Philosophy: A love or pursuit of wisdom. A search for the underlying causes and principles of reality. (Webster, 3d ed)Philosophy, MedicalPhilosophy, DentalPhilosophy, NursingLiterature, ModernExistentialism: Philosophy based on the analysis of the individual's existence in the world which holds that human existence cannot be completely described in scientific terms. Existentialism also stresses the freedom and responsibility of the individual as well as the uniqueness of religious and ethical experiences and the analysis of subjective phenomena such as anxiety, guilt, and suffering. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed.)Ethical Theory: A philosophically coherent set of propositions (for example, utilitarianism) which attempts to provide general norms for the guidance and evaluation of moral conduct. (from Beauchamp and Childress, Principles of Biomedical Ethics, 4th ed)Morals: Standards of conduct that distinguish right from wrong.Ethics, Medical: The principles of professional conduct concerning the rights and duties of the physician, relations with patients and fellow practitioners, as well as actions of the physician in patient care and interpersonal relations with patient families.Religious Philosophies: Sets of beliefs on the nature of the universe or Man.Ethical Analysis: The use of systematic methods of ethical examination, such as CASUISTRY or ETHICAL THEORY, in reasoning about moral problems.Human Development: Continuous sequential changes which occur in the physiological and psychological functions during the life-time of an individual.Ethicists: Persons trained in philosophical or theological ethics who work in clinical, research, public policy, or other settings where they bring their expertise to bear on the analysis of ethical dilemmas in policies or cases. (Bioethics Thesaurus)HumanitiesAnimal Rights: The moral and ethical bases of the protection of animals from cruelty and abuse. The rights are extended to domestic animals, laboratory animals, and wild animals.Life: The state that distinguishes organisms from inorganic matter, manifested by growth, metabolism, reproduction, and adaptation. It includes the course of existence, the sum of experiences, the mode of existing, or the fact of being. Over the centuries inquiries into the nature of life have crossed the boundaries from philosophy to biology, forensic medicine, anthropology, etc., in creative as well as scientific literature. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed; Dr. James H. Cassedy, NLM History of Medicine Division)Science: The study of natural phenomena by observation, measurement, and experimentation.Ethics: The philosophy or code pertaining to what is ideal in human character and conduct. Also, the field of study dealing with the principles of morality.Freedom: The rights of individuals to act and make decisions without external constraints.History, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.History, 19th Century: Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.History, 18th Century: Time period from 1701 through 1800 of the common era.Logic: The science that investigates the principles governing correct or reliable inference and deals with the canons and criteria of validity in thought and demonstration. This system of reasoning is applicable to any branch of knowledge or study. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed & Sippl, Computer Dictionary, 4th ed)Social Values: Abstract standards or empirical variables in social life which are believed to be important and/or desirable.Holistic Health: Health as viewed from the perspective that humans and other organisms function as complete, integrated units rather than as aggregates of separate parts.Psychosomatic Medicine: A system of medicine which aims at discovering the exact nature of the relationship between the emotions and bodily function, affirming the principle that the mind and body are one.Mind-Body Relations, Metaphysical: The relation between the mind and the body in a religious, social, spiritual, behavioral, and metaphysical context. This concept is significant in the field of alternative medicine. It differs from the relationship between physiologic processes and behavior where the emphasis is on the body's physiology ( = PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGY).History, Medieval: The period of history from the year 500 through 1450 of the common era.Bioethics: A branch of applied ethics that studies the value implications of practices and developments in life sciences, medicine, and health care.Knowledge: The body of truths or facts accumulated in the course of time, the cumulated sum of information, its volume and nature, in any civilization, period, or country.Bioethical Issues: Clusters of topics that fall within the domain of BIOETHICS, the field of study concerned with value questions that arise in biomedicine and health care delivery.Sociology: A social science dealing with group relationships, patterns of collective behavior, and social organization.Principle-Based Ethics: An approach to ethics that focuses on theories of the importance of general principles such as respect for autonomy, beneficence/nonmaleficence, and justice.Reproductive Physiological Phenomena: Physiological processes, factors, properties and characteristics pertaining to REPRODUCTION.Halfway Houses: Specialized residences for persons who do not require full hospitalization, and are not well enough to function completely within