Plants, Genetically Modified: PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Plant Roots: The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Genes, Plant: The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Plant Shoots: New immature growth of a plant including stem, leaves, tips of branches, and SEEDLINGS.Plants, Medicinal: Plants whose roots, leaves, seeds, bark, or other constituent parts possess therapeutic, tonic, purgative, curative or other pharmacologic attributes, when administered to man or animals.DNA, Plant: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.Plant Development: Processes orchestrated or driven by a plethora of genes, plant hormones, and inherent biological timing mechanisms facilitated by secondary molecules, which result in the systematic transformation of plants and plant parts, from one stage of maturity to another.Plants, Toxic: Plants or plant parts which are harmful to man or other animals.Plant Cells: Basic functional unit of plants.Plant Stems: Parts of plants that usually grow vertically upwards towards the light and support the leaves, buds, and reproductive structures. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Genome, Plant: The genetic complement of a plant (PLANTS) as represented in its DNA.Arabidopsis: A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.Plants, Edible: An organism of the vegetable kingdom suitable by nature for use as a food, especially by human beings. Not all parts of any given plant are edible but all parts of edible plants have been known to figure as raw or cooked food: leaves, roots, tubers, stems, seeds, buds, fruits, and flowers. The most commonly edible parts of plants are FRUIT, usually sweet, fleshy, and succulent. Most edible plants are commonly cultivated for their nutritional value and are referred to as VEGETABLES.Plant Structures: The parts of plants, including SEEDS.Plant Growth Regulators: Any of the hormones produced naturally in plants and active in controlling growth and other functions. There are three primary classes: auxins, cytokinins, and gibberellins.Arabidopsis Proteins: Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.Plant Immunity: The inherent or induced capacity of plants to withstand or ward off biological attack by pathogens.Tobacco: A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain NICOTINE and other biologically active chemicals; its dried leaves are used for SMOKING.Plant Epidermis: A thin layer of cells forming the outer integument of seed plants and ferns. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Plant Stomata: Closable openings in the epidermis of plants on the underside of leaves. They allow the exchange of gases between the internal tissues of the plant and the outside atmosphere.Angiosperms: Members of the group of vascular plants which bear flowers. They are differentiated from GYMNOSPERMS by their production of seeds within a closed chamber (OVARY, PLANT). The Angiosperms division is composed of two classes, the monocotyledons (Liliopsida) and dicotyledons (Magnoliopsida). Angiosperms represent approximately 80% of all known living plants.Seeds: The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.Plant Poisoning: Poisoning by the ingestion of plants or its leaves, berries, roots or stalks. The manifestations in both humans and animals vary in severity from mild to life threatening. In animals, especially domestic animals, it is usually the result of ingesting moldy or fermented forage.Plant Transpiration: The loss of water vapor by plants to the atmosphere. It occurs mainly from the leaves through pores (stomata) whose primary function is gas exchange. The water is replaced by a continuous column of water moving upwards from the roots within the xylem vessels. (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Lycopersicon esculentum: A plant species of the family SOLANACEAE, native of South America, widely cultivated for their edible, fleshy, usually red fruit.Flowers: The reproductive organs of plants.Plant Tumors: A localized proliferation of plant tissue forming a swelling or outgrowth, commonly with a characteristic shape and unlike any organ of the normal plant. Plant tumors or galls usually form in response to the action of a pathogen or a pest. (Holliday, P., A Dictionary of Plant Pathology, 1989, p330)Chromosomes, Plant: Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of PLANTS.Plant Components, Aerial: The above-ground plant without the roots.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Plant Preparations: Material prepared from plants.Zea mays: A plant species of the family POACEAE. It is a tall grass grown for its EDIBLE GRAIN, corn, used as food and animal FODDER.Seedling: Very young plant after GERMINATION of SEEDS.Herbivory: The act of feeding on plants by animals.Power Plants: Units that convert some other form of energy into electrical energy.Biomass: Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.Fabaceae: The large family of plants characterized by pods. Some are edible and some cause LATHYRISM or FAVISM and other forms of poisoning. Other species yield useful materials like gums from ACACIA and various LECTINS like PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS from PHASEOLUS. Many of them harbor NITROGEN FIXATION bacteria on their roots. Many but not all species of "beans" belong to this family.Plant Nectar: Sugar-rich liquid produced in plant glands called nectaries. It is either produced in flowers or other plant structures, providing a source of attraction for pollinating insects and animals, as well as being a nutrient source to animal mutualists which provide protection of plants against herbivores.Oxylipins: Eighteen-carbon cyclopentyl polyunsaturated fatty acids derived from ALPHA-LINOLENIC ACID via an oxidative pathway analogous to the EICOSANOIDS in animals. Biosynthesis is inhibited by SALICYLATES. A key member, jasmonic acid of PLANTS, plays a similar role to ARACHIDONIC ACID in animals.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Plant Bark: The outer layer of the woody parts of plants.Symbiosis: The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.Photosynthesis: The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)Plant Physiological Processes: Physiological functions characteristic of plants.Cyclopentanes: A group of alicyclic hydrocarbons with the general formula R-C5H9.Indoleacetic Acids: Acetic acid derivatives of the heterocyclic compound indole. (Merck Index, 11th ed)Solanum tuberosum: A plant species of the genus SOLANUM, family SOLANACEAE. The starchy roots are used as food. SOLANINE is found in green parts.Soil: The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.Medicine, Traditional: Systems of medicine based on cultural beliefs and practices handed down from generation to generation. The concept includes mystical and magical rituals (SPIRITUAL THERAPIES); PHYTOTHERAPY; and other treatments which may not be explained by modern medicine.Plant Exudates: Substances released by PLANTS such as PLANT GUMS and PLANT RESINS.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Salicylic Acid: A compound obtained from the bark of the white willow and wintergreen leaves. It has bacteriostatic, fungicidal, and keratolytic actions.Root Nodules, Plant: Knobbed structures formed from and attached to plant roots, especially of LEGUMES, which result from symbiotic infection by nitrogen fixing bacteria such as RHIZOBIUM or FRANKIA. Root nodules are structures related to MYCORRHIZAE formed by symbiotic associations with fungi.Plant Lectins: Protein or glycoprotein substances of plant origin that bind to sugar moieties in cell walls or membranes. Some carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) from PLANTS also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. Many plant lectins change the physiology of the membrane of BLOOD CELLS to cause agglutination, mitosis, or other biochemical changes. They may play a role in plant defense mechanisms.Germ Cells, Plant: The reproductive cells of plants.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Mycorrhizae: Symbiotic combination (dual organism) of the MYCELIUM of FUNGI with the roots of plants (PLANT ROOTS). The roots of almost all higher plants exhibit this mutually beneficial relationship, whereby the fungus supplies water and mineral salts to the plant, and the plant supplies CARBOHYDRATES to the fungus. There are two major types of mycorrhizae: ectomycorrhizae and endomycorrhizae.Phytotherapy: Use of plants or herbs to treat diseases or to alleviate pain.Poaceae: A large family of narrow-leaved herbaceous grasses of the order Cyperales, subclass Commelinidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). Food grains (EDIBLE GRAIN) come from members of this family. RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL can be induced by POLLEN of many of the grasses.Chloroplasts: Plant cell inclusion bodies that contain the photosynthetic pigment CHLOROPHYLL, which is associated with the membrane of THYLAKOIDS. Chloroplasts occur in cells of leaves and young stems of plants. They are also found in some forms of PHYTOPLANKTON such as HAPTOPHYTA; DINOFLAGELLATES; DIATOMS; and CRYPTOPHYTA.Plant Infertility: The failure of PLANTS to complete fertilization and obtain seed (SEEDS) as a result of defective POLLEN or ovules, or other aberrations. (Dict. of Plant Genet. and Mol. Biol., 1998)Pollen: The fertilizing element of plants that contains the male GAMETOPHYTES.Brassica: A plant genus of the family Cruciferae. It contains many species and cultivars used as food including cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli, Brussel sprouts, kale, collard greens, MUSTARD PLANT; (B. alba, B. junica, and B. nigra), turnips (BRASSICA NAPUS) and rapeseed (BRASSICA RAPA).Germination: The initial stages of the growth of SEEDS into a SEEDLINGS. The embryonic shoot (plumule) and embryonic PLANT ROOTS (radicle) emerge and grow upwards and downwards respectively. Food reserves for germination come from endosperm tissue within the seed and/or from the seed leaves (COTYLEDON). (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Asteraceae: A large plant family of the order Asterales, subclass Asteridae, class Magnoliopsida. The family is also known as Compositae. Flower petals are joined near the base and stamens alternate with the corolla lobes. The common name of "daisy" refers to several genera of this family including Aster; CHRYSANTHEMUM; RUDBECKIA; TANACETUM.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Plant Oils: Oils derived from plants or plant products.