion, and agreement by a number of people in the preparation and carrying out of a program to ameliorate conditions of need or social pathology in the community. It usually involves the action of a formal political, legal, or recognized voluntary body.Security Measures: Regulations to assure protection of property and equipment.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Societies, Medical: Societies whose membership is limited to physicians.Fund Raising: Usually organized community efforts to raise money to promote financial programs of institutions. The funds may include individual gifts.Developed Countries: Countries that have reached a level of economic achievement through an increase of production, per capita income and consumption, and utilization of natural and human resources.Quality Assurance, Health Care: Activities and programs intended to assure or improve the quality of care in either a defined medical setting or a program. The concept includes the assessment or evaluation of the quality of care; identification of problems or shortcomings in the delivery of care; designing activities to overcome these deficiencies; and follow-up monitoring to ensure effectiveness of corrective steps.Economics, Hospital: Economic aspects related to the management and operation of a hospital.Drug Costs: The amount that a health care institution or organization pays for its drugs. It is one component of the final price that is charged to the consumer (FEES, PHARMACEUTICAL or PRESCRIPTION FEES).Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Models, Econometric: The application of mathematical formulas and statistical techniques to the testing and quantifying of economic theories and the solution of economic problems.Ethics: The philosophy or code pertaining to what is ideal in human character and conduct. Also, the field of study dealing with the principles of morality.Healthcare Disparities: Differences in access to or availability of medical facilities and services.Financing, Organized: All organized methods of funding.Agriculture: The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.Health Planning Guidelines: Recommendations for directing health planning functions and policies. These may be mandated by PL93-641 and issued by the Department of Health and Human Services for use by state and local planning agencies.Financial Support: The provision of monetary resources including money or capital and credit; obtaining or furnishing money or capital for a purchase or enterprise and the funds so obtained. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed.)Translational Medical Research: The application of discoveries generated by laboratory research and preclinical studies to the development of clinical trials and studies in humans. A second area of translational research concerns enhancing the adoption of best practices.Ethics, Medical: The principles of professional conduct concerning the rights and duties of the physician, relations with patients and fellow practitioners, as well as actions of the physician in patient care and interpersonal relations with patient families.Forecasting: The prediction or projection of the nature of future problems or existing conditions based upon the extrapolation or interpretation of existing scientific data or by the application of scientific methodology.Mass Media: Instruments or technological means of communication that reach large numbers of people with a common message: press, radio, television, etc.Budgets: Detailed financial plans for carrying out specific activities for a certain period of time. They include proposed income and expenditures.History, 21st Century: Time period from 2001 through 2100 of the common era.Power (Psychology): The exertion of a strong influence or control over others in a variety of settings--administrative, social, academic, etc.Housing: Living facilities for humans.Ghana: A republic in western Africa, south of BURKINA FASO and west of TOGO. Its capital is Accra.Access to Information: Individual's rights to obtain and use information collected or generated by others.Food Dispensers, Automatic: Mechanical food dispensing machines.EnglandFocus Groups: A method of data collection and a QUALITATIVE RESEARCH tool in which a small group of individuals are brought together and allowed to interact in a discussion of their opinions about topics, issues, or questions.Eligibility Determination: Criteria to determine eligibility of patients for medical care programs and services.Research Personnel: Those individuals engaged in research.Organizations, Nonprofit: Organizations which are not operated for a profit and may be supported by endowments or private contributions.Community Health Services: Diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive health services provided for individuals in the community.Models, Economic: Statistical models of the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services, as well as of financial considerations. For the application of statistics to the testing and quantifying of economic theories MODELS, ECONOMETRIC is available.Food Industry: The industry concerned with processing, preparing, preserving, distributing, and serving of foods and beverages.Cost Sharing: Provisions of an insurance policy that require the insured to pay some portion of covered expenses. Several forms of sharing are in use, e.g., deductibles, coinsurance, and copayments. Cost sharing does not refer to or include amounts paid in premiums for the coverage. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Capital Financing: Institutional funding for facilities and for equipment which becomes a part of the assets of the institution.Physicians: Individuals licensed to practice medicine.Mandatory Programs: Programs in which participation is required.South Africa: A republic in southern Africa, the southernmost part of Africa. It has three capitals: Pretoria (administrative), Cape Town (legislative), and Bloemfontein (judicial). Officially the Republic of South Africa since 1960, it was called the Union of South Africa 1910-1960.Cities: A large or important municipality of a country, usually a major metropolitan center.Antimalarials: Agents used in the treatment of malaria. They are usually classified on the basis of their action against plasmodia at different stages in their life cycle in the human. (From AMA, Drug Evaluations Annual, 1992, p1585)Parental Leave: The authorized absence from work of either parent prior to and after the birth of their child. It includes also absence because of the illness of a child or at the time of the adoption of a child. It does not include leave for care of siblings, parents, or other family members: for this FAMILY LEAVE is available.Child Advocacy: Promotion and protection of the rights of children; frequently through a legal process.Guideline Adherence: Conformity in fulfilling or following official, recognized, or institutional requirements, guidelines, recommendations, protocols, pathways, or other standards.Patient Advocacy: Promotion and protection of the rights of patients, frequently through a legal process.Environmental Pollution: Contamination of the air, bodies of water, or land with substances that are harmful to human health and the environment.Advertising as Topic: The act or practice of calling public attention to a product, service, need, etc., especially by paid announcements in newspapers, magazines, on radio, or on television. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Organizations: Administration and functional structures for the purpose of collectively systematizing activities for a particular goal.Facility Regulation and Control: Formal voluntary or governmental procedures and standards required of hospitals and health or other facilities to improve operating efficiency, and for the protection of the consumer.Income: Revenues or receipts accruing from business enterprise, labor, or invested capital.Leadership: The function of directing or controlling the actions or attitudes of an individual or group with more or less willing acquiescence of the followers.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Licensure: The legal authority or formal permission from authorities to carry on certain activities which by law or regulation require such permission. It may be applied to licensure of institutions as well as individuals.Insurance, Long-Term Care: Health insurance to provide full or partial coverage for long-term home care services or for long-term nursing care provided in a residential facility such as a nursing home.Economics: The science of utilization, distribution, and consumption of services and materials.Marketing of Health Services: Application of marketing principles and techniques to maximize the use of health care resources.Financing, Personal: Payment by individuals or their family for health care services which are not covered by a third-party payer, either insurance or medical assistance.Capacity Building: Organizational development including enhancement of management structures, processes and procedures, within organizations and among different organizations and sectors to meet present and future needs.
W3C Patent PolicyThis policy was produced by the W3C Patent Policy Working Group.. Please report errors in this document to the www-patentpolicy ... The W3C Patent Policy governs the handling of patents in the process of producing Web standards. The goal of this policy is to ... W3C's role in making this policy is to provide a stable policy for handling patent claims in the context of W3C Recommendations ... and participants in the Patent Policy Working Group. Those who have participated in the beta testing of this policy, leading up ...
Intel Public PolicyHealthcare IT Policy Intel seeks to drive public policies that speed the adoption of healthcare technologies to improve results ... Communications Policy Global communications policies can increase the availability of high quality internet and communications ... Global Trade Policy Intel does three-quarters of its advanced manufacturing and R&D in the U.S., yet generates more than three ... Cloud Policy The cloud is a key enabler of economic growth and social change worldwide. We believe that to move toward ...
ethics policy - EnglishRECEIPT OF GIFTS, GRATUITIES AND ENTERTAINMENT GUIDELINES A. COMPANY POLICY Toll Brothers' policy prohibits employees from ... expected to comply with Company policies regarding these matters. The Company's policies pertaining to safety in homebuilding, ... ethics_policy * 1. TOLL BROTHERS, INC. CODE OF ETHICS AND BUSINESS CONDUCT Code of Ethics and Business Conduct 6-1-2007 ... The Company policy is to forego any business which can only be obtained by improper or illegal payment. Code of Ethics and ...
Incomes policy - WikipediaThe policy has the best chance of being credible and effective for the sectors of the economy dominated by ... Incomes policies in economics are economy-wide wage and price controls, most commonly instituted as a response to inflation, ... Incomes policies have often been resorted to during wartime. During the French Revolution, "The Law of the Maximum" imposed ... Peacetime income policies were resorted to in the USA in August 1971 as a response to inflation. The wage and price controls ...
Microsoft Lifecycle PolicyThe Microsoft Lifecycle Policy gives you consistent and predictable guidelines for the availability of support throughout the ... Microsoft Lifecycle Policy. The Microsoft Lifecycle Policy gives you consistent and predictable guidelines for the availability ... Microsoft Lifecycle Policy. The Microsoft Lifecycle Policy gives you consistent and predictable guidelines for the availability ... The information on this Lifecycle Policy site is subject to the Microsoft Policy Disclaimer and Change Notice. ...
