Plant Physiological Phenomena: The physiological processes, properties, and states characteristic of plants.Dental Physiological Phenomena: Physiological processes and properties of the DENTITION.Digestive System and Oral Physiological Phenomena: Properties and processes of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM and DENTITION as a whole or of any of its parts.Reproductive and Urinary Physiological Phenomena: Physiology of the human and animal body, male or female, in the processes and characteristics of REPRODUCTION and the URINARY TRACT.Musculoskeletal and Neural Physiological Phenomena: Properties, and processes of the MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM and the NERVOUS SYSTEM or their parts.Circulatory and Respiratory Physiological Phenomena: Functional processes and properties characteristic of the BLOOD; CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM; and RESPIRATORY SYSTEM.Integumentary System Physiological Phenomena: The properties and relationships and biological processes that characterize the nature and function of the SKIN and its appendages.Sports Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutritional physiology related to EXERCISE or ATHLETIC PERFORMANCE.Reproductive Physiological Phenomena: Physiological processes, factors, properties and characteristics pertaining to REPRODUCTION.Physiological Phenomena: The functions and properties of living organisms, including both the physical and chemical factors and processes, supporting life in single- or multi-cell organisms from their origin through the progression of life.Elder Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutritional physiology of adults aged 65 years of age and older.Plants, Genetically Modified: PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.Urinary Tract Physiological Phenomena: Properties, functions, and processes of the URINARY TRACT as a whole or of any of its parts.Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Musculoskeletal Physiological Phenomena: Processes and properties of the MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM.Plant Roots: The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Genes, Plant: The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.Virus Physiological Phenomena: Biological properties, processes, and activities of VIRUSES.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Plant Shoots: New immature growth of a plant including stem, leaves, tips of branches, and SEEDLINGS.Plants, Medicinal: Plants whose roots, leaves, seeds, bark, or other constituent parts possess therapeutic, tonic, purgative, curative or other pharmacologic attributes, when administered to man or animals.DNA, Plant: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.Digestive System Physiological Phenomena: Properties and processes of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM as a whole or of any of its parts.Plant Development: Processes orchestrated or driven by a plethora of genes, plant hormones, and inherent biological timing mechanisms facilitated by secondary molecules, which result in the systematic transformation of plants and plant parts, from one stage of maturity to another.Plants, Toxic: Plants or plant parts which are harmful to man or other animals.Blood Physiological Phenomena: Physiological processes and properties of the BLOOD.Plant Cells: Basic functional unit of plants.Plant Stems: Parts of plants that usually grow vertically upwards towards the light and support the leaves, buds, and reproductive structures. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Genome, Plant: The genetic complement of a plant (PLANTS) as represented in its DNA.Arabidopsis: A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.Adolescent Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutritional physiology of children aged 13-18 years.Ocular Physiological Phenomena: Processes and properties of the EYE as a whole or of any of its parts.Plants, Edible: An organism of the vegetable kingdom suitable by nature for use as a food, especially by human beings. Not all parts of any given plant are edible but all parts of edible plants have been known to figure as raw or cooked food: leaves, roots, tubers, stems, seeds, buds, fruits, and flowers. The most commonly edible parts of plants are FRUIT, usually sweet, fleshy, and succulent. Most edible plants are commonly cultivated for their nutritional value and are referred to as VEGETABLES.Plant Structures: The parts of plants, including SEEDS.Nervous System Physiological Phenomena: Characteristic properties and processes of the NERVOUS SYSTEM as a whole or with reference to the peripheral or the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Plant Growth Regulators: Any of the hormones produced naturally in plants and active in controlling growth and other functions. There are three primary classes: auxins, cytokinins, and gibberellins.Cell Physiological Phenomena: Cellular processes, properties, and characteristics.Respiratory Physiological Phenomena: Physiological processes and properties of the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM as a whole or of any of its parts.Skin Physiological Phenomena: The functions of the skin in the human and animal body. It includes the pigmentation of the skin.Prenatal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutrition of FEMALE during PREGNANCY.Bacterial Physiological Phenomena: Physiological processes and properties of BACTERIA.Arabidopsis Proteins: Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.Tobacco: A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain NICOTINE and other biologically active chemicals; its dried leaves are used for SMOKING.Plant Immunity: The inherent or induced capacity of plants to withstand or ward off biological attack by pathogens.Cardiovascular Physiological Phenomena: Processes and properties of the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM as a whole or of any of its parts.Plant Epidermis: A thin layer of cells forming the outer integument of seed plants and ferns. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Maternal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutrition of a mother which affects the health of the FETUS and INFANT as well as herself.Child Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutritional physiology of children aged 2-12 years.Plant Stomata: Closable openings in the epidermis of plants on the underside of leaves. They allow the exchange of gases between the internal tissues of the plant and the outside atmosphere.Angiosperms: Members of the group of vascular plants which bear flowers. They are differentiated from GYMNOSPERMS by their production of seeds within a closed chamber (OVARY, PLANT). The Angiosperms division is composed of two classes, the monocotyledons (Liliopsida) and dicotyledons (Magnoliopsida). Angiosperms represent approximately 80% of all known living plants.Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: The processes and properties of living organisms by which they take in and balance the use of nutritive materials for energy, heat production, or building material for the growth, maintenance, or repair of tissues and the nutritive properties of FOOD.Infant Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutritional physiology of children from birth to 2 years of age.Seeds: The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Plant Poisoning: Poisoning by the ingestion of plants or its leaves, berries, roots or stalks. The manifestations in both humans and animals vary in severity from mild to life threatening. In animals, especially domestic animals, it is usually the result of ingesting moldy or fermented forage.Plant Transpiration: The loss of water vapor by plants to the atmosphere. It occurs mainly from the leaves through pores (stomata) whose primary function is gas exchange. The water is replaced by a continuous column of water moving upwards from the roots within the xylem vessels. (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Flowers: The reproductive organs of plants.Lycopersicon esculentum: A plant species of the family SOLANACEAE, native of South America, widely cultivated for their edible, fleshy, usually red fruit.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Chromosomes, Plant: Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of PLANTS.Plant Tumors: A localized proliferation of plant tissue forming a swelling or outgrowth, commonly with a characteristic shape and unlike any organ of the normal plant. Plant tumors or galls usually form in response to the action of a pathogen or a pest. (Holliday, P., A Dictionary of Plant Pathology, 1989, p330)Plant Components, Aerial: The above-ground plant without the roots.Plant Preparations: Material prepared from plants.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Zea mays: A plant species of the family POACEAE. It is a tall grass grown for its EDIBLE GRAIN, corn, used as food and animal FODDER.Seedling: Very young plant after GERMINATION of SEEDS.Herbivory: The act of feeding on plants by animals.Power Plants: Units that convert some other form of energy into electrical energy.Biomass: Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Fabaceae: The large family of plants characterized by pods. Some are edible and some cause LATHYRISM or FAVISM and other forms of poisoning. Other species yield useful materials like gums from ACACIA and various LECTINS like PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS from PHASEOLUS. Many of them harbor NITROGEN FIXATION bacteria on their roots. Many but not all species of "beans" belong to this family.Raynaud Disease: An idiopathic vascular disorder characterized by bilateral Raynaud phenomenon, the abrupt onset of digital paleness or CYANOSIS in response to cold exposure or stress.Oxylipins: Eighteen-carbon cyclopentyl polyunsaturated fatty acids derived from ALPHA-LINOLENIC ACID via an oxidative pathway analogous to the EICOSANOIDS in animals. Biosynthesis is inhibited by SALICYLATES. A key member, jasmonic acid of PLANTS, plays a similar role to ARACHIDONIC ACID in animals.Plant Nectar: Sugar-rich liquid produced in plant glands called nectaries. It is either produced in flowers or other plant structures, providing a source of attraction for pollinating insects and animals, as well as being a nutrient source to animal mutualists which provide protection of plants against herbivores.Symbiosis: The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.Photosynthesis: The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Cyclopentanes: A group of alicyclic hydrocarbons with the general formula R-C5H9.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Indoleacetic Acids: Acetic acid derivatives of the heterocyclic compound indole. (Merck Index, 11th ed)Animal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutritional physiology of animals.Plant Bark: The outer layer of the woody parts of plants.Soil: The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.Solanum tuberosum: A plant species of the genus SOLANUM, family SOLANACEAE. The starchy roots are used as food. SOLANINE is found in green parts.Plant Physiological Processes: Physiological functions characteristic of plants.

