Phenol: An antiseptic and disinfectant aromatic alcohol.Phenols: Benzene derivatives that include one or more hydroxyl groups attached to the ring structure.Phenolsulfonphthalein: Red dye, pH indicator, and diagnostic aid for determination of renal function. It is used also for studies of the gastrointestinal and other systems.Chlorophenols: Phenols substituted with one or more chlorine atoms in any position.Phenolphthaleins: A family of 3,3-bis(p-hydroxyphenyl)phthalides. They are used as CATHARTICS, indicators, and COLORING AGENTS.Arylsulfotransferase: A sulfotransferase that catalyzes the sulfation of a phenol in the presence of 3'-phosphoadenylylsulfate as sulfate donor to yield an aryl sulfate and adenosine 3',5'-bisphosphate. A number of aromatic compounds can act as acceptors; however, organic hydroxylamines are not substrates. Sulfate conjugation by this enzyme is a major pathway for the biotransformation of phenolic and catechol drugs as well as neurotransmitters. EC 2.8.2.1.CresolsCatechols: A group of 1,2-benzenediols that contain the general formula R-C6H5O2.Biodegradation, Environmental: Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.Parabens: Methyl, propyl, butyl, and ethyl esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid. They have been approved by the FDA as antimicrobial agents for foods and pharmaceuticals. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed, p872)Benzene: Toxic, volatile, flammable liquid hydrocarbon byproduct of coal distillation. It is used as an industrial solvent in paints, varnishes, lacquer thinners, gasoline, etc. Benzene causes central nervous system damage acutely and bone marrow damage chronically and is carcinogenic. It was formerly used as parasiticide.Mixed Function Oxygenases: Widely distributed enzymes that carry out oxidation-reduction reactions in which one atom of the oxygen molecule is incorporated into the organic substrate; the other oxygen atom is reduced and combined with hydrogen ions to form water. They are also known as monooxygenases or hydroxylases. These reactions require two substrates as reductants for each of the two oxygen atoms. There are different classes of monooxygenases depending on the type of hydrogen-providing cosubstrate (COENZYMES) required in the mixed-function oxidation.Catechol 1,2-Dioxygenase: An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of catechol to muconic acid with the use of Fe3+ as a cofactor. This enzyme was formerly characterized as EC 1.13.1.1 and EC 1.99.2.2.Thauera: A genus of gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria able to anaerobically oxidize and degrade toluene.Catechol 2,3-Dioxygenase: Catalyzes the oxidation of catechol to 2-hydroxymuconate semialdehyde in the carbazole and BENZOATE degradation via HYDROXYLATION pathways. It also catalyzes the conversion of 3-methylcatechol to cis, cis-2-hydroxy-6-oxohept-2,4-dienoate in the TOLUENE and XYLENE degradation pathway. This enzyme was formerly characterized as EC 1.13.1.2.Oxygenases: Oxidases that specifically introduce DIOXYGEN-derived oxygen atoms into a variety of organic molecules.Pentachlorophenol: An insecticide and herbicide that has also been used as a wood preservative. Pentachlorphenol is a widespread environmental pollutant. Both chronic and acute pentachlorophenol poisoning are medical concerns. The range of its biological actions is still being actively explored, but it is clearly a potent enzyme inhibitor and has been used as such as an experimental tool.Tyrosine Phenol-Lyase: An enzyme that catalyzes the cleavage of tyrosine to phenol, pyruvate, and ammonia. It is a pyridoxal phosphate protein. The enzyme also forms pyruvate from D-tyrosine, L-cysteine, S-methyl-L-cysteine, L-serine, and D-serine, although at a slower rate. EC 4.1.99.2.Anisoles: A group of compounds that are derivatives of methoxybenzene and contain the general formula R-C7H7O.Pseudomonas: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.Trichosporon: A mitosporic fungal genus causing opportunistic infections, endocarditis, fungemia, a hypersensitivity pneumonitis (see TRICHOSPORONOSIS) and white PIEDRA.HydroquinonesBenzopyrenes: A class of chemicals that contain an anthracene ring with a naphthalene ring attached to it.Guaiacol: An agent thought to have disinfectant properties and used as an expectorant. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p747)NitrophenolsBenzoic Acid: A fungistatic compound that is widely used as a food preservative. It is conjugated to GLYCINE in the liver and excreted as hippuric acid.Monophenol Monooxygenase: An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the reaction between L-tyrosine, L-dopa, and oxygen to yield L-dopa, dopaquinone, and water. It is a copper protein that acts also on catechols, catalyzing some of the same reactions as CATECHOL OXIDASE. EC 1.14.18.1.Nails, Ingrown: Excessive lateral nail growth into the nail fold. Because the lateral margin of the nail acts as a foreign body, inflammation and granulation may result. It is caused by improperly fitting shoes and by improper trimming of the nail.

