Petroleum: Naturally occurring complex liquid hydrocarbons which, after distillation, yield combustible fuels, petrochemicals, and lubricants.Extraction and Processing Industry: The industry concerned with the removal of raw materials from the Earth's crust and with their conversion into refined products.Petroleum Pollution: Release of oil into the environment usually due to human activity.HydrocarbonsGasoline: Volative flammable fuel (liquid hydrocarbons) derived from crude petroleum by processes such as distillation reforming, polymerization, etc.Fuel Oils: Complex petroleum hydrocarbons consisting mainly of residues from crude oil distillation. These liquid products include heating oils, stove oils, and furnace oils and are burned to generate energy.Benzene: Toxic, volatile, flammable liquid hydrocarbon byproduct of coal distillation. It is used as an industrial solvent in paints, varnishes, lacquer thinners, gasoline, etc. Benzene causes central nervous system damage acutely and bone marrow damage chronically and is carcinogenic. It was formerly used as parasiticide.Cissus: A plant genus of the family VITACEAE. Cissus rufescence gum is considered comparable to TRAGACANTH.Soil Pollutants: Substances which pollute the soil. Use for soil pollutants in general or for which there is no specific heading.Alkanes: The generic name for the group of aliphatic hydrocarbons Cn-H2n+2. They are denoted by the suffix -ane. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Water Pollution, Chemical: Adverse effect upon bodies of water (LAKES; RIVERS; seas; groundwater etc.) caused by CHEMICAL WATER POLLUTANTS.Biodegradation, Environmental: Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.Oil and Gas Fields: Areas of the earth where hydrocarbon deposits of PETROLEUM and/or NATURAL GAS are located.Petrolatum: A colloidal system of semisolid hydrocarbons obtained from PETROLEUM. It is used as an ointment base, topical protectant, and lubricant.Kerosene: A refined petroleum fraction used as a fuel as well as a solvent.Gulf of Mexico: A body of water located at the southeastern corner of North America. It is bordered by the states to the north of Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, Texas; by five Mexican states to the west: Tamaulipas, Veracruz, Tabasco, Campeche, Yucatan; and by Cuba to the southeast.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Mineral Oil: A mixture of liquid hydrocarbons obtained from petroleum. It is used as laxative, lubricant, ointment base, and emollient.Occupational Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.Chemical Industry: The aggregate enterprise of manufacturing and technically producing chemicals. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Lubricants: Compounds that provide LUBRICATION between surfaces in order to reduce FRICTION.Methanomicrobiaceae: A family of anaerobic METHANOMICROBIALES whose cells are coccoid to straight or slightly curved rods. There are six genera.Environmental Remediation: Removal of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS or contaminants for the general protection of the environment. This is accomplished by various chemical, biological, and bulk movement methods, in conjunction with ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING.Hydrocarbons, Aromatic: Organic compounds containing carbon and hydrogen in the form of an unsaturated, usually hexagonal ring structure. The compounds can be single ring, or double, triple, or multiple fused rings.Water Pollutants, Chemical: Chemical compounds which pollute the water of rivers, streams, lakes, the sea, reservoirs, or other bodies of water.Occupational Diseases: Diseases caused by factors involved in one's employment.Transportation: The means of moving persons, animals, goods, or materials from one place to another.Soil Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Fossil Fuels: Any combustible hydrocarbon deposit formed from the remains of prehistoric organisms. Examples are petroleum, coal, and natural gas.InkBacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Polycyclic Hydrocarbons, Aromatic: A major group of unsaturated cyclic hydrocarbons containing two or more rings. The vast number of compounds of this important group, derived chiefly from petroleum and coal tar, are rather highly reactive and chemically versatile. The name is due to the strong and not unpleasant odor characteristic of most substances of this nature. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed, p96)Industrial Waste: Worthless, damaged, defective, superfluous or effluent material from industrial operations.Energy-Generating Resources: Materials or phenomena which can provide energy directly or via conversion.Biofuels: Hydrocarbon-rich byproducts from the non-fossilized BIOMASS that are combusted to generate energy as opposed to fossilized hydrocarbon deposits (FOSSIL FUELS).Hydrocarbons, Acyclic: Organic compounds composed exclusively of carbon and hydrogen where no carbon atoms join to form a ring structure.Hexanes: Six-carbon saturated hydrocarbon group of the methane series. Include isomers and derivatives. Various polyneuropathies are caused by hexane poisoning.Sulfur Compounds: Inorganic or organic compounds that contain sulfur as an integral part of the molecule.RNA, Ribosomal, 16S: Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.Siberia: A region, north-central Asia, largely in Russia. It extends from the Ural Mountains to the Pacific Ocean and from the Arctic Ocean to central Kazakhstan and the borders of China and Mongolia.Neosartorya: A genus of ascomycetous fungi in the family Trichocomaceae, order EUROTIALES. Some species can cause opportunistic infections in humans, similar to its anamorph ASPERGILLUS.Octanes: Eight-carbon saturated hydrocarbon group of the methane series. Include isomers and derivatives.
