Polar Bodies: Minute cells produced during development of an OOCYTE as it undergoes MEIOSIS. A polar body contains one of the nuclei derived from the first or second meiotic CELL DIVISION. Polar bodies have practically no CYTOPLASM. They are eventually discarded by the oocyte. (from King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Oocytes: Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).Preimplantation Diagnosis: Determination of the nature of a pathological condition or disease in the OVUM; ZYGOTE; or BLASTOCYST prior to implantation. CYTOGENETIC ANALYSIS is performed to determine the presence or absence of genetic disease.Meiosis: A type of CELL NUCLEUS division, occurring during maturation of the GERM CELLS. Two successive cell nucleus divisions following a single chromosome duplication (S PHASE) result in daughter cells with half the number of CHROMOSOMES as the parent cells.Metaphase: The phase of cell nucleus division following PROMETAPHASE, in which the CHROMOSOMES line up across the equatorial plane of the SPINDLE APPARATUS prior to separation.Parthenogenesis: A unisexual reproduction without the fusion of a male and a female gamete (FERTILIZATION). In parthenogenesis, an individual is formed from an unfertilized OVUM that did not complete MEIOSIS. Parthenogenesis occurs in nature and can be artificially induced.Fertilization: The fusion of a spermatozoon (SPERMATOZOA) with an OVUM thus resulting in the formation of a ZYGOTE.Starfish: Echinoderms having bodies of usually five radially disposed arms coalescing at the center.Cleavage Stage, Ovum: The earliest developmental stage of a fertilized ovum (ZYGOTE) during which there are several mitotic divisions within the ZONA PELLUCIDA. Each cleavage or segmentation yields two BLASTOMERES of about half size of the parent cell. This cleavage stage generally covers the period up to 16-cell MORULA.Aneuploidy: The chromosomal constitution of cells which deviate from the normal by the addition or subtraction of CHROMOSOMES, chromosome pairs, or chromosome fragments. In a normally diploid cell (DIPLOIDY) the loss of a chromosome pair is termed nullisomy (symbol: 2N-2), the loss of a single chromosome is MONOSOMY (symbol: 2N-1), the addition of a chromosome pair is tetrasomy (symbol: 2N+2), the addition of a single chromosome is TRISOMY (symbol: 2N+1).Zygote: The fertilized OVUM resulting from the fusion of a male and a female gamete.Oogenesis: The process of germ cell development in the female from the primordial germ cells through OOGONIA to the mature haploid ova (OVUM).Fertilization in Vitro: An assisted reproductive technique that includes the direct handling and manipulation of oocytes and sperm to achieve fertilization in vitro.Sperm Injections, Intracytoplasmic: An assisted fertilization technique consisting of the microinjection of a single viable sperm into an extracted ovum. It is used principally to overcome low sperm count, low sperm motility, inability of sperm to penetrate the egg, or other conditions related to male infertility (INFERTILITY, MALE).Blastomeres: Undifferentiated cells resulting from cleavage of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE). Inside the intact ZONA PELLUCIDA, each cleavage yields two blastomeres of about half size of the parent cell. Up to the 8-cell stage, all of the blastomeres are totipotent. The 16-cell MORULA contains outer cells and inner cells.Spindle Apparatus: A microtubule structure that forms during CELL DIVISION. It consists of two SPINDLE POLES, and sets of MICROTUBULES that may include the astral microtubules, the polar microtubules, and the kinetochore microtubules.Asymmetric Cell Division: Unequal cell division that results in daughter cells of different sizes.Ovum: A mature haploid female germ cell extruded from the OVARY at OVULATION.Chromosomes: In a prokaryotic cell or in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, a structure consisting of or containing DNA which carries the genetic information essential to the cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)In Vitro Oocyte Maturation Techniques: Methods used to induce premature oocytes, that are maintained in tissue culture, to progress through developmental stages including to a stage that is competent to undergo FERTILIZATION.Blastocyst: A post-MORULA preimplantation mammalian embryo that develops from a 32-cell stage into a fluid-filled hollow ball of over a hundred cells. A blastocyst has two distinctive tissues. The outer layer of trophoblasts gives rise to extra-embryonic tissues. The inner cell mass gives rise to the embryonic disc and eventual embryo proper.