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Droughts: Prolonged dry periods in natural climate cycle. They are slow-onset phenomena caused by rainfall deficit combined with other predisposing factors.Botany: The study of the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of plants.Fungi: A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.Peas: A variable annual leguminous vine (Pisum sativum) that is cultivated for its rounded smooth or wrinkled edible protein-rich seeds, the seed of the pea, and the immature pods with their included seeds. (From Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary, 1973)Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Triticum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE that is the source of EDIBLE GRAIN. A hybrid with rye (SECALE CEREALE) is called TRITICALE. The seed is ground into FLOUR and used to make BREAD, and is the source of WHEAT GERM AGGLUTININS.Abscisic Acid: Abscission-accelerating plant growth substance isolated from young cotton fruit, leaves of sycamore, birch, and other plants, and from potatoes, lemons, avocados, and other fruits.Phytosterols: A class of organic compounds known as STEROLS or STEROIDS derived from plants.Nitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.Hordeum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The EDIBLE GRAIN, barley, is widely used as food.Pseudomonas syringae: A species of gram-negative, fluorescent, phytopathogenic bacteria in the genus PSEUDOMONAS. It is differentiated into approximately 50 pathovars with different plant pathogenicities and host specificities.Bryopsida: A class of plants within the Bryophyta comprising the mosses, which are found in both damp (including freshwater) and drier situations. Mosses possess erect or prostrate leafless stems, which give rise to leafless stalks bearing capsules. Spores formed in the capsules are released and grow to produce new plants. (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990). Many small plants bearing the name moss are in fact not mosses. The "moss" found on the north side of trees is actually a green alga (CHLOROPHYTA). Irish moss is really a red alga (RHODOPHYTA). Beard lichen (beard moss), Iceland moss, oak moss, and reindeer moss are actually LICHENS. Spanish moss is a common name for both LICHENS and an air plant (TILLANDSIA usneoides) of the pineapple family. Club moss is an evergreen herb of the family LYCOPODIACEAE.Light: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.Disease Resistance: The capacity of an organism to defend itself against pathological processes or the agents of those processes. This most often involves innate immunity whereby the organism responds to pathogens in a generic way. The term disease resistance is used most frequently when referring to plants.Protoplasts: The protoplasm and plasma membrane of plant, fungal, bacterial or archaeon cells without the CELL WALL.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Chlorophyll: Porphyrin derivatives containing magnesium that act to convert light energy in photosynthetic organisms.Meristem: A group of plant cells that are capable of dividing infinitely and whose main function is the production of new growth at the growing tip of a root or stem. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Soybeans: An annual legume. The SEEDS of this plant are edible and used to produce a variety of SOY FOODS.Agrobacterium tumefaciens: A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria isolated from soil and the stems, leafs, and roots of plants. Some biotypes are pathogenic and cause the formation of PLANT TUMORS in a wide variety of higher plants. The species is a major research tool in biotechnology.Plastids: Self-replicating cytoplasmic organelles of plant and algal cells that contain pigments and may synthesize and accumulate various substances. PLASTID GENOMES are used in phylogenetic studies.Aphids: A family (Aphididae) of small insects, in the suborder Sternorrhyncha, that suck the juices of plants. Important genera include Schizaphis and Myzus. The latter is known to carry more than 100 virus diseases between plants.Rhizobium: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that activate PLANT ROOT NODULATION in leguminous plants. Members of this genus are nitrogen-fixing and common soil inhabitants.Trees: Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.Transformation, Genetic: Change brought about to an organisms genetic composition by unidirectional transfer (TRANSFECTION; TRANSDUCTION, GENETIC; CONJUGATION, GENETIC, etc.) and incorporation of foreign DNA into prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells by recombination of part or all of that DNA into the cell's genome.Volatile Organic Compounds: Organic compounds that have a relatively high VAPOR PRESSURE at room temperature.Cucumis sativus: A creeping annual plant species of the CUCURBITACEAE family. It has a rough succulent, trailing stem and hairy leaves with three to five pointed lobes.Cytokinins: Plant hormones that promote the separation of daughter cells after mitotic division of a parent cell. Frequently they are purine derivatives.Hydroponics: A technique for growing plants in culture solutions rather than in soil. The roots are immersed in an aerated solution containing the correct proportions of essential mineral salts. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Mustard Plant: Any of several BRASSICA species that are commonly called mustard. Brassica alba is white mustard, B. juncea is brown or Chinese mustard, and B. nigra is black, brown, or red mustard. The plant is grown both for mustard seed from which oil is extracted or used as SPICES, and for its greens used as VEGETABLES or ANIMAL FEED. There is no relationship to MUSTARD COMPOUNDS.Stress, Physiological: The unfavorable effect of environmental factors (stressors) on the physiological functions of an organism. Prolonged unresolved physiological stress can affect HOMEOSTASIS of the organism, and may lead to damaging or pathological conditions.Hemiptera: A large order of insects characterized by having the mouth parts adapted to piercing or sucking. It is comprised of four suborders: HETEROPTERA, Auchenorrhyncha, Sternorrhyncha, and Coleorrhyncha.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Endophytes: An endosymbiont that is either a bacterium or fungus living part of its life in a plant. Endophytes can benefit host plants by preventing pathogenic organisms from colonizing them.Biodiversity: The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.Solanaceae: A plant family of the order Solanales, subclass Asteridae. Among the most important are POTATOES; TOMATOES; CAPSICUM (green and red peppers); TOBACCO; and BELLADONNA.Adaptation, Physiological: The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Bryophyta: A division of the plant kingdom. Bryophyta contains the subdivision, Musci, which contains the classes: Andreaeopsida, BRYOPSIDA, and SPHAGNOPSIDA.Ferns: Seedless nonflowering plants of the class Filicinae. They reproduce by spores that appear as dots on the underside of feathery fronds. In earlier classifications the Pteridophyta included the club mosses, horsetails, ferns, and various fossil groups. In more recent classifications, pteridophytes and spermatophytes (seed-bearing plants) are classified in the Subkingdom Tracheobionta (also known as Tracheophyta).Plant Dispersal: The physical distribution of plants in various forms and stages of development through time and space.Ascomycota: A phylum of fungi which have cross-walls or septa in the mycelium. The perfect state is characterized by the formation of a saclike cell (ascus) containing ascospores. Most pathogenic fungi with a known perfect state belong to this phylum.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Xylem: Plant tissue that carries water up the root and stem. Xylem cell walls derive most of their strength from LIGNIN. The vessels are similar to PHLOEM sieve tubes but lack companion cells and do not have perforated sides and pores.Gibberellins: A class of plant growth hormone isolated from cultures of Gibberella fujikuroi, a fungus causing Bakanae disease in rice. There are many different members of the family as well as mixtures of multiple members; all are diterpenoid acids based on the gibberellane skeleton.Medicago sativa: A plant species of the family FABACEAE widely cultivated for ANIMAL FEED.Gymnosperms: Gymnosperms are a group of vascular plants whose seeds are not enclosed by a ripened ovary (fruit), in contrast to ANGIOSPERMS whose seeds are surrounded by an ovary wall. The seeds of many gymnosperms (literally, "naked seed") are borne in cones and are not visible. Taxonomists now recognize four distinct divisions of extant gymnospermous plants (CONIFEROPHYTA; CYCADOPHYTA; GINKGOPHYTA; and GNETOPHYTA).Nuclear Power Plants: Facilities that convert NUCLEAR ENERGY into electrical energy.Fruit: The fleshy or dry ripened ovary of a plant, enclosing the seed or seeds.Cell Wall: The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.Plantago: A plant genus of the family Plantaginaceae. The small plants usually have a dense tuft of basal leaves and long, leafless stalks bearing a terminal spike of small flowers. The seeds, known as PSYLLIUM, swell in water and are used as laxatives. The leaves have been used medicinally.Medicine, African Traditional: A system of traditional medicine which is based on the beliefs and practices of the African peoples. It includes treatment by medicinal plants and other materia medica as well as by the ministrations of diviners, medicine men, witch doctors, and sorcerers.Asparagus Plant: A plant genus in the family LILIACEAE (sometimes placed in Asparagaceae) that contains ECDYSTEROIDS and is an ingredient of Siotone. The shoots are used as a vegetable and the roots are used in FOLK MEDICINE.Cotyledon: A part of the embryo in a seed plant. The number of cotyledons is an important feature in classifying plants. In seeds without an endosperm, they store food which is used in germination. In some plants, they emerge above the soil surface and become the first photosynthetic leaves. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Lamiaceae: The mint plant family. They are characteristically aromatic, and many of them are cultivated for their oils. Most have square stems, opposite leaves, and two-lipped, open-mouthed, tubular corollas (united petals), with five-lobed, bell-like calyxes (united sepals).Ethnopharmacology: The study of the actions and properties of medicinal agents, often derived from PLANTS, indigenous to populations or ETHNIC GROUPS.Soil Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Genetic Complementation Test: A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.Cucurbita: A plant genus of the family CUCURBITACEAE, order Violales, subclass Dilleniidae, which includes pumpkin, gourd and squash.Helianthus: A genus herbs of the Asteraceae family. The SEEDS yield oil and are used as food and animal feed; the roots of Helianthus tuberosus (Jerusalem artichoke) are edible.Hypocotyl: The region of the stem beneath the stalks of the seed leaves (cotyledons) and directly above the young root of the embryo plant. It grows rapidly in seedlings showing epigeal germination and lifts the cotyledons above the soil surface. In this region (the transition zone) the arrangement of vascular bundles in the root changes to that of the stem. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Agrobacterium: A genus of gram negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria found in soil, plants, and marine mud.Phaseolus: A plant genus in the family FABACEAE which is the source of edible beans and the lectin PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS.Caulimovirus: A genus of PLANT VIRUSES, in the family CAULIMOVIRIDAE, that are transmitted by APHIDS in a semipersistent manner. Aphid-borne transmission of some caulimoviruses requires certain virus-coded proteins termed transmission factors.Brassica napus: A plant species of the family BRASSICACEAE best known for the edible roots.Medicago truncatula: A plant species of the family FABACEAE used to study GENETICS because it is DIPLOID, self fertile, has a small genome, and short generation time.Host-Parasite Interactions: The relationship between an invertebrate and another organism (the host), one of which lives at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.Host-Pathogen Interactions: The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.Carbon: A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.Botrytis: A mitosporic Leotiales fungal genus of plant pathogens. It has teleomorphs in the genus Botryotina.Embryophyta: Higher plants that live primarily in terrestrial habitats, although some are secondarily aquatic. Most obtain their energy from PHOTOSYNTHESIS. They comprise the vascular and non-vascular plants.GlucuronidaseLettuce: Any of the various plants of the genus Lactuca, especially L. sativa, cultivated for its edible leaves. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Oomycetes: Eukaryotes in the group STRAMENOPILES, formerly considered FUNGI, whose exact taxonomic level is unsettled. Many consider Oomycetes (Oomycota) a phylum in the kingdom Stramenopila, or alternatively, as Pseudofungi in the phylum Heterokonta of the kingdom Chromista. They are morphologically similar to fungi but have no close phylogenetic relationship to them. Oomycetes are found in both fresh and salt water as well as in terrestrial environments. (Alexopoulos et al., Introductory Mycology, 4th ed, pp683-4). They produce flagellated, actively motile spores (zoospores) that are pathogenic to many crop plants and FISHES.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Sitosterols: A family of sterols commonly found in plants and plant oils. Alpha-, beta-, and gamma-isomers have been characterized.Acclimatization: Adaptation to a new environment or to a change in the old.Daucus carota: A plant species of the family APIACEAE that is widely cultivated for the edible yellow-orange root. The plant has finely divided leaves and flat clusters of small white flowers.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Euphorbiaceae: The spurge family of flowering plants, in the order Euphorbiales, contains some 7,500 species in 275 genera. The family consists of annual and perennial herbs and woody shrubs or trees.Agriculture: The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.Introduced Species: Non-native organisms brought into a region, habitat, or ECOSYSTEM by human activity.Reproduction: The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)Cucurbitaceae: The gourd plant family of the order Violales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida. It is sometimes placed in its own order, Cucurbitales. 'Melon' generally refers to CUCUMIS; CITRULLUS; or MOMORDICA.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Photoreceptors, Plant: Plant proteins that mediate LIGHT SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They are involved in PHOTOTROPISM and other light adaption responses during plant growth and development . They include the phototropins, phytochromes (PHYTOCHROME), and members of the ubiquitous cryptochrome family.Thymus Plant: A plant genus of the family LAMIACEAE best known for the thyme spice added to foods.Fusarium: A mitosporic Hypocreales fungal genus, various species of which are important parasitic pathogens of plants and a variety of vertebrates. Teleomorphs include GIBBERELLA.Anthocyanins: A group of FLAVONOIDS derived from FLAVONOLS, which lack the ketone oxygen at the 4-position. They are glycosylated versions of cyanidin, pelargonidin or delphinidin. The conjugated bonds result in blue, red, and purple colors in flowers of plants.Sorghum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The grain is used for FOOD and for ANIMAL FEED. This should not be confused with KAFFIR LIME or with KEFIR milk product.Herbicides: Pesticides used to destroy unwanted vegetation, especially various types of weeds, grasses (POACEAE), and woody plants. Some plants develop HERBICIDE RESISTANCE.Carbohydrate Metabolism: Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Conserved Sequence: A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.Araceae: A plant family of the order Arales, subclass Arecidae, class Liliopsida (monocot). Many members contain OXALIC ACID and calcium oxalate (OXALATES).Nitrogen Fixation: The process in certain BACTERIA; FUNGI; and CYANOBACTERIA converting free atmospheric NITROGEN to biologically usable forms of nitrogen, such as AMMONIA; NITRATES; and amino compounds.Fragaria: A plant genus of the family ROSACEAE known for the edible fruit.Ribulose-Bisphosphate Carboxylase: A carboxy-lyase that plays a key role in photosynthetic carbon assimilation in the CALVIN-BENSON CYCLE by catalyzing the formation of 3-phosphoglycerate from ribulose 1,5-biphosphate and CARBON DIOXIDE. It can also utilize OXYGEN as a substrate to catalyze the synthesis of 2-phosphoglycolate and 3-phosphoglycerate in a process referred to as photorespiration.Glucosinolates: Substituted thioglucosides. They are found in rapeseed (Brassica campestris) products and related cruciferae. They are metabolized to a variety of toxic products which are most likely the cause of hepatocytic necrosis in animals and humans.Lignin: The most abundant natural aromatic organic polymer found in all vascular plants. Lignin together with cellulose and hemicellulose are the major cell wall components of the fibers of all wood and grass species. Lignin is composed of coniferyl, p-coumaryl, and sinapyl alcohols in varying ratios in different plant species. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Beetles: INSECTS of the order Coleoptera, containing over 350,000 species in 150 families. They possess hard bodies and their mouthparts are adapted for chewing.Gametogenesis, Plant: The process of germ cell development in plants, from the primordial PLANT GERM CELLS to the mature haploid PLANT GAMETES.Mutagenesis, Insertional: Mutagenesis where the mutation is caused by the introduction of foreign DNA sequences into a gene or extragenic sequence. This may occur spontaneously in vivo or be experimentally induced in vivo or in vitro. Proviral DNA insertions into or adjacent to a cellular proto-oncogene can interrupt GENETIC TRANSLATION of the coding sequences or interfere with recognition of regulatory elements and cause unregulated expression of the proto-oncogene resulting in tumor formation.Resins, Plant: Flammable, amorphous, vegetable products of secretion or disintegration, usually formed in special cavities of plants. They are generally insoluble in water and soluble in alcohol, carbon tetrachloride, ether, or volatile oils. They are fusible and have a conchoidal fracture. They are the oxidation or polymerization products of the terpenes, and are mixtures of aromatic acids and esters. Most are soft and sticky, but harden after exposure to cold. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & Dorland, 28th ed)Basidiomycota: A phylum of fungi that produce their sexual spores (basidiospores) on the outside of the basidium. It includes forms commonly known as mushrooms, boletes, puffballs, earthstars, stinkhorns, bird's-nest fungi, jelly fungi, bracket or shelf fungi, and rust and smut fungi.Salinity: Degree of saltiness, which is largely the OSMOLAR CONCENTRATION of SODIUM CHLORIDE plus any other SALTS present. It is an ecological factor of considerable importance, influencing the types of organisms that live in an ENVIRONMENT.Darkness: The absence of light.Gene Silencing: Interruption or suppression of the expression of a gene at transcriptional or translational levels.Sodium Chloride: A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.Pectins: High molecular weight polysaccharides present in the cell walls of all plants. Pectins cement cell walls together. They are used as emulsifiers and stabilizers in the food industry. They have been tried for a variety of therapeutic uses including as antidiarrheals, where they are now generally considered ineffective, and in the treatment of hypercholesterolemia.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Vicia faba: A plant species of the genus VICIA, family FABACEAE. The edible beans are well known but they cause FAVISM in some individuals with GLUCOSEPHOSPHATE DEHYDROGENASE DEFICIENCY. This plant contains vicine, convicine, Vicia lectins, unknown seed protein, AAP2 transport protein, and Vicia faba DNA-binding protein 1.Mesophyll Cells: Large and highly vacuolated cells possessing many chloroplasts occuring in the interior cross-section of leaves, juxtaposed between the epidermal layers.Environment: The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.Phytochrome: A blue-green biliprotein widely distributed in the plant kingdom.Selaginellaceae: A plant family of the order Selaginellales, class Lycopodiopsida, division Lycopodiophyta, subkingdom Tracheobionta. Members contain bilobetin. The rarely used common name of resurrection plant is mainly used with CRATEROSTIGMA.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Liliaceae: A monocot family within the order Liliales. This family is divided by some botanists into other families such as Convallariaceae, Hyacinthaceae and Amaryllidaceae. Amaryllidaceae, which have inferior ovaries, includes CRINUM; GALANTHUS; LYCORIS; and NARCISSUS and are known for AMARYLLIDACEAE ALKALOIDS.Fertilizers: Substances or mixtures that are added to the soil to supply nutrients or to make available nutrients already present in the soil, in order to increase plant growth and productivity.Salt-Tolerance: The ability of organisms to sense and adapt to high concentrations of salt in their growth environment.Expressed Sequence Tags: Partial cDNA (DNA, COMPLEMENTARY) sequences that are unique to the cDNAs from which they were derived.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Genetic Engineering: Directed modification of the gene complement of a living organism by such techniques as altering the DNA, substituting genetic material by means of a virus, transplanting whole nuclei, transplanting cell hybrids, etc.Citrus: A plant genus of the family RUTACEAE. They bear the familiar citrus fruits including oranges, grapefruit, lemons, and limes. There are many hybrids which makes the nomenclature confusing.Inflorescence: A cluster of FLOWERS (as opposed to a solitary flower) arranged on a main stem of a plant.