*  The glutathione system as a stress marker in plant ecophysiology: is a stress-response concept valid?

Plant Physiological Phenomena*. Plants / metabolism*. Reactive Oxygen Species / metabolism. Sodium Chloride / metabolism. ... Next Document: Biochemical and immunochemical evidences for the presence of lipoxygenase in plant mitochondria.. ... The glutathione system as a stress marker in plant ecophysiology: is a stress-response concept valid?. ...
biomedsearch.com/nih/glutathione-system-as-stress-marker/15234995.html

*  Plant Reproduction | UVA Library | Virgo

Plant Physiological Phenomena * Reproduction * Genetic Phenomena * Plants, Genetically Modified * Electronic Journals Item ... Plant Reprod. Previous Title. Sexual plant reproduction 0934-0882. ISSN. 2194-7961. Description. Mode of access: World Wide Web ... a, Sexual plant reproduction x, 0934-0882 w, (DLC) 91643997 w, (OCoLC)18677388 ...
https://search.lib.virginia.edu/catalog/u6152960

*  Diet - Biodiversity Heritage Library

Subjects: Climate Climatology Diet Early works to 1800 Physiological effect Plant ecology Plant Physiological Phenomena ... before and after installation of a hydroelectric plant in the upper rio Tocantins, Brazil By: Albrecht,Miriam P. - Pellegrini- ...
https://biodiversitylibrary.org/subject/Diet/author

*  Climatology - Biodiversity Heritage Library

Subjects: Climate Climatology Diet Early works to 1800 Physiological effect Plant ecology Plant Physiological Phenomena ...
biodiversitylibrary.org/subject/Climatology

*  Plant ecology - Biodiversity Heritage Library

Subjects: Climate Climatology Diet Early works to 1800 Physiological effect Plant ecology Plant Physiological Phenomena ... Subjects: auto-assigned by category code Field crops plant biochemistry Plant ecology Plant physiology ... Plant-geography upon a physiological basis. Translated by W.R. Fisher; rev. and edited by Percy Groom and I.B. Balfour. By: ... Plant-geography upon a physiological basis. By: Schimper, A. F. W. (Andreas Franz Wilhelm), - Balfour, Isaac Bayley, - Fisher, ...
biodiversitylibrary.org/subject/Plant ecology/year

*  JoVE | Peer Reviewed Scientific Video Journal - Methods and Protocols

Plant Physiological Phenomena, Ustilago maydis, needle injection inoculation, disease rating scale, plant-pathogen interactions ... Through this method we have produced plant material with a 4.4 atom%13C and 6.7 atom%15N uniform plant label, or material that ... Single-plant, Sterile Microcosms for Nodulation and Growth of the Legume Plant Medicago truncatula with the Rhizobial Symbiont ... Infiltrating plant under 50 to 100 mbar for 30 or 60 sec resulted in about 95% infiltration of plant leaf tissues. Infiltration ...
https://jove.com/visualize/abstract/24124527/overexpression-osexpa8-root-specific-gene-improves-rice-growth-root

*  JoVE | Peer Reviewed Scientific Video Journal - Methods and Protocols

Plant Physiological Phenomena, Ustilago maydis, needle injection inoculation, disease rating scale, plant-pathogen interactions ... Plant hormones and related signaling compounds play an important role in the regulation of plant responses to various ... Plant Biology, Issue 28, Jasmonic acid, salicylic acid, abscisic acid, plant hormones, GC/MS, vapor phase extraction ... maydis in between the plant leaves and has provided plant lines that are resistant to U. maydis that can now be combined and ...
https://jove.com/visualize/abstract/23646125/simultaneous-analysis-anthocyanin-non-anthocyanin-flavonoid-various

