Polar Bodies: Minute cells produced during development of an OOCYTE as it undergoes MEIOSIS. A polar body contains one of the nuclei derived from the first or second meiotic CELL DIVISION. Polar bodies have practically no CYTOPLASM. They are eventually discarded by the oocyte. (from King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Oocytes: Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).Preimplantation Diagnosis: Determination of the nature of a pathological condition or disease in the OVUM; ZYGOTE; or BLASTOCYST prior to implantation. CYTOGENETIC ANALYSIS is performed to determine the presence or absence of genetic disease.Meiosis: A type of CELL NUCLEUS division, occurring during maturation of the GERM CELLS. Two successive cell nucleus divisions following a single chromosome duplication (S PHASE) result in daughter cells with half the number of CHROMOSOMES as the parent cells.Metaphase: The phase of cell nucleus division following PROMETAPHASE, in which the CHROMOSOMES line up across the equatorial plane of the SPINDLE APPARATUS prior to separation.Parthenogenesis: A unisexual reproduction without the fusion of a male and a female gamete (FERTILIZATION). In parthenogenesis, an individual is formed from an unfertilized OVUM that did not complete MEIOSIS. Parthenogenesis occurs in nature and can be artificially induced.Fertilization: The fusion of a spermatozoon (SPERMATOZOA) with an OVUM thus resulting in the formation of a ZYGOTE.Starfish: Echinoderms having bodies of usually five radially disposed arms coalescing at the center.Cleavage Stage, Ovum: The earliest developmental stage of a fertilized ovum (ZYGOTE) during which there are several mitotic divisions within the ZONA PELLUCIDA. Each cleavage or segmentation yields two BLASTOMERES of about half size of the parent cell. This cleavage stage generally covers the period up to 16-cell MORULA.Aneuploidy: The chromosomal constitution of cells which deviate from the normal by the addition or subtraction of CHROMOSOMES, chromosome pairs, or chromosome fragments. In a normally diploid cell (DIPLOIDY) the loss of a chromosome pair is termed nullisomy (symbol: 2N-2), the loss of a single chromosome is MONOSOMY (symbol: 2N-1), the addition of a chromosome pair is tetrasomy (symbol: 2N+2), the addition of a single chromosome is TRISOMY (symbol: 2N+1).Zygote: The fertilized OVUM resulting from the fusion of a male and a female gamete.Oogenesis: The process of germ cell development in the female from the primordial germ cells through OOGONIA to the mature haploid ova (OVUM).Fertilization in Vitro: An assisted reproductive technique that includes the direct handling and manipulation of oocytes and sperm to achieve fertilization in vitro.Sperm Injections, Intracytoplasmic: An assisted fertilization technique consisting of the microinjection of a single viable sperm into an extracted ovum. It is used principally to overcome low sperm count, low sperm motility, inability of sperm to penetrate the egg, or other conditions related to male infertility (INFERTILITY, MALE).Blastomeres: Undifferentiated cells resulting from cleavage of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE). Inside the intact ZONA PELLUCIDA, each cleavage yields two blastomeres of about half size of the parent cell. Up to the 8-cell stage, all of the blastomeres are totipotent. The 16-cell MORULA contains outer cells and inner cells.Spindle Apparatus: A microtubule structure that forms during CELL DIVISION. It consists of two SPINDLE POLES, and sets of MICROTUBULES that may include the astral microtubules, the polar microtubules, and the kinetochore microtubules.Asymmetric Cell Division: Unequal cell division that results in daughter cells of different sizes.Ovum: A mature haploid female germ cell extruded from the OVARY at OVULATION.Chromosomes: In a prokaryotic cell or in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, a structure consisting of or containing DNA which carries the genetic information essential to the cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)In Vitro Oocyte Maturation Techniques: Methods used to induce premature oocytes, that are maintained in tissue culture, to progress through developmental stages including to a stage that is competent to undergo FERTILIZATION.Blastocyst: A post-MORULA preimplantation mammalian embryo that develops from a 32-cell stage into a fluid-filled hollow ball of over a hundred cells. A blastocyst has two distinctive tissues. The outer layer of trophoblasts gives rise to extra-embryonic tissues. The inner cell mass gives rise to the embryonic disc and eventual embryo proper.