Microbial ecology and bio-monitoring of total petroleum contaminated soil environmentsThe contamination of environmental media by total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) is a concern in many parts of the world; particularly as most petroleum components like polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are either toxic or carcinogens. In South Africa, the sale of major petroleum products by the South African Petroleum Industry Association (SAPIA) reveals that about 21 billion litres of petroleum products are sold per year. These products include bitumen, diesel, fuel oil, illum paraffin, jet fuel and petrol. In addition, 19.5 million tonnes of crude oil are brought into South Africa annually to feed the country's four refineries. The production of oily sludges at refineries, transportation, storage, and handling of petroleum products by end users, results in environmental contamination. The soil environment is particularly vulnerable to hydrocarbon contamination as most of the accidental spillages by ...
Analyzing the Global Petrochemical Industry 2016 - market research reportAnalyzing the Global Petrochemical Industry 2016, The petrochemical industry of today is an indispensable part of the manufacturing and consuming sectors, churning out products which include paint, plastic, rubber, ...
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GST: Petroleum products will not be brought under GST: Madhya Pradesh FMThe total commercial revenue that we get from petroleum products is about 35 per cent of the total tax that government collects, said MP Finance Minister Jayant Mallaiya.
Academy Sports plans new distribution center to support expansion | Chain Store AgeKaty, Texas - Academy Ltd., parent company of the Academy Sports + Outdoors chain, will open a 1.6.-million-plus-sq.-ft. distribution center on a 200-plus-acre site in Cookeville, Tennessee to support its continued expansion. The retailer will begin construction on the facility later in August 2014 with plans to become operational in early 2016.
API-American Petroleum InstituteIHS is your source for standards and specifications from the American Petroleum Institute (API), available in hardcopy or PDF download. The American Petroleum Institute (API) is a leader in the development of petroleum and petrochemical equipment and operating standards covering topics that range from drill bits to environmental protection. These embrace proven, sound engineering and operating practices and safe, interchangeable equipment and materials. Many have been incorporated into state and federal regulations and adopted by ISO for worldwide acceptance. API distributes more than 200,000 publications each year. The publications, technical standards, and electronic and online products are designed to help users improve the efficiency and cost-effectiveness of their operations, comply with legislative and regulatory requirements, and safeguard health, ensure safety, and protect the environment. Interested in learning more about API ...
Patente US5000918 - Method of disinfecting petroleum and petroleum products - Google PatentesThe method uses propylene oxide as the active substance. It is particularly suitable for inhibiting undesirable growth of microorganisms in drilling for petroleum.
Petroleum Hydrocarbons Measurement Events on Environmental XPRTFind petroleum hydrocarbons measurement events on Environmental XPRT, the world's largest environmental industry marketplace and information resource.
Phillips Petroleum (UK) on Environmental XPRTArticle Phillips Petroleum (UK). Monitor-Site Manager has recently been adopted by Phillips Petroleum Company UK Ltd to help manage and review data associated with land contamination. Site Manager software allows Phillips Petroleum to: - view ...
Zaha Hadid's Petroleum Research Center (Ironically) Aims For LEED Platinum King Abdullah Petroleum Studies and Research Center ...a rel='attachment wp-att-86035' href='http://www.inhabitat.com/2010/02/09/zaha-hadids-petroleum-research-center-ironically-aims-for-leed-platinum/king-abdullah-petroleum-studies-and-research-center-2/',,/a, It may seem ironic, but even petroleum research centers can be LEED certified if they meet the critieria. Case in point: ,a href='http://kapsarc.org/About/Facilities' target='_blank',the King Abudullah Petroleum Studies and Research Center,/a, (KAPSARC for short), designed by ,a href='http://www.inhabitat.com/2009/06/09/zaha-hadid-lifts-seoul-with-green-roofed-dongdaemun-plaza/' target='_blank',Zaha Hadid,/a,, is aiming for LEED Platinum. To be built in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, the state of the art campus will house research and development facilities on energy and environmental exploration and analysis....,br,,br,,a href='http://inhabitat.com/zaha-hadids-petroleum-research-center-ironically-aims-for-leed-platinum/',READ ...