*  Plant Life: Growth Habits

Genetically Modified Foods. *Genetics: Mendelian. *Genetics: Mutations. *Genetics: Post-Mendelian. *Germination and Seedling ... Climbing Plants. Climbing plants are also called vines. The stems trail along or coil around other plants or structures as they ... Plant habit, also known as plant life form, is the characteristic shape, appearance, or growth form of a plant species. It ... Mat-Forming Plants. Mat-forming plants have many stolons (creeping stems) that grow in a trail along soil or water surfaces and ...
lifeofplant.blogspot.co.id/2011/03/growth-habits.html

*  Calls for GM plants to be licensed (From Banbury Cake)

Genetically modified plants should be licensed in the same way as medicinal drugs under a sweeping reform to the regulatory ... Genetically modified plants should be licensed in the same way as medicinal drugs under a sweeping reform to the regulatory ... It warned against over-selling the benefits of GM but added: "The longer the EU continues to oppose GM whilst the rest of the ... It called for a rebalance of the system to look at benefits from GM as well as risks, with regulation to be based on "traits" ...
banburycake.co.uk/uk_national_news/11076662.Calls_for_GM_plants_to_be_licensed/?ref=nt

*  Strategy to Produce Marker-free Transgenic Plants

However, there are perceived risks in wide-scale deployment of SMG-transgenic plants, and therefore research has recently been ... have been extraordinarily useful in enabling plant transformation because of the low efficiency of transgene integration. ... Genetically Modified Mustard: Dhara Mustard Hybrid-11 * Molecular Breeding and Marker-Assisted Selection , Applications and ... Using plant DNA (P-DNA) Recent studies have shown that plants have T-DNA border-like sequences in rice and Arabidopsis and ...
https://biotecharticles.com/Biotech-Research-Article/Strategy-to-Produce-Marker-free-Transgenic-Plants-3795.html

*  Plant Biotechnology: Current and Future Applications of Genetically Modified Crops - Hyfoma.com

Current and Future Applications of Genetically Modified Crops ... Plant Biotechnology: Current and Future Uses of Genetically ... Plant Biotechnology: Current and Future Applications of Genetically Modified Crops. Author: Nigel Halford (Editor). ISBN13: ... use and regulation of GM crops. Split into three sections, Part 1 introduces GM crops and describes the GM crops that are used ... Part 2 looks at new developments and methodologies in areas including potential applications of GM crops for the production of ...
hyfoma.com/es/libro/7922

*  Consfearacynewz: Scientists Create Genetically Modified Plants to Produce Pharmaceutical Drugs

Of course not everyone is excited for genetically modified plants.. Creating Pharmaceutical Drug-Producing Genetically Modified ... So why create genetically modified plants and other organisms? Some scientists may think they are benefiting society, but no ... The idea of genetically modified plants is disturbing alone, but why tamper with nature already producing natural, beneficial ... the genetically modified plants, in stead of producing natural alkaloids, will actually produce variant pharmaceutical drug ...
consfearacynewz.blogspot.com/2012/08/scientists-create-genetically-modified.html

*  Genetically modified tobacco plants produce antibodies to treat rabies | ViroBlogy

... but a genetically altered version of the plant might provide an inexpensive cure for the deadly rabies virus.Ed Rybicki's ... insight:Going green...seriously, plants represent an extremely useful alternative production system for many biologicals - and ... Genetically modified tobacco plants produce antibodies to treat rabies. See on Scoop.it - Virology News. ... Smoking tobacco is bad for your health, but a genetically altered version of the plant might provide an inexpensive cure for ...
https://rybicki.wordpress.com/2013/02/02/genetically-modified-tobacco-plants-produce-antibodies-to-treat-rabies/

*  Why genetically modified plants (GMO) will play a huge part in our future - Pangealogical

Why genetically modified plants (GMO) will play a huge part in our future. We seem to see the use of genetically modified ... This point of this post is to explain how genetically modified plants could generate a huge number of useful products and how ... of interest into a plant virus and subsequently infecting the plant.. Both of these methods result in the plant up-regulating ... Genetically modified food is not permitted anywhere in the world. This is due to public weariness with polls showing 52% of ...
https://pangealogical.com/2015/11/25/why-genetically-modified-plants-gmo-will-play-a-huge-part-in-our-future/

*  EU Pundit : Issues of the European Union: Patent Law and Genetically Modified Seeds and Plants: Oral Argument in Bowman v....

... other plants and weeds in the field are killed while the resistant genetically modified plants survive and grow.. In other ... Patent Law and Genetically Modified Seeds and Plants: Oral Argument in Bowman v. Monsanto in the U.S. Supreme Court Suggests ... Rather, it is quite clear that the Supreme Court will hold that successive generations of self-replicating genetically modified ... humanly and genetically-modified non-replicated seed.. Oral argument suggests quite convincingly that the Supreme Court will ...
eupundit.blogspot.com/2013/02/patent-law-and-genetically-modified.html

*  Frontiers | Production of genetically and developmentally modified seaweeds: exploiting the potential of artificial selection...

Because seaweed (or marine macroalgae) anatomy is much less complex than that of land plants and because seaweeds belong to ... Here, we present efficient sources of developmentally and genetically modified seaweeds - somatic variants, artificial hybrids ... Here, we present efficient sources of developmentally and genetically modified seaweeds - somatic variants, artificial hybrids ... Because seaweed (or marine macroalgae) anatomy is much less complex than that of land plants and because seaweeds belong to ...
journal.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fpls.2015.00127/full

*  Scientific Publications | European Food Safety Authority

Guidance on allergenicity assessment of genetically modified plants. Number of Pages: 49 guidance, allergenicity assessment, ...
efsa.europa.eu/en/publications/?f[0]=sm_field_so_type:guidance&f[1]=sm_field_so_type:Event Report

*  Co-Extra Country Reports

GMO Planting. Genetically modified plants in Slovenia. In Slovenia, there have been neither cultivations nor field trials ...
coextra.eu/country_reports/gmo_planting_SI_en.html

*  Staff Expertise at the University of Otago, New Zealand

Plant molecular biology; Plant reproduction; Genetically modified plants Work: 64 3 479 5151 Email: lynette.brownfield@otago.ac ... Plant flowering; Transgenic plants; Plant biotechnology Work: 64 3 479 5149 Email: richard.macknight@otago.ac.nz ... Human origins; Polynesian origins; Plant evolution; Origins of crop plants; Sweet potato/kumara; Ancient DNA Work: 64 3 479 ... Native mushrooms and toadstools; Mycology (the study of fungi); Evolution of plants and fungi (phylogenetics) Work: 64 3 479 ...
otago.ac.nz/mediaexpertise/index.php?option=display&secondary=20

*  FSHN02-2/FS084: Genetically Modified Food

Commonly planted GM foods include many major agricultural commodities, with genetically modified plants accounting for 88 ... What are GM foods?. A genetically modified (GM) food or genetically modified organism (GMO) results from the use of recombinant ... Types of GM Foods. A genetically modified organism (GMO) is one that has had its genetic material altered through one of ... "Health Aspects of Marker Genes in Genetically Modified Plants: Report of a WHO workshop." Geneva: World Health Organization. ...
edis.ifas.ufl.edu/fs084

*  BBC NEWS | Business | Monsanto drops plans for GM wheat

The world's first genetically modified wheat is to be shelved because of consumer resistance. ... How a plant is genetically modified. In pictures. "This is another major financial blow to Monsanto. It should now pull-out of ... The world's first genetically modified wheat is to be shelved because of consumer resistance. US agri-chemical company Monsanto ... They believe that wheat is too close to an obvious food like bread to be genetically modified and sold easily. Foreign buyers ...
news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/business/3702739.stm

*  Genetically modified organism

Since the first commercial cultivation of genetically modified plants in 1996, they have been modified to be tolerant to the ... Genetically modified mammals are an important category of genetically modified organisms. Transgenic mice are often used to ... In New Zealand, no genetically modified food is grown and no medicines containing live genetically-modified organisms have been ... White book Genetically Modified Crops. *^ "Evidence for landscape-level, pollen-mediated gene flow from genetically modified ...
sources.com/SSR/Docs/SSRW-Genetically_modified_organism.htm

*  S-Nitrosoglutathione is a component of wound- and salicylic acid-induced systemic responses in Arabidopsis thaliana.

... and an important player in defence responses to herbivory and pathogen attack in plants. It has been demonstrated previously ... Plant Leaves / drug effects, enzymology, genetics. Plants, Genetically Modified. S-Nitrosoglutathione / metabolism*. S- ... Gene Expression Regulation, Plant / drug effects. Glutathione Reductase / metabolism. Oxylipins / metabolism, pharmacology. ... and an important player in defence responses to herbivory and pathogen attack in plants. It has been demonstrated previously ...
biomedsearch.com/nih/S-Nitrosoglutathione-component-wound-salicylic/22371078.html

*  Ethics: Theory and Contemporary Issues, 9th Edition - 9781305958678 - Cengage

Genetically Modified Plants and Animals. Legal and Ethical Issues. Athletic and Cognitive Enhancement. Stem Cell Research. ... Genetically Modified Organisms. Readings: Various Authors, Transhumanist Declaration; Leon R. Kass, Ageless Bodies, Happy Souls ...
cengage.com/c/ethics-theory-and-contemporary-issues-9e-mackinnon/9781305958678

*  2010 pi day Pie Bake off: Dont forget to vote - Tomorrow's Table

They want glowing plants.. The Kickstarter Fight Over Genetically Modified Plants - TIME. ... Spring in California: Saturday is Fascination of Plants Day. On Saturday, May 18, the second international "Fascination of ... Michael Babbitt on GM food: Golden rice will save millions of people from vitamin A deficiency. - Slate Magazine ... "I've seen no better introduction to the ground truth of genetically engineered crops and the promising directions this ' ...
scienceblogs.com/tomorrowstable/2010/03/16/2010-pi-day-pie-bake-off-dont/

*  GM plants, conceptual artwork - Stock Image G280/0520 - Science Photo Library

This could represent genetically modified (GM) plants. Genetic modification of plants involves altering their DNA, the chemical ... Plant stems and leaves forming structures that echo DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) double helices. ... It is controversial whether GM foods are safe to eat and what their environmental effects will be. - Stock Image G280/0520 ... This could represent genetically modified (GM) plants. Genetic modification of plants involves altering their DNA, the chemical ...
sciencephoto.com/media/212428/view

*  Food safety and quality: OECD Unique Identifier details

Document of the Scientific Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms for the risk assessment of genetically modified plants ... The notes for rot ear and stem denote the smallest lepidopteran pest attack genetically modified plants may be delaying the ... Allergenicity assessment of foods derived from genetically modified plants. Food technology 50:83-88. 33. Fuchs, R.L. 1996b. ... It has a high degree of domestication, without scientific reasons to predict the survival of GM and non-GM plants outside the ...
fao.org/food/food-safety-quality/gm-foods-platform/browse-information-by/oecd-unique-identifier/oecd-unique-identifier-details/en/?ui=169594