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-mos: Cellular proteins encoded by the c-mos genes (GENES, MOS). They function in the cell cycle to maintain MATURATION PROMOTING FACTOR in the active state and have protein-serine/threonine kinase activity. Oncogenic transformation can take place when c-mos proteins are expressed at the wrong time.Cytokinesis: The process by which the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided.Embryonic Development: Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS.Cumulus Cells: The granulosa cells of the cumulus oophorus which surround the OVUM in the GRAAFIAN FOLLICLE. At OVULATION they are extruded with OVUM.Microinjections: The injection of very small amounts of fluid, often with the aid of a microscope and microsyringes.Genes, mos: Retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (mos) originally isolated from the Moloney murine sarcoma virus (Mo-MSV). The proto-oncogene mos (c-mos) codes for a protein which is a member of the serine kinase family. There is no evidence as yet that human c-mos can become transformed or has a role in human cancer. However, in mice, activation can occur when the retrovirus-like intracisternal A-particle inserts itself near the c-mos sequence. The human c-mos gene is located at 8q22 on the long arm of chromosome 8.Sperm-Ovum Interactions: Interactive processes between the oocyte (OVUM) and the sperm (SPERMATOZOA) including sperm adhesion, ACROSOME REACTION, sperm penetration of the ZONA PELLUCIDA, and events leading to FERTILIZATION.Cell Nucleus Division: The process by which the CELL NUCLEUS is divided.Embryo Transfer: The transfer of mammalian embryos from an in vivo or in vitro environment to a suitable host to improve pregnancy or gestational outcome in human or animal. In human fertility treatment programs, preimplantation embryos ranging from the 4-cell stage to the blastocyst stage are transferred to the uterine cavity between 3-5 days after FERTILIZATION IN VITRO.Cytogenetic Analysis: Examination of CHROMOSOMES to diagnose, classify, screen for, or manage genetic diseases and abnormalities. Following preparation of the sample, KARYOTYPING is performed and/or the specific chromosomes are analyzed.Insemination: The deposit of SEMEN or SPERMATOZOA into the VAGINA to facilitate FERTILIZATION.Chromatids: Either of the two longitudinally adjacent threads formed when a eukaryotic chromosome replicates prior to mitosis. The chromatids are held together at the centromere. Sister chromatids are derived from the same chromosome. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Bivalvia: A class in the phylum MOLLUSCA comprised of mussels; clams; OYSTERS; COCKLES; and SCALLOPS. They are characterized by a bilaterally symmetrical hinged shell and a muscular foot used for burrowing and anchoring.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Chromosomes, Human: Very long DNA molecules and associated proteins, HISTONES, and non-histone chromosomal proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE). Normally 46 chromosomes, including two sex chromosomes are found in the nucleus of human cells. They carry the hereditary information of the individual.Embryo, Mammalian: The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.Nuclear Transfer Techniques: Methods of implanting a CELL NUCLEUS from a donor cell into an enucleated acceptor cell.Cell Polarity: Orientation of intracellular structures especially with respect to the apical and basolateral domains of the plasma membrane. Polarized cells must direct proteins from the Golgi apparatus to the appropriate domain since tight junctions prevent proteins from diffusing between the two domains.Microtubules: Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.Maturation-Promoting Factor: Protein kinase that drives both the mitotic and meiotic cycles in all eukaryotic organisms. In meiosis it induces immature oocytes to undergo meiotic maturation. In mitosis it has a role in the G2/M phase transition. Once activated by CYCLINS; MPF directly phosphorylates some of the proteins involved in nuclear envelope breakdown, chromosome condensation, spindle assembly, and the degradation of cyclins. The catalytic subunit of MPF is PROTEIN P34CDC2.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Spermatozoa: Mature male germ cells derived from SPERMATIDS. As spermatids move toward the lumen of the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES, they undergo extensive structural changes including the loss of cytoplasm, condensation of CHROMATIN into the SPERM HEAD, formation of the ACROSOME cap, the SPERM MIDPIECE and the SPERM TAIL that provides motility.Embryonic and Fetal Development: Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS or FETUSES.Maternal Age: The age of the mother in PREGNANCY.Chromosomes, Mammalian: Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of MAMMALS.Zona Pellucida: A tough transparent membrane surrounding the OVUM. It is penetrated by the sperm during FERTILIZATION.Haploidy: The chromosomal constitution of cells, in which each type of CHROMOSOME is represented once. Symbol: N.Microscopy, Polarization: Microscopy using polarized light in which phenomena due to the preferential orientation of optical properties with respect to the vibration plane of the polarized light are made visible and correlated parameters are made measurable.Chromosome Segregation: The orderly segregation of CHROMOSOMES during