Pilot Projects: Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.Office Management: Planning, organizing, and administering activities in an office.Health Facility Administration: Management of the organization of HEALTH FACILITIES.Education, Distance: Education via communication media (correspondence, radio, television, computer networks) with little or no in-person face-to-face contact between students and teachers. (ERIC Thesaurus, 1997)Program Evaluation: Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.Remote Consultation: Consultation via remote telecommunications, generally for the purpose of diagnosis or treatment of a patient at a site remote from the patient or primary physician.Feasibility Studies: Studies to determine the advantages or disadvantages, practicability, or capability of accomplishing a projected plan, study, or project.Program Development: The process of formulating, improving, and expanding educational, managerial, or service-oriented work plans (excluding computer program development).Health Education: Education that increases the awareness and favorably influences the attitudes and knowledge relating to the improvement of health on a personal or community basis.Consumer Participation: Community or individual involvement in the decision-making process.Ontario: A province of Canada lying between the provinces of Manitoba and Quebec. Its capital is Toronto. It takes its name from Lake Ontario which is said to represent the Iroquois oniatariio, beautiful lake. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p892 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p391)Telemedicine: Delivery of health services via remote telecommunications. This includes interactive consultative and diagnostic services.Computer Communication Networks: A system containing any combination of computers, computer terminals, printers, audio or visual display devices, or telephones interconnected by telecommunications equipment or cables: used to transmit or receive information. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Health Promotion: Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.Cooperative Behavior: The interaction of two or more persons or organizations directed toward a common goal which is mutually beneficial. An act or instance of working or acting together for a common purpose or benefit, i.e., joint action. (From Random House Dictionary Unabridged, 2d ed)Information Systems: Integrated set of files, procedures, and equipment for the storage, manipulation, and retrieval of information.Developing Countries: Countries in the process of change with economic growth, that is, an increase in production, per capita consumption, and income. The process of economic growth involves better utilization of natural and human resources, which results in a change in the social, political, and economic structures.Housing: Living facilities for humans.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.ComputersUser-Computer Interface: The portion of an interactive computer program that issues messages to and receives commands from a user.Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.United StatesQuestionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Focus Groups: A method of data collection and a QUALITATIVE RESEARCH tool in which a small group of individuals are brought together and allowed to interact in a discussion of their opinions about topics, issues, or questions.Mass Screening: Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.Attitude of Health Personnel: Attitudes of personnel toward their patients, other professionals, toward the medical care system, etc.Primary Health Care: Care which provides integrated, accessible health care services by clinicians who are accountable for addressing a large majority of personal health care needs, developing a sustained partnership with patients, and practicing in the context of family and community. (JAMA 1995;273(3):192)Population Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Human Genome Project: A coordinated effort of researchers to map (CHROMOSOME MAPPING) and sequence (SEQUENCE ANALYSIS, DNA) the human GENOME.
Bio Base EuropeFremont College: Fremont College is a for-profit, degree-granting college that provides educational opportunities for working adults. The college is based in Cerritos, California with a second campus in Los Angeles, California, and a virtual campus online.Atlantic University: Atlantic University is private, distance education institution of higher and continuing education in Virginia Beach, Virginia. It is associated with Edgar Cayce's Association for Research and Enlightenment (A.Standard evaluation frameworkFeasibility Study (The Outer Limits): "Feasibility Study" is an episode of The Outer Limits television show. It was first broadcast on 11 July 1997, during the third season.School health education: School Health Education see also: Health Promotion is the process of transferring health knowledge during a student's school years (K-12). Its uses are in general classified as Public Health Education and School Health Education.Chronic disease in Northern OntarioTelecare: Telecare is the term for offering remote care of elderly and physically less able people, providing the care and reassurance needed to allow them to remain living in their own homes. The use of sensors may be part of a package which can provide support for people with illnesses such as dementia, or people at risk of falling.Acknowledgement (data networks): In data networking, an acknowledgement (or acknowledgment) is a signal passed between communicating processes or computers to signify acknowledgement, or receipt of response, as part of a communications protocol. For instance, ACK packets are used in the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) to acknowledge the receipt of SYN packets when establishing a connection, data packets while a connection is being used, and FIN packets when terminating a connection.Lifestyle management programme: A lifestyle management programme (also referred to as a health promotion programme, health behaviour change programme, lifestyle improvement programme or wellness programme) is an intervention designed to promote positive lifestyle and behaviour change and is widely used in the field of health promotion.Document-centric collaboration: Document-centric collaboration is a new approach to working together on projects online which puts the document and its contents at the centre of the process.Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System: The Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS®) provides clinicians and researchers access to reliable, valid, and flexible measures of health status that assess physical, mental, and social well–being from the patient perspective. PROMIS measures are standardized, allowing for assessment of many patient-reported outcome domains—including pain, fatigue, emotional distress, physical functioning and social role participation—based on common metrics that allow for comparisons across domains, across chronic diseases, and with the general population.Lucas paradox: In economics, the Lucas paradox or the Lucas puzzle is the observation that capital does not flow from developed countries to developing countries despite the fact that developing countries have lower levels of capital per worker.}}National Healthy Homes Hero Award: National Healthy Homes Hero Award is an award presented by a consortium of agencies at the United States' National Healthy Homes Conference. The first year this award was presented was in 2011.Internet organizations: This is a list of Internet organizations, or organizations that play or played a key role in the evolution of the Internet by developing recommendations, standards, and technology; deploying infrastructure and services; and addressing other major issues.Calculator: An electronic calculator is a small, portable electronic device used to perform both basic operations of arithmetic and complex mathematical operations.Immersive technologyList of Parliamentary constituencies in Kent: The ceremonial county of Kent,Closed-ended question: A closed-ended question is a question format that limits respondents with a list of answer choices from which they must choose to answer the question.Dillman D.Cancer screeningHalfdan T. MahlerProportional reporting ratio: The proportional reporting ratio (PRR) is a statistic that is used to summarize the extent to which a particular adverse event is reported for individuals taking a specific drug, compared to the frequency at which the same adverse event is reported for patients taking some other drug (or who are taking any drug in a specified class of drugs). The PRR will typically be calculated using a surveillance database in which reports of adverse events from a variety of drugs are recorded.Behavior change (public health): Behavior change is a central objective in public health interventions,WHO 2002: World Health Report 2002 - Reducing Risks, Promoting Healthy Life Accessed Feb 2015 http://www.who.Prenatal nutrition: Nutrition and weight management before and during :pregnancy has a profound effect on the development of infants. This is a rather critical time for healthy fetal development as infants rely heavily on maternal stores and nutrient for optimal growth and health outcome later in life.Cancer Genome Project: The Cancer Genome Project, based at the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, aims to identify sequence variants/mutations critical in the development of human cancers. Like The Cancer Genome Atlas project within the United States, the Cancer Genome Project represents an effort in the War on Cancer to improve cancer diagnosis, treatment, and prevention through a better understanding of the molecular basis of this disease.
(1/12809) Methodological issues in biomonitoring of low level exposure to benzene.
Data from a pilot study on unmetabolized benzene and trans,trans muconic acid (t,t-MA) excretion in filling station attendants and unexposed controls were used to afford methodological issues in the biomonitoring of low benzene exposures (around 0.1 ppm). Urinary concentrations of benzene and t,t-MA were measured by dynamic head-space capillary GC/FID and HPLC, respectively. The accuracy of the HPLC determination of t,t-MA was assessed in terms of inter- and intra-method reliability. The adequacy of urinary t,t-MA and benzene as biological markers of low benzene exposure was evaluated by analysing the relationship between personal exposure to benzene and biomarker excretion. Filling station attendants excreted significantly higher amounts of benzene, but not of t,t-MA, than controls. Adjusting for occupational benzene exposure, smokers excreted significantly higher amounts of t,t-MA, but not of unmetabolized benzene, than nonsmokers. A comparative analysis of the present and previously published biomonitoring surveys showed a good inter-study agreement regarding the amount of t,t-MA and unmetabolized benzene excreted (about 0.1-0.2 mg/l and 1-2 micrograms/l, respectively) per unit of exposure (0.1 ppm). For each biomarker, based on the distribution of parameters observed in the pilot study, we calculated the minimum sample size required to estimate the population mean with given confidence and precision. (+info)
(2/12809) Design and trial of a new questionnaire for occupational health surveys in companies.