the community without professional supervision, protection and support.Psychiatry: The medical science that deals with the origin, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of mental disorders.Beneficence: The state or quality of being kind, charitable, or beneficial. (from American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, 4th ed). The ethical principle of BENEFICENCE requires producing net benefit over harm. (Bioethics Thesaurus)Personal Autonomy: Self-directing freedom and especially moral independence. An ethical principle holds that the autonomy of persons ought to be respected. (Bioethics Thesaurus)History, 17th Century: Time period from 1601 through 1700 of the common era.Value of Life: The intrinsic moral worth ascribed to a living being. (Bioethics Thesaurus)Education, Medical: Use for general articles concerning medical education.Library Science: Study of the principles and practices of library administration and services.Animal Experimentation: The use of animals as investigational subjects.Osteopathic Medicine: A medical discipline that is based on the philosophy that all body systems are interrelated and dependent upon one another for good health. This philosophy, developed in 1874 by Dr. Andrew Taylor Still, recognizes the concept of "wellness" and the importance of treating illness within the context of the whole body. Special attention is placed on the MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM.Education, Graduate: Studies beyond the bachelor's degree at an institution having graduate programs for the purpose of preparing for entrance into a specific field, and obtaining a higher degree.Curriculum: A course of study offered by an educational institution.Organization and Administration: The planning and managing of programs, services, and resources.History, Ancient: The period of history before 500 of the common era.Politics: Activities concerned with governmental policies, functions, etc.Models, Educational: Theoretical models which propose methods of learning or teaching as a basis or adjunct to changes in attitude or behavior. These educational interventions are usually applied in the fields of health and patient education but are not restricted to patient care.Faculty: The teaching staff and members of the administrative staff having academic rank in an educational institution.United StatesResearch: Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)Libraries, MedicalTeaching: The educational process of instructing.Palliative Care: Care alleviating symptoms without curing the underlying disease. (Stedman, 25th ed)Attitude of Health Personnel: Attitudes of personnel toward their patients, other professionals, toward the medical care system, etc.Interdisciplinary Communication: Communication, in the sense of cross-fertilization of ideas, involving two or more academic disciplines (such as the disciplines that comprise the cross-disciplinary field of bioethics, including the health and biological sciences, the humanities, and the social sciences and law). Also includes problems in communication stemming from differences in patterns of language usage in different academic or medical disciplines.Leadership: The function of directing or controlling the actions or attitudes of an individual or group with more or less willing acquiescence of the followers.
Modern Moral Philosophy: "Modern Moral Philosophy" is an influential article on moral philosophy by G. E.The Giles School: The Giles School is a private French immersion school located in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. The school (formerly called The Markham School for Human Development) was founded in 1989 by Harry Giles, CM, QC - a pioneer in bilingual French immersion in Canada and the founder of the Toronto French School.Somos sequence: In mathematics, a Somos sequence is a sequence of numbers defined by a certain recurrence relation, described below. They were discovered by mathematician Michael Somos.Jonathan AllynJim RohnThe Schizophrenia of Modern Ethical Theories: The Schizophrenia of Modern Ethical Theories (1976) is a popular paper in ethics by Michael Stocker. The central claim of the paper is that some modern ethical theories fail to account for motive in their theories, producing a sort of schizophrenia because the agent is unable to use his reasons or motives as a basis for his actions.Morality and religion: Morality and religion is the relationship between religious views and morals. Many religions have value frameworks regarding personal behavior meant to guide adherents in determining between right and wrong.Mark Siegler: Mark Siegler (born June 20, 1941) is an American physician who specializes in internal medicine. He is the Lindy Bergman Distinguished Service Professor of Medicine and Surgery at the University of Chicago.Swami Shyam: Swami Shyam styled himself as a god-man."Guru's devotees compensated for losses" The Globe and Mail 7 March 2001 Born in 1924 in Chandani, Jalaun district, Uttar Pradesh, India, he was raised in the Vedic tradition of Knowledge of the Self (Atma-gyan).Human Development Foundation: The Human Development Foundation (HDF), also referred to as the Mercy Centre, is a non-profit and non-denominational organization in Bangkok, Thailand. It was established by Roman Catholic Redemptorist priest Father Joe MaierPBS Story, Father Joe: Slum Priest, June 2004 with Sister Maria Chantavaradom in 1975.Dignitas Personae: Dignitas Personae is the title of a 2008 instruction