*  Professor Michael Shaw - University of Reading

Introgression from Genetically Modified Plants into Wild Relatives. CABI Publishing, Wallingford, Oxfordshire, pp. 339-349. ... Shaw, M. W. and Osborne, T. M. (2011) Geographic distribution of plant pathogens in response to climate change. Plant Pathology ... Ecology and Management of Plant Disease. Research Interests:. Plant disease epidemiology and ecology, studied by modelling and ... Jeger, M. J., Salama, N. K. G., Shaw, M. W., van den Berg , F. and van den Bosch, F. (2013) Effects of plant pathogens on ...
reading.ac.uk/biologicalsciences/about/staff/m-w-shaw.aspx

*  Genetically Modified Foods - AskMen

GM crops are modified by direct manipulation of the plants DNA. Old-fashioned crops are modified the old-fashioned way, by ... GMO foods are made from genetically modified organisms, usually plants. The plants have altered genes and thus attributes that ... Many Europeans simply refused to accept foods made from GM crops or animals. Today the modified crops are rare in Europe and ... Today, many crops have been genetically modified, including soybeans, corn, cotton, and canola. Most GMO crops are grown in ...
https://askmen.com/sports/foodcourt_150/179_eating_well.html

*  Golden Rice: The true story | Greenpeace Canada

The plants were genetically modified to resist monsantos own pesticides...thats it...they are not more dorught resistant,they ... thats what is gm. thats it...the gm plant isnt better in anyway!! they just dont die when doused in round up....MONSANTO is a ... thats what is gm. thats it...the gm plant isnt better in anyway!! they just dont die when doused in round up....MONSANTO is a ... Furthermore, a few large multinational companies hold the majority of patents for genetically engineered plants. Therefore, ...
greenpeace.org/canada/en/Blog/golden-rice-the-true-story/blog/42223/?expandid=b91988&entryid=42223

*  Oxford University Gazette, 14 January 1999: Lectures

11 Mar.: `Crop resistance to nematodes: a benign application for genetically modified plants.' Return to List of Contents of ... 4 Mar.: `Plant developmental genetics: from transposons to proteomes.' Return to List of Contents of this section Trinity Term ... Department of Plant Sciences The following research talks will be given at 4 p.m. on Thursdays in the Large Lecture Theatre, ... 25 Feb.: `High pressures and small volumes: quantitative maps of plant physiology at single cell resolution.'. DR C. MARTIN, ...
ox.ac.uk/gazette/1998-9/weekly/140199/lecs.htm

*  Past Lectures | Science Dialogue Program | Japan Society for the Promotion of Science

Development of Genetically Modified Plants with Improved Stress Tolerance. Dr. WEINER, A. K.. JAMSTEC. GERMANY. Earth and ... Plant Production and Environmental Agriculture. Induced Systemic Resistance by Plant Growth Promoting Fungi (PGPF) in Plants. ... Research on the Battle Between Plants, Microorganisms and Other Plants. June 9, 2016. Fukui Prefectural Fujishima Senior High ... When Plants Take the Control of the Nitrogen Cycle. Dr. CONWAY, C. E.. National Museum of Nature and Science. NEW ZEALAND. ...
jsps.go.jp/english/e-plaza/e-sdialogue/FY2016.html

Plant perception (physiology): Plant perception is the ability of plants to sense and respond to the environment to adjust their morphology, physiology and phenotype accordingly. Other disciplines such as plant physiology, ecology and molecular biology are used to assess this ability.Canna Leaf Roller: Cannas are largely free of pests, but in the USA plants sometimes fall victim the Canna Leaf Roller, which can actually be two different insects. Larva of the Brazilian skipper butterfly (Calpodes ethlius), also known as the Larger Canna Leaf Roller, cut the leaves and roll them over to live inside while pupating and eating the leaf.Endodermis: The endodermis is the central, innermost layer of cortex in some land plants. It is made of compact living cells surrounded by an outer ring of endodermal cells that are impregnated with hydrophobic substances (Casparian Strip) to restrict apoplastic flow of water to the inside.PhytomedicineMedicinal plants of the American West: Many plants that grow in the American West have use in traditional and herbal medicine.Revegetation: Revegetation is the process of replanting and rebuilding the soil of disturbed land. This may be a natural process produced by plant colonization and succession, or an artificial (manmade) wilderness engineering, accelerated process designed to repair damage to a landscape due to wildfire, mining, flood, or other cause.Pith: 250px|right|thumb|[[Elderberry shoot cut longitudinally to show the broad, solid pith (rough-textured, white) inside the wood (smooth, yellow-tinged). Scale in mm.GAI (Arabidopsis thaliana gene)Tropical Asia: Through a crop-based biodiversity, natural resources and animals (birds, fruits, and forests), Tropical Asia is economically and physiogeographically rich. There are 16 countries of Tropical Asia ranging in size from around 610 km² (Singapore) to 3,000,000 km² (India).Aureusidin synthase: Aureusidin synthase (, AmAS1) is an enzyme with system name 2',4,4',6'-tetrahydroxychalcone 4'-O-beta-D-glucoside:oxygen oxidoreductase.Nicotiana glauca: Nicotiana glauca is a species of wild tobacco known by the common name tree tobacco. Its leaves are attached to the stalk by petioles (many other Nicotiana species have sessile leaves), and its leaves and stems are neither [nor sticky like Nicotiana tabacum].The Werewolf (1956 film): The Werewolf is a low-budget American 1956 science fiction horror film, produced by Sam Katzman and directed by Fred F. Sears from a script by Robert E.Stoma: In botany, a stoma (plural "stomata"), also called a stomate (plural "stomates") (from Greek ["mouth"[http://www.perseus.AmborellaTomato seed oil: Tomato seed oil is a vegetable oil extracted from the seeds of tomatoes.List of poisonous plantsPotometerBranching order of bacterial phyla (Gupta, 2001): There are several models of the Branching order of bacterial phyla, one of these was proposed in 2001 by Gupta based on conserved indels or protein, termed "protein signatures", an alternative approach to molecular phylogeny. Some problematic exceptions and conflicts are present to these conserved indels, however, they are in agreement with several groupings of classes and phyla.Sun-dried tomato: Sun-dried tomatoes are ripe tomatoes that lose most of their water content after spending a majority of their drying time in the sun. These tomatoes are usually pre-treated with sulfur dioxide or salt before being placed in the sun in order to improve quality.Flower box: __NOTOC__Opine: Opine biosynthesis is catalyzed by specific enzymes encoded by genes contained in a small segment of DNA (known as the T-DNA, for 'transfer DNA'), which is part of the Ti plasmid, inserted by the bacterium into the plant genome. The opines are used by the bacterium as an important source of nitrogen and energy.Shatter (novel): Shatter is a psychological thriller written by the Australian author Michael Robotham that was published in 2008. Professor Joseph O'Loughlin (referred to as Joe throughout the novel) is tasked by the police with stopping a woman, Christine Wheeler, from committing suicide, only to fail.Protein primary structure: The primary structure of a peptide or protein is the linear sequence of its amino acid structural units, and partly comprises its overall biomolecular structure. By convention, the primary structure of a protein is reported starting from the amino-terminal (N) end to the carboxyl-terminal (C) end.Southern corn leaf blight: Southern corn leaf blight (SCLB) is a fungal disease of maize caused by the plant pathogen Bipolaris maydis (also known as Cochliobolus heterostrophus in its teleomorph state).Chance seedling: A chance seedling is a plant that is the product of unintentional breeding. It may be a genetically unique individual with desirable characteristics that is then intentionally bred.Chemical defense: Chemical defense is the use of chemical compounds by plants and animals to deter herbivory and predation. Chemical defenses can also be used in competitive interactions to prevent overgrowth or maintain spatial dominance.Miljacka Hydroelectric Power Plant: 230px|thumb|right|Miljacka Hydroelectric Power Plant.Lonchocarpus: Lonchocarpus is a plant genus in the legume family (Fabaceae). The species are called lancepods due to their fruit resembling an ornate lance tip or a few beads on a string.Thief of ThievesOctadecanoid pathway: The octadecanoid pathway is a reasonably well-characterized biosynthetic pathway for the production of the phytohormone jasmonic acid (JA), an important hormone for induction of defense genes. JA is synthesized from alpha-linolenic acid, which can be released from the plasma membrane by certain lipase enzymes.Symmetry element: A symmetry element is a point of reference about which symmetry operations can take place. In particular, symmetry elements can be centers of inversion, axes of rotation and mirror planes.Carl Barks: "United States Social Security Death Index," index, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/pal:/MM9.Symbiosis Center of Health Care: Symbiosis Center of Health Care (SCHC) is an organization under Symbiosis Society which takes care of health of symbiosis family be it student or staff.http://www.Photosynthesis: Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to convert light energy, normally from the Sun, into chemical energy that can be later released to fuel the organisms' activities. This chemical energy is stored in carbohydrate molecules, such as sugars, which are synthesized from carbon dioxide and water – hence the name photosynthesis, from the Greek [phōs, "light", and σύνθεσις], synthesis, "putting together".CyclopentaneAuxin binding protein: In molecular biology, the auxin binding protein family is a family of proteins which bind auxin. They are located in the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER).Superior (potato): 'Superior' is a white-skinned and white-fleshed, midseason potato variety. It was released by the University of Wisconsin potato breeding program in 1962 and is not under plant variety protection.Index of soil-related articles: This is an index of articles relating to soil.Dorjee KhanduEcosystemAlizarine Yellow RJacalin: Jacalin is a plant based lectin, but not a legume lectin, found in jackfruit. It has been studied for capturing O-glycoproteins such as mucins and IgA1, for potential applications in human immunology.Silent mutation: Silent mutations are mutations in DNA that do not significantly alter the phenotype of the organism in which they occur. Silent mutations can occur in non-coding regions (outside of genes or within introns), or they may occur within exons.Arbuscular mycorrhiza: An arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (plural mycorrhizae or mycorrhizas, a.k.College of Practitioners of PhytotherapyPaddock: A paddock has two primary meanings in different parts of the English-speaking world. In Canada, the USA and UK, a paddock is a small enclosure used to keep horses.LeucoplastCytoplasmic male sterility: Cytoplasmic male sterility is total or partial male sterility in plants as the result of specific nuclear and mitochondrial interactions. Male sterility is the failure of plants to produce functional anthers, pollen, or male gametes.PollenRalph Gretzmacher: Ralph Gretzmacher is an Austrian scientist, professor of botany, zoology and an expert on tropical and subtropic agronomy.Imbibition: Imbibition is a special type of diffusion when water is absorbed by solids-colloids-causing them to enormously increase in volume. The classical examples of imbibition are absorption of water by seeds and dry wood.Tithonia diversifoliaRice bran oilCS-BLASTBreeding for drought stress toleranceHardening (botany): Hardening in botany is the process by which an individual plant becomes tolerant to the effects of freezing during a period of weeks to months. It is a three-stage process.Marine fungi: Marine fungi are species of fungi that live in marine or estuarine environments. They are not a taxonomic group but share a common habitat.Mushy peasPhenotype microarray: The phenotype microarray approach is a technology for high-throughput phenotyping of cells.Wheat middlings: Wheat middlings (also known as millfeed, wheat mill run, or wheat midds) is the middle of three grades into which flour and meal are classified: patents, middlings, and clears. Middlings are often used in animal feed.Phaseic acidPlant stanol ester: Stanol esters are a heterogeneous group of phytosterol esters with a saturated sterol ring structure known to reduce the level of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol in blood when ingested. Despite a well documented cholesterol lowering effect, there are no data available indicating that functional foods supplemented with plant sterol esters reduce cardiovascular events.Nitrogen deficiencyLeaf rust (barley): Leaf rust is a fungal disease of barley caused by Puccinia hordei. It is also known as brown rust and it is the most important rust disease on barley.Gamma-150 RNA motif: The gamma-150 RNA motif is a conserved RNA structure that is found in bacteria within the order Pseudomonadales. Because gamma-150 RNAs are not consistently in 5' UTRs, the gamma-150 motif is presumed to correspond to a non-coding RNA.International Moss Stock CenterGrow lightProtoplastMolecular evolution: Molecular evolution is a change in the sequence composition of cellular molecules such as DNA, RNA, and proteins across generations. The field of molecular evolution uses principles of evolutionary biology and population genetics to explain patterns in these changes.Red chlorophyll catabolite reductase: In molecular biology, the red chlorophyll catabolite reductase (RCC reductase) family of proteins consists of several red chlorophyll catabolite reductase (RCC reductase) proteins. Red chlorophyll catabolite (RCC) reductase (RCCR) and pheophorbide (Pheide) a oxygenase (PaO) catalyse the key reaction of chlorophyll catabolism, porphyrin macrocycle cleavage of Pheide a to a primary fluorescent catabolite (pFCC).Glycine soja: Glycine soja, or wild soybean (previously G. ussuriensis) is an annual plant in the legume family.Mannosylfructose-phosphate synthase: Mannosylfructose-phosphate synthase (, mannosylfructose-6-phosphate synthase, MFPS) is an enzyme with system name GDP-mannose:D-fructose-6-phosphate 2-alpha-D-mannosyltransferase. This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reactionStromule: A stromule is a microscopic structure found in plant cells. Stromules (stroma-filled tubules) are highly dynamic structures extending from the surface of all plastid types, including proplastids, chloroplasts, etioplasts, leucoplasts, amyloplasts, and chromoplasts.Acyrthosiphon pisum: Acyrthosiphon pisum, commonly known as the pea aphid (and colloquially known as the green dolphin, pea louse, and clover louse ), is a sap-sucking insect in the Aphididae family. It feeds on several species of legumes (plant family Fabaceae) worldwide, including forage crops, such as pea, clover, alfalfa, and broad bean, and ranks among the aphid species of major agronomical importance.RhizobiaPeat swamp forest: Peat swamp forests are tropical moist forests where waterlogged soil prevents dead leaves and wood from fully decomposing. Over time, this creates a thick layer of acidic peat.To Kau Wan: To Kau Wan () is a bay on the north shore of northeast Lantau Island, Hong Kong. Contaminated soil from Penny's Bay was transferred here for thermal desorption to separate the Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) and Semi-Volatile Organic Compounds (SVOC) along with cement immobilization of metal contamination from Penny's Bay.Cytokinin