Bicycle Policy SurveyWeb survey powered by SurveyMonkey.com. Create your own online survey now with SurveyMonkey's expert certified FREE templates.
Regional Policy InforegioThis triennial report mentioned in the Treaty present the proposals for the future cohesion policy after 2006. ... European cohesion policy has been the catalyst for new forms of partnership involving the regional and local authorities, ... In order to respond to these economic and political challenges, the Commission proposes a new cohesion policy for the period ... For example, has cohesion policy succeeded in reducing the economic, social and territorial inequalities in standards of living ...
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food policy : NPRAs food policy gets more attention in Washington, lobbying groups are training chefs to stir up Congress. The hope is that ... Big Battles Over Farm And Food Policies May Be Brewing As Trump Era Begins. December 28, 2016 President-elect Donald Trump ... Congress has unveiled a spending bill to keep the government running that also weighs in on plenty of food policy issues. ... Follow The Money: Congress Uses Budget Bill To Rewrite Food Policies. December 16, 2015 As lawmakers revealed a spending bill ...
KidsHealth Editorial PolicyThis page describes the editorial policy that the KidsHealth editorial team follows when creating KidsHealth articles and ... KidsHealth Editorial Policy. The KidsHealth content on this site is licensed from The Nemours Foundation and is operated and ... This page describes the editorial policy that the KidsHealth editorial team follows when creating KidsHealth articles and ...
Regulatory Policy: Ireland - OECDLatest developments on regulatory policy in Ireland and its score on the 2015 Indicators of Regulatory Policy and Governance. ... Regulatory Policy: Ireland. Regulatory Policy Outlook 2015 country profile. Read Ireland's country profile to learn about ... The Role of Competition Policy in Regulatory Reform in Ireland. *Enhancing Market Openness through Regulatory Reform in Ireland ... latest developments on regulatory policy in the country, including its score on the 2015 Indicators of Regulatory Policy and ...
World Transport Policy & Practice... the Journal provides a high-quality medium for advancing and supporting original and creative ideas in world transport policy ... There is also a supporting Facebook Group Page at http://www.facebook.com/pages/World-Transport-Policy-Practice/300664846701299 ... Welcome to the shared library and communications space supporting the Journal of World Transport Policy and Practice since 1999 ... World Transport Policy & Practice is a Restricted Group with 274 members.. *World Transport Policy & Practice ...
Registry: Security PolicyWindows Server 2003 Technical Reference Tools and Settings Collection Security Policy Settings ... This security setting does not appear in the local Group Policy object. ...
Aviation Policy Division... In January 1989, GSA created the Aviation Policy Division as "…a single coordinating office for ... The Aviation Policy Division seeks to improve the management of Federal aviation programs by providing sound policy and ... Home , About Us , Organization , Office of Government-wide Policy , Office of Asset and Transportation Management , Aviation ... Information associated with the Interagency Committee for Aviation Policy (ICAP;and;. *Procedures for reporting Federal ...
Health policy: Health policy can be defined as the "decisions, plans, and actions that are undertaken to achieve specific health care goals within a society."World Health Organization.Chronic care: Chronic care refers to medical care which addresses pre-existing or long term illness, as opposed to acute care which is concerned with short term or severe illness of brief duration. Chronic medical conditions include asthma, diabetes, emphysema, chronic bronchitis, congestive heart disease, cirrhosis of the liver, hypertension and depression.Canadian House of Commons Standing Committee on Environment and Sustainable Development: The Canadian House of Commons Standing Committee on Environment and Sustainable Development (ENVI) is a standing committee in the Canadian House of Commons.Healthy eating pyramid: The healthy eating pyramid is a nutrition guide developed by the Harvard School of Public Health, suggesting quantities of each food category that a human should eat each day. The healthy eating pyramid is intended to provide a superior eating guide than the widespread food guide pyramid created by the USDA.Mr. Bartender (It's So Easy): "Mr. Bartender (It's So Easy)" is a song by American rock band Sugar Ray.Opinion polling in the Philippine presidential election, 2010: Opinion polling (popularly known as surveys in the Philippines) for the 2010 Philippine presidential election is managed by two major polling firms: Social Weather Stations and Pulse Asia, and several minor polling firms. The polling firms conducted surveys both prior and after the deadline for filing of certificates of candidacies on December 1, 2009.List of Parliamentary constituencies in Kent: The ceremonial county of Kent,Smoke-free Environments Act 1990: The Smoke-free Environments Act 1990 is an Act of Parliament in New Zealand.Public Health Act: Public Health Act is a stock short title used in the United Kingdom for legislation relating to public health.Lifestyle management programme: A lifestyle management programme (also referred to as a health promotion programme, health