Catalytic polymerization unit at the General Petroleum Corporation's refinery, ca.1940 :: California Historical Society...Photograph of a catalytic polymerization unit at the General Petroleum Corporation's refinery, ca.1940. Metal beams criss-cross to form three levels on a tall, open-air, rectangular structure at center. Pipes can be seen along the sides of the structure, while five barrels are visible lined up on the ground to the right of the structure. A utility pole is visible at left, while a cylindrical tower can be seen in the right background.; Photoprint reads: "This new catzlytic polymerization unit at the Torrance (Calif.) refinery of the General Petroleum Corporation 'builds' 700 barrels of high quality gasoline daily out of what would otherwise be waste refinery gases. Over $400,000 was spent on the addition of this unit ...
Articles and scientific papers on surface geochemical exploration for petroleum A Guide to the CollectionDonald F. Saunders and Martin J. Davidson are both dedicated scientists who studied many facets of surface geochemical exploration for petroleum.. Donald F. Saunders, born in 1924, received a B.S. in Chemistry in 1946 and his PhD from the University of Wisconsin in physical chemistry in 1950. He worked for Texas Instruments for 30 years working in projects as diverse as seismic events, lunar geologic composition and measurements, remote sensing, serial gamma ray spectral and geochemical data, and the commercial utility of satellite imagery.. Martin J. Davidson, born in 1924, received a B.S. from Alfred University in ceramic engineering and glass technology in 1948. He received his MBA from New York University in 1950 and his PhD in economics from the University of Houston in 1967. Davidson worked for Sylvania Electric Products, National Union Radio Tube Corporation, Crown Central Petroleum Corporation, Davidson Geochemical Oil Company and NASA, but the majority of his career ...
Belmont Petroleum RefineryThe Hexamer General Survey provides information about the buildings and facilities in the complex. At the center was a three-story rubble stone building that was a Treating House. At the southeast corner of this building was a small Engine House with an underground steam line running south to the Receiving House. A waste pipe ran from the Receiving House to the river. There was a Stillhouse divided into ten sections and with a large steam boiler. Ten cooling tubs were north of the Stillhouse. Near the Receiving House were six underground receiving tanks. A one-story stone office building was north of the Treating House and a Cooper Shop west of it. The Philadelphia & Reading Railroad lines ran along the rear of the property so that it was possible to have a siding, or "Factories Railway" within the complex. Two Crude Oil Tanks for deliveries and a Bonded Warehouse for sales were located along the siding. Also to the rear were the Benzine House containing two tanks and the "Storehouse for ...
Hot Article: Cleaning up crude oil - Dalton Transactions BlogA new system, using a solid state catalyst, to remove impurities from petroleum has been developed by US scientists.. With current oil consumption levels high, light crude oil reserves will be exhausted, giving way to heavy and extra heavy bitumen refinery feeds. These contain a higher proportion of large polycyclic hydrocarbons, together with N- and S-heteroaromatics, which need to be removed or transformed, without catalyst poisoning. Current methods to do this require high temperatures and pressures.. The catalyst made by the researchers, composed of ruthenium nanoparticles immobilised on a polymer, hydrogenates aromatic compounds under moderate conditions with no poisoning.. Hydrogenation of arenes and N-heteroaromatic compounds over ruthenium nanoparticles on poly(4-vinylpyridine): a versatile catalyst operating by a substrate-dependent dual site mechanism ...
petroleum production | Britannica.competroleum production: Recovery of crude oil and, often, associated natural gas from the Earth. Petroleum is a naturally occurring hydrocarbon material that is believed to have formed from animal and...