*  JoVE | Peer Reviewed Scientific Video Journal - Methods and Protocols

Plant Physiological Phenomena, Ustilago maydis, needle injection inoculation, disease rating scale, plant-pathogen interactions ... Infiltrating plant under 50 to 100 mbar for 30 or 60 sec resulted in about 95% infiltration of plant leaf tissues. Infiltration ... Plant Biology, Issue 44, Plant innate immunity, propidium iodide staining, biotic and abiotic stress, leaf microscopy, guard ... In order to investigate the role of plant hormones and toxic plant chemicals in resistance to this insect pest, we demonstrate ...
https://jove.com/visualize/abstract/22253737/native-environment-modulates-leaf-size-response-to-simulated-foliar

*  JoVE | Peer Reviewed Scientific Video Journal - Methods and Protocols

Plant Physiological Phenomena, Ustilago maydis, needle injection inoculation, disease rating scale, plant-pathogen interactions ... Through this method we have produced plant material with a 4.4 atom%13C and 6.7 atom%15N uniform plant label, or material that ... Infiltrating plant under 50 to 100 mbar for 30 or 60 sec resulted in about 95% infiltration of plant leaf tissues. Infiltration ... When an uninfected aphid feeds on an infected plant it contracts the virus through the plant phloem. Once ingested, the virus ...
https://jove.com/visualize/abstract/22164216/can-arbuscular-mycorrhizal-fungi-reduce-growth-agricultural

*  JoVE | Peer Reviewed Scientific Video Journal - Methods and Protocols

Plant Physiological Phenomena, Ustilago maydis, needle injection inoculation, disease rating scale, plant-pathogen interactions ... maydis in between the plant leaves and has provided plant lines that are resistant to U. maydis that can now be combined and ... plant species or stress treatment, which is currently the important trial to understanding plant metabolism. ... The plant cuticle is a waxy outer covering on plants that has a primary role in water conservation, but is also an important ...
https://jove.com/visualize/abstract/24762562/transcriptomic-analysis-fiber-strength-upland-cotton-chromosome

*  JoVE | Peer Reviewed Scientific Video Journal - Methods and Protocols

Plant Physiological Phenomena, Ustilago maydis, needle injection inoculation, disease rating scale, plant-pathogen interactions ... Herbivorous insects use plant volatiles, known as kairomones, to locate their host plant.1,2 When a host plant is an important ... Plant Biology, Issue 58, herbivore-induced plant volatiles, HIPV, eavesdropping, plant defense, priming ... Infiltrating plant under 50 to 100 mbar for 30 or 60 sec resulted in about 95% infiltration of plant leaf tissues. Infiltration ...
https://jove.com/visualize/abstract/21901154/odour-maps-brain-butterflies-with-divergent-host-plant

*  JoVE | Peer Reviewed Scientific Video Journal - Methods and Protocols

Plant Physiological Phenomena, Ustilago maydis, needle injection inoculation, disease rating scale, plant-pathogen interactions ... Musculoskeletal and Neural Physiological Phenomena, HIV, HIV-1, AIDS, Frailty, Depression, Weight Loss, Weakness, Slowness, ... maydis in between the plant leaves and has provided plant lines that are resistant to U. maydis that can now be combined and ... The tolerance to environmental stress is likely facilitated by EPS, and perhaps by the physiological adaptation of individual ...
https://jove.com/visualize/abstract/24705411/predictors-two-months-culture-conversion-multidrug-resistant

*  JoVE | Peer Reviewed Scientific Video Journal - Methods and Protocols

Plant Physiological Phenomena, Ustilago maydis, needle injection inoculation, disease rating scale, plant-pathogen interactions ... Infiltrating plant under 50 to 100 mbar for 30 or 60 sec resulted in about 95% infiltration of plant leaf tissues. Infiltration ... Plant Biology, Issue 86, Agroinfiltration, Nicotiana benthamiana, transient protein production, plant-based expression, viral ... Plant Biology, Issue 64, Genetics, Bioinformatics, Metabolomics, Plant metabolism, Transcriptome analysis, Functional ...
https://jove.com/visualize/abstract/23133634/tamir159-directed-wheat-tagamyb-cleavage-its-involvement-anther

*  JoVE | Peer Reviewed Scientific Video Journal - Methods and Protocols

Plant Physiological Phenomena, Ustilago maydis, needle injection inoculation, disease rating scale, plant-pathogen interactions ... Infiltrating plant under 50 to 100 mbar for 30 or 60 sec resulted in about 95% infiltration of plant leaf tissues. Infiltration ... Plant Biology, Issue 81, Virology, Molecular Biology, Botany, Pathology, Infection, Plant viruses, Bemisia tabaci, Whiteflies, ... Plant Biology, Issue 86, Agroinfiltration, Nicotiana benthamiana, transient protein production, plant-based expression, viral ...
https://jove.com/visualize/abstract/25845019/necrotrophic-effector-epistasis-pyrenophora-tritici-repentis-wheat

*  JoVE | Peer Reviewed Scientific Video Journal - Methods and Protocols

Plant Physiological Phenomena, Ustilago maydis, needle injection inoculation, disease rating scale, plant-pathogen interactions ... Lastly, fruit shape and color traits in other plant species as well as other plant organs such as leaves and seeds can be ... Plant Biology, Issue 57, In Situ hybridization, RNA localization, expression analysis, plant, DIG-labeled probe ... Plant Biology, Issue 64, Genetics, Bioinformatics, Metabolomics, Plant metabolism, Transcriptome analysis, Functional ...
https://jove.com/visualize/abstract/20011605/gene-structure-induced-epigenetic-modifications-pericarp-color1

