Physics: The study of those aspects of energy and matter in terms of elementary principles and laws. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Nuclear Physics: The study of the characteristics, behavior, and internal structures of the atomic nucleus and its interactions with other nuclei. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Health Physics: The science concerned with problems of radiation protection relevant to reducing or preventing radiation exposure, and the effects of ionizing radiation on humans and their environment.Physical Phenomena: The entities of matter and energy, and the processes, principles, properties, and relationships describing their nature and interactions.Biology: One of the BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE DISCIPLINES concerned with the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of animals, plants, and microorganisms.Jatropha: A plant genus of the family EUPHORBIACEAE. Members contain jatrophone and other diterpenes.Physical Processes: The forces and principles of action of matter and energy.Nobel PrizeElementary Particles: Individual components of atoms, usually subatomic; subnuclear particles are usually detected only when the atomic nucleus decays and then only transiently, as most of them are unstable, often yielding pure energy without substance, i.e., radiation.Interdisciplinary Studies: Programs of study which span the traditional boundaries of academic scholarship.Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Biophysics: The study of PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and PHYSICAL PROCESSES as applied to living things.Quantum Theory: The theory that the radiation and absorption of energy take place in definite quantities called quanta (E) which vary in size and are defined by the equation E=hv in which h is Planck's constant and v is the frequency of the radiation.Technology, Radiologic: The application of scientific knowledge or technology to the field of radiology. The applications center mostly around x-ray or radioisotopes for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes but the technological applications of any radiation or radiologic procedure is within the scope of radiologic technology.Radiation Oncology: A subspecialty of medical oncology and radiology concerned with the radiotherapy of cancer.Astronomy: The science concerned with celestial bodies and the observation and interpretation of the radiation received in the vicinity of the earth from the component parts of the universe (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Natural Science Disciplines: The sciences dealing with processes observable in nature.Science: The study of natural phenomena by observation, measurement, and experimentation.Equipment and Supplies: Expendable and nonexpendable equipment, supplies, apparatus, and instruments that are used in diagnostic, surgical, therapeutic, scientific, and experimental procedures.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Engineering: The practical application of physical, mechanical, and mathematical principles. (Stedman, 25th ed)
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Index of physics articles (J): The index of physics articles is split into multiple pages due to its size.Nuclear emulsion: In particle and nuclear physics, a nuclear emulsion plate is a photographic plate with a particularly thick emulsion layer and with a very uniform grain size. Like bubble chambers, cloud chambers, and wire chambers nuclear emulsion plates record the tracks of charged particles passing through.Certified Health Physicist: Certified Health Physicist is an official title granted by the American Board of Health Physics, the certification board for health physicists in the United States. A Certified Health Physicist is designated by the letters CHP or DABHP after his or her name.Pouillet effect: In physics, the term Pouillet effect refers to an exothermic reaction that takes place when a liquid is added to a powder. It was first observed by Leslie in 1802 when dry sand was immersed in water.Nencki Institute of Experimental Biology: The Nencki Institute of Experimental Biology is a Polish scientific research organization and a part of Polish Academy of Sciences headquartered in Warsaw, Poland. Founded in 1918, it is a leading institution in the country in the field of neurobiology, molecular biology and biochemistry.Jatropha macrantha: Jatropha macrantha, also called the Huanarpo Macho or more recently Peruvian Viagra, is a medium size shrubby tree species in the genus Jatropha with orange red flowers. It is indigenous to Peru.SIESTA (computer program): SIESTA (Spanish Initiative for Electronic Simulations with Thousands of Atoms) is an original method and a software implementation for performing electronic structure calculations and ab initio molecular dynamics simulations of molecules and solids.Rosalyn Sussman YalowSolar neutrino: Electron neutrinos are produced in the Sun as a product of nuclear fusion. By far the largest fraction of neutrinos passing through the Earth are Solar neutrinos.Q Division Studios: Q Division Studios is a recording studio located in Somerville, Massachusetts, United States, at the heart of the Boston area's music scene. Founded in 1986, Q Division was originally located at 443 Albany Street in Boston, but moved to its current two-studio facility in 2000.Von Neumann regular ring: In mathematics, a von Neumann regular ring is a ring R such that for every a in R there exists an x in R such that . To avoid the possible confusion with the regular rings and regular local rings of commutative algebra (which are unrelated notions), von Neumann regular rings are also called absolutely flat rings, because these rings are characterized by the fact that every left module is flat.Outline of biophysics: The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to biophysics:Trapped ion quantum computer: A trapped ion quantum computer is one proposed approach to a large-scale quantum computer. Ions, or charged atomic particles, can be confined and suspended in free space using electromagnetic fields.Cardiovascular technologistRadiation oncologist: A radiation oncologist is a specialist physician who uses ionizing radiation (such as megavoltage X-rays or radionuclides) in the treatment of cancer. Radiation oncology is one of the three primary specialties, the other two being surgical and medical oncology, involved in the treatment of cancer.Submillimetre astronomy: Submillimetre astronomy or submillimeter astronomy (see spelling differences) is the branch of observational astronomy that is conducted at submillimetre wavelengths (i.e.RWTH Aachen Faculty of Mathematics, Computer science, and Natural sciences: thumbnail|200px|Institute for physical chemistryThe Republican War on Science: The Republican War on Science is a 2005 book by Chris C. Mooney, an American journalist who focuses on the politics of science policy.Biological resistanceMatrix model: == Mathematics and physics ==Birse Civils: Birse Civils is a civil engineering company based in North Yorkshire, England. It was formerly a separate civil engineering company simply known as Birse Group, but is now owned by Balfour Beatty.