(1/7901) Activation of systemic acquired silencing by localised introduction of DNA.

BACKGROUND: In plants, post-transcriptional gene silencing results in RNA degradation after transcription. Among tobacco transformants carrying a nitrate reductase (Nia) construct under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter (35S-Nia2), one class of transformants spontaneously triggers Nia post-transcriptional gene silencing (class II) whereas another class does not (class I). Non-silenced plants of both classes become silenced when grafted onto silenced stocks, indicating the existence of a systemic silencing signal. Graft-transmitted silencing is maintained in class II but not in class I plants when removed from silenced stocks, indicating similar requirements for spontaneous triggering and maintenance. RESULTS: Introduction of 35S-Nia2 DNA by the gene transfer method called biolistics led to localised acquired silencing (LAS) in bombarded leaves of wild-type, class I and class II plants, and to systemic acquired silencing (SAS) in class II plants. SAS occurred even if the targeted leaf was removed 2 days after bombardment, indicating that the systemic signal is produced, transmitted and amplified rapidly. SAS was activated by sense, antisense and promoterless Nia2 DNA constructs, indicating that transcription is not required although it does stimulate SAS. CONCLUSIONS: SAS was activated by biolistic introduction of promoterless constructs, indicating that the DNA itself is a potent activator of post-transcriptional gene silencing. The systemic silencing signal invaded the whole plant by cell-to-cell and long-distance propagation, and reamplification of the signal.  (+info)

(2/7901) Gene silencing: plants and viruses fight it out.

Plants can become 'immune' to attack by viruses by degrading specific viral RNA, but some plant viruses have evolved the general capacity to suppress this resistance mechanism.  (+info)

(3/7901) Polynucleotide probes that target a hypervariable region of 16S rRNA genes to identify bacterial isolates corresponding to bands of community fingerprints.

Temperature gradient gel electrophoresis (TGGE) is well suited for fingerprinting bacterial communities by separating PCR-amplified fragments of 16S rRNA genes (16S ribosomal DNA [rDNA]). A strategy was developed and was generally applicable for linking 16S rDNA from community fingerprints to pure culture isolates from the same habitat. For this, digoxigenin-labeled polynucleotide probes were generated by PCR, using bands excised from TGGE community fingerprints as a template, and applied in hybridizations with dot blotted 16S rDNA amplified from bacterial isolates. Within 16S rDNA, the hypervariable V6 region, corresponding to positions 984 to 1047 (Escherichia coli 16S rDNA sequence), which is a subset of the region used for TGGE (positions 968 to 1401), best met the criteria of high phylogenetic variability, required for sufficient probe specificity, and closely flanking conserved priming sites for amplification. Removal of flanking conserved bases was necessary to enable the differentiation of closely related species. This was achieved by 5' exonuclease digestion, terminated by phosphorothioate bonds which were synthesized into the primers. The remaining complementary strand was removed by single-strand-specific digestion. Standard hybridization with truncated probes allowed differentiation of bacteria which differed by only two bases within the probe target site and 1.2% within the complete 16S rDNA. However, a truncated probe, derived from an excised TGGE band of a rhizosphere community, hybridized with three phylogenetically related isolates with identical V6 sequences. Only one of the isolates comigrated with the excised band in TGGE, which was shown to be due to identical sequences, demonstrating the utility of a combined TGGE and V6 probe approach.  (+info)

(4/7901) Enhanced resistance to bacterial diseases of transgenic tobacco plants overexpressing sarcotoxin IA, a bactericidal peptide of insect.

Sarcotoxin IA is a bactericidal peptide of 39 amino acids found in the common flesh fly, Sarcophaga peregrina. Many agronomically important bacteria in Japan are killed by this peptide at sub-micro molar levels, and the growth of tobacco and rice suspension cultured cells is not inhibited with less than 25 microM. Transgenic tobacco plants which overexpress the peptide, i.e. over 250 pmol per gram of fresh leaf, under the control of a high expression constitutive promoter showed enhanced resistance to the pathogens for wild fire disease (Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci) and bacterial soft rot disease (Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora).  (+info)

(5/7901) Overexpression of the Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Cry2Aa2 protein in chloroplasts confers resistance to plants against susceptible and Bt-resistant insects.

Evolving levels of resistance in insects to the bioinsecticide Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) can be dramatically reduced through the genetic engineering of chloroplasts in plants. When transgenic tobacco leaves expressing Cry2Aa2 protoxin in chloroplasts were fed to susceptible, Cry1A-resistant (20,000- to 40,000-fold) and Cry2Aa2-resistant (330- to 393-fold) tobacco budworm Heliothis virescens, cotton bollworm Helicoverpa zea, and the beet armyworm Spodoptera exigua, 100% mortality was observed against all insect species and strains. Cry2Aa2 was chosen for this study because of its toxicity to many economically important insect pests, relatively low levels of cross-resistance against Cry1A-resistant insects, and its expression as a protoxin instead of a toxin because of its relatively small size (65 kDa). Southern blot analysis confirmed stable integration of cry2Aa2 into all of the chloroplast genomes (5, 000-10,000 copies per cell) of transgenic plants. Transformed tobacco leaves expressed Cry2Aa2 protoxin at levels between 2% and 3% of total soluble protein, 20- to 30-fold higher levels than current commercial nuclear transgenic plants. These results suggest that plants expressing high levels of a nonhomologous Bt protein should be able to overcome or at the very least, significantly delay, broad spectrum Bt-resistance development in the field.  (+info)

(6/7901) Cytokinin activation of Arabidopsis cell division through a D-type cyclin.