*  JoVE | Peer Reviewed Scientific Video Journal - Methods and Protocols

Plant Physiological Phenomena, Ustilago maydis, needle injection inoculation, disease rating scale, plant-pathogen interactions ... Through this method we have produced plant material with a 4.4 atom%13C and 6.7 atom%15N uniform plant label, or material that ... Single-plant, Sterile Microcosms for Nodulation and Growth of the Legume Plant Medicago truncatula with the Rhizobial Symbiont ... Plant Biology, Issue 57, Plant, Arabidopsis thaliana, tomato, 96-well plate, DNA extraction, high-throughput, genotyping ...
https://jove.com/visualize/abstract/22848351/reproductive-characteristics-populus-euphratica-population-prospects

*  JoVE | Peer Reviewed Scientific Video Journal - Methods and Protocols

Plant Physiological Phenomena, Ustilago maydis, needle injection inoculation, disease rating scale, plant-pathogen interactions ... Biological Phenomena, Chemical Phenomena, Metabolic Phenomena, Microbiological Phenomena, Earth Resources and Remote Sensing, ... Through this method we have produced plant material with a 4.4 atom%13C and 6.7 atom%15N uniform plant label, or material that ... Single-plant, Sterile Microcosms for Nodulation and Growth of the Legume Plant Medicago truncatula with the Rhizobial Symbiont ...
https://jove.com/visualize/abstract/23826285/phenotypic-responses-stoloniferous-clonal-plant-buchloe-dactyloides

*  JoVE | Peer Reviewed Scientific Video Journal - Methods and Protocols

Plant Physiological Phenomena, Ustilago maydis, needle injection inoculation, disease rating scale, plant-pathogen interactions ... Plant, RNA, Gene Targeting, Plant Physiological Processes, Genes, Gene gun, Gibson assembly, Nicotiana benthamiana, Alternative ... Infiltrating plant under 50 to 100 mbar for 30 or 60 sec resulted in about 95% infiltration of plant leaf tissues. Infiltration ... Protoplasts are plant cells that have had their cell walls enzymatically removed. Isolation of protoplasts from different plant ...
https://jove.com/visualize/abstract/24039726/verticillium-suppression-is-associated-with-glucosinolate-composition

*  JoVE | Peer Reviewed Scientific Video Journal - Methods and Protocols

Plant Physiological Phenomena, Ustilago maydis, needle injection inoculation, disease rating scale, plant-pathogen interactions ... Biological Phenomena, Chemical Phenomena, Metabolic Phenomena, Microbiological Phenomena, Earth Resources and Remote Sensing, ... Through this method we have produced plant material with a 4.4 atom%13C and 6.7 atom%15N uniform plant label, or material that ... Plants can then be placed in these soil treatments to determine the effect of plant-induced soil heterogeneity on plant ...
https://jove.com/visualize/abstract/23118972/p-coumaric-acid-influenced-cucumber-rhizosphere-soil-microbial

*  JoVE | Peer Reviewed Scientific Video Journal - Methods and Protocols

Plant Physiological Phenomena, Ustilago maydis, needle injection inoculation, disease rating scale, plant-pathogen interactions ... Infiltrating plant under 50 to 100 mbar for 30 or 60 sec resulted in about 95% infiltration of plant leaf tissues. Infiltration ... When an uninfected aphid feeds on an infected plant it contracts the virus through the plant phloem. Once ingested, the virus ... Plant Biology, Issue 81, Virology, Molecular Biology, Botany, Pathology, Infection, Plant viruses, Bemisia tabaci, Whiteflies, ...
https://jove.com/visualize/abstract/19829700/coevolution-between-family-parasite-virulence-effectors-class-line-1

*  JoVE | Peer Reviewed Scientific Video Journal - Methods and Protocols

Plant Physiological Phenomena, Ustilago maydis, needle injection inoculation, disease rating scale, plant-pathogen interactions ... Infiltrating plant under 50 to 100 mbar for 30 or 60 sec resulted in about 95% infiltration of plant leaf tissues. Infiltration ... In order to investigate the role of plant hormones and toxic plant chemicals in resistance to this insect pest, we demonstrate ... Plants can then be placed in these soil treatments to determine the effect of plant-induced soil heterogeneity on plant ...
https://jove.com/visualize/abstract/21853017/polyphasic-analysis-intraspecific-diversity-epicoccum-nigrum-warrants

*  Vernalization-induced flowering in cereals is associated with changes in histone methylation at the VERNALIZATION1 gene. -...

Gene Expression Regulation, Plant*. *Histones/metabolism*. *Methylation. *Plant Physiological Phenomena. *Repressor Proteins/ ... CSIRO Plant Industry, Canberra ACT 2601, Australia.. Abstract. Prolonged exposure to low temperatures (vernalization) ... accelerates the transition to reproductive growth in many plant species, including the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana and the ... Vernalization-induced flowering is an epigenetic phenomenon. In Arabidopsis, stable down-regulation of FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC) ...
https://ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19416817

*  Alpine Botany (Editorial Board)

Alpine Botany is an international journal providing a forum for plant science studies at high elevation with links to fungal ... We aim at contributions that explore plant biological phenomena in order to understand functionally ongoing ecological, ... evolutionary or physiological processes.. Descriptive or applied studies are acceptable, provided that clear research questions ... Institut of Plant Sciences. University of Bern. Switzerland Joachim W. Kadereit. Institut für Spezielle Botanik und Botanischer ...
springer.com/life sciences/plant sciences/journal/35?detailsPage=editorialBoard

*  K+ transport in plants: physiology and molecular biology. - PubMed - NCBI

J Plant Physiol. 2009 Mar 15;166(5):447-66. doi: 10.1016/j.jplph.2008.12.009. Epub 2009 Feb 12. Research Support, Non-U.S. ... Plant Physiological Phenomena*. *Plant Roots/metabolism. *Plants/metabolism*. *Potassium/metabolism*. *Potassium Channels/ ... and examine how this information supports physiological investigations of K(+) transport and studies of plant stress responses ... Department of Plant Sciences, University of California, Davis, 1 Shields Ave., Davis, CA 95616, USA. mwszczerba@ucdavis.edu. ...
https://ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19217185?systemMessage=Wiley Online Library will be unavailable on Saturday 7th Oct from 03.00 EDT / 08:00 BST / 12:30 IST / 15.00 SGT to 08.00 EDT / 13.00 BST / 17:30 IST / 20.00 SGT and Sunday 8th Oct from 03.00 EDT / 08:00 BST / 12:30 IST / 15.00 SGT to 06.00 EDT / 11.00 BST / 15:30 IST / 18.00 SGT for essential maintenance. Apologies for the inconvenience caused

*  Salt regulation of transcript levels for the c subunit of a leaf vacuolar H(+)-ATPase in the halophyte Mesembryanthemum...