s ꒲ | [ g: Ζ w i s | i ʁF E ?? ̎Y ƕ ́E K ́E V F A E E E \Petrochemicals are petroleum derived products obtained from crude oil and natural gas. They are mainly used in the production of petrochemical derivatives such as formaldehyde, polyvinyl chloride, acetic acid and epoxy resins among others. The growing demand of petrochemicals from major end use industries including transportation, construction and packaging is expected to drive the petrochemical market globally. The report estimates and forecast global and China's market for petrochemicals from the demand side. The study comprises of global petrochemicals market in terms of volumes (million tons) and revenues (USD billion) for the period of 2011 to 2018. The report showcases the major driving and restraining factors along with emerging opportunities which are expected to drive the market in the near future. The report also includes value chain analysis to understand each component prevailing across the petrochemical value chain. In order to analyze competitive landscape of the market, the ...
Featured Articles about Saba Petroleum Co - Page 3 - latimesFeatured Saba Petroleum Co News. Find breaking news, commentary, and archival information about Saba Petroleum Co From The latimes (Page 3 of 4)
American Petroleum Institute - The New York TimesNews about the American Petroleum Institute. Commentary and archival information about the American Petroleum Institute from The New York Times.
PowerSwitch - Peak Oil news, Peak Oil forum, Peak Oil DVDs for the UKWhy are oil prices are so volatile? We examine why. We provide news on the energy industry and how it affects the UK. We keep an eye on what is happening in the political, economic and social sectors as the global production of oil, the lifeblood of modern industrialised societies, peaks and then declines ...
Technozoic: April 2009Colin Campbell has now written newsletters for 100 months. 100 months is a long tenure. In his first letter he introduced the world to a new term, "Peak Oil". I first made contact with Colin by email in the autumn of 2000 when I needed a little information for a figure and I believe that it was in December of the same year that I first spoke with him by telephone. He was then writing that which would become newsletter number 1. He spoke about the idea of an organisation that would study the peak of oil production and the name "Association for the Study of the Oil Peak" was mentioned. But the acronym ASOP did not roll off the tongue in the right way so the suggestion to swap the words around to say Peak Oil was discussed. The acronym became ASPO and the term "Peak Oil" was coined. Today, "Peak Oil" is an expression that is used around the world. The Parliament of the Walloon Region of Belgium has even formed a new standing committee for Peak Oil. Around the world, presidents, national inquiries, ...
Mission StatementDepartment Mission. We educate engineering technology graduates through a unique online and rotating delivery schedule of robust instruction that prepares future leaders to safely managing complex operations in the petroleum industry which are critical to the energy needs of the world.. Program Mission. PETSM programs cultivate productive citizens and employees for Louisiana and the nation's petroleum industry and its related fields in business, industry, education, and government by developing technical, supervisory, and intercultural knowledge and skills through quality teaching, research, and service.. ...
Activated carbon by Planet Conversations - BizPR.ca | Canadian Free Press Release and Distribution CentreActivated carbon is powerful communal usage used to trap toxins and chemicals in the body, enabling them to be flushed out so the body doesn't reabsorb them. It's produced using an assortment of sources, yet when utilized for common mending, it's essential to choose initiated charcoal produced using coconut shells or other characteristic sources. Enacted carbons are the most adaptable and regularly utilized adsorbents, and settled beds of Activated carbon, as canisters or channels, are generally utilized for sanitizing tainted air. Its extensive interior surface range and pore volume, its capacity to assimilate most natural vapors and ease make initiated carbon a standout amongst the most functional adsorbents.. At whatever point you take enacted carbon, it's basic to drink 12-16 glasses of water for every day. Enacted carbon can cause drying out if sufficient measures of water aren't devoured pair. Also, this flushes out the poisons rapidly and averts clogging experienced by a few people. ...
Hand, Foot And Mouth Disease Market - Pipeline Review, H1 2016 - BizPR.us | US Free Press Release and Distribution centerAssessment by Route of Administration 20. About Us:. Orbis Research (orbisresearch.com) is a single point aid for all your market research requirements. We have vast database of reports from the leading publishers and authors across the globe. We specialize in delivering customized reports as per the requirements of our clients. We have complete information about our publishers and hence are sure about the accuracy of the industries and verticals of their specialization. This helps our clients to map their needs and we produce the perfect required market research study for our clients.. Contact Information:. Hector Costello. Senior Manager - Client Engagements. 4144N Central Expressway,. Suite 600, Dallas,. Texas - 75204, U.S.A.. Phone No.: +1 (214) 884-6817; +9164101019. Email ID: firstname.lastname@example.org. ...