Cytokinins are plant hormones that regulate plant cell division. The D-type cyclin CycD3 was found to be elevated in a mutant of Arabidopsis with a high level of cytokinin and to be rapidly induced by cytokinin application in both cell cultures and whole plants. Constitutive expression of CycD3 in transgenic plants allowed induction and maintenance of cell division in the absence of exogenous cytokinin. Results suggest that cytokinin activates Arabidopsis cell division through induction of CycD3 at the G1-S cell cycle phase transition.  (+info)

(7/7901) Cloning and expression of a wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) phosphatidylserine synthase cDNA. Overexpression in plants alters the composition of phospholipids.

We describe the cloning of a wheat cDNA (TaPSS1) that encodes a phosphatidylserine synthase (PSS) and provides the first strong evidence for the existence of this enzyme in a higher eukaryotic cell. The cDNA was isolated on its ability to confer increased resistance to aluminum toxicity when expressed in yeast. The sequence of the predicted protein encoded by TaPSS1 shows homology to PSS from both yeast and bacteria but is distinct from the animal PSS enzymes that catalyze base-exchange reactions. In wheat, Southern blot analysis identified the presence of a small family of genes that cross-hybridized to TaPSS1, and Northern blots showed that aluminum induced TaPSS1 expression in root apices. Expression of TaPSS1 complemented the yeast cho1 mutant that lacks PSS activity and altered the phospholipid composition of wild type yeast, with the most marked effect being increased abundance of phosphatidylserine (PS). Arabidopsis thaliana leaves overexpressing TaPSS1 showed a marked enhancement in PSS activity, which was associated with increased biosynthesis of PS at the expense of both phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylglycerol. Unlike mammalian cells where PS accumulation is tightly regulated even when the capacity for PS biosynthesis is increased, plant cells accumulated large amounts of PS when TaPSS1 was overexpressed. High levels of TaPSS1 expression in Arabidopsis and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) led to the appearance of necrotic lesions on leaves, which may have resulted from the excessive accumulation of PS. The cloning of TaPSS1 now provides evidence that the yeast pathway for PS synthesis exists in some plant tissues and provides a tool for understanding the pathways of phospholipid biosynthesis and their regulation in plants.  (+info)

(8/7901) NADH-glutamate synthase in alfalfa root nodules. Genetic regulation and cellular expression.

NADH-dependent glutamate synthase (NADH-GOGAT; EC 1.4.1.14) is a key enzyme in primary nitrogen assimilation in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) root nodules. Here we report that in alfalfa, a single gene, probably with multiple alleles, encodes for NADH-GOGAT. In situ hybridizations were performed to assess the location of NADH-GOGAT transcript in alfalfa root nodules. In wild-type cv Saranac nodules the NADH-GOGAT gene is predominantly expressed in infected cells. Nodules devoid of bacteroids (empty) induced by Sinorhizobium meliloti 7154 had no NADH-GOGAT transcript detectable by in situ hybridization, suggesting that the presence of the bacteroid may be important for NADH-GOGAT expression. The pattern of expression of NADH-GOGAT shifted during root nodule development. Until d 9 after planting, all infected cells appeared to express NADH-GOGAT. By d 19, a gradient of expression from high in the early symbiotic zone to low in the late symbiotic zone was observed. In 33-d-old nodules expression was seen in only a few cell layers in the early symbiotic zone. This pattern of expression was also observed for the nifH transcript but not for leghemoglobin. The promoter of NADH-GOGAT was evaluated in transgenic alfalfa plants carrying chimeric beta-glucuronidase promoter fusions. The results suggest that there are at least four regulatory elements. The region responsible for expression in the infected cell zone contains an 88-bp direct repeat.  (+info)



crops


  • Plant Biotechnology: Current and Future Uses of Genetically Modified Crops covers in detail the development, use and regulation of GM crops. (hyfoma.com)
  • Split into three sections, Part 1 introduces GM crops and describes the GM crops that are used commercially. (hyfoma.com)
  • Part 2 looks at new developments and methodologies in areas including potential applications of GM crops for the production of vaccines, enhanced nutritional value of GM food, and engineering resistance to fungal pathogens. (hyfoma.com)
  • So there is the potential for outcrossing and bio-pollution of nearby un-genetically modified maize crops. (pangealogical.com)
  • Examples of foods that have been genetically engineered include delayed-ripening tomatoes, pest-resistant crops (such as virus-resistant squash and Colorado potato beetle-resistant potato), herbicide-tolerant crops (such as bromoxynil-tolerant cotton and glyphosate-tolerant soybean), and many others. (ufl.edu)
  • Most applications involve major crops, with more than 5,000 approvals for corn, the most commonly modified crop. (ufl.edu)
  • The next most modified crops are soybeans, potatoes, and cotton. (ufl.edu)
  • I think it marks the beginning of the end of genetically engineered crops as a major force in global agriculture," he said. (bbc.co.uk)
  • To date the broadest and most controversial application of GMO technology is patent-protected food crops which are resistant to commercial herbicides or are able to produce pesticidal proteins from within the plant, or stacked trait seeds, which do both. (sources.com)
  • The largest share of the GMO crops planted globally are owned by the US firm Monsanto . (sources.com)
  • I've seen no better introduction to the ground truth of genetically engineered crops and the promising directions this 'appropriate technology' is heading. (scienceblogs.com)
  • Keep in mind, however, that humans have been genetically modifying their crops for a millennium through selective breeding. (askmen.com)
  • GM crops are modified by direct manipulation of the plants DNA. (askmen.com)
  • Old-fashioned crops are modified the old-fashioned way, by breeding. (askmen.com)
  • Nonetheless, his announcement sparked turmoil in Europe over GM crops. (askmen.com)
  • Many Europeans simply refused to accept foods made from GM crops or animals. (askmen.com)
  • Today the modified crops are rare in Europe and many North American consumers (and scientists) believe that the FDA's safety procedures are too lax. (askmen.com)

organisms


  • So why create genetically modified plants and other organisms? (blogspot.com)
  • We seem to see the use of genetically modified organisms (GMO) more and more in recent years. (pangealogical.com)
  • Hard cheeses provide another example of the use of genetically modified organisms in food production. (ufl.edu)
  • Preservatives and food colorings are suspect and the latest, greatest morsels science has to offer - genetically modified organisms - can be downright scary. (askmen.com)
  • But before you make any snap judgments about the scientists who are working to make the world a better place, take the time to learn what Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs) are. (askmen.com)
  • GMO foods are made from genetically modified organisms, usually plants. (askmen.com)

Monsanto


  • It must be emphasized here in closing that the patents to the Monsanto soybeans involve the insertion of a genetic sequence into the germplasm of seeds that makes the resulting plants resistant to glyphosate, a herbicide manufactured by Monsanto, that otherwise kills other plants and weeds by inhibiting an enzyme necessary for growth. (blogspot.com)
  • In other words, contrary to the situation in the upcoming Myriad case decision at the Supreme Court involving human genes, the "seed" here "created" by Monsanto has been truly "humanly" altered, even if the patent incorporates the original soybean seed or other plant seed as the object of the genetic modification. (blogspot.com)
  • It is not the first time that Monsanto has backed away from marketing a genetically modified food. (bbc.co.uk)
  • In the same year, a proposed field test of a microbe genetically engineered for a pest resistance protein by Monsanto Company was dropped. (sources.com)

maize


  • Maize ( Zea mays ), is on such plant, it is a domesticated cereal grain that has been grown as human and animal feed for thousands of years, it has also been used to produce ethanol starches and oils. (pangealogical.com)
  • Instead, the company will concentrate on genetically engineered soya beans and corn (maize), which can be used for animal feeds or for oil - products not so emotive or so immediately identifiable with a particular human food. (bbc.co.uk)
  • The genetically modified MON-89Ø34-3xMON-ØØ6Ø3-6 maize, as described in the application, expresses the Cry1A.105 and Cry2Ab2 proteins which provide protection to certain lepidopteran pests and the CP4 EPSPS protein which confers tolerance to glyphosate herbicides. (fao.org)
  • Event specific real-time quantitative PCR based method for genetically modified maize MON-89Ø34-3 x MON-ØØ6Ø3-6. (fao.org)

organism


  • A genetically modified (GM) food or genetically modified organism (GMO) results from the use of recombinant DNA biotechnological procedures that allow the genetic makeup of a food or organism to be altered in some way. (ufl.edu)
  • A genetically modified organism (GMO) is one that has had its genetic material altered through one of several methods. (ufl.edu)
  • A genetically engineered (GE) organism is one where its DNA is modified using techniques that permit the direct transfer or removal of genes in that organism. (ufl.edu)
  • A genetically modified organism (GMO) or genetically engineered organism (GEO) is an organism whose genetic material has been altered using genetic engineering techniques. (sources.com)
  • This DNA is then transferred into an organism, giving it modified or novel genes. (sources.com)
  • The term "genetically modified organism" does not always imply, but can include, targeted insertions of genes from one species into another. (sources.com)