Further, the plant growth regulator abscisic acid (ABA) was able to mimic the effect of salt on transcript levels for the V- ... plant native to seasonally arid coastal environments that has been widely used to study plant responses to environmental stress ... Plant, Genes, Plant, Macromolecular Substances, Molecular Sequence Data, Plant Physiological Phenomena, Polymerase Chain ... plant native to seasonally arid coastal environments that has been widely used to study plant responses to environmental stress ...
https://neuroscience.ox.ac.uk/publications/35921

Environment (biophysical): Environment}}Plant perception (physiology): Plant perception is the ability of plants to sense and respond to the environment to adjust their morphology, physiology and phenotype accordingly. Other disciplines such as plant physiology, ecology and molecular biology are used to assess this ability.Canna Leaf Roller: Cannas are largely free of pests, but in the USA plants sometimes fall victim the Canna Leaf Roller, which can actually be two different insects. Larva of the Brazilian skipper butterfly (Calpodes ethlius), also known as the Larger Canna Leaf Roller, cut the leaves and roll them over to live inside while pupating and eating the leaf.Endodermis: The endodermis is the central, innermost layer of cortex in some land plants. It is made of compact living cells surrounded by an outer ring of endodermal cells that are impregnated with hydrophobic substances (Casparian Strip) to restrict apoplastic flow of water to the inside.PhytomedicineMedicinal plants of the American West: Many plants that grow in the American West have use in traditional and herbal medicine.Gastrointestinal physiology: Gastrointestinal physiology is a branch of human physiology addressing the physical function of the gastrointestinal (GI) system. The major processes occurring in the GI system are that of motility, secretion, regulation, digestion and circulation.Revegetation: Revegetation is the process of replanting and rebuilding the soil of disturbed land. This may be a natural process produced by plant colonization and succession, or an artificial (manmade) wilderness engineering, accelerated process designed to repair damage to a landscape due to wildfire, mining, flood, or other cause.Pith: 250px|right|thumb|[[Elderberry shoot cut longitudinally to show the broad, solid pith (rough-textured, white) inside the wood (smooth, yellow-tinged). Scale in mm.GAI (Arabidopsis thaliana gene)Tropical Asia: Through a crop-based biodiversity, natural resources and animals (birds, fruits, and forests), Tropical Asia is economically and physiogeographically rich. There are 16 countries of Tropical Asia ranging in size from around 610 km² (Singapore) to 3,000,000 km² (India).Aureusidin synthase: Aureusidin synthase (, AmAS1) is an enzyme with system name 2',4,4',6'-tetrahydroxychalcone 4'-O-beta-D-glucoside:oxygen oxidoreductase.Nicotiana glauca: Nicotiana glauca is a species of wild tobacco known by the common name tree tobacco. Its leaves are attached to the stalk by petioles (many other Nicotiana species have sessile leaves), and its leaves and stems are neither [nor sticky like Nicotiana tabacum].The Werewolf (1956 film): The Werewolf is a low-budget American 1956 science fiction horror film, produced by Sam Katzman and directed by Fred F. Sears from a script by Robert E.Stoma: In botany, a stoma (plural "stomata"), also called a stomate (plural "stomates") (from Greek ["mouth"[http://www.perseus.AmborellaTomato seed oil: Tomato seed oil is a vegetable oil extracted from the seeds of tomatoes.Branching order of bacterial phyla (Gupta, 2001): There are several models of the Branching order of bacterial phyla, one of these was proposed in 2001 by Gupta based on conserved indels or protein, termed "protein signatures", an alternative approach to molecular phylogeny. Some problematic exceptions and conflicts are present to these conserved indels, however, they are in agreement with several groupings of classes and phyla.List of poisonous plantsPotometerFlower box: __NOTOC__Sun-dried tomato: Sun-dried tomatoes are ripe tomatoes that lose most of their water content after spending a majority of their drying time in the sun. These tomatoes are usually pre-treated with sulfur dioxide or salt before being placed in the sun in order to improve quality.Protein primary structure: The primary structure of a peptide or protein is the linear sequence of its amino acid structural units, and partly comprises its overall biomolecular structure. By convention, the primary structure of a protein is reported starting from the amino-terminal (N) end to the carboxyl-terminal (C) end.Opine: Opine biosynthesis is catalyzed by specific enzymes encoded by genes contained in a small segment of DNA (known as the T-DNA, for 'transfer DNA'), which is part of the Ti plasmid, inserted by the bacterium into the plant genome. The opines are used by the bacterium as an important source of nitrogen and energy.Shatter (novel): Shatter is a psychological thriller written by the Australian author Michael Robotham that was published in 2008. Professor Joseph O'Loughlin (referred to as Joe throughout the novel) is tasked by the police with stopping a woman, Christine Wheeler, from committing suicide, only to fail.Symmetry element: A symmetry element is a point of reference about which symmetry operations can take place. In particular, symmetry elements can be centers of inversion, axes of rotation and mirror planes.Southern corn leaf blight: Southern corn leaf blight (SCLB) is a fungal disease of maize caused by the plant pathogen Bipolaris maydis (also known as Cochliobolus heterostrophus in its teleomorph state).Chance seedling: A chance seedling is a plant that is the product of unintentional breeding. It may be a genetically unique individual with desirable characteristics that is then intentionally bred.Chemical defense: Chemical defense is the use of chemical compounds by plants and animals to deter herbivory and predation. Chemical defenses can also be used in competitive interactions to prevent overgrowth or maintain spatial dominance.Miljacka Hydroelectric Power Plant: 230px|thumb|right|Miljacka Hydroelectric Power Plant.Silent mutation: Silent mutations are mutations in DNA that do not significantly alter the phenotype of the organism in which they occur. Silent mutations can occur in non-coding regions (outside of genes or within introns), or they may occur within exons.Lonchocarpus: Lonchocarpus is a plant genus in the legume family (Fabaceae). The species are called lancepods due to their fruit resembling an ornate lance tip or a few beads on a string.Tour SignalOctadecanoid pathway: The octadecanoid pathway is a reasonably well-characterized biosynthetic pathway for the production of the phytohormone jasmonic acid (JA), an important hormone for induction of defense genes. JA is synthesized from alpha-linolenic acid, which can be released from the plasma membrane by certain lipase enzymes.Thief of ThievesSymbiosis Center of Health Care: Symbiosis Center of Health Care (SCHC) is an organization under Symbiosis Society which takes care of health of symbiosis family be it student or staff.http://www.Photosynthesis: Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to convert light energy, normally from the Sun, into chemical energy that can be later released to fuel the organisms' activities. This chemical energy is stored in carbohydrate molecules, such as sugars, which are synthesized from carbon dioxide and water – hence the name photosynthesis, from the Greek [phōs, "light", and σύνθεσις], synthesis, "putting together".Matrix model: == Mathematics and physics ==CyclopentaneEcosystemAuxin binding protein: In molecular biology, the auxin binding protein family is a family of proteins which bind auxin. They are located in the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER).Carl Barks: "United States Social Security Death Index," index, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/pal:/MM9.Index of soil-related articles: This is an index of articles relating to soil.Superior (potato): 'Superior' is a white-skinned and white-fleshed, midseason potato variety. It was released by the University of Wisconsin potato breeding program in 1962 and is not under plant variety protection.