*  Difference between revisions of "Phenol" - OpenWetWare

Phenol is an important chemical in biological research. It is used primarily for isolation and purification of DNA and RNA. Pure phenol is solid at room temperature. Almost all biochemical uses of phenol use a water saturated phenol solution, or a mixture of phenol in chloroform. The purity and pH of phenol solutions used in biochemical work is very important. Oxidized phenol can result in DNA damage, and cannot be used. The pH of phenol solutions dramatically changes the solubility of DNA. Phenol is effective at denaturing and precipitating most proteins, and is an effective means of purifying DNA or RNA from protein contaminants. Water saturated phenol is typically shipped and stored with an upper layer of buffer, containing Tris-HCl at the appropriate pH. It is important to pipet from the lower layer, which is the layer containing phenol. Phenol chloroform solutions are stored similarly. Phenol is sometimes stored with an antioxidant to preserve its quality. It should be stored refrigerated ...
https://openwetware.org/wiki/?title=Phenol&diff=next&oldid=430312

*  Dana's View - Phenol Information

Phenols are chemicals found in basically all foods. The "phenol" category contains quite a few subgroups, both food and non-food. For example, salicylate is a subgroup of phenol. There are other chemicals found in foods that can cause similar symptoms as phenols, including amines, even tho they are not technically "phenol". For some children, their bodies have difficulty processing the phenols into useful or at least non-harmful substances. This condition is called PST deficiency. So you need to reduce your child s phenol intake, or help his body process them. Otherwise they build up to levels which can affect his behavior and physical condition. Here are the Feingold definitions of phenols and salicylates. Phenols -- "A group of natural and synthetic compounds that are ingested or produced to varying degrees by the body or by microbes in the intestine contain a benzene ring with one or more hydroxyl (OH) groups attached to ...
danasview.net/phenol.htm

*  Fenolo 2-monoossigenasi - Wikipedia

La fenolo 2-monoossigenasi è un enzima appartenente alla classe delle ossidoreduttasi, che catalizza la seguente reazione: fenolo + NADPH + H+ + O2 ⇄ catecolo + NADP+ + H2O L'enzima è una flavoproteina (FAD). Agisce anche con il resorcinolo ed il o-cresolo. Nakagawa, H. and Takeda, Y., Phenol hydroxylase, in Biochim. Biophys. Acta, vol. 62, 1962, pp. 423-426, Entrez PubMed 14478080. Neujahr, H.Y. and Gaal, A., Phenol hydroxylase from yeast. Purification and properties of the enzyme from Trichosporon cutaneum, in Eur. J. Biochem., vol. 35, 1973, pp. 386-386, Entrez PubMed 4146224. Neujahr, H.Y. and Gaal, A., Phenol hydroxylase from yeast. Sulfhydryl groups in phenol hydroxylase from Trichosporon cutaneum, in Eur. J. Biochem., vol. 58, 1975, pp. 351-357, Entrez PubMed 810352 ...
https://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fenolo_2-monoossigenasi

*  Adhesive Formula: Resorcinol Phenol Formaldehyde Adhesive

Resorcinol alone was used for some years as the phenolic substance. Later it was realized that the important properties of a resorcinol formaldehyde adhesive could be retained, and the cost reduced, by replacing part of the resorcinol with ordinary phenol. Cresol is less suitable but limited amounts of vegetable tannins may be used. All the earlier remarks relating to "pure" resorcinol, apply broadly to resorcinol/phenol adhesives, at least in the amounts in which phenol is normally used to replace resorcinol. The usual replacement is up to one half the molecular proportion of total phenolic constituents, but as much as 80% has been suggested. Without sacrificing too many desirable properties it is certainly possible to replace considerably more than one half, but the process of room temperature hardening after gelation becomes progressively slower as the proportion of phenol is increased. Another disadvantage of using too much phenol is that the characteristic phenolic smell (completely absent ...
adhesive-formula.blogspot.com/2008/06/resorcinol-phenol-formaldehyde-adhesive.html

*  Para Amino Phenol (PAP) Market Analysis by Current Industry Status & Growth Opportunities, Top Key Players, Target Audience and...

