Pharmaceutical Preparations: Drugs intended for human or veterinary use, presented in their finished dosage form. Included here are materials used in the preparation and/or formulation of the finished dosage form.Flow Injection Analysis: The analysis of a chemical substance by inserting a sample into a carrier stream of reagent using a sample injection valve that propels the sample downstream where mixing occurs in a coiled tube, then passes into a flow-through detector and a recorder or other data handling device.Tablets: Solid dosage forms, of varying weight, size, and shape, which may be molded or compressed, and which contain a medicinal substance in pure or diluted form. (Dorland, 28th ed)Potentiometry: Solution titration in which the end point is read from the electrode-potential variations with the concentrations of potential determining ions. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Pharmaceutical Solutions: Homogeneous liquid preparations that contain one or more chemical substances dissolved, i.e., molecularly dispersed, in a suitable solvent or mixture of mutually miscible solvents. For reasons of their ingredients, method of preparation, or use, they do not fall into another group of products.Promazine: A phenothiazine with actions similar to CHLORPROMAZINE but with less antipsychotic activity. It is primarily used in short-term treatment of disturbed behavior and as an antiemetic.Calibration: Determination, by measurement or comparison with a standard, of the correct value of each scale reading on a meter or other measuring instrument; or determination of the settings of a control device that correspond to particular values of voltage, current, frequency or other output.Dosage Forms: Completed forms of the pharmaceutical preparation in which prescribed doses of medication are included. They are designed to resist action by gastric fluids, prevent vomiting and nausea, reduce or alleviate the undesirable taste and smells associated with oral administration, achieve a high concentration of drug at target site, or produce a delayed or long-acting drug effect.Pharmaceutical Preparations, Dental: Drugs intended for DENTISTRY.Electrodes: Electric conductors through which electric currents enter or leave a medium, whether it be an electrolytic solution, solid, molten mass, gas, or vacuum.Spectrophotometry, Ultraviolet: Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Formic Acid EstersCrown Ethers: Macrocyclic polyethers with the repeating unit of (-CH2-CH2-O)n where n is greater than 2 and some oxygens may be replaced by nitrogen, sulfur or phosphorus. These compounds are useful for coordinating CATIONS. The nomenclature uses a prefix to indicate the size of the ring and a suffix for the number of heteroatoms.Polyvinyl Chloride: A polyvinyl resin used extensively in the manufacture of plastics, including medical devices, tubing, and other packaging. It is also used as a rubber substitute.Chemistry, Pharmaceutical: Chemistry dealing with the composition and preparation of agents having PHARMACOLOGIC ACTIONS or diagnostic use.Indicators and Reagents: Substances used for the detection, identification, analysis, etc. of chemical, biological, or pathologic processes or conditions. Indicators are substances that change in physical appearance, e.g., color, at or approaching the endpoint of a chemical titration, e.g., on the passage between acidity and alkalinity. Reagents are substances used for the detection or determination of another substance by chemical or microscopical means, especially analysis. Types of reagents are precipitants, solvents, oxidizers, reducers, fluxes, and colorimetric reagents. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p301, p499)Drug Contamination: The presence of organisms, or any foreign material that makes a drug preparation impure.Cerium: An element of the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Ce, atomic number 58, and atomic weight 140.12. Cerium is a malleable metal used in industrial applications.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Polarography: An electrochemical technique for measuring the current that flows in solution as a function of an applied voltage. The observed polarographic wave, resulting from the electrochemical response, depends on the way voltage is applied (linear sweep or differential pulse) and the type of electrode used. Usually a mercury drop electrode is used.Limit of Detection: Concentration or quantity that is derived from the smallest measure that can be detected with reasonable certainty for a given analytical procedure.Technology, Pharmaceutical: The application of scientific knowledge or technology to pharmacy and the pharmaceutical industry. It includes methods, techniques, and instrumentation in the manufacture, preparation, compounding, dispensing, packaging, and storing of drugs and other preparations used in diagnostic and determinative procedures, and in the treatment of patients.Electrochemistry: The study of chemical changes resulting from electrical action and electrical activity resulting from chemical changes.Powders: Substances made up of an aggregation of small particles, as that obtained by grinding or trituration of a solid drug. In pharmacy it is a form in which substances are administered. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Spectrophotometry: The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.Drug Stability: The chemical and physical integrity of a pharmaceutical product.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Capsules: Hard or soft soluble containers used for the oral administration of medicine.ThiazinesChemistry Techniques, Analytical: Methodologies used for the isolation, identification, detection, and quantitation of chemical substances.Hydrochlorothiazide: A thiazide diuretic often considered the prototypical member of this class. It reduces the reabsorption of electrolytes from the renal tubules. This results in increased excretion of water and electrolytes, including sodium, potassium, chloride, and magnesium. It is used in the treatment of several disorders including edema, hypertension, diabetes insipidus, and hypoparathyroidism.Membranes, Artificial: Artificially produced membranes, such as semipermeable membranes used in artificial kidney dialysis (RENAL DIALYSIS), monomolecular and bimolecular membranes used as models to simulate biological CELL MEMBRANES. These membranes are also used in the process of GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Reference Standards: A basis of value established for the measure of quantity, weight, extent or quality, e.g. weight standards, standard solutions, methods, techniques, and procedures used in diagnosis and therapy.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Carbon: A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal: Anti-inflammatory agents that are non-steroidal in nature. In addition to anti-inflammatory actions, they have analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions.They act by blocking the synthesis of prostaglandins by inhibiting cyclooxygenase, which converts arachidonic acid to cyclic endoperoxides, precursors of prostaglandins. Inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis accounts for their analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions; other mechanisms may contribute to their anti-inflammatory effects.Cathartics: Agents that are used to stimulate evacuation of the bowels.