(1/1131) Gene silencing: plants and viruses fight it out.

Plants can become 'immune' to attack by viruses by degrading specific viral RNA, but some plant viruses have evolved the general capacity to suppress this resistance mechanism.  (+info)

(2/1131) Inverse relationship between systemic resistance of plants to microorganisms and to insect herbivory.

Pre-inoculation of plants with a pathogen that induces necrosis leads to the development of systemic acquired resistance (SAR) to subsequent pathogen attack [1]. The phenylpropanoid-derived compound salicylic acid (SA) is necessary for the full expression of both local resistance and SAR [2] [3]. A separate signaling pathway involving jasmonic acid (JA) is involved in systemic responses to wounding and insect herbivory [4] [5]. There is evidence both supporting and opposing the idea of cross-protection against microbial pathogens and insect herbivores [6] [7]. This is a controversial area because pharmacological experiments point to negative cross-talk between responses to systemic pathogens and responses to wounding [8] [9] [10], although this has not been demonstrated functionally in vivo. Here, we report that reducing phenylpropanoid biosynthesis by silencing the expression of phenylalanine ammonialyase (PAL) reduces SAR to tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), whereas overexpression of PAL enhances SAR. Tobacco plants with reduced SAR exhibited more effective grazing-induced systemic resistance to larvae of Heliothis virescens, but larval resistance was reduced in plants with elevated phenylpropanoid levels. Furthermore, genetic modification of components involved in phenylpropanoid synthesis revealed an inverse relationship between SA and JA levels. These results demonstrate phenylpropanoid-mediated cross-talk in vivo between microbially induced and herbivore-induced pathways of systemic resistance.  (+info)

(3/1131) Calcein as a fluorescent probe for ferric iron. Application to iron nutrition in plant cells.

The recent use of calcein (CA) as a fluorescent probe for cellular iron has been shown to reflect the nutritional status of iron in mammalian cells (Breuer, W., Epsztejn, S., and Cabantchik, Z. I. (1995) J. Biol. Chem. 270, 24209-24215). CA was claimed to be a chemosensor for iron(II), to measure the labile iron pool and the concentration of cellular free iron(II). We first study here the thermodynamic and kinetic properties of iron binding by CA. Chelation of a first iron(III) involves one aminodiacetic arm and a phenol. The overall stability constant log beta111 of FeIIICAH is 33. 9. The free metal ion concentration is pFeIII = 20.3. A (FeIII)2 CA complex can be formed. A reversible iron(III) exchange from FeIIICAH to citrate and nitrilotriacetic acid is evidenced when these ligands are present in large excess. The kinetics of iron(III) exchange by CA is compatible with metabolic studies. The low reduction potential of FeIIICAH shows that the ferric form is highly stabilized. CA fluorescence is quenched by 85% after FeIII chelation but by only 20% using FeII. Real time iron nutrition by Arabidopsis thaliana cells has been measured by fluorimetry, and the iron buffer FeIIICAH + CA was used as source of iron. As a siderophore, FeIIICAH promotes cell growth and regreening of iron-deficient cells more rapidly than FeIIIEDTA. We conclude that CA is a good chemosensor for iron(III) in cells and biological fluids, but not for Fe(II). We discuss the interest of quantifying iron buffers in biochemical studies of iron, in vitro as well as in cells.  (+info)

(4/1131) Phloem transport: Are you chaperoned?

Long-distance transport via the vasculature in plants is critical for nutrient dissemination, as well as transport of growth regulatory molecules such as hormones. Evidence is now accumulating that protein and RNA molecules also use this transport pathway, possibly to regulate developmental and physiological processes.  (+info)

(5/1131) Plant graviperception and gravitropism: a newcomer's view.

Gravitropism is an adaptable mechanism corresponding to the directed growth by which plants orient in response to the gravity vector. The overall process is generally divided into three distinct stages: graviperception, gravitransduction, and asymmetric growth response. The phenomenology of these different steps has been described by using refined cell biology approaches combined with formal and molecular genetics. To date, it clearly appears that the cellular organization plays crucial roles in gravisensing and that gravitropism is genetically different between organs. Moreover, while interfering with other physical or chemical stimuli and sharing probably some common intermediary steps in the transduction pathway, gravity has its own perception and transduction systems. The intimate mechanisms involved in these processes have to be unveiled at the molecular level and their biological relevance addressed at the cellular and whole plant levels under normal and microgravitational conditions. gravitropism: a newcomer's view.  (+info)

(6/1131) Statoliths motions in gravity-perceiving plant cells: does actomyosin counteract gravity?