by the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith giving doctrinal directives on certain embryonic ethical controversies that had emerged since 1987, after Donum Vitae was released.Last Days of Humanity: Last Days of Humanity is a Dutch goregrind band, which was active from 1989 until 2006, and reformed in 2010. Their music is known for its nonstop sound and relentless blast beats, with regards to drummer Marc Palmen.Massachusetts Animal Rights Coalition: The Massachusetts Animal Rights Coalition (MARC), is a non-profit volunteer-run animal rights organization based in Massachusetts, United States. MARC is the largest and most active animal rights group in Massachusetts and operates as a tax exempt 501(c)(3) corporationhttp://corp.The Republican War on Science: The Republican War on Science is a 2005 book by Chris C. Mooney, an American journalist who focuses on the politics of science policy.Libertarian perspectives on political alliances: Libertarian perspectives on political alliances vary greatly, with controversies among libertarians as to which alliances are acceptable or useful to the movement.The Flash ChroniclesNewington Green Unitarian ChurchEnlightenment Intensive: An Enlightenment Intensive is a group retreat designed to enable a spiritual enlightenment experience within a relatively short time. Devised by Americans Charles (1929–2007) and Ava Berner in the 1960s,http://www.Logic gate: In electronics, a logic gate is an idealized or physical device implementing a Boolean function; that is, it performs a logical operation on one or more logical inputs, and produces a single logical output. Depending on the context, the term may refer to an ideal logic gate, one that has for instance zero rise time and unlimited fan-out, or it may refer to a non-ideal physical deviceJaeger, Microelectronic Circuit Design, McGraw-Hill 1997, ISBN 0-07-032482-4, pp.Swadeshi Jagaran Manch: The Swadeshi Jagaran Manch or SJM is an economic wing of Sangh Parivar that again took the tool of Swadeshi advocated in India before its independence to destabilize the British Empire. SJM took to the promotion of Swadeshi (indigenous) industries and culture as a dote against LPG.RightOnCanada.ca: RightOnCanada.ca is an independent research and advocacy group based in Ottawa, Canada and is affiliated with the Rideau Institute.Zbigniew J. LipowskiParchment repair: The repair and mending of parchment has taken place for thousands of years. Methods from the earliest hand stitching of tears to today's use of modern equipment to mend and fill parchment show the importance that has been placed on its preservation and conservation.University of Toronto Joint Centre for Bioethics: The University of Toronto Joint Centre for Bioethics, or JCB, is an academic research centre located on the downtown campus of the University of Toronto in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. The Joint Centre for Bioethics is a partnership between the University and 15 affiliated health care organizations in the Greater Toronto Area.Regulation of science: The regulation of science refers to use of law, or other ruling, by academic or governmental bodies to allow or restrict science from performing certain practices, or researching certain scientific areas. It is a bioethical issue related to other practices such as abortion and euthanasia; and areas of research such as stem-cell research and cloning synthetic biology.David Glass (sociologist): 1970sHenry Lygon, 5th Earl Beauchamp: Henry Lygon, 5th Earl Beauchamp (13 February 1829 – 4 March 1866), styled Viscount Elmley between 1853 and 1863, was a British politician.Environment (biophysical): Environment}}Sober Living by the SeaCross-cultural psychiatry: Cross-cultural psychiatry, transcultural psychiatry, or cultural psychiatry is a branch of psychiatry concerned with the cultural context of mental disorders and the challenges of addressing ethnic diversity in psychiatric services. It emerged as a coherent field from several strands of work, including surveys of the prevalence and form of disorders in different cultures or countries; the study of migrant populations and ethnic diversity within countries; and analysis of psychiatry itself as a cultural product.Motivations for joining the Special OlympicsDiscoverer 23Realia (library science): Realia}}American Osteopathic Board of Neurology and Psychiatry: United StatesNihon UniversitySyllabus: A syllabus (pl. syllabi) is an outline and summary of topics to be covered in an education or training course.Timeline of historic inventionsOpinion polling in the Philippine presidential election, 2010: Opinion polling (popularly known as surveys in the Philippines) for the 2010 Philippine presidential election is managed by two major polling firms: Social Weather Stations and Pulse Asia, and several minor polling firms. The polling firms conducted surveys both prior and after the deadline for filing of certificates of candidacies on December 1, 2009.KamaladalamList of Parliamentary constituencies in Kent: The ceremonial county of Kent,Andrew Dickson WhiteUniversity of Sydney Library: The University of Sydney Library is the library system of the University of Sydney. According to its publications, it is the largest academic library in the southern hemisphere (circa 2005), with a print collection of over 5.Cross-cultural leadership: Cross-cultural psychology attempts to understand how individuals of different cultures interact with each other (Abbe et al., 2007).