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-mos: Cellular proteins encoded by the c-mos genes (GENES, MOS). They function in the cell cycle to maintain MATURATION PROMOTING FACTOR in the active state and have protein-serine/threonine kinase activity. Oncogenic transformation can take place when c-mos proteins are expressed at the wrong time.Cytokinesis: The process by which the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided.Embryonic Development: Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS.Cumulus Cells: The granulosa cells of the cumulus oophorus which surround the OVUM in the GRAAFIAN FOLLICLE. At OVULATION they are extruded with OVUM.Microinjections: The injection of very small amounts of fluid, often with the aid of a microscope and microsyringes.Genes, mos: Retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (mos) originally isolated from the Moloney murine sarcoma virus (Mo-MSV). The proto-oncogene mos (c-mos) codes for a protein which is a member of the serine kinase family. There is no evidence as yet that human c-mos can become transformed or has a role in human cancer. However, in mice, activation can occur when the retrovirus-like intracisternal A-particle inserts itself near the c-mos sequence. The human c-mos gene is located at 8q22 on the long arm of chromosome 8.Sperm-Ovum Interactions: Interactive processes between the oocyte (OVUM) and the sperm (SPERMATOZOA) including sperm adhesion, ACROSOME REACTION, sperm penetration of the ZONA PELLUCIDA, and events leading to FERTILIZATION.Cell Nucleus Division: The process by which the CELL NUCLEUS is divided.Embryo Transfer: The transfer of mammalian embryos from an in vivo or in vitro environment to a suitable host to improve pregnancy or gestational outcome in human or animal. In human fertility treatment programs, preimplantation embryos ranging from the 4-cell stage to the blastocyst stage are transferred to the uterine cavity between 3-5 days after FERTILIZATION IN VITRO.Cytogenetic Analysis: Examination of CHROMOSOMES to diagnose, classify, screen for, or manage genetic diseases and abnormalities. Following preparation of the sample, KARYOTYPING is performed and/or the specific chromosomes are analyzed.Insemination: The deposit of SEMEN or SPERMATOZOA into the VAGINA to facilitate FERTILIZATION.Chromatids: Either of the two longitudinally adjacent threads formed when a eukaryotic chromosome replicates prior to mitosis. The chromatids are held together at the centromere. Sister chromatids are derived from the same chromosome. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Bivalvia: A class in the phylum MOLLUSCA comprised of mussels; clams; OYSTERS; COCKLES; and SCALLOPS. They are characterized by a bilaterally symmetrical hinged shell and a muscular foot used for burrowing and anchoring.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Chromosomes, Human: Very long DNA molecules and associated proteins, HISTONES, and non-histone chromosomal proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE). Normally 46 chromosomes, including two sex chromosomes are found in the nucleus of human cells. They carry the hereditary information of the individual.Embryo, Mammalian: The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.Nuclear Transfer Techniques: Methods of implanting a CELL NUCLEUS from a donor cell into an enucleated acceptor cell.Cell Polarity: Orientation of intracellular structures especially with respect to the apical and basolateral domains of the plasma membrane. Polarized cells must direct proteins from the Golgi apparatus to the appropriate domain since tight junctions prevent proteins from diffusing between the two domains.Microtubules: Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.Maturation-Promoting Factor: Protein kinase that drives both the mitotic and meiotic cycles in all eukaryotic organisms. In meiosis it induces immature oocytes to undergo meiotic maturation. In mitosis it has a role in the G2/M phase transition. Once activated by CYCLINS; MPF directly phosphorylates some of the proteins involved in nuclear envelope breakdown, chromosome condensation, spindle assembly, and the degradation of cyclins. The catalytic subunit of MPF is PROTEIN P34CDC2.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Spermatozoa: Mature male germ cells derived from SPERMATIDS. As spermatids move toward the lumen of the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES, they undergo extensive structural changes including the loss of cytoplasm, condensation of CHROMATIN into the SPERM HEAD, formation of the ACROSOME cap, the SPERM MIDPIECE and the SPERM TAIL that provides motility.Embryonic and Fetal Development: Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS or FETUSES.Maternal Age: The age of the mother in PREGNANCY.Chromosomes, Mammalian: Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of MAMMALS.Zona Pellucida: A tough transparent membrane surrounding the OVUM. It is penetrated by the sperm during FERTILIZATION.Haploidy: The chromosomal constitution of cells, in which each type of CHROMOSOME is represented once. Symbol: N.Microscopy, Polarization: Microscopy using polarized light in which phenomena due to the preferential orientation of optical properties with respect to the vibration plane of the polarized light are made visible and correlated parameters are made measurable.Chromosome Segregation: The orderly segregation of CHROMOSOMES during MEIOSIS