In this article we present an example of our method for instrument development. This method is called the Development Cycle. It consists of four main stages: (1) defining the requirements for an instrument; (2) research, design and pilot testing; (3) implementation and (4) evaluation. An application of the Development Cycle was realized within a project for the development of a basic questionnaire about work and health, to be used at periodic health surveys. This questionnaire had to identify work and work-related health problems in employees with divergent occupations and working conditions. The design of the instrument and the results of its trial in 517 employees is presented. The evaluation of the test results and the modification of the questionnaire are discussed. From 1995, the questionnaire has been implemented in the Dutch OHS services quite successfully. (+info)
(3/12809) A chiropractic service arrangement for musculoskeletal complaints in industry: a pilot study.
Chiropractic services are commonly used by workers with musculoskeletal problems, especially low back and neck complaints. Research into the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of this approach is, however, difficult to design without prior pilot studies. This study followed 32 workers with these complaints attending one such service and used five measures of outcome over a 6-month period. These measured pain (VAS), disability (FLP), quality of life (SF-36), perceived benefit and satisfaction with care. Additionally, sickness costs to the companies were recorded over two years encompassing the study period. Treatment utilization was also monitored. Over half the population were chronic sufferers. The effect sizes were large for pain and for seven out of eight dimensions of the SF-36 questionnaire at 6-month follow-up, although not for disability (FLP). High levels of satisfaction and perceived improvement were reported and sickness costs to the companies fell. However, the sample size in this pilot study was small and did not include controls. We would, therefore, recommend a full cost-effectiveness study incorporating a randomized trial in this area. (+info)
(4/12809) Biased JH usage in plasma cell immunoglobulin gene sequences from colonic mucosa in ulcerative colitis but not in Crohn's disease.
BACKGROUND: Ulcerative colitis is an inflammatory disease of the colonic and rectal mucosa. Autoantibodies have been observed in ulcerative colitis which may have a role in the pathogenesis of the disease. Evidence also suggests that there is an hereditary predisposition towards the disease, although no individual genes have been identified. AIMS: This is a pilot study of immunoglobulin heavy chain genes (IgH) in ulcerative colitis to determine whether they have any particular genetic characteristics which may lead to a better understanding of the disease aetiology. SUBJECTS: Colonic or rectal tissue was obtained from five children with ulcerative colitis. Tissue was also obtained from five children with Crohn's disease and five children who did not have inflammatory bowel disease as controls. METHODS: B cells and IgD+ B cells were identified by immunohistochemistry on frozen sections. Areas of lamina propria containing plasma cells, and areas of IgD+ B cells were microdissected. The immunoglobulin genes were PCR amplified, cloned, and sequenced. Sequences were analysed for content of somatic mutations and composition of heavy chain. RESULTS: An increase in the use of JH6 and DXP'1, and a decrease in the use of JH4, gene segments in immunoglobulin genes from lamina propria plasma cells, and from virgin IgD+ B cells, was found in patients with ulcerative colitis. These biases were not present in the control groups. CONCLUSIONS: There is a fundamental difference in the immunoglobulin genes from patients with ulcerative colitis. Whether this is caused by a difference in content of immunoglobulin gene segments in the germline or a difference in the recombination mechanism is not known. (+info)
(5/12809) Use of positron emission tomography in evaluation of brachial plexopathy in breast cancer patients.