MEIOSIS or MITOSIS.Nocodazole: Nocodazole is an antineoplastic agent which exerts its effect by depolymerizing microtubules.Cytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Cytochalasin B: A cytotoxic member of the CYTOCHALASINS.Centrosome: The cell center, consisting of a pair of CENTRIOLES surrounded by a cloud of amorphous material called the pericentriolar region. During interphase, the centrosome nucleates microtubule outgrowth. The centrosome duplicates and, during mitosis, separates to form the two poles of the mitotic spindle (MITOTIC SPINDLE APPARATUS).Urochordata: A subphylum of chordates intermediate between the invertebrates and the true vertebrates. It includes the Ascidians.Cyclin B1: A cyclin B subtype that colocalizes with MICROTUBULES during INTERPHASE and is transported into the CELL NUCLEUS at the end of the G2 PHASE.Protamine Kinase: An aspect of protein kinase (EC in which serine residues in protamines and histones are phosphorylated in the presence of ATP.Micromanipulation: The performance of dissections, injections, surgery, etc., by the use of micromanipulators (attachments to a microscope) that manipulate tiny instruments.Cyclin B: A cyclin subtype that is transported into the CELL NUCLEUS at the end of the G2 PHASE. It stimulates the G2/M phase transition by activating CDC2 PROTEIN KINASE.Pregnancy Rate: The ratio of the number of conceptions (CONCEPTION) including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; and fetal losses, to the mean number of females of reproductive age in a population during a set time period.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence: A type of IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION in which target sequences are stained with fluorescent dye so their location and size can be determined using fluorescence microscopy. This staining is sufficiently distinct that the hybridization signal can be seen both in metaphase spreads and in interphase nuclei.Diploidy: The chromosomal constitution of cells, in which each type of CHROMOSOME is represented twice. Symbol: 2N or 2X.Comparative Genomic Hybridization: A method for comparing two sets of chromosomal DNA by analyzing differences in the copy number and location of specific sequences. It is used to look for large sequence changes such as deletions, duplications, amplifications, or translocations.Ploidies: The degree of replication of the chromosome set in the karyotype.Demecolcine: An alkaloid isolated from Colchicum autumnale L. and used as an antineoplastic.Glycols: A generic grouping for dihydric alcohols with the hydroxy groups (-OH) located on different carbon atoms. They are viscous liquids with high boiling points for their molecular weights.Superovulation: Occurrence or induction of release of more ova than are normally released at the same time in a given species. The term applies to both animals and humans.Tubulin: A microtubule subunit protein found in large quantities in mammalian brain. It has also been isolated from SPERM FLAGELLUM; CILIA; and other sources. Structurally, the protein is a dimer with a molecular weight of approximately 120,000 and a sedimentation coefficient of 5.8S. It binds to COLCHICINE; VINCRISTINE; and VINBLASTINE.Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction: Methods for using more than one primer set in a polymerase chain reaction to amplify more than one segment of the target DNA sequence in a single reaction.Ovarian Follicle: An OOCYTE-containing structure in the cortex of the OVARY. The oocyte is enclosed by a layer of GRANULOSA CELLS providing a nourishing microenvironment (FOLLICULAR FLUID). The number and size of follicles vary depending on the age and reproductive state of the female. The growing follicles are divided into five stages: primary, secondary, tertiary, Graafian, and atretic. Follicular growth and steroidogenesis depend on the presence of GONADOTROPINS.Polymerization: Chemical reaction in which monomeric components are combined to form POLYMERS (e.g., POLYMETHYLMETHACRYLATE).Tubulin Modulators: Agents that interact with TUBULIN to inhibit or promote polymerization of MICROTUBULES.Actins: Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.Cryopreservation: Preservation of cells, tissues, organs, or embryos by freezing. In histological preparations, cryopreservation or cryofixation is used to maintain the existing form, structure, and chemical composition of all the constituent elements of the specimens.Securin: Securin is involved in the control of the metaphase-anaphase transition during MITOSIS. It promotes the onset of anaphase by blocking SEPARASE function and preventing proteolysis of cohesin and separation of sister CHROMATIDS. Overexpression of securin is associated with NEOPLASTIC CELL TRANSFORMATION and tumor formation.Embryo Culture Techniques: The technique of maintaining or growing mammalian EMBRYOS in vitro. This method offers an opportunity to observe EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT; METABOLISM; and susceptibility to TERATOGENS.