Para Amino Phenol (PAP) market research report is a systematically crafted report after conducting a thorough research of the industry. The aim of the report is to provide an all-inclusive Para Amino Phenol (PAP) market overview, starting from the basics of the industry to profiles of top market players.. Browse Detailed TOC, Tables, Figures, Charts and Companies Mentioned in Para Amino Phenol (PAP) Market Research Report at- https://www.absolutereports.com/11179028. The report contents are presented in such a way that it will provide a complete understanding of the Para Amino Phenol (PAP) industry. At first it sheds light on the preliminary data such as definition and specifications, classifications and applications of the product. The report also discusses the industry chain structure in order to provide knowledge about the hierarchy of the Industry. In addition to that, industry policy analysis and industry news analysis sum up to offer a thorough Para Amino Phenol (PAP) market ...
appleiphoneapps.net/2017/08/24/para-amino-phenol-pap-market-analysis-by-current-industry-status-growth-opportunities-top-key-players-target-audience-and-forecast-to-2022-2/

*  Litchi Fruit Extract - World-way Biotech Inc - ecplaza.net

Litchi Fruit Extract is extracted from Litchi chinensis Sonn ethanol and water. We use its fruit for production. Litchi Fruit Extract,which was developed as a cosmeceutical food, is expected to inhibit enzymes involving in the degradation of...
https://ecplaza.net/products/litchi-fruit-extract_3904321

*  Patente US3219626 - Process for oxidizing phenols to polyphenyl ethers and diphenoquinones - Google Patentes

Nov. 23, 1965 Transmiffance Transmit/since H. s. BLANCHARD ETAL 3,219,626 PROCESS FOR OXIDIZING PHENOLS TO POLYPHENYL ETHERS AND DIPHENOQUINONES Filed May 29. 1961 I l I I I I I l I I l I I I I I I 4000 3200 2400 2000 I900 /800 I600 I400 I200 I000 800 600 Wave number (:m") I I I I I I 1 I I I l I I l I I I I 4000 3200 2400 C000 I900 I800 I600 I400 I200 I000 800 500 Wave number (cm" Inventors Harry 5. Blanchard rmqn L. Hume/g7 b ,ym/ff United States Patent This invention relates to a method of utilization new compounds as catalysts in the oxidation of phenols. More specifically, this invention relates to the use of a cupric complex having the empirical formula CH=C11 z 2 n where X is selected from the group consisting of chlorine and bromine and n is an integer and is at least 1, as catalysts for the oxidation of phenols, and more particularly to the oxidation of phenols to either phenylene oxide polymers or to diphenoquinones. In an ...
google.es/patents/US3219626?dq=flatulence

*  Amino Phenol export data, Amino Phenol exporter list in India

Amino Phenol export shipment data available from indian custom port wise, indian suppliers of Amino Phenol custom duty applicable on Amino Phenol exported from india
https://seair.co.in/product-export-data/amino-phenol-export-data.aspx

*  nitro phenol, nitro phenol wholesale for sale page1 in Tradezz.com

Looking for nitro phenol? Here you can find the lowest price products about nitro phenol. We Provide for you about nitro phenol page1
tradezz.com/nitro-phenol_0/

*  Adhesive Formula: Phenol Formaldehyde Adhesive

The product of the first reaction between phenol and formaldehyde is either ortho- or para-monomethylol phenol (I), which can subsequently react with more formaldehyde to yield di- and tri-methylol phenol. In the ensuing reaction, a methylol group of one molecule may react either with the nucleus of a second phenolic molecule splitting of water to form a dihydroxydiphenylmethane type of compound (II and III) or it may react with a methylol group attached to another phenolic molecule to form a dihydroxydibenzyl ether (IV), water again being eliminated. Under both acid and alkaline condition, this ether in turn splits off formaldehyde to form a methylene linked compound, the formaldehyde becoming available for further reaction ...
adhesive-formula.blogspot.com/2008/04/phenol-formaldehyde-adhesive.html