or MITOSIS.Nocodazole: Nocodazole is an antineoplastic agent which exerts its effect by depolymerizing microtubules.Cytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Cytochalasin B: A cytotoxic member of the CYTOCHALASINS.Centrosome: The cell center, consisting of a pair of CENTRIOLES surrounded by a cloud of amorphous material called the pericentriolar region. During interphase, the centrosome nucleates microtubule outgrowth. The centrosome duplicates and, during mitosis, separates to form the two poles of the mitotic spindle (MITOTIC SPINDLE APPARATUS).Urochordata: A subphylum of chordates intermediate between the invertebrates and the true vertebrates. It includes the Ascidians.Cyclin B1: A cyclin B subtype that colocalizes with MICROTUBULES during INTERPHASE and is transported into the CELL NUCLEUS at the end of the G2 PHASE.Protamine Kinase: An aspect of protein kinase (EC 2.7.1.37) in which serine residues in protamines and histones are phosphorylated in the presence of ATP.Micromanipulation: The performance of dissections, injections, surgery, etc., by the use of micromanipulators (attachments to a microscope) that manipulate tiny instruments.Cyclin B: A cyclin subtype that is transported into the CELL NUCLEUS at the end of the G2 PHASE. It stimulates the G2/M phase transition by activating CDC2 PROTEIN KINASE.Pregnancy Rate: The ratio of the number of conceptions (CONCEPTION) including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; and fetal losses, to the mean number of females of reproductive age in a population during a set time period.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence: A type of IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION in which target sequences are stained with fluorescent dye so their location and size can be determined using fluorescence microscopy. This staining is sufficiently distinct that the hybridization signal can be seen both in metaphase spreads and in interphase nuclei.Diploidy: The chromosomal constitution of cells, in which each type of CHROMOSOME is represented twice. Symbol: 2N or 2X.Comparative Genomic Hybridization: A method for comparing two sets of chromosomal DNA by analyzing differences in the copy number and location of specific sequences. It is used to look for large sequence changes such as deletions, duplications, amplifications, or translocations.Ploidies: The degree of replication of the chromosome set in the karyotype.Demecolcine: An alkaloid isolated from Colchicum autumnale L. and used as an antineoplastic.Glycols: A generic grouping for dihydric alcohols with the hydroxy groups (-OH) located on different carbon atoms. They are viscous liquids with high boiling points for their molecular weights.Superovulation: Occurrence or induction of release of more ova than are normally released at the same time in a given species. The term applies to both animals and humans.Tubulin: A microtubule subunit protein found in large quantities in mammalian brain. It has also been isolated from SPERM FLAGELLUM; CILIA; and other sources. Structurally, the protein is a dimer with a molecular weight of approximately 120,000 and a sedimentation coefficient of 5.8S. It binds to COLCHICINE; VINCRISTINE; and VINBLASTINE.Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction: Methods for using more than one primer set in a polymerase chain reaction to amplify more than one segment of the target DNA sequence in a single reaction.Ovarian Follicle: An OOCYTE-containing structure in the cortex of the OVARY. The oocyte is enclosed by a layer of GRANULOSA CELLS providing a nourishing microenvironment (FOLLICULAR FLUID). The number and size of follicles vary depending on the age and reproductive state of the female. The growing follicles are divided into five stages: primary, secondary, tertiary, Graafian, and atretic. Follicular growth and steroidogenesis depend on the presence of GONADOTROPINS.Polymerization: Chemical reaction in which monomeric components are combined to form POLYMERS (e.g., POLYMETHYLMETHACRYLATE).Tubulin Modulators: Agents that interact with TUBULIN to inhibit or promote polymerization of MICROTUBULES.Actins: Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.Cryopreservation: Preservation of cells, tissues, organs, or embryos by freezing. In histological preparations, cryopreservation or cryofixation is used to maintain the existing form, structure, and chemical composition of all the constituent elements of the specimens.Securin: Securin is involved in the control of the metaphase-anaphase transition during MITOSIS. It promotes the onset of anaphase by blocking SEPARASE function and preventing proteolysis of cohesin and separation of sister CHROMATIDS. Overexpression of securin is associated with NEOPLASTIC CELL TRANSFORMATION and tumor formation.Embryo Culture Techniques: The technique of maintaining or growing mammalian EMBRYOS in vitro. This method offers an opportunity to observe EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT; METABOLISM; and susceptibility to TERATOGENS.