(1/220) Do case studies mislead about the nature of reality?
This paper attempts a partial, critical look at the construction and use of case studies in ethics education. It argues that the authors and users of case studies are often insufficiently aware of the literary nature of these artefacts: this may lead to some confusion between fiction and reality. Issues of the nature of the genre, the fictional, story-constructing aspect of case studies, the nature of authorship, and the purposes and uses of case studies as "texts" are outlined and discussed. The paper concludes with some critical questions that can be applied to the construction and use of case studies in the light of the foregoing analysis. (+info)
(2/220) Philosophical behaviorism: a review of things that happen because they should: a teleological approach to action, by Rowland Stout.
Mentalistic terms such as belief and desire have been rejected by behavior analysts because they are traditionally held to refer to unobservable events inside the organism. Behavior analysis has consequently been viewed by philosophers to be at best irrelevant to psychology, understood as a science of the mind. In this book, the philosopher Rowland Stout argues cogently that beliefs and desires (like operants such as rats' lever presses) are best understood in terms of an interaction over time between overt behavior and its overt consequences (a viewpoint called teleological behaviorism). This book is important because it identifies the science of the mind with the science of overt behavior and implies that the psychologists best equipped to study mental life are not those who purport to do so but those who focus on the experimental analysis of behavior. (+info)
(3/220) How will we know "good" qualitative research when we see it? Beginning the dialogue in health services research.
OBJECTIVE: To lay the foundation for an explicit review and dialogue concerning the criteria that should be used to evaluate qualitative health services research. Clear criteria are critical for the discipline because they provide a benchmark against which research can be assessed. DATA SOURCES: Existing literature in the social sciences and health services research, particularly in primary care and medicine. PRINCIPAL FINDING: Traditional criteria for evaluating qualitative research are rooted in the philosophical perspective (positivism) most closely associated with quantitative research and methods. As a result, qualitative research and methods may not be used as frequently as they can be and research results generated from qualitative studies may not be disseminated as widely as possible. However, alternative criteria for evaluating qualitative research have been proposed that reflect a different philosophical perspective (post-positivism). Moreover, these criteria are tailored to the unique purposes for which qualitative research is used and the research designs traditionally employed. While criteria based on these two different philosophical perspectives have much in common, some important differences exist. CONCLUSION: The field of health services research must engage in a collective, "qualitative" process to determine which criteria to adopt (positivist or post-positivist), or whether some combination of the two is most appropriate. Greater clarity about the criteria used to evaluate qualitative research will strengthen the discipline by fostering a more appropriate and improved use of qualitative methods, a greater willingness to fund and publish "good" qualitative research, and the development of more informed consumers of qualitative research results. (+info)
(4/220) To boldly go....
The threshold of the new millennium offers an opportunity to celebrate remarkable past achievements and to reflect on promising new directions for the field of public health. Despite historic achievements, much will always remain to be done (this is the intrinsic nature of public health). While every epoch has its own distinct health challenges, those confronting us today are unlike those plaguing public health a century ago. The perspectives and methods developed during the infectious and chronic disease eras have limited utility in the face of newly emerging challenges to public health. In this paper, we take stock of the state of public health in the United States by (1) describing limitations of conventional US public health, (2) identifying different social philosophies and conceptions of health that produce divergent approaches to public health, (3) discussing institutional resistance to change and the subordination of public health to the authority of medicine, (4) urging a move from risk factorology to multilevel explanations that offer different types of intervention, (5) noting the rise of the new "right state" with its laissez-faire attitude and antipathy toward public interventions, (6) arguing for a more ecumenical approach to research methods, and (7) challenging the myth of a value-free public health. (+info)
(5/220) Power and the teaching of medical ethics.