*  Acid Phenol/chloroform

On 06/11/2007, Ed Siefker ,ebs15242 from creighton.edu, wrote: , , I got a kit from Ambion to do some RACE, this kit requires acid , phenol/chloroform but doesn't tell me what the composition of this is. , I called Ambion and they didn't know. I couldn't find a recipe in , Maniatis either. , , I have a brand new bottle of phenol ph 6.7. What do I need to add to , make 'acid phenol/chloroform'? Thank You can get the recipie for making the same from either Sambrook etal., or , Current methods in molecular biology. Best Pow -Ed , , _______________________________________________ , Methods mailing list , Methods from net.bio.net , http://www.bio.net/biomail/listinfo/methods , ...
bio.net/bionet/mm/methods/2007-November/102687.html

*  Food Allergies Symptoms and Phenol Sensitivity How They Can Affect Children - Green Planet Ethics

Tea. Phenol-sensitive individuals also avoid artificial colors, flavors, and preservatives. Even "natural" flavors are avoided, because so many substances can be listed under that term.. Why Are Some Children Phenol Sensitive?. Like allergies, sensitivities to substances are an immune system issue. It's hard to pinpoint exactly what causes a child to develop this type of sensitivity, just as it's often hard to pin down what causes different allergies. Phenol sensitivity is an immune response, creating inflammation and the above-noted symptoms. A lack of a key enzyme - or a lack of the body chemical needed to synthesize the enzyme - may play a role in this sensitivity as well. How Is It Treated?. Phenol sensitivity is often treated by dietary changes, as noted above. The problem, though, is that the above list (and it is only a partial list) has many foods that are very healthy. Tomatoes, red grapes, and berries, for example, contain important nutrients and antioxidants. So does tea. Therefore, ...
greenplanetethics.com/wordpress/food-allergies-symptoms-and-phenol-sensitivity-how-they-can-affect-children/

*  Purification and properties of the physically associated meta-cleavage pathway enzymes 4-hydroxy-2-ketovalerate aldolase and...

The final two steps in the dmp operon-encoded meta-cleavage pathway for phenol degradation in Pseudomonas sp. strain CF600 involve conversion of 4-hydroxy-2-ketovalerate to pyruvate and acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) by the enzymes 4-hydroxy-2-ketovalerate aldolase and aldehyde dehydrogenase (acylating) [acetaldehyde:NAD+ oxidoreductase (CoA acetylating), EC 1.2.1.10]. A procedure for purifying these two enzyme activities to homogeneity is reported here. The two activities were found to copurify through five different chromatography steps and ammonium sulfate fractionation, resulting in a preparation that contained approximately equal proportions of two polypeptides with molecular masses of 35 and 40 kDa. Amino-terminal sequencing revealed that the first six amino acids of each polypeptide were those deduced from the previously determined nucleotide sequences of the corresponding dmp operon-encoded genes. The isolated complex had a native molecular mass of 148 kDa, which is consistent with the ...
umu.diva-portal.org/smash/record.jsf?pid=diva2:877222

*  Biology-Online • View topic - RNase digestion problems

i have run into a few problems in the experiment for plasmid extraction. i did all the steps for boiling lysis followed by phenol-chloroform protocol. for two tubes,i also gave an additional RNase digestion (incubation time 1hr _at_ 37C). during electrophoresis only the samples with phenol-chloroform treatment had the proper bands while the ones with phenol chloroform+RNase didn't show any bands at all. can anybody help me interpret these observations ...
biology-online.org/biology-forum/about19596.html?p=125605&hilit=Lysis

*  Structure Cluster - 1LG9: Crystal structure of OxyB, a Cytochrome P450 Implicated in an Oxidative Phenol Coupling...

1LG9: Crystal Structure of OxyB, a Cytochrome P450 Implicated in an Oxidative Phenol Coupling Reaction during Vancomycin Biosynthesis.
rcsb.org/pdb/explore/structureCluster.do?structureId=1LG9

*  LPS isolation by hot phenol/water method - Microbiology

Resently, I want to isolate LPS from E.coli by hot phenol/water method which was described by Westphal, O. & Jann, K. (1965) Bacterial lipopolysaccharides: extraction with phenol-water and further applications of the procedure. I have an ergent need to get it. Is there anybody who can help me to get this protocol? Thank you ...
protocol-online.org/biology-forums-2/posts/7187.html

*  Biodegradation of phenol resins on Environmental XPRT

Phenol resins are synthetic polymers belonging to the family of thermo-resistant polymers, with various commercial and industrial applications. Compared to ...
https://environmental-expert.com/news/biodegradation-of-phenol-resins-10063

*  2-Amino phenol - Alfa Chemistry

2-Amino phenol/ACM99556 can be provided in Alfa Chemistry. We are dedicated to provide our customers the best products and services.
alfa-chemistry.com/cas_99-55-6.htm