Dental Practice Aims To Educate On The Importance Of Caring For Teeth - BizPR.us | US Free Press Release and Distribution centerA major dental service is keen to highlight the importance to their patients and the general public of looking after their teeth. With the right level of dental care, it's possible for patients to avoid many of the common dental health issues like cavities and even gum disease. By educating people about problems like this, Club Dental hopes to boost the level of oral health nationwide.. Club Dental began after one of its founders received dental care and then a bill of three hundred dollars. The people behind the company understood that dental health care needed to be more affordable and accessible for all Americans. The evidence of this is clear. Over fifty percent of Americans currently do not have any form of dental health care and are completely unaware of the dangers of this. Club Dental hope to correct this by offering dental care at a price that everyone can afford.. Club Dental understands that there are various reasons why a high level of dental care is crucial for all patients. On a ...
Drug Cialis Distribution Centre | A healthy attitude is contagious but don't wait to catch it from others. Be a carrier. | Page...People routinely need daily health care tips, especially for people suffering from conditions and people taking care of others suffering from diseases. Daily health tips are not essentially aimed at teaching everything about the health care facilities and researches. However, they can be very helpful, when it comes to managing specific conditions and diseases. The tips and advice aimed at patients of serious conditions and their caretakers can be real lifesaver. This is because, they usually come with the dos and don't that you must be knowledgeable about. They are of good value, when they come from recognized sources.. Why subscribe to daily health tips? Everyone can benefit from the knowledge and advice delivered by such content. There are several thousands of such newsletters, websites and blogs available everywhere in the internet. Spend some time Googling and you will come across several hundreds of them. However, not every one of them is a good, authority source. You have to be careful ...
National Offshore Petroleum Safety Authority: The National Offshore Petroleum Safety Authority (NOPSA) was the occupational health and safety (OHS) regulator for the Australian offshore petroleum industry between 2005 and 2011. The role of regulator has been transferred to NOPSEMA - the National Offshore Petroleum Safety and Environmental Management Authority from the first of January 2012.Tidewater (marine services)Unified Command (Deepwater Horizon oil spill): The Unified Command provides Incident Command System/Unified Command (ICS) for coordinating response to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill.Unsaturated hydrocarbon: Unsaturated hydrocarbons are hydrocarbons that have double or triple covalent bonds between adjacent carbon atoms. Those with at least one carbon to carbon double bond are called alkenes and those with at least one carbon to carbon triple bond are called alkynes.Gasoline gallon equivalent: Gasoline gallon equivalent (GGE) or gasoline-equivalent gallon (GEG) is the amount of alternative fuel it takes to equal the energy content of one liquid gallon of gasoline. GGE allows consumers to compare the energy content of competing fuels against a commonly known fuel—gasoline.Glen Davis Shale Oil Works: The Glen Davis Shale Oil Works was a shale oil extraction plant in Glen Davis, New South Wales, Australia which operated from 1940 until 1952 and was the last oil-shale operation in Australia until the Stuart Oil Shale Project in the late 1990s.Dewar benzeneCissus sicyoides: Cissus sicyoides, also known as Princess vine, Millionaire vine and Curtain Ivy, is evergreen perennial vine in the Vitaceae (Grapevine) family.PyromorphiteDodecaneBiodegradationHassi R'Mel gas field: The Hassi R'Mel Gas Field is the largest gas field in Algeria and one of the largest gas fields in the world. It is located in the vicinity of Hassi R'Mel village, south of Algiers.Petroleum jelly: Petroleum jelly, petrolatum, white petrolatum, soft paraffin or multi-hydrocarbon, CAS number 8009-03-8, is a semi-solid mixture of hydrocarbons (with carbon numbers mainly higher than 25), originally promoted as a topical ointment for its healing properties.TridecanePhytomedicineLiquid paraffin (medicinal): Paraffin}}Occupational hygiene: Occupational (or "industrial" in the U.S.Advanced Chemical Industries (ACI): ৳ 238 Million http://www.aci-bd.Surgical lubricant: Surgical lubricants, or medical lubricants, are substances used by health care providers to provide lubrication and lessen discomfort to the patient during certain medical and surgical procedures such as vaginal or rectal examinations.Intramembrane protease: Intramembrane proteases (IMPs), also known