Statocytes from plant root caps are characterized by a polar arrangement of cell organelles and sedimented statoliths. Cortical microtubules and actin microfilaments contribute to development and maintenance of this polarity, whereas the lack of endoplasmic microtubules and prominent bundles of actin microfilaments probably facilitates sedimentation of statoliths. High-resolution video microscopy shows permanent motion of statoliths even when sedimented. After immunofluorescence microscopy using antibodies against actin and myosin II the most prominent labeling was observed at and around sedimented statoliths. Experiments under microgravity have demonstrated that the positioning of statoliths depends on the external gravitational force and on internal forces, probably exerted by the actomyosin complex, and that transformation of the gravistimulus evidently occurs in close vicinity to the statoliths. These results suggest that graviperception occurs dynamically within the cytoplasm via small-distance sedimentation rather than statically at the lowermost site of sedimentation. It is hypothesized that root cap cells are comparing randomized motions with oriented motions of statoliths and thereby perceiving gravity.  (+info)

(7/1131) Mitochondrial gene organization and expression in petunia male fertile and sterile plants.

In cytoplasmic male-sterile Petunia lines, NADH dehydrogenase subunit 3 (nad3) and ribosomal protein S12 (rps12) are cotranscribed with the chimeric gene pcf and located in the region of the mitochondrial genome associated with cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) in Petunia. In fertile Petunia line 3704, the genes for nad3 and rps12 are cotranscribed with an unidentified open reading frame (orf143). In the homologous region of fertile line 3699, there is an ORF that lacks a genomic DNA-encoded stop codon; instead an RNA editing event creates a stop codon, resulting in an ORF of 161 codons. While expressed sequences homologous to this open reading frame can be detected in sterile lines, a contiguous orf143/orf161 gene does not exist in the CMS-encoding mitochondrial genome. Transcription at the CMS-associated pcf locus and the fertile orf143/nad3/rps12 locus is complex, with multiple 5' and 3' termini. The presence of the nuclear fertility restorer gene affects the abundance of a transcript class with 5' termini--121 nucleotides before the pcf start codon, and greatly reduces the abundance of a pcf gene product with apparent molecular mass of 25 kDa which is present in both vegetative and reproductive tissues of CMS plants. In addition to the 25 kDa protein product, small amounts of precursor and processed pcf products with higher molecular mass have been detected; their possible role in the CMS phenotype is unknown. Current hypotheses for the mechanism of action of CMS-associated and fertility restorer genes are discussed.  (+info)

(8/1131) Ethylene plays multiple nonprimary roles in modulating the gravitropic response in tomato.

Ethylene is known to interact with auxin in regulating stem growth, and yet evidence for the role of ethylene in tropic responses is contradictory. Our analysis of four mutants of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) altered in their response to gravity, auxin, and/or ethylene revealed concentration-dependent modulation of shoot gravitropism by ethylene. Ethylene inhibitors reduce wild-type gravicurvature, and extremely low (0.0005-0.001 microliter L-1) ethylene concentrations can restore the reduced gravitropic response of the auxin-resistant dgt (diageotropica) mutant to wild-type levels. Slightly higher concentrations of ethylene inhibit the gravitropic response of all but the ethylene-insensitive nr (never-ripe) mutant. The gravitropic responses of nr and the constitutive-response mutant epi (epinastic) are slightly and significantly delayed, respectively, but otherwise normal. The reversal of shoot gravicurvature by red light in the lz-2 (lazy-2) mutant is not affected by ethylene. Taken together, these data indicate that, although ethylene does not play a primary role in the gravitropic response of tomato, low levels of ethylene are necessary for a full gravitropic response, and moderate levels of the hormone specifically inhibit gravicurvature in a manner different from ethylene inhibition of overall growth.  (+info)



Plants


  • Overexpression of OsEXPA8 in rice plants yielded pleiotropic phenotypes of improved root system architecture (longer primary roots, more lateral roots and root hairs), increased plant height, enhanced leaf number and enlarged leaf size. (jove.com)
  • The butterflies responded with stimulus-specific combinations of activated glomeruli to single plant-related compounds and to extracts of host and non-host plants. (jove.com)
  • Soils can be collected from the zone of root influence (soils from the rhizosphere and directly adjacent to the rhizosphere) of plants in the field from conspecific and heterospecific plant species. (jove.com)
  • Plants can then be placed in these soil treatments to determine the effect of plant-induced soil heterogeneity on plant performance. (jove.com)
  • Clonal plants could modify phenotypic responses to nutrients heterogeneously distributed both in space and time by physiological integration. (jove.com)

species


  • Given the ever expanding number of model plant species for which complete genome sequences are available and the abundance of bio-resources such as knockout mutants, wild accessions and advanced breeding populations, there is a rising burden for gene functional annotation. (jove.com)
  • By corollary this approach can also be used as an approach to characterise unknown peaks representing new or specific secondary metabolites in the limited tissues, plant species or stress treatment, which is currently the important trial to understanding plant metabolism. (jove.com)
  • tomato strain DC3000 not only causes bacterial speck disease in Solanum lycopersicum but also on Brassica species, as well as on Arabidopsis thaliana , a genetically tractable host plant 1,2 . (jove.com)
  • Cogongrass forms rapidly-spreading, monodominant stands that displace a large variety of native plant species and in turn threaten the native animals that depend on the displaced native plant species for forage and shelter. (jove.com)
  • Host plant range is highly variable within the butterfly family Nymphalidae, with extreme specialists and wide generalists found even among closely related species. (jove.com)
  • Here we measured odour evoked Ca(2+) activity in the antennal lobes of two nymphalid species with diverging host plant preferences, the specialist Aglais urticae and the generalist Polygonia c-album. (jove.com)
  • The most commonly used agent for agroinfiltration is Agrobacterium tumefaciens, a pathogen of many dicot plant species. (jove.com)
  • This implies that agroinfiltration can be applied to many plant species. (jove.com)
  • Here, we present our protocols and expected results when applying these methods to the potato ( Solanum tuberosum ), its related wild tuber-bearing Solanum species ( Solanum section Petota ) and the model plant Nicotiana benthamiana . (jove.com)
  • The soil-borne fungal pathogen Verticillium longisporum is able to penetrate the root of a number of plant species and spread systemically via the xylem. (jove.com)