*  Polar body : Wikis (The Full Wiki)

Eventually, the polar bodies degenerate.. There may be one or two polar bodies in the ovum. The first polar body is one of the ... Polar body twinning. Polar body twinning is a hypothesized form of twinning in the female, where a polar body does not ... By analyzing the polar bodies, it is possible to infer the genetic status of the egg. Therefore, polar body analysis allows us ... A polar body is a cell structure found inside an ovum. Both animal and plant ova possess it. It is also known as a polar cell. ...

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Giant Oocytes with Two Meiotic Spindles and Two Polar Bodies: Report of Two Cases. Authors: Baris Baykal, Cem Korkmaz, Muhterem ... The sickled red blood cells tangle together, overcrowding blood vessels throughout the body and causing severe pain and ... Spontaneous physical activity of the offspring until adult age can be increased, and body composition, cardiac micro structure ... Both hot and cold empty body weights and dressing percentages were significantly (P , 0.01) affected by internal parasitic ...

*  Four-cell stage mouse blastomeres have different developmental properties | Development

pb, polar body. (B) Polar view of a three-cell stage embryo in which the blastomere labelled with dye has divided first through ... blastomere with an attached polar body and let it divide to give one one-eighth of a blastomere with an attached polar body (by ... E) A similar four-cell stage embryo to that shown in C in which the bead is now in a position proximal to the polar body (on ... The position of the second polar body at the two- and four-cell stages has been used as a marker of the animal pole. When the ...

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Second polar body inclusion results in diploid/triploid mixoploidy. Brems H - - 2003 ...

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Polar Body: Definition, Formation & Twinning 4:33 * Cnidaria Respiratory System 4:02 ...

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Application Note 140 - Preimplantation genetic diagnosis: Polar body biopsy 13.02.2017 0.9 MB ...

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Polar Body Cooling Products. Neck, Wrist and Body Cooling Products MS SOCIAL WORK NAVIGATOR. A Free Community Resources Service ... interferes with the transmission of nerve signals between the brain and spinal cord and other parts of the body. This ...

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Polar Body Cooling Products. Neck, Wrist and Body Cooling Products MS SOCIAL WORK NAVIGATOR. A Free Community Resources Service ... interferes with the transmission of nerve signals between the brain and spinal cord and other parts of the body. This ...

*  Suppression of Nek2A in mouse early embryos confirms its requirement for chromosome segregation | Journal of Cell Science

7C). Normal embryos contained blastomeres with identically sized nuclei and one or two polar bodies (Fig. 7C panel a). On the ... Nuclei of the polar body are indicated with open arrowheads. ... Message Body (Your Name) thought you would like to see the ... Distinct localization of Nek2 on the mid body of the telophase cells was evident (Kim et al., 2002). Such dynamic behavior of ... 2D). At telophase, the Nek2 protein was detected at the mid body. Nek2 appeared in association with spindle poles throughout ...

*  Plk4 and Aurora A cooperate in the initiation of acentriolar spindle assembly in mammalian oocytes | JCB

G) Percentage of polar body extrusion (PBE) in control oocytes as well as after inhibition of Plk1 (BI2536, n = 19), Plk4 ( ... Cytokinesis I is defined when extrusion of the polar body is detected. Time-lapse images were collected every 15 min over the ... F) Time from NEBD to establishment of a metaphase I plate until polar body extrusion (PBE). Plk1 and Aurora A inhibition ... A-E) Representative still images from NEBD until establishment of spindle bipolarity, anaphase I onset, and polar body ...