*  Phenol, 2-methyl-6-(2-propenyl)

The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) uses its best efforts to deliver a high quality copy of the Database and to verify that the data contained therein have been selected on the basis of sound scientific judgment. However, NIST makes no warranties to that effect, and NIST shall not be liable for any damage that may result from errors or omissions in the Database ...
webbook.nist.gov/cgi/inchi/InChI=1S/C10H12O/c1-3-5-9-7-4-6-8

*  ytmnd - ‑ phenol's user profile

ya, getting 'bel-aired' basically originated from 4chan. Someone starts off a thread that starts out believable and leads into a bel-air. ex. Dear /b/, There's this girl at school and I really really like her. She's really cool and all but I'm too afraid to ask her out. So scared that I told my mom and my mom got scared and she said 'You're moving in with your auntie and uncle in Bel-Air!' I whistled for a cab and when it came near the license plate said 'FRESH' and it had a dice in the mirror. etc ...
ytmnd.com/users/phenol/

*  Phenol, 3,4-dimethyl, TMS

The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) uses its best efforts to deliver a high quality copy of the Database and to verify that the data contained therein have been selected on the basis of sound scientific judgment. However, NIST makes no warranties to that effect, and NIST shall not be liable for any damage that may result from errors or omissions in the Database ...
webbook.nist.gov/cgi/inchi/InChI=1S/C11H18OSi/c1-9-6-7-11

*  Phenol, pentabromo

The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) uses its best efforts to deliver a high quality copy of the Database and to verify that the data contained therein have been selected on the basis of sound scientific judgment. However, NIST makes no warranties to that effect, and NIST shall not be liable for any damage that may result from errors or omissions in the Database ...
webbook.nist.gov/cgi/inchi/InChI=1S/C6HBr5O/c7-1-2

*  Isopropylated Phenol Phosphate 11037

Dose: Growth: 0, 1, 1.6, 2.5, 4.0, 6.3, 10, 16, 25, 40, 63, 100uMRepro: 0, 1, 1.6, 2.5, 4.0, 6.3, 10, 16, 25, 40, 63, 100uMFeeding: 0, 4, 6.3, 10, 16, 25, 40, 63, 100, 160, 250, 400uM ...
https://ntp.niehs.nih.gov/testing/status/agents/ts-11037.html

*  phenols, radiation

Your browser is not supported. Some parts of this page may not work. Please update your browser for a better experience. Update Browser ...
https://padlet.com/shamm1/qp8nixwo7ims

*  ATCC - 87410

Constructed by microdissecting fragments from 20 chromosomes, treating with proteinase K, extracting with phenol, ligating to an MboI linker-adaptor, amplifying by PCR, digesting with MboI, and ligating to pUC19 ...
https://atcc.org/en/Products/Cells_and_Microorganisms/Molecular_Biology/Genomic_Libraries/87410.aspx?slp=1

Phenol coefficient: The Phenol coefficient, is now largely of historical interest, although the principles upon which it is based are still used. It is a measure of the bactericidal activity of a chemical compound in relation to phenol.AlkylphenolDichlorophenolCresol: Cresols (also hydroxytoluene) are organic compounds which are [[methyl group|methyl]Catechol: Also not to be confused with the taxonomic umbrella-term "Catch-all" of a type or genusBiodegradationButylparabenDewar benzeneClavaminate synthase: Clavaminate synthase (, clavaminate synthase 2, clavaminic acid synthase) is an enzyme with system name deoxyamidinoproclavaminate,2-oxoglutarate:oxygen oxidoreductase (3-hydroxylating). This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reactionLinoleate 8R-lipoxygenase: Linoleate 8R-lipoxygenase (, linoleic acid 8R-dioxygenase, 5,8-LDS (bifunctional enzyme), 7,8-LDS (bifunctional enzyme), 5,8-linoleate diol synthase (bifunctional enzyme), 7,8-linoleate diol synthase (bifunctional enzyme), PpoA) is an enzyme with system name linoleate:oxygen (8R)-oxidoreductase. This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reactionPentachlorophenol monooxygenase: Pentachlorophenol monooxygenase (, pentachlorophenol dechlorinase, pentachlorophenol dehalogenase, pentachlorophenol 4-monooxygenase, PCP hydroxylase, pentachlorophenol hydroxylase, PcpB, PCB 4-monooxygenase, PCB4MO) is an enzyme with system name pentachlorophenol,NADPH:oxygen oxidoreductase (hydroxylating, dechlorinating). This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reactionAnisolePseudomonas alkanolytica: Pseudomonas alkanolytica is a Gram-negative soil bacterium that produces Coenzyme A. Because this organism is patented,Nakao Y, Kuno M.Trichosporon beigelii: Trichosporon beigelii is a species of fungus in the family Trichosporonaceae. It is a yeast that was formerly considered to be the cause of an unpleasant hair condition called white piedra and also the cause of a more serious severe opportunistic infection (trichosporonosis) in immunocompromised individuals.HydroquinoneRain gutter: A rain gutter (from Latin gutta : drop), also known as a "rain catcher", is a narrow channel, or trough, forming the component of a roof system which collects and diverts rainwater away from the roof edge. It is also known as an eavestrough (especially in Canada), eaves channel, dripster, guttering or simply as a gutter.