*  DIN 58378-2 : German Language - CONTAINERS AND ACCESSORIES FOR PHARMACEUTICAL PREPARATIONS; NECK BOTTLES FOR PHARMACEUTICAL...

NECK BOTTLES FOR PHARMACEUTICAL PREPARATIONS IN LIQUID FORM, MADE OF MOLDED GLASS ... German Language - CONTAINERS AND ACCESSORIES FOR PHARMACEUTICAL PREPARATIONS; NECK BOTTLES FOR PHARMACEUTICAL PREPARATIONS IN ...
https://global.ihs.com/doc_detail.cfm?document_name=DIN 58378-2&item_s_key=00215778

*  The 2011-2016 World Outlook for Anticoagulant Pharmaceutical Preparations

... This econometric study covers the world outlook for ... anticoagulant pharmaceutical preparations across more than 200 countries. For - Market research report and industry analysis - ... Life Sciences»Pharmaceuticals»Manufacturing, Packaging & Detailing The 2011-2016 World Outlook for Anticoagulant Pharmaceutical ... This econometric study covers the world outlook for anticoagulant pharmaceutical preparations across more than 200 countries. ...
https://marketresearch.com/Icon-Group-International-Inc-v609/Outlook-Anticoagulant-Pharmaceutical-Preparations-6286698/

*  Patent US6248357 - Solid pharmaceutical preparation with improved buccal disintegrability and ... - Google Patents

A solid pharmaceutical preparation comprising a pharmaceutically active ingredient, erythritol, crystalline cellulose and an ... The solid pharmaceutical preparation can be in general administered in the same manner as conventional preparations in dosage ... Generally, solid pharmaceutical preparations such as tablets are designed so that after they are orally administered, they ... Accordingly, the solid pharmaceutical preparations can be advantageously used for the prevention or treatment of diseases in ...
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*  Pharmaceutical Preparations - Drugs - information page with HONselect