*  Various Characteristics of Hybrid between River Puffer, Takifugu obscurus and Tiger Puffer, T. rubripes, and Their Hybrid...

to prevent extrusion of the second polar body (Yoo et al., 2016). Induced hybrid triploid juveniles were determined by using ... In general, the fatty acid composition of whole body fish reflected the composition of their diets and body components (Farkas ... The final body weights (FBW) and the SGRs of the hybrid triploids (10.3%) were lower than those of diploids (Table 2). The SGR ... Total length and body weight of specimens were measured to the nearest 0.1 cm and 0.1 g using digital vernier calipers (CD-20 ...

*  Potential role of protein tyrosine phosphatase nonreceptor type 13 in the control of oocyte meiotic maturation | Development

This first meiotic division is completed with the emission of the first polar body. Unlike the mitotic cycle where DNA ... Message Body (Your Name) thought you would like to see the Development web site. ...

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Moreover, CB did not disturb spindle rotation, second polar body formation or pronuclei migration, and had no effect on the ... Lower body weight and serum albumin levels were found in the LPD group, indicating protein malnutrition. Lipid and protein ...

*  A novel small molecule that disrupts a key event during the oocyte-to-embryo transition in C. elegans | Development

2006). The eggshell is required for meiotic fidelity, polar-body extrusion and polarization of the C. elegans embryo. BMC Biol. ... Message Body (Your Name) thought you would like to see the Development web site. ... on precise spatial and temporal deployment to properly activate the zygotic genome and elaborate the basic aspects of the body ...

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Disruption of CLTC function using stealth siRNA caused a decreased first polar body extrusion rate and extensive spindle ... Rats' body weight (BW) was recorded weekly; their plasma lipids and their gut microbiota at week 11, 15 and 19 were analysed. ... Lean rats gained more body weight than obese ones from a high-fibre diet ...

*  Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences

Knockdown of Xkid leads to misaligned chromosomes and to the absence of the polar body extrusion during the first meiotic ... 2008 Translational control in early development: CPEB, P-bodies and germinal granules. Biochem. Soc. Trans. 36, 671-676. doi: ... Message Body (Your Name) thought you would like to see the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological ... early embryonic development in Drosophila and Caenorhabditis elegans requires establishment of body axes, a process largely ...

*  Practical Manual of In Vitro Fertilization

Polar Body Biopsy. Markus Montag, Maria Köster, K. van der Ven, and Hans van der Ven. 51. Cleavage Stage Embryo Biopsy. Alan R ...

*  exam 1 - molecular histo/cellbio/embr Flashcards - Cram.com

first polar body at ovulation, the secondary oocyte and its ... (cloud of follicular cells) ruptures the outer epithelium of ... where will you find the cell body of all the sensory periphery nerves?. It also migrates the least farthest away from the ... occurs when a certain area of cells in the body will change into something else. It's a pathologic de-differentiation and re- ... all internal parts of your body). -epithelium of alimentary canal. -pancreas and liver. -thyroid, parathyroid. -thymus. -lung ...

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a secondary oocyte and the first polar body What does the second maturation division of oogenesis? ...

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divides into a haploid secondary oocyte and the 1st polar body. (begins in utero, completed prior to ovulation) ... 2. by body cells and catabolized for energy. 3. by skeletal muscle for catabolism and stored as glycogen. 4. by adipose tissue ... 2. body growth. 3. growth of larynx. 4. pubic, facial and axillary hair. 5. Hb synthesis. 6. bone growth (closing epiphyseal ... What percentage of the body's calories are used in the 85% reabsorption of salt/water in the proximal tubule and loop of Henle ...

*  Systematic Bacteriology and Virology: Mycobacterium

Polar bodies and other intracellular elements may be present. Clubbing, lateral buds,branching may be observed. It is Gram ... Organisms spread by the circulatory system to other body tissues, this condition is miliary tuberculosis(as it resembles millet ...