as intermembrane-cleaving proteases (I-CLiPs), are enzymes that have the property of cleaving transmembrane domains of integral membrane proteins. All known intramembrane proteases are themselves integral membrane proteins with multiple transmembrane domains, and they have their active sites buried within the lipid bilayer of cellular membranes.In situ chemical oxidation: In situ chemical oxidation (ISCO), a form of advanced oxidation processes and advanced oxidation technology, is an environmental remediation technique used for soil and/or groundwater remediation to reduce the concentrations of targeted environmental contaminants to acceptable levels. ISCO is accomplished by injecting or otherwise introducing strong chemical oxidizers directly into the contaminated medium (soil or groundwater) to destroy chemical contaminants in place.AromaticityPacific ElectricGemmatimonadetes: The Gemmatimonadetes are a family of bacteria, given their own phylum (Gemmatimonadetes). This bacterium makes up about 2% of soil bacterial communities and has been identified as one of the top nine phyla found in soils; yet, there are currently only six cultured isolates.Phlogiston theory: The phlogiston theory is an obsolete scientific theory that postulated that a fire-like element called phlogiston is contained within combustible bodies and released during combustion. The name comes from the Ancient Greek [phlogistón (burning up), from φλόξ] phlóx (flame).Soy ink: Soy ink is a kind of ink made from soybeans. As opposed to traditional petroleum-based ink, soy-based ink is more environmentally friendly, might provide more accurate colors, and makes it easier to recycle paper .Exogenous bacteria: Exogenous bacteria are microorganisms introduced to closed biological systems from the external world. They exist in aquatic and terrestrial environments, as well as the atmosphere.Benzo(k)fluorantheneIndustrial waste: Industrial waste is the waste produced by industrial activity which includes any material that is rendered useless during a manufacturing process such as that of factories, mills, and mining operations. It has existed since the start of the Industrial Revolution.Energy security of the People's Republic of China: Energy security of the People's Republic of China concerns the need for the People's Republic of China to guarantee itself and its industries long- term access to sufficient energy and raw materials. China has been endeavoring to sign international agreements and secure such supplies; its energy security involves the internal and foreign energy policy of China.Canadian Renewable Fuels Association: The Canadian Renewable Fuels Association (CRFA) is a non-profit organization in Canada, created in 1984. Its stated purpose is to "promote renewable fuels for transportation through consumer awareness and government liaison activities", and its membership includes "representatives from all levels of the ethanol and biodiesel industry", including agricultural associations and producers of ethanol and biodiesel.Supramolecular assembly: thumbnail|200px|An example of a supramolecular assembly reported by Atwood and coworkers in Science 2005, 309, 2037.HexaneCapravirineIndigenous peoples of SiberiaAsphaltene: Asphaltenes are molecular substances that are found in crude oil, along with resins, aromatic hydrocarbons, and saturates (i.e.Octane
(1/660) Anaerobic oxidation of o-xylene, m-xylene, and homologous alkylbenzenes by new types of sulfate-reducing bacteria.
Various alkylbenzenes were depleted during growth of an anaerobic, sulfate-reducing enrichment culture with crude oil as the only source of organic substrates. From this culture, two new types of mesophilic, rod-shaped sulfate-reducing bacteria, strains oXyS1 and mXyS1, were isolated with o-xylene and m-xylene, respectively, as organic substrates. Sequence analyses of 16S rRNA genes revealed that the isolates affiliated with known completely oxidizing sulfate-reducing bacteria of the delta subclass of the class Proteobacteria. Strain oXyS1 showed the highest similarities to Desulfobacterium cetonicum and Desulfosarcina variabilis (similarity values, 98.4 and 98.7%, respectively). Strain mXyS1 was less closely related to known species, the closest relative being Desulfococcus multivorans (similarity value, 86.9%). Complete mineralization of o-xylene and m-xylene was demonstrated in quantitative growth experiments. Strain oXyS1 was able to utilize toluene, o-ethyltoluene, benzoate, and o-methylbenzoate in addition to o-xylene. Strain mXyS1 oxidized toluene, m-ethyltoluene, m-isoproyltoluene, benzoate, and m-methylbenzoate in addition to m-xylene. Strain oXyS1 did not utilize m-alkyltoluenes, whereas strain mXyS1 did not utilize o-alkyltoluenes. Like the enrichment culture, both isolates grew anaerobically on crude oil with concomitant reduction of sulfate to sulfide. (+info)
(2/660) Microbial desulfurization of organic sulfur compounds in petroleum.