Synonym(s): Drugs / Pharmaceutic Preparations / Preparations, Pharmaceutical / Preparations, Pharmaceutic / Narrow term(s):. ... Pharmaceutical Preparations. Definition: Drugs intended for human or veterinary use, presented in their finished dosage form. ...
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*  Pharmaceutical preparations | The Medical Journal of Australia

Erica Y Tong, Cristina P Roman, Biswadev Mitra, Gary S Yip, Harry Gibbs, Harvey H Newnham, De Villiers Smit, Kirsten Galbraith and Michael J Dooley. ...
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*  WHO Expert Committee on Specifications for Pharmaceutical Preparations - WHO - OMS

The Forty-seventh WHO Expert Committee on Specifications for Pharmaceutical Preparations adopted 26 new monographs and general ... medicines regulatory authorities in the assessment and accelerated national registration of WHO-prequalified pharmaceutical ...
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*  WHO Expert Committee on Specifications for Pharmaceutical Preparations: Outcome of 44 Meetings

... (2011; 16 pages) [Arabic] [ ... Addressed specifically will be the WHO Expert Committee on Specifications for Pharmaceutical Preparations together with the ...
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*  Abstract | Determination of ethionamide in pharmaceutical preparations by visible spectrophotometry employing two...

Determination of ethionamide in pharmaceutical preparations by visible spectrophotometry employing two sulphonphthalein dyes ... Determination of ethionamide in pharmaceutical preparations by visible spectrophotometry employing two sulphonphthalein dyes. ...
https://omicsonline.org/scholarly-articles/abstracts/determination-of-ethionamide-in-pharmaceutical-preparations-by-visible-spectrophotometry-employing-two-sulphonphthalein--7985.html

*  WHO Expert Committee on Specifications for Pharmaceutical Preparations - WHO Technical Report Series, No. 908 - Thirty-seventh...

WHO Expert Committee on Specifications for Pharmaceutical Preparations - WHO Technical Report Series, No. 908 - Thirty-seventh ... Pharmaceutical Affairs Bureau, Ministry of Health and Welfare, Tokyo, Japan; Mr P. van der Hoeven, Active Pharmaceutical ... Division of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, National Institute for the Control of Pharmaceutical and Biological Products, Ministry of ... Pharmaceutical Inspection Convention, Geneva, Switzerland; Dr S.M. Binti Jaafar, Acting Director, Pharmaceutical Services, ...
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*  Simultaneous Determination of Cefuroxime Axetil and Cefuroxime in Pharmaceutical Preparations by Thin-Layer Chromatography and...

Simultaneous Determination of Cefuroxime Axetil and Cefuroxime in Pharmaceutical Preparations by Thin-Layer Chromatography and ...
https://link.springer.com/article/10.1365/s10337-003-0039-1

*  WHO Expert Committee on Specifications for Pharmaceutical Preparations - WHO Technical Report Series, No. 885 - Thirty-fifth...

WHO Expert Committee on Specifications for Pharmaceutical Preparations - WHO Technical Report Series, No. 885 - Thirty-fifth ... 11.2 Training programmes for the detection of counterfeit pharmaceutical products 12. Pharmaceuticals contaminated with ... Appendix 3. Guidance for inspection when pharmaceutical products are suspected to be counterfeit, spurious or substandard ... 10.1 WHO Certification Scheme on the Quality of Pharmaceutical Products Moving in International Commerce ...
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*  WHO Expert Committee on Specifications for Pharmaceutical Preparations - WHO Technical Report Series, No. 885 - Thirty-fifth...

WHO Expert Committee on Specifications for Pharmaceutical Preparations - WHO Technical Report Series, No. 885 - Thirty-fifth ... 11.2 Training programmes for the detection of counterfeit pharmaceutical products 12. Pharmaceuticals contaminated with ... Appendix 3. Guidance for inspection when pharmaceutical products are suspected to be counterfeit, spurious or substandard ... knowledge of the latest statistics on the prevalence of counterfeit pharmaceuticals in the country, if possible; ...
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*  WHO Expert Committee on Specifications for Pharmaceutical Preparations - WHO Technical Report Series, No. 908 - Thirty-seventh...