behaviour change programme, lifestyle improvement programme or wellness programme) is an intervention designed to promote positive lifestyle and behaviour change and is widely used in the field of health promotion.California Proposition 29 (2012): Proposition 29, the California Cancer Research Act, is a California ballot measure that was defeated by California voters at the statewide election on June 5, 2012.State health agency: A state health agency (SHA), or state department of health, is a department or agency of the state governments of the United States focused on public health. The state secretary of health is a constitutional or at times a statutory official in several states of the United States.Rock 'n' Roll (Status Quo song)Australian referendum, 1913 (Trade and Commerce): The Constitution Alteration (Trade and Commerce) 1912 was an Australian referendum held in the 1913 referendums which sought to alter the Australian Constitution to extend Commonwealth legislative power in respect to trade and commerce.Federal Employees Health Benefits Program: The Federal Employees Health Benefits (FEHB) Program is a system of "managed competition" through which employee health benefits are provided to civilian government employees and annuitants of the United States government.Global Health Delivery ProjectLucas paradox: In economics, the Lucas paradox or the Lucas puzzle is the observation that capital does not flow from developed countries to developing countries despite the fact that developing countries have lower levels of capital per worker.}}International Network of Prison Ministries: The International Network of Prison Ministries (INPM) is a Dallas, Texas based crime prevention and rehabilitation trans-national organization. INPM functions through a website that serves as a clearinghouse for information about various Christian prison ministries.Public opinion on nuclear issues: Public opinion on nuclear issues is the aggregate of attitudes or beliefs held by the adult population concerning nuclear power, nuclear weapons and uranium mining.List of tobacco-related topics: Nicotiana is the genus of herbs and shrubs which is cultivated to produce tobacco products.Whitehall Study: The original Whitehall Study investigated social determinants of health, specifically the cardiovascular disease prevalence and mortality rates among British male civil servants between the ages of 20 and 64. The initial prospective cohort study, the Whitehall I Study, examined over 18,000 male civil servants, and was conducted over a period of ten years, beginning in 1967.St. Vrain Valley School DistrictFlexirentAging (scheduling): In Operating systems, Aging is a scheduling technique used to avoid starvation. Fixed priority scheduling is a scheduling discipline, in which tasks queued for utilizing a system resource are assigned a priority each.Andrew Dickson WhiteBestbets: BestBETS (Best Evidence Topic Reports) is a system designed by emergency physicians at Manchester Royal Infirmary, UK. It was conceived as a way of allowing busy clinicians to solve real clinical problems using published evidence.Injustice SocietyImplementation research: Implementation research is the scientific study of methods to promote the uptake of research findings. Often research projects focus on small scale pilot studies or laboratory based experiments, and assume that findings can be generalised to roll out into a practice based domain with few changes.British Columbia Human Rights Tribunal: The British Columbia Human Rights Tribunal is a quasi-judicial human rights body in British Columbia, Canada. It was established under the British Columbia Human Rights Code.National Cancer Research Institute: The National Cancer Research Institute (NCRI) is a UK-wide partnership between cancer research funders, which promotes collaboration in cancer research. Its member organizations work together to maximize the value and benefit of cancer research for the benefit of patients and the public.Local government areas of Scotland: Local government areas covering the whole of Scotland were first defined by the Local Government (Scotland) Act 1889. As currently defined, they are a result, for the most part, of the Local Government etc (Scotland) Act 1994.Sunshine Social Welfare Foundation: Sunshine Social Welfare Foundation (Chinese: 陽光社會福利基金會) is a charity established in 1981 in Taiwan to provide comprehensive services for burn survivors and people with facial disfigurement.Smokefree Environments Amendment Act 2003: The Smokefree Environments Amendment Bill was passed by the Parliament of New Zealand on 3 December 2003. The smoking ban legislation calls for progressive introduction of various clauses to totally ban smoking in all workplaces including offices, clubs, pubs, restaurants, airports, schools etc.Canadian Organ Replacement Registry: The Canadian Organ Replacement Registry CORR is a health organisation was started by Canadian nephrologists and kidney transplant surgeons in 1985 in order to develop the care of patients with renal failure. In the early 1990s data on liver and heart transplantation were added to the registry.European Union climate and energy package: The European plan on climate change consists of a range of measures adopted by the members of the European Union to fight against climate change. The plan was launched in March 2007, and after months of tough negotiations between the member countries, it was adopted by the European Parliament on December 2008.Standard