This paper argues that ethics education needs to become more reflective about its social and political ethic as it participates in the construction and transmission of medical ethics. It argues for a critical approach to medical ethics and explores the political context in medical schools and some of the peculiar problems in medical ethics education. (+info)
(6/220) The future of philosophy.
There is no sharp dividing line between science and philosophy, but philosophical problems tend to have three special features. First, they tend to concern large frameworks rather than specific questions within the framework. Second, they are questions for which there is no generally accepted method of solution. And third they tend to involve conceptual issues. For these reasons a philosophical problem such as the nature of life can become a scientific problem if it is put into a shape where it admits of scientific resolution. Philosophy in the 20th century was characterized by a concern with logic and language, which is markedly different from the concerns of earlier centuries of philosophy. However, it shared with the European philosophical tradition since the 17th century an excessive concern with issues in the theory of knowledge and with scepticism. As the century ends, we can see that scepticism no longer occupies centre stage, and this enables us to have a more constructive approach to philosophical problems than was possible for earlier generations. This situation is somewhat analogous to the shift from the sceptical concerns of Socrates and Plato to the constructive philosophical enterprise of Aristotle. With that in mind, we can discuss the prospects for the following six philosophical areas: (1) the traditional mind-body problem; (ii) the philosophy of mind and cognitive science; (iii) the philosophy of language; (iv) the philosophy of society; (v) ethics and practical reasons; (vi) the philosophy of science. The general theme of these investigations, I believe, is that the appraisal of the true significance of issues in the philosophy of knowledge enables us to have a more constructive account of various other philosophical problems than has typically been possible for the past three centuries. (+info)
(7/220) Postulated human sperm count decline may involve historic elimination of juvenile iodine deficiency: a new hypothesis with experimental evidence in the rat.
Human sperm count studies, historic dietary iodination, and an animal model where neonatal goitrogen administration causes unprecedented testis enlargement, together suggest an hypothesis relevant to the postulated fall in human sperm counts. We present the hypothesis with a supporting study extending the model to include iodine deficiency. In a one-generation rat reproduction study, dams were fed an iodine sufficient (control, 200 ppb I) or deficient (low iodine diet [LID], <20 ppb I) diet from prebreeding through weaning, when male offspring were divided into three groups: 1) controls from iodine sufficient dams, 2) neonatal LID (NLID) from the LID dams, fed control diet postweaning, and 3) chronic LID (CLID) from LID dams, fed a moderate LID (40 ppb I) postweaning. F1 males were euthanized on postnatal day (PND) 133+/-1. Each of the three diet groups comprised two subgroups in which testicular parameters were evaluated: 1) daily sperm production (DSP), sperm motility, morphology, and histopathology, and 2) Sertoli cell and round spermatid morphometry. In the first subgroup, NLID and CLID testes weights were 8.5% and 14.0% heavier than their unusually heavy controls (3.921 g; historical control mean approximately 3.5 g), with proportional DSP increases. Sperm motility, morphology, and testis histopathology were unaffected. In the morphometry subgroup, respective increases in NLID and CLID rats included testes weights (+28.6% and +20.3%), Sertoli cells (+24.8% and +23.9%), and round spermatids (+20.4% and +15.8%). The results indicate that neonatal iodine deficiency can significantly increase spermatogenic function in rats, and support our hypothesis concerning human sperm counts. (+info)
(8/220) The scientist's world.
This paper describes the features of the world of science, and it compares that world briefly with that of politics and the law. It also discusses some "postmodern" trends in philosophy and sociology that have been undermining confidence in the objectivity of science and thus have contributed indirectly to public mistrust. The paper includes broader implications of interactions of government and science. (+info)