*  Polar body : Wikis (The Full Wiki)
Eventually, the polar bodies degenerate.. There may be one or two polar bodies in the ovum. The first polar body is one of the ... Polar body twinning. Polar body twinning is a hypothesized form of twinning in the female, where a polar body does not ... By analyzing the polar bodies, it is possible to infer the genetic status of the egg. Therefore, polar body analysis allows us ... A polar body is a cell structure found inside an ovum. Both animal and plant ova possess it. It is also known as a polar cell. ...
  http://www.thefullwiki.org/Polar_body
*  What is a Polar Body? - Definition from FertilitySmarts
A polar body is a small cell that is formed at the same time an egg cell cycle that isn't used by the body, but it does... ... Polar Body Definition - What does Polar Body mean? A polar body is a small cell that is formed at the same time an egg cell ... FertilitySmarts explains Polar Body. Two polar bodies are usually made along with every egg cell. However, the vast majority of ... and polar bodies contain a small amount of that protein-making genetic material. In a process called "polar body diagnosis," ...
  https://www.fertilitysmarts.com/definition/1565/polar-body
*  Polar body | cell | Britannica.com
... cell is known as a polar body. The secondary ovum grows in the ovary until it reaches maturation; it then breaks loose and is ... Other articles where Polar body is discussed: oogenesis: … ... Polar body. cell. THIS IS A DIRECTORY PAGE. Britannica does not ... cell is known as a polar body. The secondary ovum grows in the ovary until it reaches maturation; it then breaks loose and is ...
  https://www.britannica.com/science/polar-body
*  Polar body | Define Polar body at Dictionary.com
Polar body definition, one of the minute cells arising from the unequal meiotic divisions of the ovum at or near the time of ... polar body. in Science. polar body. *One of the small cells that are produced during the development of an oocyte and ... polar body. in Medicine. polar body. n.. *Either of two small cells formed by the ovum during its maturation, the first usually ... polar body. noun. *physiol a tiny cell containing little cytoplasm that is produced with the ovum during oogenesis when the ...
  https://www.dictionary.com/browse/polar-body
*  Polar body - Wikipedia
A polar body biopsy is the sampling of a polar body of an oocyte. After sampling of a polar body, subsequent analysis can be ... in the first polar body can induce the formation of an aneuploid polar body. Therefore, the formation of the first polar body ... Polar body twinning is a hypothesized form of twinning in meiosis, where one or more polar bodies do not disintegrate and are ... Polar body bulging from an animal pole of a starfish oocyte Polar bodies were first identified and characterized in the early ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Polar_body
*  Polar body biopsy - Wikipedia
Polar body biopsy is the sampling of a polar body of an oocyte. It was first applied clinically in humans in 1987 after ... Polar body testing will also be unable to detect post-zygotic errors in an oocyte. Because euploid polar bodies contain the ... Polar body biopsy is used mainly by two PGD groups in the USA and by groups in countries where cleavage-stage embryo selection ... A polar body is a small haploid cell that is formed concomitantly as an egg cell during oogenesis, but which generally does not ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Polar_body_biopsy
*  ESHRE launches international study of polar body... ( Amsterdam The Netherlands: The effic...)
... polar,body,screening,biological,biology news articles,biology news today,latest biology news,current biology news,biology ... of polar body biopsy attempts.". The two centres chosen for the pilot study have considerable experience in the field of polar ... By biopsying polar bodies at an early stage of egg development, the researchers believe that not only are they using a less ... If we can show that polar body screening works, it will be a major step forward in improving IVF treatment for many women who ...
  http://www.bio-medicine.org/biology-news-1/ESHRE-launches-international-study-of-polar-body-screening-9030-1/
*  What do the polar bodies formed in oogenesis do? | Physics Forums - The Fusion of Science and Community
Similar Discussions: What do the polar bodies formed in oogenesis do? * The Body Sleeps, but the Genes Do Not (Replies: 0) ... the egg is the largest cell in the body).. So the polar bodies definately have a function, to take out the excess of genetic ... The second polar body is formed when the primary oocyte has to get rid of the duplicated chromosome that is still attached to ... The first polar body is formed, because the oocyte needs to get rid of 23 chromosomes that were produced during mitosis, and ...
  https://www.physicsforums.com/threads/what-do-the-polar-bodies-formed-in-oogenesis-do.21125/
*  Impact of polar body biopsy on embryo morphokinetics-back to the roots in preimplantation genetic testing? | Springer for...