WHO Expert Committee on Specifications for Pharmaceutical Preparations - WHO Technical Report Series, No. 908 - Thirty-seventh ... 8.1 Good trade and distribution practices of pharmaceutical starting materials 8.2 WHO Scheme for the Certification of ... 10.1 Procedure for assessing the acceptability for purchase of pharmaceutical products 10.2 Procedure for assessing the ... 4.1 In accordance with GMP, each pharmaceutical company should identify what qualification and validation work is required to ...
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*  WHO Expert Committee on Specifications for Pharmaceutical Preparations - WHO Technical Report Series, No. 908 - Thirty-seventh...

WHO Expert Committee on Specifications for Pharmaceutical Preparations - WHO Technical Report Series, No. 908 - Thirty-seventh ... 8.1 Good trade and distribution practices of pharmaceutical starting materials 8.2 WHO Scheme for the Certification of ... 10.1 Procedure for assessing the acceptability for purchase of pharmaceutical products 10.2 Procedure for assessing the ... 13.1 Proposal to the WHO Expert Committee by the Scientific Working Group on Bioequivalence of the International Pharmaceutical ...
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*  A Simple Spectrophotometric Determination of Rebeprazole in Pharmaceutical Preparations

A Simple Spectrophotometric Determination of Rebeprazole in Pharmaceutical Preparations. *RAMESH KUMAR M, SREENIVASULU REDDY T ... Rabeprazole, 2, 3-Dichloro-5, 6-dicyano-p-benzoquinone, Pharmaceutical formulations, DDQ, Determinations ... sensitive spectrophotometric method was developed for the determination of rabeprazole in pure form and for pharmaceutical ...
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*  Validated Colorimetric Assay of Clonidine Hydrochloride from Pharmaceutical Preparations