(1/4452) The direct spectrophotometric observation of benzo(a)pyrene phenol formation by liver microsomes.

Optical spectral repetitive scan analysis during the oxidative metabolism of benzo(a)pyrene by liver microsomal suspensions reveals the time-dependent formation of an intermediate(s) of which the visible spectra resemble those of several benzo(a)pyrene phenols. Liver microsomes from 3-methylcholanthrene-treated rats showed a greater rate of formation of the phenols than did microsomes from control animals; the rate of formation catalyzed by liver microsomes from phenobarbital-pretreated rats was intermediate. When 3-hydroxybenzo(a)pyrene was used as a standard for comparison of activity, the rates of formation of phenols were compared when measured by fluorometric, spectrophotometric, or high-pressure liquid chromatographic analytical techniques. An epoxide hydrase inhibitor, 1,1,1-trichloropropene-2,3-oxide, enhanced phenol formation regardless of the source of liver microsomes, and 7,8-benzoflavone inhibited control and 3-methylcholanthrene-induced microsomal metabolism of benzo(a)pyrene, 7,8-Benzoflavone did not effect benzo(a)pyrene metabolism by liver microsomes from phenobarbital-pretreated rats. The effect of inhibitors on the spectrophotometric assay correlates well with the results obtained from benzo(a)pyrene metabolite analysis using high-pressure liquid chromatography.  (+info)

(2/4452) Hierarchical cluster analysis applied to workers' exposures in fiberglass insulation manufacturing.

The objectives of this study were to explore the application of cluster analysis to the characterization of multiple exposures in industrial hygiene practice and to compare exposure groupings based on the result from cluster analysis with that based on non-measurement-based approaches commonly used in epidemiology. Cluster analysis was performed for 37 workers simultaneously exposed to three agents (endotoxin, phenolic compounds and formaldehyde) in fiberglass insulation manufacturing. Different clustering algorithms, including complete-linkage (or farthest-neighbor), single-linkage (or nearest-neighbor), group-average and model-based clustering approaches, were used to construct the tree structures from which clusters can be formed. Differences were observed between the exposure clusters constructed by these different clustering algorithms. When contrasting the exposure classification based on tree structures with that based on non-measurement-based information, the results indicate that the exposure clusters identified from the tree structures had little in common with the classification results from either the traditional exposure zone or the work group classification approach. In terms of the defining homogeneous exposure groups or from the standpoint of health risk, some toxicological normalization in the components of the exposure vector appears to be required in order to form meaningful exposure groupings from cluster analysis. Finally, it remains important to see if the lack of correspondence between exposure groups based on epidemiological classification and measurement data is a peculiarity of the data or a more general problem in multivariate exposure analysis.  (+info)

(3/4452) Complete sequence of a 184-kilobase catabolic plasmid from Sphingomonas aromaticivorans F199.

The complete 184,457-bp sequence of the aromatic catabolic plasmid, pNL1, from Sphingomonas aromaticivorans F199 has been determined. A total of 186 open reading frames (ORFs) are predicted to encode proteins, of which 79 are likely directly associated with catabolism or transport of aromatic compounds. Genes that encode enzymes associated with the degradation of biphenyl, naphthalene, m-xylene, and p-cresol are predicted to be distributed among 15 gene clusters. The unusual coclustering of genes associated with different pathways appears to have evolved in response to similarities in biochemical mechanisms required for the degradation of intermediates in different pathways. A putative efflux pump and several hypothetical membrane-associated proteins were identified and predicted to be involved in the transport of aromatic compounds and/or intermediates in catabolism across the cell wall. Several genes associated with integration and recombination, including two group II intron-associated maturases, were identified in the replication region, suggesting that pNL1 is able to undergo integration and excision events with the chromosome and/or other portions of the plasmid. Conjugative transfer of pNL1 to another Sphingomonas sp. was demonstrated, and genes associated with this function were found in two large clusters. Approximately one-third of the ORFs (59 of them) have no obvious homology to known genes.  (+info)

(4/4452) Isolation from estuarine sediments of a Desulfovibrio strain which can grow on lactate coupled to the reductive dehalogenation of 2,4, 6-tribromophenol.