Purpose Polar body biopsy (PBB) is a common technique in preimplantation genetic testing (PGT) to assess the chromosomal status ... Polar body biopsy. Both first and second polar bodies were simultaneously biopsied on all zygotes with two PN 14-16 h after ... and 13 in the polar body-pointing to a corresponding trisomy in the oocyte-summed up to 11.36% of all aneuploid polar bodies. ... Effects of laser polar-body biopsy on embryo quality. Fertil Steril. 2012;97(5):1085-8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar ...
  https://rd.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10815-018-1207-4
*  Optimal polar bodies angle for higher subsequent embryo viability A pilot study - Fertility Sterility Discussion
Optimal polar bodies angle for higher subsequent embryo viability A pilot study. Posted by Thea Ryan on Tuesday, March 1, 2016 ... Noninvasive assessment of polar bodies angle proves to be a practical tool for the selection of viable embryos and should be ... To determine the optimal polar bodies (PB) angle for higher subsequent embryo implantation potential. ...
  http://fertstertforum.com/zhangq-optimal-polar-bodies-angle/
*  Comparative genomic hybridization of oocytes and first polar bodies from young donors. - Nuffield Department of Obstetrics and...
A total of 121 metaphase II oocytes and their corresponding first polar bodies (PB) were analysed with the use of a ... A total of 121 metaphase II oocytes and their corresponding first polar bodies (PB) were analysed with the use of a ... Comparative genomic hybridization of oocytes and first polar bodies from young donors. ... Comparative genomic hybridization of oocytes and first polar bodies from young donors. ...
  https://www.obs-gyn.ox.ac.uk/publications/248252
*  Polar Extremes of the Islamic Spectrum - Mind-and-Body - Utne Reader
Polar Extremes of the Islamic Spectrum From conservative to modern, learn the appearance and speech codes of Islamic self- ... Very rarely, I see the full veil and body-hiding black dress, which can be a nuisance when administering exams. More often the ...
  https://www.utne.com/mind-and-body/extremes-islamic-spectrum-ze0z1704zols
*  Twin - Wikipedia
Polar body and semi-identical twinsEdit. A 1981 study of a deceased triploid XXX twin fetus without a heart showed that ... The authors were unable to predict whether a healthy fetus could result from a polar body twinning.[34] ... Evidence of Polar Body Twinning in Man". Science. American Association for the Advancement of Science. 213 (4509): 775-777. doi ... tests revealed that it was probably a polar body twin. ... polar body. x. x. x. x. x. x. x. conjoined twin. x. x. x. x. x ...
  https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Twins
*  Polar Cryotherapy * Whole Body Cryotherapy * Naturally Reduces Inflammation, Pain with Exteme Cold
Just three minutes at minus 250F induces a powerful, holistic response from the body that reduces reliance on NSAIDs. ... Polar Cryotherapy provides extreme cold therapy to reduce inflammation, repair injuries and lessen chronic pain in athletes. ...
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*  Full text of 'The cell-lineage and early larval development of Fiona marina, a nudibranch mollusk'
First polar body being given off. Sperm nucleus with astral rays below. Fig. 3. - Section. Rise of second polar body. ... at first lying closely against the cell wall below the polar bodies. The first polar body does not divide again immedi- ately ... The two polar bodies lie between the nuclei. Fig. 8. - Completion of second cleavage, seen from upper pole. A polar furrow is ... As the first polar body arises, the upper surface of the egg becomes distinctly indented immediately above the first polar ...
  http://www.archive.org/stream/celllineageearly00cast/celllineageearly00cast_djvu.txt
*  Female Repro - First Aid Flashcards by John Doe | Brainscape
... the secondary oocyte splits to form another polar body and the ovum. The other polar body also splits to form 2 polar bodies, ... 3. On completion of meiosis I the primary oocyte splits into the secondary oocyte and a polar body. On completion of meiosis II ... He also has a red inflamed pharynx and a splotchy rash all over his body. Concerned that this is a primary HIV infection, the ... Hematogenous (blood-borne) spread of T. pallidum from a chancre throughout the body is characteristic of which stage of the ...