The quantity of the active substance in pharmaceutical preparations must be within specific limits, in agreement with the ... "Validated Colorimetric Assay of Clonidine Hydrochloride from Pharmaceutical Preparations". Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical ... Validated Colorimetric Assay of Clonidine Hydrochloride from Pharmaceutical Preparations. Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical ... Validated Colorimetric Assay of Clonidine Hydrochloride from Pharmaceutical Preparations', Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical ...
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Microsomal membrane preparations of COS-1 cells transfected with either the expression plasmid pOSML-PGHS-1 or pOSML-PGHS-2, ... Send reprint requests to: Lisa A. Marshall, Ph.D., SmithKline Beecham Pharmaceuticals, Department of Immunology-Mail Stop ... Microsomal preparations of COS-1 cells transfected with rh-COX-I (▴, ▵) or -II (▪, ■) were incubated with increasing ... In the oxygen electrode assay (Laneuville et al., 1994), microsomal preparations of COS-1 cells overexpressing COX-I (Fig. 6, ...
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List of pharmaceutical compound number prefixes: This list of pharmaceutical compound number prefixes details a pharmaceutical drug labeling standard. Pharmaceutical companies produce a large number of compounds, which cannot all be given names.AutoAnalyzer: The AutoAnalyzer is an automated analyzer using a flow technique called continuous flow analysis (CFA), first made by the Technicon Corporation. The instrument was invented 1957 by Leonard Skeggs, PhD and commercialized by Jack Whitehead's Technicon Corporation.Effervescent tablet: Effervescent or carbon tablets are tablets which are designed to break in contact with water or another liquid, releasing carbon dioxide in the process.British Pharmacopeia 2003 Rapid breakdown often may cause the tablet to dissolve into a solution, and is also often followed by a froth.Liquid junction potential: Liquid junction potential occurs when two solutions of different concentrations are in contact with each other. The more concentrated solution will have a tendency to diffuse into the comparatively less concentrated one.CalibrationUnapproved Drugs Initiative: Unapproved Drugs Initiative is a programme by the U.S Food and Drug Administration announced in June 2006 to remove unapproved drugs from the market.Reference electrode: A reference electrode is an electrode which has a stable and well-known electrode potential. The high stability of the electrode potential is usually reached by employing a redox system with constant (buffered or saturated) concentrations of each participants of the redox reaction.Methyl chloroformateCrown etherChlorinated polyvinyl chlorideACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters: ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters is a peer-reviewed academic journal in the field of medicinal chemistry. Founded in 2009, this online journal is published monthly by the American Chemical Society.Adulterant: An adulterant is a substance found within other substances (e.g.Cerium(III) oxideHigh-performance liquid chromatography: High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC; formerly referred to as high-pressure liquid chromatography), is a technique in analytical chemistry used to separate, identify, and quantify each component in a mixture. It relies on pumps to pass a pressurized liquid solvent containing the sample mixture through a column filled with a solid adsorbent material.Dropping mercury electrode: The dropping mercury electrode (DME) is a working electrode made of mercury and used in polarography. Experiments run with mercury electrodes are referred to as forms of polarography even if the experiments are identical or very similar to a corresponding voltammetry experiment which uses solid working electrodes.Bipolar electrochemistry: Bipolar electrochemistry is a phenomenon in electrochemistry based on the polarization of conducting objects in electric fields. Indeed, this polarization generates a potential difference between the two extremities of the substrate that is equal to the electric field value multiplied by the size of the object.Powder coating: [Coating Aluminium Extrusions.jpg|thumb|right|Aluminium extrusions being powder coated]Spectrophotometry: In chemistry, spectrophotometry is the quantitative measurement of the reflection or transmission properties of a material as a function of wavelength.Allen, D.Generalizability theory: Generalizability theory, or G Theory, is a statistical framework for conceptualizing, investigating, and designing reliable observations. It is used to determine the reliability (i.CapsugelAzure ALosartan/hydrochlorothiazide: Losartan/hydrochlorothiazide is a combination drug used as an antihypertensive, consisting of losartan (an angiotensin II receptor antagonist) and hydrochlorothiazide (a diuretic).Assay sensitivity: Assay sensitivity is a property of a clinical trial defined as the ability of a trial to distinguish an effective treatment from a less effective or ineffective intervention. Without assay sensitivity, a trial is not internally valid and is not capable of comparing the efficacy of two interventions.Certified reference materials: Certified Reference Materials (CRMs) are ‘controls’ or standards used to check the quality and metrological traceability of products, to validate analytical measurement methods, or for the calibration of instruments.Alkaliphile: Alkaliphiles are a class of extremophilic microbes capable of survival in alkaline (pH roughly 8.5-11) environments, growing optimally around a pH of 10.Carbon–carbon bond: A carbon–carbon bond is a covalent bond between two carbon atoms. The most common form is the single bond: a bond composed of two electrons, one from each of the two atoms.CelecoxibCathartic: In medicine, a cathartic is a substance that accelerates defecation. This is in contrast to a laxative, which is a substance which eases defecation, usually by softening feces.

(1/3191) The gas-liquid chromatograph and the electron capture detection in equine drug testing.

Three gas-liquid chromatographic (G.L.C.) procedures discussed have been designed around the four "esses" of detection tests--speed, sensitivity, simplicity, and specificity. These techniques are admirably applicable to the very low plasma drug levels encountered in blood testing under pre-race conditions. The methods are equally applicable to post-race testing procedures, where both blood and urine samples are tested. Drugs can only rarely be detected by the electron capture detector (E.C.D.) without a prior derivatization step, which conveys to the drug(s) high electron affinity. Because of broad applicability, two derivatizing agents, heptafluorobutyric (HFBA) and pentafluorpropionic (PFPA) anhydrides are employed. The three techniques, allowing broad coverage of various drug classes are: 1) direct derivatization of drugs to form strongly electron capturing amides and esters. 2) reductive fragmentation of drugs with lithium aluminum hydride to form alcohols, with conversion to ester derivatives. 3) oxidative fragmentation of drugs with potassium dichromate to form derivatizable groups, followed by direct derivatization.  (+info)

(2/3191) Report on use of XAD resins in racing chemistry.