evaluation frameworkCriticisms of globalization: Criticism of globalization is skepticism of the claimed benefits of globalization. Many of these views are held by the anti-globalization movement.Companies OfficePrivate healthcareHoya Corporation: TOPIX 100 ComponentList of Drug Enforcement Administration operations: The following is a list of major operations undertaken by the United States Drug Enforcement Administration, in reverse chronological order.Social marketing: Social marketing seeks to develop and integrate marketing concepts with other approaches to influence behaviors that benefit individuals and communities for the greater social good. It seeks to integrate research, best practice, theory, audience and partnership insight, to inform the delivery of competition sensitive and segmented social change programs that are effective, efficient, equitable and sustainable.Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory: right|300px|thumb|Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory logo.Psychiatric interview: The psychiatric interview refers to the set of tools that a mental health worker (most times a psychiatrist or a psychologist but at times social workers or nurses) uses to complete a psychiatric assessment.Systematic Protein Investigative Research EnvironmentPavement life-cycle cost analysis: In September 1998, the United States Department of Transportation (DoT) introduced risk analysis, a probabilistic approach to account for the uncertainty of the inputs of the cost/benefit evaluation of pavement projects, into its decision-making policies. The traditional (deterministic) approach did not consider the variability of inputs.Treaty of the Bogue: The Treaty of the Bogue () was an unequal treaty between China and the United Kingdom, concluded in October 1843 to supplement the previous Treaty of Nanking. The treaty's key provisions granted extraterritoriality and most favored nation status to Britain.Closed-ended question: A closed-ended question is a question format that limits respondents with a list of answer choices from which they must choose to answer the question.Dillman D.European Immunization Week: European Immunization Week (EIW) is an annual regional initiative, coordinated by the World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe (WHO/Europe), to promote immunization against vaccine-preventable diseases. EIW activities are carried out by participating WHO/Europe member states.Poverty trap: A poverty trap is "any self-reinforcing mechanism which causes poverty to persist."Costas Azariadis and John Stachurski, "Poverty Traps," Handbook of Economic Growth, 2005, 326.Incremental cost-effectiveness ratio: The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) is a statistic used in cost-effectiveness analysis to summarise the cost-effectiveness of a health care intervention. It is defined by the difference in cost between two possible interventions, divided by the difference in their effect.Blended malt whisky: A blended malt, formerly called a vatted malt, or pure malt, is a blend of different single malt whiskies from different distilleries. These terms are most commonly used in reference to Scotch whisky, or whisky in that style, such as Japanese whisky.Meramec Conservation AreaEssex School of discourse analysis: The Essex School constitutes a variety of discourse analysis, one that combines theoretical sophistication – mainly due to its reliance on the post-structuralist and psychoanalytic traditions and, in particular, on the work of Lacan, Foucault, Barthes, Derrida, etc. – with analytical precision, since it focuses predominantly on an in-depth analysis of political discourses in late modernity.GA²LENUniversal Declaration on the Eradication of Hunger and Malnutrition: The Universal Declaration on the Eradication of Hunger and Malnutrition was adopted by governments attending the 1974 World Food Conference. In it, states recognised that it is the common purpose of all nations to eliminate hunger and malnutrition.Von Neumann regular ring: In mathematics, a von Neumann regular ring is a ring R such that for every a in R there exists an x in R such that . To avoid the possible confusion with the regular rings and regular local rings of commutative algebra (which are unrelated notions), von Neumann regular rings are also called absolutely flat rings, because these rings are characterized by the fact that every left module is flat.The Flash ChroniclesContraceptive mandate (United States): A contraceptive mandate is a state or federal regulation or law that requires health insurers, or employers that provide their employees with health insurance, to cover some contraceptive costs in their health insurance plans. In 1978, the U.Chapter One (restaurant): Michelin GuideThe Final Decision: The Final Decision is an episode from season 1 of the animated TV series X-Men Animated Series.International Law Enforcement Academy: International Law Enforcement Academies (ILEAs) are international police academies administered by the U.S.Healthy community design: Healthy community design is planning and designing communities that make it easier for people to live healthy lives. Healthy community design offers important benefits:Document-centric collaboration: Document-centric collaboration is a new approach to working together on projects online which puts the document and its contents at the centre of the process.Tobacco cessation clinic
(1/144) Human health and the environment: in harmony or in conflict?