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*  Germ cell - Wikipedia
The polar bodies degenerate. Oocyte maturation stands by at metaphase II in most vertebrates. During ovulation, the arrested ... The secondary oocyte undergoes meiotic division II and that results in the formation of a second small polar body and a large ... only one egg is formed together with three polar bodies. Different timing of maturation: oogenic meiosis is interrupted at one ... a small polar body and a large secondary oocyte. ... all the other cells that form the building blocks of the body ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Germ_cell
*  Peter C. Klatsky - Wikipedia
77 (286). Klatsky, P.C.; Wessel, G.M. (2010). "mRNA is Present in Human Polar Bodies". Molecular Reproduction and Development. ... 116 (1387-92). Reich, A.; Klatsky, P.C. (2011). "The transcriptome of a human polar body accurately reflects its sibling oocyte ... 91 (2707-8). Klatsky, P.C.; Wessel, G.M. (2010). "Detection of Oocyte mRNA in Starfish Polar Bodies". Molecular Reproduction ... "Detection of Oocyte mRNA in Starfish Polar Bodies". Molecular Reproduction and Development, 2010. "mRNA is Present in Human ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peter_C._Klatsky
*  Preimplantation genetic diagnosis - Wikipedia
A polar body biospy is the sampling of a polar body, which is a small haploid cell that is formed concomitantly as an egg cell ... Polar body and blastomere biopsy images. Normal and abnormal FISH images. Saving Henry by Laurie Strongin, a non-fiction ... Sampling of cumulus cells can be performed in addition to a sampling of polar bodies or cells from the embryo. Because of the ... The main advantage of the use of polar bodies in PGD is that they are not necessary for successful fertilisation or normal ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Preimplantation_genetic_diagnosis
*  Sandra Carson - Wikipedia
... in smaller structures pinched off from them called polar bodies. Polar bodies are nonfunctional and incapable of being ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sandra_Carson
*  Carnegie stages - Wikipedia
Penetration of the fertilising sperm allows the oocyte to resume meiosis and the polar body is extruded. Pronuclear embryo. Two ... fertilization polar bodies Carnegie stage 1 is the unicellular embryo. This stage is divided into three substages. Primordial ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carnegie_stages
*  Oogenesis - Wikipedia
First Polar Body (Discarded afterward) + Secondary oocyte -(Meiosis II)-> Second Polar Body (Discarded afterward) + Ovum Oocyte ... Both polar bodies disintegrate at the end of Meiosis II, leaving only the ootid, which then eventually undergoes maturation ... As a result of meiosis I, the primary oocyte has now developed into the secondary oocyte and the first polar body. Immediately ... The function of forming polar bodies is to discard the extra haploid sets of chromosomes that have resulted as a consequence of ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oogenesis
*  Consultar por Materia - E-Prints Complutense
Gómez-Ullate Otaiza, David y Hone, A.N.W. y Sommacal, M (2004) New many-body problems in the plane with periodic solutions. New ... Blázquez Salcedo, José Luis y González Romero, Luis Manuel y Navarro Lérida, F. (2014) Polar quasi-normal modes of neutron ... Calogero, Francesco C. y Gómez-Ullate Otaiza, David (2007) Two novel classes of solvable many-body problems of goldfish type ... Gómez-Ullate Otaiza, David y González López, Artemio y Rodríguez González, Miguel Ángel (2000) New algebraic quantum many-body ...
  http://eprints.ucm.es/view/subjects/A=5F11=5F291.html
*  Speed City Resin Vintage Drag Racing Model Cars
These slicks will make a great replacement for the Polar Lights Funny Cars,. since the flopper style Funny Cars from 1968 ran ... Do not copy any Speed City Resin bodies or parts without permission and consent.. ... These slicks will make a great replacement for the Polar Lights Funny Cars,. since the flopper style Funny Cars from 1968 ran ... to the unlettered, odd shaped & slightly oversized 13.50' wide Polar Lights slicks.. ...
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Oocyte selection: Oocyte selection is a procedure that is performed prior to in vitro fertilization, in order to use oocytes with maximal chances of resulting in pregnancy. In contrast, embryo selection takes place after fertilization.Yury VerlinskyMetaphase: Metaphase (from the Greek μετά, "adjacent" and φάσις, "stage") is a stage of mitosis in the eukaryotic cell cycle in which chromosomes are at their second-most condensed and coiled stage (they are at their most condensed in anaphase. These chromosomes, carrying genetic information, align in the equator of the cell before being separated into each of the two daughter cells.Telescoping generations: Telescoping generations can occur in parthenogenetic species, such as aphids or other life forms that have the ability to reproduce without ovum fertilization. This occurrence is characterized by a viviparous female having a daughter growing inside her that is also parthenogenetically pregnant with a daughter cell.Pisaster ochraceusMaternal to zygotic transition: Maternal to zygotic transition (MZT) is the stage in embryonic development during which development comes under the exclusive control of the zygotic genome. This requires both zygotic genome activation (ZGA) and degradation of maternal products.Natural cycle in vitro fertilization: Natural Cycle IVF is in vitro fertilisation (IVF) using either of the following procedures:Reproductive