This report comprises a summary of the work done with XAD resin extraction by racing chemists and reported in the Association of Official Racing Chemists publications. It is apparent that the use of XAD resins is becoming more popular in racing laboratories as a technique for routine screening and also for the extraction of certain conjugated drugs. Most laboratories employ variations on the original Brinkmann Drug-Skreen Technique. Comparisons of the efficiency of extraction of drugs from horse urine by XAD-2 resin and by chloroform column extraction indicate that some drugs can be extracted with equal or greater efficiency by the resin technique.  (+info)

(3/3191) Racing problems in the U.S.A.

The major problems of racing in the United States at the present time are caused by too much racing. This has led to too few horses and small fields. Consequently many owners and trainers are trying to enter their horses too frequently and to race them when they are not really fit to run. The desire to race horses as frequently as possible has led to constant pressure from horsemen through their organizations for so called "permissive medication". Started in the state of Colorado approximately ten years ago this has grown until finally there are only a few states, notably New York and New Jersey that have resisted the pressure. The drug that gave the opening wedge to permissive medication was phenylbutazone, but this in many states has led to the inclusion of other drugs including analgesics and drugs that veterinarians claim are needed for therapeutic purposes. Some states have endeavoured to control phenylbutazone medication by quantitation and while lower limits cause little difficulty, maximum allowable limits have caused problems and are not practical. While there has been no publicity to my knowledge about frusemide (furosemide, lasix) the abuse of this drug for so called "bleeders" is an example that may seriously interfere with drug detection in urine and its use should be confined to proven "bleeders" (i.e. horses suffering from epistaxis). Pre-race blood testing began roughly ten years ago at the harness tracks and has been resisted by our flat tracks rather successfully up to the present time. The blood testing methods and those used by the same laboratories in post-race urine testing is inadequate and will not detect many illegal drugs.  (+info)

(4/3191) Doping control in Japan. An automated extraction procedure for the doping test.

Horse racing in Japan consists of two systems, the National (10 racecourses) and the Regional public racing (32 racecourses) having about 2,500 racing meetings in total per year. Urine or saliva samples for dope testing are collected by the officials from thw winner, second and third, and transported to the laboratory in a frozen state. In 1975, 76, 117 samples were analyzed by this laboratory. The laboratory provides the following four methods of analysis, which are variously combined by request. (1) Method for detection of drugs extracted by chloroform from alkalinized sample. (2) Methods for detection of camphor and its derivatives. (3) Method for detection of barbiturates. (4) Method for detection of ethanol. These methods consist of screening, mainly by thin layer chromatography and confirmatory tests using ultra violet spectrophotometry, gas chromatography and mass spectrometry combined with gas chromatography. In the screening test of doping drugs, alkalinized samples are extracted with chloroform. In order to automate the extraction procedure, the authors contrived a new automatic extractor. They also devised a means of pH adjustment of horse urine by using buffer solution and an efficient mechanism of evaporation of organic solvent. Analytical data obtained by the automatic extractor are presented in this paper. In 1972, we started research work to automate the extraction procedure in method (1) above, and the Automatic Extractor has been in use in routine work since last July. One hundred and twnety samples per hour are extracted automatically by three automatic extractors. The analytical data using this apparatus is presented below.  (+info)

(5/3191) The antidoping control in horseraces in Italy.

The results and the improvement of the analytical procedures adopted for the control of doping in horses will be reported. This control has been systematically carried out in Italy for about 10 years in the laboratories of Italian Federation of Sport and Medicine in which the biological samples for the control of doping in various sport activities (football, cycling, athletics etc.) are also examined. In this way it is possible to use the same instruments for all these similar problems and compare the results. The analytical procedure is based on the following steps: 1) Extraction of the samples (mainly urine but sometimes blood or saliva). 2) Screening tests by thin-layer chromatography. 3) Confirmatory tests by gas chromatography on different columns and also by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. These single steps will be separately discussed, and practical problems encountered will be presented.  (+info)

(6/3191) Less common "doping" agents and substances encountered during routine screening for drugs.