(2/144) Male circumcision and HIV prevention: looking to the future.
(3/144) Perceptions of alcohol policy and drinking behavior: Results of a latent class analysis of college student drinkers.
(4/144) County-level variation in the prevalence of medicaid-enrolled children with autism spectrum disorders.
(5/144) Medicaid bed-hold policy and Medicare skilled nursing facility rehospitalizations.
(6/144) Introducing occupational health in an emerging economy: a Nepal experience.
(7/144) Transnational organizational considerations for sociocultural differences in ethics and virtual team functioning in laboratory animal science.
Business models for transnational organizations include linking different geographies through common codes of conduct, policies, and virtual teams. Global companies with laboratory animal science activities (whether outsourced or performed inhouse) often see the need for these business activities in relation to animal-based research and benefit from them. Global biomedical research organizations can learn how to better foster worldwide cooperation and teamwork by understanding and working with sociocultural differences in ethics and by knowing how to facilitate appropriate virtual team actions. Associated practices include implementing codes and policies transcend cultural, ethnic, or other boundaries and equipping virtual teams with the needed technology, support, and rewards to ensure timely and productive work that ultimately promotes good science and patient safety in drug development. (+info)
(8/144) Disclosure of patient safety incidents: a comprehensive review.
- We analyze the formation of environmental policy to regulate transboundary pollution if governments are self-interested. (repec.org)
- In a common agency framework, we portray the environmental policy calculus of two political supportmaximizing governments that are in a situation of strategic interaction with respect to their environmental policies, but too small to affect world market prices. (repec.org)
- Politically motivated environmental policy thus may be more harmful to the environment as compared to the benevolent dictators' solution. (repec.org)
- Endogenous Environmental Policy when Pollution is Transboundary ," Working Paper Series in Economics 196, University of Lüneburg, Institute of Economics. (repec.org)
- Strategic environmental policy and international trade: the role of market conduct ," Discussion Paper Series In Economics And Econometrics 9415, Economics Division, School of Social Sciences, University of Southampton. (repec.org)
- Princeton University's Program in Science, Technology and Environmental Policy (STEP) is based in the Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs with strong ties to the Princeton Environmental Institute . (princeton.edu)
- Environmental policy certificate programs are designed for students interested in enhancing their skills or continuing their education in a non-degree format. (gradschools.com)
- Typically certificate programs in environmental policy are very specific in focus, enabling students to explore one aspect of environmental policy in great detail. (gradschools.com)
- Search for certificate programs in environmental policy on GradSchools.com. (gradschools.com)
- The new master of science degree in Environmental Policy and Sustainability Management is designed to prepare a new generation of management professionals and policy analysts who understand the importance of ecological, financial, and social sustaina. (gradschools.com)
- The Natural Resource and Environmental Policy Program at Utah State University has been developed in response to the increasing challenges confronting. (gradschools.com)
- Increasing numbers of students in the School generally, and in the STEP program in particular, have a primary interest in environmental science and technology policy, including global climate change, air pollution, negotiated environmental accords, biodiversity, environmental economics, environmental justice, and the connection between the environment and development. (princeton.edu)
- Paper provided by Department of International Economic Policy, University of Freiburg in its series Discussion Paper Series with number 14. (repec.org)
- In addition to providing a systematic introduction to the field of policy analysis, the goal of the STEP program is to develop a deeper understanding of current scientific, technological, and environmental issues and potential local, national and international policy responses. (princeton.edu)
- Our aim is to show that tobacco control policies, in particular tobacco taxation, make good economic sense. (who.int)
- The program offers a certificate for students enrolled in the Woodrow Wilson School's M.P.A. or M.P.P programs and studies leading to a Ph.D. Many aspects of science and technology policy debates have been tackled with the tools of political and economic analysis that are the traditional strong suits of the Woodrow Wilson School. (princeton.edu)
- Research in these areas and others such as biotechnology and nuclear-weapons policy is facilitated by the Program's ties with the Princeton Environmental Institute , the Departments of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology , Molecular Biology , and Geosciences, the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory , the Program on Science & Global Security , and the Office of Population Research . (princeton.edu)
- An excellent introduction to China's population problems and policies and an in-depth study of the ways those policies are viewed by urban women. (routledge.com)
- The objective of the Graduate Certificate in Global Policy Studies is to provide UGA graduate students with a set of courses and experiences that will. (gradschools.com)
- We show how governments systematically deviate from socially optimal environmental policies. (repec.org)