interactions


  • Even the same cell types exhibit heterogeneous biochemical makeup depending on their physiological conditions and interactions with the environment. (jove.com)
  • Together, these model organisms could provide insights into molecular bases of plant-pest interactions. (jove.com)

tissues


  • We describe a recently developed method to measure mechanical properties of the surfaces of plant tissues using atomic force microscopy (AFM) micro/nano-indentations, for a JPK AFM. (jove.com)
  • Isolation of protoplasts from different plant tissues was first reported more than 40 years ago 1 and has since been adapted to study a variety of cellular processes, such as subcellular localization of proteins, isolation of intact organelles and targeted gene-inactivation by double stranded RNA interference (RNAi) 2-5 . (jove.com)

Arabidopsis


  • In this paper, we describe a newly developed ImageJ plugin, called LeafJ, which can rapidly measure petiole length and leaf blade parameters of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana . (jove.com)
  • Here we present a study focused on the potential role of glucosinolates and their breakdown products of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana in suppressing growth of V. longisporum. (jove.com)

responses


  • However, some plant genotypes can raise nonspecific defense responses to Agrobacterium , as we observed for example for several potato genotypes. (jove.com)
  • Two example experiments are presented: (1) a field experiment with a 6-patch grid of soils to measure plant population responses and (2) a greenhouse experiment with 2-patch soils to measure individual plant responses. (jove.com)

nutrients


  • These results suggest that physiological integration modifies phenotypic plasticity of B. dactyloides for efficient foraging of nutrients in heterogeneous nutrient conditions. (jove.com)

pathogen


  • Therefore, the use of a pathogen inoculation method that efficiently and reproducibly delivers the pathogen in between the plant leaves, would facilitate the rapid identification of maize lines that are resistant to U. maydis . (jove.com)
  • The effect of volatile glucosinolate hydrolysis products on the in vitro growth of the pathogen was tested by exposing the fungus to hydrated lyophilized plant tissue. (jove.com)

gene


  • In this protocol, annotation of plant gene function using combined co-expression gene analysis, metabolomics and informatics is provided ( Figure 1 ). (jove.com)
  • Exposure to diet, drugs and early life adversity during sensitive windows of life 1,2 can lead to lasting changes in gene expression that contribute to the display of physiological and behavioural phenotypes. (jove.com)

Leaf


  • Further study indicated that the average cell length in both leaf and root vascular bundles was enhanced, and the cell growth in suspension cultures was increased, which revealed the cellular basis for OsEXPA8-mediated rice plant growth acceleration. (jove.com)

results


  • These results support a role for expansins in cell expansion and plant growth. (jove.com)
  • Our results indicate that these butterflies have the ability to detect and to discriminate between different plant-related odorants. (jove.com)
  • We demonstrate that plant-induced heterogeneity results in different outcomes than predicted by traditional coexistence models, perhaps because of the dynamic nature of these feedbacks. (jove.com)

environmental


  • however maintaining favorable environmental conditions for both plant epidermal peels and bacterial cells has been challenging. (jove.com)
  • however biotic feedbacks such as plant-soil feedbacks (PSF) have large effects on plant performance, and create environmental heterogeneity that depends on the community composition. (jove.com)

environment


  • Stomata are natural openings in the plant epidermis responsible for gas exchange between plant interior and environment. (jove.com)
  • All organisms inhabit a world full of sensory stimuli that determine their behavioral and physiological response to their environment. (jove.com)

protocol


  • Here, we describe a protocol for manipulating plant-induced soil heterogeneity. (jove.com)

Identification


  • This makes identification using morphology a difficult task even for well-trained plant taxonomists. (jove.com)

growth


  • Physiological integration significantly increased biomass, but did not influence other growth or morphological characters. (jove.com)

host plant


  • However, the specialist A. urticae responded more specifically to its preferred host plant, stinging nettle, than P. c-album. (jove.com)

efficiently


  • This study demonstrates that needle injection inoculation is an invaluable tool in agriculture that can efficiently deliver U. maydis in between the plant leaves and has provided plant lines that are resistant to U. maydis that can now be combined and tested in breeding programs for improved disease resistance. (jove.com)

leaves


  • Leaves are the primary photosynthetic organ, and their size and shape vary developmentally and environmentally within a plant. (jove.com)

however


  • Our approach, however, can be easily extended to other plant cell organelles (for example see 1,2 ), and thus represents an important step toward understanding the molecular basis governing other subcellular structures. (jove.com)

stress


  • The glutathione system as a stress marker in plant ecophysiology: is a stress-response concept valid? (biomedsearch.com)

cells


  • Protoplasts are plant cells that have had their cell walls enzymatically removed. (jove.com)

cell wall


  • Expansins are unique plant cell wall proteins that are involved in cell wall modifications underlying many plant developmental processes. (jove.com)
  • To facilitate the use of lignocellulosic biomass as an alternative bioenergy resource, during biological conversion processes, a pretreatment step is needed to open up the structure of the plant cell wall, increasing the accessibility of the cell wall carbohydrates. (jove.com)

large


  • Here, an efficient method for quick and easy collection of a large number of adult female mites, their application on an experimental plant host, and the assessment of the plant damage due to spider mite feeding are described. (jove.com)

addition


  • Understanding the importance of PSF for plant community assembly necessitates understanding of the role of heterogeneity in PSF, in addition to mean PSF effects. (jove.com)