Strain TBP-1, an anaerobic bacterium capable of reductively dehalogenating 2,4,6-tribromophenol to phenol, was isolated from estuarine sediments of the Arthur Kill in the New York/New Jersey harbor. It is a gram-negative, motile, vibrio-shaped, obligate anaerobe which grows on lactate, pyruvate, hydrogen, and fumarate when provided sulfate as an electron acceptor. The organism accumulates acetate when grown on lactate and sulfate, contains desulfoviridin, and will not grow in the absence of NaCl. It will not utilize acetate, succinate, propionate, or butyrate for growth via sulfate reduction. When supplied with lactate as an electron donor, strain TBP-1 will utilize sulfate, sulfite, sulfur, and thiosulfate for growth but not nitrate, fumarate, or acrylate. This organism debrominates 2-, 4-, 2,4-, 2,6-, and 2,4,6-bromophenol but not 3- or 2,3-bromophenol or monobrominated benzoates. It will not dehalogenate monochlorinated, fluorinated, or iodinated phenols or chlorinated benzoates. Together with its physiological characteristics, its 16S rRNA gene sequence places it in the genus Desulfovibrio. The average growth yield of strain TBP-1 grown on a defined medium supplemented with lactate and 2,4,6-bromophenol is 3.71 mg of protein/mmol of phenol produced, and the yield was 1.42 mg of protein/mmol of phenol produced when 4-bromophenol was the electron acceptor. Average growth yields (milligrams of protein per millimole of electrons utilized) for Desulfovibrio sp. strain TBP-1 grown with 2,4,6-bromophenol, 4-bromophenol, or sulfate are 0.62, 0.71, and 1.07, respectively. Growth did not occur when either lactate or 2,4,6-bromophenol was omitted from the growth medium. These results indicate that Desulfovibrio sp. strain TBP-1 is capable of growth via halorespiration.  (+info)

(5/4452) In vivo demonstration of H3-histaminergic inhibition of cardiac sympathetic stimulation by R-alpha-methyl-histamine and its prodrug BP 2.94 in the dog.

1. The aim of this study was to investigate whether histamine H3-receptor agonists could inhibit the effects of cardiac sympathetic nerve stimulation in the dog. 2. Catecholamine release by the heart and the associated variation of haemodynamic parameters were measured after electrical stimulation of the right cardiac sympathetic nerves (1-4 Hz, 10 V, 10 ms) in the anaesthetized dog treated with R-alpha-methyl-histamine (R-HA) and its prodrug BP 2.94 (BP). 3. Cardiac sympathetic stimulation induced a noradrenaline release into the coronary sinus along with a tachycardia and an increase in left ventricular pressure and contractility without changes in mean arterial pressure. Intravenous administration of H3-receptor agonists significantly decreased noradrenaline release by the heart (R-HA at 2 micromol kg(-1) h(-1): +77 +/- 25 vs +405 +/- 82; BP 2.94 at 1 mg kg(-1): +12 +/- 11 vs +330 +/- 100 pg ml(-1) in control conditions, P < or = 0.05), and increases in heart rate (R-HA at 2 micromol kg(-1) h(-1): +26 +/- 8 vs +65 +/- 10 and BP 2.94 at 1 mg kg(-1): +30 +/- 8 vs 75 +/- 6 beats min(-1), in control conditions P < or = 0.05), left ventricular pressure, and contractility. Treatment with SC 359 (1 mg kg(-1)) a selective H3-antagonist, reversed the effects of H3-receptor agonists. Treatment with R-HA at 2 micromol kg(-1) h(-1) and BP 2.94 at 1 mg kg(-1) tended to decrease, while that with SC 359 significantly increased basal heart rate (from 111 +/- 3 to 130 +/- 5 beats min(-1), P < or = 0.001). 4. Functional H3-receptors are present on sympathetic nerve endings in the dog heart. Their stimulation by R-alpha-methyl-histamine or BP 2.94 can inhibit noradrenaline release by the heart and its associated haemodynamic effects.  (+info)

(6/4452) Antioxidative and chelating activities of phenylpropanoid glycosides from Pedicularis striata.