corn


  • U.S. corn farmers planted more than 32 million acres (130,000 km 2 ) of triple-stack corn in 2008, [ 9 ] and it is estimated the product could be planted on 56 million acres (230,000 km 2 ) in 2014-2015. (sources.com)

golden rice


  • GM food: Golden rice will save millions of people from vitamin A deficiency. (scienceblogs.com)
  • Last week, she wrote column (" Greenpeace's Golden Rice stand should appal us all ") that addressed the genetically engineered 'Golden Rice' trial in China. (greenpeace.org)

resistance


  • The world's first genetically modified wheat is to be shelved because of consumer resistance. (bbc.co.uk)
  • Genetic modification of plants involves altering their DNA, the chemical that encodes every cell's structure, function and behaviour, to produce desirable characteristics (such as disease resistance). (sciencephoto.com)

genetics


  • The Genetic literacy project continues to publish well-informed, science-based articles about plant genetics and farming. (scienceblogs.com)

antibodies


  • Going green…seriously, plants represent an extremely useful alternative production system for many biologicals - and especially for antibodies. (wordpress.com)
  • Plant viruses as transient vectors involves introducing a gene expressing the antigen (the bit that causes the immune system to create antibodies) of interest into a plant virus and subsequently infecting the plant. (pangealogical.com)

commercially


  • Most rennet used today is commercially produced by genetically modified microorganisms (most commonly with GM fungi). (ufl.edu)
  • If a GM product is deemed to be successful after trials and thought to be commercially viable, a company can petition for deregulation (i.e., allowing GE seeds to be sold). (ufl.edu)

farmers


  • Pete Riley, GM campaigner at Friends of the Earth in the UK called the move a "worldwide victory" for consumers and farmers. (bbc.co.uk)

food


  • Most recently we've seen the first genetically modified salmon cleared to enter the food chain by the FDA and there is also GMO pork in development. (pangealogical.com)
  • Genetically modified food is not permitted anywhere in the world. (pangealogical.com)
  • They believe that wheat is too close to an obvious food like bread to be genetically modified and sold easily. (bbc.co.uk)
  • The process for authorising a new GMO is based on the EU regulation on GM food and feed (1829/2003). (fao.org)
  • The truth is that the safety of genetically engineered (GE) food for humans and feed for animals is still unknown. (greenpeace.org)
  • By promoting GE rice you encourage a diet based on single starch staple rather than an increase in access to the many vitamin-rich food plants in a diversified diet. (greenpeace.org)

genes


  • The researchers, from MIT and led by Associate Professor Sarah O'Connor, added bacterial genes to a plant known as the periwinkle plant, altering the plants natural alkaloid production system. (blogspot.com)
  • It certainly isn't the first time genes were engineered into plants. (blogspot.com)
  • [ 1 ] However, other methods exploit natural forms of gene transfer, such as the ability of Agrobacterium to transfer genetic material to plants, [ 2 ] or the ability of lentiviruses to transfer genes to animal cells. (sources.com)
  • The plants have altered genes and thus attributes that make them easier to farm. (askmen.com)

cotton


  • In the cotton market, Bollgard II with Roundup Ready Flex was planted on approximately 5 million acres (20,000 km 2 ) of U.S. cotton in 2008. (sources.com)

patents


  • Furthermore, a few large multinational companies hold the majority of patents for genetically engineered plants. (greenpeace.org)

crop


  • Foreign buyers including Japan, the main purchaser of US wheat, say they are unwilling to buy the GM crop, not least because they see few benefits for either consumers or themselves. (bbc.co.uk)

biotechnology


  • It is also of interest for professionals working in the plant biotechnology industry or government professionals working in environmental policy. (hyfoma.com)
  • In 1986, field tests of bacteria genetically engineered to protect plants from frost damage ( ice-minus bacteria ) at a small biotechnology company called Advanced Genetic Sciences of Oakland , California , were repeatedly delayed by opponents of biotechnology. (sources.com)

generations


  • Rather, it is quite clear that the Supreme Court will hold that successive generations of self-replicating genetically modified and thus rightfully "patented" seeds are "copies" of the original patented seed, the "making" of which via unauthorized copies is prohibited. (blogspot.com)
  • GM foods are classified into one of three generations. (ufl.edu)

Frontiers


vaccines


  • While very few of these plant derived vaccines are in trials it is clear that this type of vaccine could save many lives by being cheap to produce and accessible. (pangealogical.com)

Leaves


  • Plant stems and leaves forming structures that echo DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) double helices. (sciencephoto.com)

seeds


  • It makes sense that the plant seeds are the most ideal storage device because of their longevity and the pharmaceutical proteins within them do not lose any of their activity. (pangealogical.com)

enzyme


  • Approximately 90 percent of hard cheeses currently being produced are using an enzyme obtained from a GM source. (ufl.edu)

California


  • The first GMO was a tomato plant, grown by the California company Calgene in 1994. (askmen.com)

think


  • The only drawback I think of is that it is a wind pollinated plant. (pangealogical.com)
  • I really think genetically engineered rice is dangerous in the log run what are the side effects is my question? (greenpeace.org)

time


  • The Kickstarter Fight Over Genetically Modified Plants - TIME. (scienceblogs.com)

agriculture


  • Since the development and spread of agriculture, there has been a desire for plants producing disproportionate-or more abundant and more nutritional-biomass that meet human needs better than their native counterparts. (frontiersin.org)
  • Since 1987, seed producers have submitted nearly 11,600 applications to USDA APHIS (United States Department of Agriculture Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service) for field-testing (Fernandez-Cornejo and Caswell 2006). (ufl.edu)
  • This wildly eccentric book juxtaposes deep scientific analysis of genetically engineered agriculture with recipes for such homey kitchen staples as cornbread and chocolate chip cookies. (scienceblogs.com)

development


  • Thus, scientific research on seaweed development is particularly timely: the potential for expansion of seaweed cultivation depends on the sector's capacity to produce seaweeds with modified morphological features (e.g., thicker blades), higher growth rates or delayed (or even no) fertility. (frontiersin.org)
  • Because seaweed (or marine macroalgae) anatomy is much less complex than that of land plants and because seaweeds belong to three different eukaryotic phyla, the mechanisms controlling their morphogenesis are key to understanding their development. (frontiersin.org)

foods


  • What are GM foods? (ufl.edu)
  • It is controversial whether GM foods are safe to eat and what their environmental effects will be. (sciencephoto.com)

Uses


  • There are some key plants that are very good platforms for genetic modifications for a number of uses. (pangealogical.com)

idea


  • The idea of genetically modified plants is disturbing alone, but why tamper with nature already producing natural, beneficial compounds? (blogspot.com)
  • Ms. Wente defends the idea that genetically engineered rice is a solution to vitamin A deficiency among malnourished children in the developing world. (greenpeace.org)

produce


  • now, a way has been discovered to genetically modify plants which are actually programmed to produce pharmaceutical drugs instead of their natural compounds. (blogspot.com)
  • In essence, the genetically modified plants, in stead of producing natural alkaloids, will actually produce variant pharmaceutical drug versions of the alkaloids. (blogspot.com)

genetic modifications


  • Although traditional animal breeding and genetic modification through plant hybridization techniques are technically genetic modifications, these techniques pre-date recombinant techniques and typically are not considered GM. (ufl.edu)

represent


offer


  • Plants offer an unprecedented opportunity to make 'affordable' pharmaceuticals on a global scale. (pangealogical.com)

potential


  • I chose to focus on plants because I believe they may hold the greatest potential. (pangealogical.com)
  • Here, we present efficient sources of developmentally and genetically modified seaweeds-somatic variants, artificial hybrids and mutants-as well as the future potential of these techniques. (frontiersin.org)

human


  • This is possible because of the cell wall of the plant protecting from the digestive enzymes of the human digestive system until it can be absorbed. (pangealogical.com)
  • Indeed, a strict view of the facts would hold that "God" makes the copies in the case of seed replication, regardless of genetic modification, even if human intervention (planting, fertilizing, watering, etc.) may also be required. (blogspot.com)

method


  • Plants as producers of pharmaceuticals is one of the most widely studied method of genetic modification. (pangealogical.com)

sources


  • The FDA gave chymosin (from both traditional and GM sources) "generally recognized as safe" (GRAS) status, which makes it exempt from the usual premarket approval requirements (CFR [Code of Federal Regulations] Title 21). (ufl.edu)

field


  • When glyphosate is applied from the air, other plants and weeds in the field are killed while the resistant genetically modified plants survive and grow. (blogspot.com)

hold


  • This point of this post is to explain how genetically modified plants could generate a huge number of useful products and how in a world of ever increasing populations, disease and climate change - how GMO plants may hold the key to our future! (pangealogical.com)

easily


  • We're trying to use plant biosynthetic mechanisms to easily make a whole range of different iterations of natural products. (blogspot.com)

safe


  • It is one of the most widely used plants for GMO because it is widely regarded as 'safe', its genome and genetic properties is well characterised and it is very efficient as generating biomass due to its C4 photosynthesis. (pangealogical.com)

disease


  • For centuries, humankind has been utilizing the naturally occurring medicinal and healing compounds of plants to overcome illness and disease. (blogspot.com)

provide


  • Smoking tobacco is bad for your health, but a genetically altered version of the plant might provide an inexpensive cure for the deadly rabies virus. (wordpress.com)

specific


  • Stable integration approach relies upon the availability of a DNA sequence coding for a specific antigen and on the construction of an expression cassette for plant transformation. (pangealogical.com)
  • Plant feedstock with specific, modified developmental features has been a quest for centuries. (frontiersin.org)

take


  • On Saturday, May 18, the second international "Fascination of Plants Day" will take place. (scienceblogs.com)

variety


  • These plants would address a wide variety of micronutrient deficiencies, not just VAD. (greenpeace.org)