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... or cytochalasin B may be added immediately after activation to prevent polar body extrusion and chromosome loss (Wakayama et al ... or dexamethasone to calves at a dose between approximately 5 and 15 mg/kg body weight/day. Alternatively, an antibody reactive ...

*  Errors in chromosome segregation during oogenesis and early embryogenesis - WRAP: Warwick Research Archive Portal

Analysis of nine chromosome probes in first polar bodies and metaphase II oocytes for the detection of aneuploidies. Eur J Hum ... Sequential FISH analysis of oocytes and polar bodies reveals aneuploidy mechanisms. Prenat Diagn 2003;23(8):663-8.. 16. Dyban A ... Comparative genomic hybridization analysis of human oocytes and polar bodies. Hum Reprod 2006c;21(9):2319-28.. 31. Fragouli E, ... Mechanisms of maternal aneuploidy: FISH analysis of oocytes and polar bodies in patients undergoing assisted conception. Hum ...

*  Asexual queen succession in a termite | Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences

Under automixis with terminal fusion, the first meiotic division proceeds normally, but the polar body formed in the second ... Message Body (Your Name) thought you would like to see the Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences ...

Oocyte selection: Oocyte selection is a procedure that is performed prior to in vitro fertilization, in order to use oocytes with maximal chances of resulting in pregnancy. In contrast, embryo selection takes place after fertilization.Yury VerlinskyMetaphase: Metaphase (from the Greek μετά, "adjacent" and φάσις, "stage") is a stage of mitosis in the eukaryotic cell cycle in which chromosomes are at their second-most condensed and coiled stage (they are at their most condensed in anaphase. These chromosomes, carrying genetic information, align in the equator of the cell before being separated into each of the two daughter cells.Telescoping generations: Telescoping generations can occur in parthenogenetic species, such as aphids or other life forms that have the ability to reproduce without ovum fertilization. This occurrence is characterized by a viviparous female having a daughter growing inside her that is also parthenogenetically pregnant with a daughter cell.Pisaster ochraceusMaternal to zygotic transition: Maternal to zygotic transition (MZT) is the stage in embryonic development during which development comes under the exclusive control of the zygotic genome. This requires both zygotic genome activation (ZGA) and degradation of maternal products.Natural cycle in vitro fertilization: Natural Cycle IVF is in vitro fertilisation (IVF) using either of the following procedures:Reproductive technology: Reproductive technology (RT) encompasses all current and anticipated uses of technology in human and animal reproduction, including assisted reproductive technology, contraception and others.Spindle apparatus: In cell biology, the spindle apparatus refers to the subcellular structure of eukaryotic cells that separates chromosomes between daughter cells during cell division. It is also referred to as the mitotic spindle during mitosis, a process that produces genetically identical daughter cells, or the meiotic spindle during meiosis, a process that produces gametes with half the number of chromosomes of the parent cell.Asymmetric cell division: An asymmetric cell division produces two daughter cells with different cellular fates. This is in contrast to normal, symmetric, cell divisions, which give rise to daughter cells of equivalent fates.Sarah R, Lotfi: Sarah R. Lotfi (b.Premature chromosome condensation: Premature chromosome condensation (PCC) occurs in eukaryotic organisms when mitotic cells fuse with interphase cells. Chromatin, a substance that contains genetic material such as DNA, is normally found in a loose bundle inside a cell's nucleus.Immunosurgery: Immunosurgery is a method of removing an external cell layer of an object. Immunosurgery is to expose the specimen to a solution containing antibodies against the object, remove that solution and subsequently expose the object to complement.Cytokinesis: Cytokinesis (from the Greek κύτος, "container" and κίνησις, "motion") is the process during cell division in which the cytoplasm of a single eukaryotic cell is divided to form two daughter cells. It usually initiates during the early stages of mitosis, and sometimes meiosis, splitting a mitotic cell in two, to ensure that chromosome number is maintained from one generation to the next.Cumulus oophorus: The cumulus oophorus (Latin cumulus=heap, Greek oo=egg + phor=carrier; Latinized ending "-us"), also called discus proligerus, is a cluster of cells (called cumulus cells) that surround the oocyte both in the ovarian follicle and after ovulation. In the antral follicle, it may be regarded as an extension of the membrana granulosa.Postcoital test: The postcoital test (PCT) (also known as Sims test, Huhner test or Sims-Huhner test) is a test in the evaluation of infertility. The test examines interaction between sperm and mucus of the cervix.Embryo transfer: Embryo transfer refers to a step in the process of assisted reproduction in which embryos are placed into the uterus of a female