18-Fluoro-2-deoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) has previously been used successfully to image primary and metastatic breast cancer. In this pilot study, 19 breast cancer patients with symptoms/signs referrable to the brachial plexus were evaluated with 18FDG-PET. In 11 cases computerized tomography (CT) scanning was also performed. Of the 19 patients referred for PET study, 14 had abnormal uptake of 18FDG in the region of the symptomatic plexus. Four patients had normal PET studies and one had increased FDG uptake in the chest wall that accounted for her axillary pain. CT scans were performed in 9 of the 14 patients who had positive brachial plexus PET studies; six of these were either normal or showed no clear evidence of recurrent disease, while three CTs demonstrated clear brachial plexus involvement. Of two of the four patients with normal PET studies, one has had complete resolution of symptoms untreated while the other was found to have cervical disc herniation on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan. The remaining two patients almost certainly had radiation-induced plexopathy and had normal CT, MRI and PET study. These data suggest that 18FDG-PET scanning is a useful tool in evaluation of patients with suspected metastatic plexopathy, particularly if other imaging studies are normal. It may also be useful in distinguishing between radiation-induced and metastatic plexopathy. (+info)
(6/12809) Marimastat in recurrent colorectal cancer: exploratory evaluation of biological activity by measurement of carcinoembryonic antigen.
Marimastat is a specific inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases that has been shown to be effective in cancer models. A pilot, escalating-dose study of oral marimastat was performed in patients with recurrent colorectal cancer, in whom evaluation of serological response was made by measurement of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) levels. The study assessed the safety and tolerability of 4 weeks administration of marimastat, and determined a dose range producing detectable serological effects. Patients were recruited with a serum CEA level greater than 5 ng ml(-1), and rising by more than 25% over a 4-week screening period. Patients were treated for 28 days and entered into a continuation protocol if a serological response or clinical benefit was observed. Pharmacokinetic and safety data determined that groups of patients were recruited sequentially at 25 mg and 50 mg twice daily, and, thereafter, 10 mg twice daily, 10 mg once daily, 5 mg once daily and 20 mg once daily. A biological effect (BE) was defined as a CEA value on day 28 no greater than on day 0; a partial biological effect (PBE) was defined as a rise in CEA over the 28-day treatment period of less than 25%. Of 70 patients recruited, 63 completed the 28-day treatment period, and 55 were eligible for cancer antigen analysis. Examination of the dose-effect relationships provides evidence for a causal relationship between marimastat and biological effects: the proportion of patients with BE or PBE was higher with twice daily dosing (16 out of 25, 64%) than with once daily dosing (11 out of 30, 37%) (P = 0.043, chi2 test). Furthermore, the median rates of rise of CEA fell markedly during treatment compared with the screening period for patients receiving twice daily marimastat (P<0.0001), but not for patients receiving marimastat once daily (P = 0.25). Musculoskeletal adverse events emerged as the principal drug-related toxicity of marimastat, occurring in a dose- and time-dependent fashion. It was concluded that marimastat was associated with dose-dependent biological effects in cancer patients. The occurrence of musculoskeletal side-effects define 25 mg twice daily as the upper limit of the dose range for continuous use in further studies. Therefore, a dose range of 20 mg once daily to 25 mg twice daily seems appropriate for further studies, which should aim to demonstrate the efficacy of the drug in terms of conventional clinical end points and describe the long-term tolerability of this novel agent. (+info)
(7/12809) Reactions to medical abortion among providers of surgical abortion: an early snapshot.
(8/12809) X-chromosome inactivation patterns do not implicate asymmetric splitting of the inner cell mass in the aetiology of twin-twin transfusion syndrome.
The aetiology of twin-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS) is unclear. We investigated the hypothesis that monochorionic (MC) pregnancies with TTTS are associated with differences in the timing and symmetry of twinning compared to MC twin pregnancies without TTTS. DNA was extracted from the umbilical cord vessels of 26 female MC twins, 14 with and 12 without TTTS on serial antenatal ultrasound. X-inactivation patterns were determined by DNA digestion with Hhal and Hpall followed by polymerase chain reaction for a polymorphic trinucleotide repeat in the androgen receptor gene. Products were quantified by densitometry and results compared to those in peripheral blood samples of adult female controls. The median degree of non-random inactivation was similar in MC twins with TTTS, in MC twins without TTTS, and in adult controls. The percentage of individuals with skewed (> or =30/70%) inactivation patterns was no different in MC twins with TTTS compared to those without TTTS, and was similar to adult controls using either enzyme technique. In conclusion we found no difference in the degree or frequency of non-random X-inactivation patterns in TTTS. X-inactivation patterns do not appear to be a useful tool for studying the symmetry of inner cell mass splitting in monochorionic twins. (+info)