technology: Reproductive technology (RT) encompasses all current and anticipated uses of technology in human and animal reproduction, including assisted reproductive technology, contraception and others.Spindle apparatus: In cell biology, the spindle apparatus refers to the subcellular structure of eukaryotic cells that separates chromosomes between daughter cells during cell division. It is also referred to as the mitotic spindle during mitosis, a process that produces genetically identical daughter cells, or the meiotic spindle during meiosis, a process that produces gametes with half the number of chromosomes of the parent cell.Asymmetric cell division: An asymmetric cell division produces two daughter cells with different cellular fates. This is in contrast to normal, symmetric, cell divisions, which give rise to daughter cells of equivalent fates.Sarah R, Lotfi: Sarah R. Lotfi (b.Premature chromosome condensation: Premature chromosome condensation (PCC) occurs in eukaryotic organisms when mitotic cells fuse with interphase cells. Chromatin, a substance that contains genetic material such as DNA, is normally found in a loose bundle inside a cell's nucleus.Immunosurgery: Immunosurgery is a method of removing an external cell layer of an object. Immunosurgery is to expose the specimen to a solution containing antibodies against the object, remove that solution and subsequently expose the object to complement.Cytokinesis: Cytokinesis (from the Greek κύτος, "container" and κίνησις, "motion") is the process during cell division in which the cytoplasm of a single eukaryotic cell is divided to form two daughter cells. It usually initiates during the early stages of mitosis, and sometimes meiosis, splitting a mitotic cell in two, to ensure that chromosome number is maintained from one generation to the next.Cumulus oophorus: The cumulus oophorus (Latin cumulus=heap, Greek oo=egg + phor=carrier; Latinized ending "-us"), also called discus proligerus, is a cluster of cells (called cumulus cells) that surround the oocyte both in the ovarian follicle and after ovulation. In the antral follicle, it may be regarded as an extension of the membrana granulosa.Postcoital test: The postcoital test (PCT) (also known as Sims test, Huhner test or Sims-Huhner test) is a test in the evaluation of infertility. The test examines interaction between sperm and mucus of the cervix.Embryo transfer: Embryo transfer refers to a step in the process of assisted reproduction in which embryos are placed into the uterus of a female with the intent to establish a pregnancy. This technique (which is often used in connection with in vitro fertilization (IVF)), may be used in humans or in animals, in which situations the goals may vary.Xueren: Xueren (English: The ScholarThe Scholar was the translation preferred by the editors of Xueren, appearing thus in their journal, but the title is sometimes also translated Scholars.) was an influential Chinese independent intellectual journal that ran from 1991 to 2000.Establishment of sister chromatid cohesion: Sister chromatid cohesion refers to the process by which sister chromatids are paired and held together during certain phases of the cell cycle. Establishment of sister chromatid cohesion is the process by which chromatin-associated cohesin protein becomes competent to physically bind together the sister chromatids.Razor strop: A razor strop (or razor strap) is a flexible strip of leather or canvas used to straighten and polish the blade of a straight razor, a knife, or a woodworking tool like a chisel. Unlike honing or sharpening a blade, in which a whetstone removes metal bent out of alignment from the blade's edge, stropping the blade re-aligns the indentations without removing any material.Prenatal nutrition: Nutrition and weight management before and during :pregnancy has a profound effect on the development of infants. This is a rather critical time for healthy fetal development as infants rely heavily on maternal stores and nutrient for optimal growth and health outcome later in life.Cell polarity: Polarity}}Microtubule: Microtubules ([+ tube] + [are a component of the [[cytoskeleton], found throughout the [[cytoplasm. These tubular polymers of tubulin can grow as long as 50 micrometres and are highly dynamic.Maturation promoting factor: Maturation-promoting factor (abbreviated MPF, also called mitosis-promoting factor or M-Phase-promoting factor) is the cyclin-Cdk complex that was discovered first in frog eggs. It stimulates the mitotic and meiotic phases of the cell cycle.Spermiogenesis: Spermiogenesis is the final stage of spermatogenesis, which sees the maturation of spermatids into mature, motile spermatozoa. The spermatid is more or less circular cell containing a nucleus, Golgi apparatus, centriole and mitochondria.Gastrocopta pellucida: Gastrocopta pellucida is a species of minute air-breathing land snail, a terrestrial pulmonate gastropod mollusk or micromollusk in the family Vertiginidae, the vertigo snails.Immortal DNA strand hypothesis: The immortal DNA strand hypothesis was proposed in 1975 by John Cairns as a mechanism for adult stem cells to minimize mutations in their genomes.Cairns, J.NocodazoleProtoplasm: Protoplasm is the living content of a cell that is surrounded by a plasma membrane. It is a general term for the cytoplasm.Centrosome cycle: Centrosomes are the major microtubule organizing center (MTOC) in mammalian cells. Failure of centrosome regulation can cause mistakes in chromosome segregation and is associated with aneuploidy.Phallusia nigraInverted microscope: An inverted microscope is a microscope with its light source