The chromatographic and spectroscopic properties of several unusual substances which have been detected in the "alkaloidal" chloroform extract from racehorse urine and saliva samples are reported. Some of these substances have been identified by combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and the source of the substance is stated where this is known. Other substances whose identity is not known have been detected and their mass spectra show characteristic amine fragments. The occurrence of these unidentified substances is more frequent in aged urine samples and it would therefore appear that they are associated with putrefaction.  (+info)

(7/3191) Does the availability of prescribed drugs affect rates of self poisoning?

The trends in self-poisoning rates and in rates of prescribing of the major drug groups were compared. Over the period 1981-91, barbiturate prescribing and self poisoning both fell by 80%; for antidepressants, prescribing increased by over 40% and self poisoning by 30%; for antipsychotics, both rose by 30%; for benzodiazepines, poisoning fell by 30% and prescribing by 20%. Even for analgesic drugs, which are also available over the counter, there was a correspondence between changes in self poisoning and prescribing. The availability of prescribed drugs is directly related to their use for self poisoning. Restricting the availability of these drugs is a possible preventative strategy, although further research on this is needed.  (+info)

(8/3191) Drug-protein binding and blood-brain barrier permeability.

The permeability surface area (PS) product, an index of permeability of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), was measured by using the in situ perfusion method. In the cerebral circulation, the fraction of drug that permeates into the brain through the BBB is not only the unbound fraction but also the fraction dissociated from the protein in the perfusate. The sum of these two fractions, the apparent exchangeable fraction, was estimated by fitting the parameters of the BBB permeability under the condition of varying BSA concentrations in the perfusate. The unbound fraction of drugs in a buffer containing 0.5 mM BSA was measured by using the ultrafiltration method in vitro, and the apparent exchangeable fraction was measured in vivo by using the intracarotid artery injection method. The apparent exchange fraction was 100% for S-8510, 96.5% for diazepam, 90.9% for caffeine, 38.3% for S-312-d, 33.1% for propranolol, and 6.68% for (+)-S-145 Na, and each of these was higher than the corresponding unbound fraction in vitro in all drugs. The apparent exchangeable fractions, for example, were 8 times higher for diazepam and 38 times for S-312-d than the unbound fractions in vitro. The apparent exchangeable fraction of drugs was also estimated from the parameters obtained with the perfusion method. Because drugs can be infused for an arbitrary length of time in the perfusion method, substances with low permeability can be measured. The apparent exchangeable fractions obtained with this method were almost the same as those obtained with the intracarotid artery injection method.  (+info)



Determination


  • A simple, sensitive spectrophotometric method was developed for the determination of rabeprazole in pure form and for pharmaceutical formulations. (e-journals.in)

Good Manufactu


  • Good Manufacturing Practices: Supplementary Guidelines for the Manufacture of Pharmaceutical Excipients. (who.int)
  • Thirty-seventh Report: Annex 4 Good Manufacturing Practices for pharmaceutical products: main principles: Quality management in the drug industry: philosophy and essential elements 1 : 4. (who.int)

products


  • Collaborative procedure between the WHO Prequalification of Medicines Programme and national medicines regulatory authorities in the assessment and accelerated national registration of WHO-prequalified pharmaceutical products (new). (who.int)

Journal


  • Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research , 15(1), 149-156. (ac.ir)
  • Validated Colorimetric Assay of Clonidine Hydrochloride from Pharmaceutical Preparations', Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research , 15(1), pp. 149-156. (ac.ir)

Study


  • This econometric study covers the world outlook for anticoagulant pharmaceutical preparations across more than 200 countries. (marketresearch.com)