(1/263) Factors influencing the deposition of inhaled particles.
Because the initial deposition pattern of inhaled particles of various toxic agents determines their future clearance and insult to tissue, respiratory tract deposition is important in assessing the potential toxicity of inhaled aerosols. Factors influencing the deposition of inhaled particles can be classified into three main areas: (1) the physics of aerosols, (2) the anatomy of the respiratory tract and (3) the airflow patterns in the lung airways. In the physics of aerosols, the forces acting on a particle and its physical and chemical properties, such as particle size or size distribution, density, shape, hygroscopic or hydrophobic character, and chemical reactions of the particle will affect the deposition. With respect to the anatomy of the respiratory tract, important parameters are the diameters, the lengths, and the branching angles of airway segments, which determine the deposition. Physiological factors include airflow and breathing patterns, which influence particle deposition. Various lung models used in predicting particle deposition are reviewed and discussed. The air-way structures of various animal species are compared, showing the unique structure of the human lung compared to the animal species under study. Regional deposition data in man and dog are reviewed. Recent deposition data for small rodents are presented, showing regional difference in deposition with the right apical lobe having the highest relative deposition. (+info)
(2/263) Plasma jet takes off.
Thanks to a series of joint research projects by Los Alamos National Laboratory, Beta Squared of Allen, Texas, and the University of California at Los Angeles, there is now a more environmentally sound method for cleaning semiconductor chips that may also be effective in cleaning up chemical, bacterial, and nuclear contaminants. The Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Jet uses a type of ionized gas called plasma to clean up contaminants by binding to them and lifting them away. In contrast to the corrosive acids and chemical solvents traditionally used to clean semiconductor chips, the jet oxidizes contaminants, producing only benign gaseous by-products such as oxygen and carbon dioxide. The new technology is also easy to transport, cleans thoroughly and quickly, and presents no hazards to its operators. (+info)
(3/263) Single molecule physics and chemistry.
New experiments using scanning probe microcopies and advanced optical methods allow us to study molecules as individuals, not just as populations. The findings of these studies not only include the confirmation of results expected from studies of bulk matter, but also give substantially new information concerning the complexity of biomolecules or molecules in a structured environment. The technique lays the groundwork for achieving the control of an individual molecule's motion. Ultimately, this work may lead to such practical applications as miniaturized sensors. (+info)
(4/263) The original presentation of Boyle's law.
The original presentation of what we know as Boyle's law has several interesting features. First, the technical difficulties of the experiment were considerable, because Boyle used a glass tube full of mercury that was nearly 2.5 m long, and the large pressures sometimes shattered the glass. Next, Boyle's table of results contains extremely awkward fractions, such 10/13, 2/17, 13/19, and 18/23, which look very strange to us today. This was because he calculated the pressure for a certain volume of gas by using simple multiplication and division, keeping the vulgar fractions. Boyle was not able to express the numbers as decimals because this notation was not in common use at the time. Finally, his contention that pressure and volume were inversely related depended on the reader's comparing two sets of numbers in adjacent columns to see how well they agreed. Today we would plot the data, but again orthogonal graphs were not in general use in 1662. When Boyle's data are plotted by using modern conventional methods, they strongly support his hypothesis that the volume and pressure of a gas are inversely related. (+info)
(5/263) Low-energy, Q-switched ruby laser iridotomies in Macaca mulatta.
Laser iridotomies have been pursued as a means of performing anterior segments surgery as a virtually noninvasive procedure. An ideal single laser pulse technique has been elusive. In this study, iridotomies in rhesus monkeys were produced with a single exposure to a Q-switched ruby laser pulse. The iridotomy formation was accompanied by acoustic wave generation, bubble formation, and explosive tissue disruption, evidence of a nonlinear laser-iris interaction. The average energies at which these iridotomies were produced ranged between 18 and 48 mJ, some of the lowest energies reported for a laser iridotomy. Corneal changes were observed both at the epithelium and at the endothelium in some, but not all, of the eyes exposed. The epithelial changes morphologically resembled nonlinear damage reported for transparent solids. Damage to physical materials has been attributed to stimulated Brillouin scattering, a mechanism that may also play a role at the cornea. Consideration of such phenomena should be a part of the clinical evaluation prior to exposure of a cornea to high-power laser pulses. Although the endothelial change was more difficult to analyze, a shock-wave effect could not be discounted. (+info)
(6/263) On the use of computational fluid dynamics in the prediction and control of exposure to airborne contaminants-an illustration using spray painting.
Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is employed to simulate breathing-zone concentration for a simple representation of spray painting a flat plate in a cross-flow ventilated booth. The results demonstrate the capability of CFD to track correctly changes in breathing-zone concentration associated with work practices shown previously to be significant in determining exposure. Empirical data, and models verified through field studies, are used to examine the predictive capability of these simulations and to identify important issues in the conduct of such comparisons. A commercially available CFD package is used to solve a three-dimensional turbulent flow problem for the velocity field, and to subsequently generate particle trajectories for polydisperse aerosols. An in-house algorithm is developed to convert the trajectory data to breathing-zone concentrations, transfer efficiencies and aerosol size distributions. The mesh size, time step, duration of the simulation, and number of particles per size interval are all important variables in achieving convergent results. (+info)
(7/263) Computational fluid dynamics as a method for assessing fume cupboard performance.
A commercially available computational fluid dynamic (CFD) software program, specific for HVAC systems, was used to study the performance of an aerodynamic fume cupboard. The numerical results showed good qualitative agreement with physical measurements giving confidence in the CFD model to simulate and predict overall fume cupboard performance. However, there were some quantitative differences specifically around 'aerodynamic' features that could not be accurately simulated by the software code. The CFD model was clearly able to demonstrate differences in performance between good and bad cupboard designs, and show the importance of using rear baffles and lipfoils. It also showed the importance of good design features when a 'worker' was standing against the front edge or when there were draughts in front of the aperture. The computer model was used to simulate the gas tracer containment test method described in BS 7258 (1994) [Laboratory Fume Cupboards], and had a much greater sensitivity than the recommended physical measuring instruments. The results given in this paper demonstrate the potential for using a commercially available software package for the optimisation of fume cupboard design and testing. It also indicates the economy of using CFD compared with building a prototype and testing a model. (+info)
(8/263) Contaminant dispersion in the vicinity of a worker in a uniform velocity field.
The transportation of gaseous contaminant from a low and moderate low impulse (momentum<1 m s(-1)) source to the breathing zone was studied in a uniform air stream flow. Results of the effects of the direction and the velocity of principal air flow, convection due to a human body, arm movement of a human being and the type of source on the concentration profiles are presented. Three important results were obtained. Firstly, for a given low and moderate impulse low impulse contaminant source in the near field of a worker, his/her orientation relative to the principal air flow direction is the most important factor in reducing occupational exposure, with an air velocity of about 0.3 m s(-1). Secondly, the effect of convection resulting from body heat on air flow was lower than expected. Thirdly, arm movements influence contaminant dispersion, and should be included when models assessing exposure are developed. The present data can also be used to validate existing computational fluid dynamic (CFD) models. (+info)
- Scientists had searched for the elusive "God particle" for decades when its existence was finally confirmed at the European particle physics laboratory CERN in July last year. (sbsun.com)
- This is a triumph, not only for Englert and Professor Higgs but for theoretical physics more generally and actually the whole research field of elementary particle physics. (scientificamerican.com)
- Their theory became a cornerstone of the standard model for elementary particle physics which describes all matter as being built of a few kinds of basic metaparticles, and all forces in nature as mediated by a few kinds of force particles. (scientificamerican.com)
- Now what they did is central to the so-called standard model of particle physics and let me try to explain what the standard model of particle physics is about by taking this example of a fly. (scientificamerican.com)
- The 2004 Nobel Prize for physics has been awarded to three American scientists, David Gross, David Politzer and Frank Wilczek, for their explanation of the strong force, or how quarks combine to form protons and neutrons. (theregister.co.uk)
- TOKYO-The award of the Nobel Prize in physics to three scientists born in Japan stands to boost the morale of the country's beleaguered electronics industry, showing how obscure Japanese companies that specialize in parts and materials can still retain a technological edge. (wsj.com)
- Thanks to their discovery, David Gross, David Politzer and Frank Wilczek have brought physics one step closer to fulfilling a grand dream, to formulate a unified theory comprising gravity as well - a theory for everything," the Nobel committee said. (theregister.co.uk)
- STOCKHOLM - The announcements of this year's Nobel Prize winners will start Monday with the medicine award and continue with physics, chemistry, literature, peace and economics. (sbsun.com)
- The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences has decided to award the 2013 Nobel Prize in Physics to Professor Francois Englert at University Libre de Bruxelles, Belgium, and Professor Peter Higgs at University of Edinburgh, United Kingdom. (scientificamerican.com)
- In 1964, he joined the University of Nottingham in central England as a lecturer in physics. (scmr.org)