and condenser on the top, above the stage pointing down, while the objectives and turret are below the stage pointing up. It was invented in 1850 by J.Clb 5,6 (Cdk1): Clb5 and Clb6 are B-type, S-phase cyclins in yeast that assist in cell cycle regulation.Morgan, DO (2007) 'The Cell Cycle: Principles of Control, Oxford University Press Clb5 and Clb6 bind and activate Cdk1, and high levels of these cyclins are required for entering S-phase.Pregnancy rate: Pregnancy rate is the success rate for getting pregnant. It is the percentage of all attempts that leads to pregnancy, with attempts generally referring to menstrual cycles where insemination or any artificial equivalent is used, which may be simple artificial insemination (AI) or AI with additional in vitro fertilization.DemecolcineTubulin: Tubulin ([+ -in]) in [[molecular biology can refer either to the tubulin protein superfamily of globular proteins, or one of the member proteins of that superfamily. α- and β-tubulins polymerize into microtubules, a major component of the eukaryotic cytoskeleton.Multiplex polymerase chain reaction: Multiplex polymerase chain reaction (Multiplex PCR) refers to the use of polymerase chain reaction to amplify several different DNA sequences simultaneously (as if performing many separate PCR reactions all together in one reaction). This process amplifies DNA in samples using multiple primers and a temperature-mediated DNA polymerase in a thermal cycler.Ovarian follicle: Ovarian follicle is a roughly spheroid cellular aggregation set found in the ovaries. It also secretes hormones that influence stages of the menstrual cycle.Living free-radical polymerization: Living free radical polymerization is a type of living polymerization where the active polymer chain end is a free radical. Several methods exist.Actin remodeling of neurons: Actin remodeling is a biochemical process in cells. In the actin remodeling of neurons, the protein actin is part of the process to change the shape and structure of dendritic spines.Ovarian tissue cryopreservation: Ovarian tissue cryopreservation is cryopreservation of tissue of the ovary of a female.

(1/37) Polar body-based preimplantation genetic diagnosis for Mendelian disorders.

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(2/37) Use of parthenogenetic activation of human oocytes as an experimental model for evaluation of polar body based PGD assay performance.

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(3/37) The cytogenetics of polar bodies: insights into female meiosis and the diagnosis of aneuploidy.

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(4/37) Regulation of division in mammalian oocytes: implications for polar body formation.

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(5/37) The small GTPase Cdc42 promotes membrane protrusion during polar body emission via ARP2-nucleated actin polymerization.

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(6/37) Pre-treatment of sperm reduces success of ICSI in the pig.

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(7/37) The spatial and mechanical challenges of female meiosis.

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(8/37) Relationship between meiotic spindle characteristics in human oocytes and the timing of the first zygotic cleavage after intracytoplasmic sperm injection.

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  • chromosomes
  • Professor Joep Geraedts, ESHRE chairman, told the 25th annual conference of the society today (Sunday June 28) that the Task Force would carry out a pilot study of PGS in one of each pair of 23 chromosomes in polar bodies, tiny cells that are a by-product of egg development, in collaboration with BlueGnome, a DNA technology company based in Cambridge, UK. (bio-medicine.org)
  • When the majority of errors occur in chromatids rather than entire chromosomes (a condition correlated with the age of the mother), screening only the first polar body will fail to detect a large percentage of defective eggs. (wikipedia.org)
  • sperm
  • Twinning would theoretically occur if two sperm fertilize both the egg and a polar body. (thefullwiki.org)
  • Techniques such as intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) can also be utilised to improve the chances of fertilisation being successful, which should be performed at least one hour (and optimally two to four hours) after the first polar body extrusion. (wikipedia.org)
  • researchers
  • By biopsying polar bodies at an early stage of egg development, the researchers believe that not only are they using a less invasive method of chromosome analysis, but also a more accurate one. (bio-medicine.org)
  • divide
  • Somatic cells are all the other cells that form the building blocks of the body and they only divide by mitosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • function
  • This leaves very little for the resulting polar bodies, which in most species die without function, though they do take on various special functions in other species. (wikipedia.org)
  • result
  • the full result was proven much later by Luis Santaló (1949) using a technique known as Steiner symmetrization by which any centrally symmetric convex body can be replaced with a more sphere-like body without decreasing its Mahler volume. (wikipedia.org)
  • human
  • These hormones are secreted by endocrine glands, and spread to different tissues in the human body. (wikipedia.org)
  • blocks
  • In addition to these genes, Pgc polar granule component blocks phosphorylation and consequently activation of RNA polymerase II and shuts down transcription. (wikipedia.org)