Sulfur removal from petroleum is important from the standpoint of the global environment because the combustion of sulfur compounds leads to the production of sulfur oxides, which are the source of acid rain. As the regulations for sulfur in fuels become more stringent, the existing chemical desulfurizations are coming inadequate for the "deeper desulfurization" to produce lower-sulfur fuels without new and innovative processes. Biodesulfurization is rising as one of the candidates. Several microorganisms were found to desulfurize dibenzothiophene (DBT), a representative of the organic sulfur compounds in petroleum, forming a sulfur-free compound, 2-hydroxybiphenyl. They are promising as biocatalysts in the microbial desulfurization of petroleum because without assimilation of the carbon content, they remove only sulfur from the heterocyclic compounds which is refractory to conventional chemical desulfurization. Both enzymological and molecular genetic studies are now in progress for the purpose of obtaining improved desulfurization activity of organisms. The genes involved in the sulfur-specific DBT desulfurization were identified and the corresponding enzymes have been investigated. From the practical point of view, it has been proved that the microbial desulfurization proceeds in the presence of high concentrations of hydrocarbons, and more complicated DBT analogs are also desulfurized by the microorganisms. This review outlines the progress in the studies of the microbial desulfurization from the basic and practical point of view. (+info)
(3/660) Potential effects of gas hydrate on human welfare.
For almost 30 years. serious interest has been directed toward natural gas hydrate, a crystalline solid composed of water and methane, as a potential (i) energy resource, (ii) factor in global climate change, and (iii) submarine geohazard. Although each of these issues can affect human welfare, only (iii) is considered to be of immediate importance. Assessments of gas hydrate as an energy resource have often been overly optimistic, based in part on its very high methane content and on its worldwide occurrence in continental margins. Although these attributes are attractive, geologic settings, reservoir properties, and phase-equilibria considerations diminish the energy resource potential of natural gas hydrate. The possible role of gas hydrate in global climate change has been often overstated. Although methane is a "greenhouse" gas in the atmosphere, much methane from dissociated gas hydrate may never reach the atmosphere, but rather may be converted to carbon dioxide and sequestered by the hydrosphere/biosphere before reaching the atmosphere. Thus, methane from gas hydrate may have little opportunity to affect global climate change. However, submarine geohazards (such as sediment instabilities and slope failures on local and regional scales, leading to debris flows, slumps, slides, and possible tsunamis) caused by gas-hydrate dissociation are of immediate and increasing importance as humankind moves to exploit seabed resources in ever-deepening waters of coastal oceans. The vulnerability of gas hydrate to temperature and sea level changes enhances the instability of deep-water oceanic sediments, and thus human activities and installations in this setting can be affected. (+info)
(4/660) Effects of surfactant mixtures, including Corexit 9527, on bacterial oxidation of acetate and alkanes in crude oil.
Mixtures of nonionic and anionic surfactants, including Corexit 9527, were tested to determine their effects on bacterial oxidation of acetate and alkanes in crude oil by cells pregrown on these substrates. Corexit 9527 inhibited oxidation of the alkanes in crude oil by Acinetobacter calcoaceticus ATCC 31012, while Span 80, a Corexit 9527 constituent, markedly increased the oil oxidation rate. Another Corexit 9527 constituent, the negatively charged dioctyl sulfosuccinate (AOT), strongly reduced the oxidation rate. The combination of Span 80 and AOT increased the rate, but not as much as Span 80 alone increased it, which tentatively explained the negative effect of Corexit 9527. The results of acetate uptake and oxidation experiments indicated that the nonionic surfactants interacted with the acetate uptake system while the anionic surfactant interacted with the oxidation system of the bacteria. The overall effect of Corexit 9527 on alkane oxidation by A. calcoaceticus ATCC 31012 thus seems to be the sum of the independent effects of the individual surfactants in the surfactant mixture. When Rhodococcus sp. strain 094 was used, the alkane oxidation rate decreased to almost zero in the presence of a mixture of Tergitol 15-S-7 and AOT even though the Tergitol 15-S-7 surfactant increased the alkane oxidation rate and AOT did not affect it. This indicated that there was synergism between the two surfactants rather than an additive effect like that observed for A. calcoaceticus ATCC 31012. (+info)
(5/660) Determination of tin, vanadium, iron, and molybdenum in various matrices by atomic absorption spectrometry using a simultaneous liquid-liquid extraction procedure.