with the intent to establish a pregnancy. This technique (which is often used in connection with in vitro fertilization (IVF)), may be used in humans or in animals, in which situations the goals may vary.Xueren: Xueren (English: The ScholarThe Scholar was the translation preferred by the editors of Xueren, appearing thus in their journal, but the title is sometimes also translated Scholars.) was an influential Chinese independent intellectual journal that ran from 1991 to 2000.Establishment of sister chromatid cohesion: Sister chromatid cohesion refers to the process by which sister chromatids are paired and held together during certain phases of the cell cycle. Establishment of sister chromatid cohesion is the process by which chromatin-associated cohesin protein becomes competent to physically bind together the sister chromatids.Razor strop: A razor strop (or razor strap) is a flexible strip of leather or canvas used to straighten and polish the blade of a straight razor, a knife, or a woodworking tool like a chisel. Unlike honing or sharpening a blade, in which a whetstone removes metal bent out of alignment from the blade's edge, stropping the blade re-aligns the indentations without removing any material.Prenatal nutrition: Nutrition and weight management before and during :pregnancy has a profound effect on the development of infants. This is a rather critical time for healthy fetal development as infants rely heavily on maternal stores and nutrient for optimal growth and health outcome later in life.Cell polarity: Polarity}}Microtubule: Microtubules ([+ tube] + [are a component of the [[cytoskeleton], found throughout the [[cytoplasm. These tubular polymers of tubulin can grow as long as 50 micrometres and are highly dynamic.Maturation promoting factor: Maturation-promoting factor (abbreviated MPF, also called mitosis-promoting factor or M-Phase-promoting factor) is the cyclin-Cdk complex that was discovered first in frog eggs. It stimulates the mitotic and meiotic phases of the cell cycle.Spermiogenesis: Spermiogenesis is the final stage of spermatogenesis, which sees the maturation of spermatids into mature, motile spermatozoa. The spermatid is more or less circular cell containing a nucleus, Golgi apparatus, centriole and mitochondria.Gastrocopta pellucida: Gastrocopta pellucida is a species of minute air-breathing land snail, a terrestrial pulmonate gastropod mollusk or micromollusk in the family Vertiginidae, the vertigo snails.Immortal DNA strand hypothesis: The immortal DNA strand hypothesis was proposed in 1975 by John Cairns as a mechanism for adult stem cells to minimize mutations in their genomes.Cairns, J.NocodazoleProtoplasm: Protoplasm is the living content of a cell that is surrounded by a plasma membrane. It is a general term for the cytoplasm.Centrosome cycle: Centrosomes are the major microtubule organizing center (MTOC) in mammalian cells. Failure of centrosome regulation can cause mistakes in chromosome segregation and is associated with aneuploidy.Phallusia nigraInverted microscope: An inverted microscope is a microscope with its light source and condenser on the top, above the stage pointing down, while the objectives and turret are below the stage pointing up. It was invented in 1850 by J.Clb 5,6 (Cdk1): Clb5 and Clb6 are B-type, S-phase cyclins in yeast that assist in cell cycle regulation.Morgan, DO (2007) 'The Cell Cycle: Principles of Control, Oxford University Press Clb5 and Clb6 bind and activate Cdk1, and high levels of these cyclins are required for entering S-phase.Pregnancy rate: Pregnancy rate is the success rate for getting pregnant. It is the percentage of all attempts that leads to pregnancy, with attempts generally referring to menstrual cycles where insemination or any artificial equivalent is used, which may be simple artificial insemination (AI) or AI with additional in vitro fertilization.DemecolcineTubulin: Tubulin ([+ -in]) in [[molecular biology can refer either to the tubulin protein superfamily of globular proteins, or one of the member proteins of that superfamily. α- and β-tubulins polymerize into microtubules, a major component of the eukaryotic cytoskeleton.Multiplex polymerase chain reaction: Multiplex polymerase chain reaction (Multiplex PCR) refers to the use of polymerase chain reaction to amplify several different DNA sequences simultaneously (as if performing many separate PCR reactions all together in one reaction). This process amplifies DNA in samples using multiple primers and a temperature-mediated DNA polymerase in a thermal cycler.Ovarian follicle: Ovarian follicle is a roughly spheroid cellular aggregation set found in the ovaries. It also secretes hormones that influence stages of the menstrual cycle.Living free-radical polymerization: Living free radical polymerization is a type of living polymerization where the active polymer chain end is a free radical. Several methods exist.Actin remodeling of neurons: Actin remodeling is a biochemical process in cells. In the actin remodeling of neurons, the protein actin is part of the process to change the shape and structure of dendritic spines.Ovarian tissue cryopreservation: Ovarian tissue cryopreservation is cryopreservation of tissue of the ovary of a female.