AIM: To study the antioxidative and iron chelating activities of phenylpropanoid glycosides (PPG) isolated from a Chinese herb Pedicularis striata. METHODS: Antioxidative effects of PPG on lipid peroxidation induced by FeSO4-edetic acid in linoleic acid were measured by thiobarbituric acid method. Chelating activities of PPG for Fe2+ were tested by differential spectrum method. RESULTS: The reaction rates (A532.min-1) of lipid peroxidation were 0.0046 in the control, 0.0021 in verbascoside group, and 0.0008 in isoverbascoside group. The chelating activity of isoverbascoside was 2-fold stronger than that of verbascoside. Permethyl verbascoside showed neither antioxidative nor chelating activities. CONCLUSION: The inhibitory effects of PPG with phenolic hydroxy groups on lipid peroxidation are owing to their chelating properties. Under physiological condition PPG-Fe2+ chelates are sufficiently stable. Thus PPG are able to inhibit the Fe(2+)-dependent lipid peroxidation in vivo through chelating Fe2+ and exhibit their therapeutic potential by the same mechanism in vitro.  (+info)

(7/4452) Developing hypothalamic dopaminergic neurones as potential targets for environmental estrogens.

Environmental chemicals which mimic the actions of estrogen have the potential to affect any estrogen responsive tissue. The aim of the present study was to investigate their potential to mimic the effects of 17beta-estradiol (E2) on developing primary rat hypothalamic dopaminergic (DA) neurones maintained in a chemically defined medium. We now show that both E2 and octylphenol (OP), but not the non-aromatizable androgen, dihydrotestosterone, enhanced the uptake of [3H]DA by the cultured cells, whereas they had no effect on the uptake of [14C]GABA. Although the sensitivity of responses may change with the age of the developing cultures, the dose response curves for E2 and OP were typically 'bell-shaped', with a rise in response followed by a decline to control levels with increasing concentrations. Effects were seen as low as 10(-14) M for E2 and 10(-11) M for OP. Responses to E2 (10(-12) M) and OP (10(-9) M) were reversed in the presence of the antiestrogen, ZM 182780 (10(-5) M). This study thus provides direct evidence, using a mechanistic rather than toxicological end-point, in support of the hypothesis that inappropriate exposure to environmental estrogens at critically sensitive stages of development, could potentially perturb the organisational activities of estrogen on selected neuronal populations in the CNS.  (+info)

(8/4452) Characterization of the pyoluteorin biosynthetic gene cluster of Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf-5.

Ten genes (plt) required for the biosynthesis of pyoluteorin, an antifungal compound composed of a bichlorinated pyrrole linked to a resorcinol moiety, were identified within a 24-kb genomic region of Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf-5. The deduced amino acid sequences of eight plt genes were similar to the amino acid sequences of genes with known biosynthetic functions, including type I polyketide synthases (pltB, pltC), an acyl coenzyme A (acyl-CoA) dehydrogenase (pltE), an acyl-CoA synthetase (pltF), a thioesterase (pltG), and three halogenases (pltA, pltD, and pltM). Insertions of the transposon Tn5 or Tn3-nice or a kanamycin resistance gene in each of these genes abolished pyoluteorin production by Pf-5. The presumed functions of the eight plt products are consistent with biochemical transformations involved in pyoluteorin biosynthesis from proline and acetate precursors. Isotope labeling studies demonstrated that proline is the primary precursor to the dichloropyrrole moiety of pyoluteorin. The deduced amino acid sequence of the product of another plt gene, pltR, is similar to those of members of the LysR family of transcriptional activators. pltR and pltM are transcribed divergently from the pltLABCDEFG gene cluster, and a sequence with the characteristics of a LysR binding site was identified within the 486-bp intergenic region separating pltRM from pltLABCDEFG. Transcription of the pyoluteorin biosynthesis genes pltB, pltE, and pltF, assessed with transcriptional fusions to an ice nucleation reporter gene, was significantly greater in Pf-5 than in a pltR mutant of Pf-5. Therefore, PltR is proposed to be a transcriptional activator of linked pyoluteorin biosynthesis genes.  (+info)



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