(1/37) Polar body-based preimplantation genetic diagnosis for Mendelian disorders.


(2/37) Use of parthenogenetic activation of human oocytes as an experimental model for evaluation of polar body based PGD assay performance.


(3/37) The cytogenetics of polar bodies: insights into female meiosis and the diagnosis of aneuploidy.


(4/37) Regulation of division in mammalian oocytes: implications for polar body formation.


(5/37) The small GTPase Cdc42 promotes membrane protrusion during polar body emission via ARP2-nucleated actin polymerization.


(6/37) Pre-treatment of sperm reduces success of ICSI in the pig.


(7/37) The spatial and mechanical challenges of female meiosis.


(8/37) Relationship between meiotic spindle characteristics in human oocytes and the timing of the first zygotic cleavage after intracytoplasmic sperm injection.


second polar body

  • The second polar body is also haploid, with 23 unduplicated chromosome. (thefullwiki.org)
  • On the other hand, additional fertilization of the second polar body would result in half twinning with 75% genetic identity, because the twins would share all the maternal genome. (thefullwiki.org)
  • Although the orientations of the second cleavages do not appear to be predetermined, in the great majority of embryos (80%), one of the second cleavages is meridional (M) and the other is rather equatorial or oblique (E) with respect to the second polar body. (biologists.org)


  • Asymmetrical cell division ( cytokinesis ) leads to the production of polar bodies during oogenesis . (thefullwiki.org)


  • The remaining daughter cells generated from the meiotic events contain relatively little cytoplasm and are referred to as polar bodies. (thefullwiki.org)


  • Hemoglobin is the main constituent of red blood cells and allows the cells to raise up oxygen from the lungs and drop it off in tissues throughout the body, from the brain to the muscles. (vixra.org)
  • what are the 4 basic tissues of the body? (cram.com)


  • The first polar body is one of the two products in the first stage of meiosis and is considered haploid, with 23 duplicated chromosomes (one of each pair of homologous chromosomes). (thefullwiki.org)
  • Polar bodies are the by-products of the egg's division during meiosis . (thefullwiki.org)
  • The three haploid polar bodies are the by-products of this division, and are essentially discarded by the egg. (thefullwiki.org)


  • Peoples with the disease turn out abnormal hemoglobin, a protein in red blood cells affix to oxygen in the lungs and carries it to all parts of the body. (vixra.org)
  • This irregular hemoglobin causes the red blood cells to become inflexible and sickle- cell shaped, which causes them to fix together and hunk the flow of blood and oxygen to the body. (vixra.org)
  • The sickled red blood cells tangle together, overcrowding blood vessels throughout the body and causing severe pain and unfortunate health consequences. (vixra.org)
  • From which process are more body cells produced? (cram.com)


  • During OET, many important molecular events rely on precise spatial and temporal deployment to properly activate the zygotic genome and elaborate the basic aspects of the body plan. (biologists.org)


  • Sometimes the first polar body undergoes the second meiotic cell division. (thefullwiki.org)
  • This first meiotic division is completed with the emission of the first polar body. (biologists.org)