An atomic-absorption spectrometric method is described for the determination of tin, vanadium, iron, and molybdenum in two certified reference materials, food samples, and petroleum crude. After treatment with acids, these elements are separated from matrix elements by simultaneous solvent extraction of 5,5'-methylenedisalicylohydroxamic acid complexes from HCl/NaClO4 solution into an isobutyl methyl ketone/tributyl phosphate solution. The detection limits range from 0.018 to 0.19 microg/mL (n = 3), and the relative standard deviations do not exceed 2.0% at levels of 0.5, 0.6, 2.0, and 7.0 microg/mL of Fe, Mo, V, and Sn, respectively. The method is selective and suffers only from interference by Zr(IV), Ti(IV), Th(IV), W(VI), PO4(3-), and F-. (+info)
(6/660) Petroleum distillate solvents as risk factors for undifferentiated connective tissue disease (UCTD).
Occupational solvent exposure may increase the risk of connective tissue disease (CTD). The objective of this case-control study was to investigate the relation between undifferentiated connective tissue disease (UCTD) and solvent exposure in Michigan and Ohio. Women were considered to have UCTD if they did not meet the American College of Rheumatology classification criteria for any CTD but had at least two documented signs, symptoms, or laboratory abnormalities suggestive of a CTD. Detailed information on solvent exposure was ascertained from 205 cases, diagnosed between 1980 and 1992, and 2,095 population-based controls. Age-adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95 percent confidence intervals (CI) were calculated for all exposures. Among 16 self-reported occupational activities with potential solvent exposure, furniture refinishing (OR = 9.73, 95 percent CI 1.48-63.90), perfume, cosmetic, or drug manufacturing (OR = 7.71, 95 percent CI 2.24-26.56), rubber product manufacturing (OR = 4.70, 95 percent CI 1.75-12.61), work in a medical diagnostic or pathology laboratory (OR = 4.52, 95 percent CI 2.27-8.97), and painting or paint manufacturing (OR = 2.87, 95 percent CI 1.06-7.76) were significantly associated with UCTD. After expert review of self-reported exposure to ten specific solvents, paint thinners or removers (OR = 2.73, 95 percent CI 1.80-4.16) and mineral spirits (OR = 1.81, 95 percent CI 1.09-3.02) were associated with UCTD. These results suggest that exposure to petroleum distillates increases the risk of developing UCTD. (+info)
(7/660) Marinobacter aquaeolei sp. nov., a halophilic bacterium isolated from a Vietnamese oil-producing well.
Several strains of moderately halophilic and mesophilic bacteria were isolated at the head of an oil-producing well on an offshore platform in southern Vietnam. Cells were Gram-negative, non-spore-forming, rod-shaped and motile by means of a polar flagellum. Growth occurred at NaCl concentrations between 0 and 20%; the optimum was 5% NaCl. One strain, which was designated VT8T, could degrade n-hexadecane, pristane and some crude oil components. It grew anaerobically in the presence of nitrate on succinate, citrate or acetate, but not on glucose. Several organic acids and amino acids were utilized as sole carbon and energy sources. The major components of its cellular fatty acids were C12:0 3-OH, C16:1, omega 9c, C16:0 and C18:1 omega 9c. The DNA G + C content was 55.7 mol%. 16S rDNA sequence analysis indicated that strain VT8T was closely related to Marinobacter sp. strain CAB (99.8% similarity) and Marinobaster hydrocarbonoclasticus (99.4% similarity). Its antibiotic resistance, isoprenoid quinones and fatty acids were similar to those of Marinobacter hydrocarbonoclasticus and Pseudomonas nautica. However, the whole-cell protein pattern of VT8T differed from that of other halophilic marine isolates, including P. nautica. DNA-DNA hybridization indicated that the level of relatedness to Marinobacter hydrocarbonoclasticus was 65% and that to P. nautica was 75%. Further differences were apparent in Fourier-transformed IR spectra of cells and lipopolysaccharide composition. It is proposed that VT8T should be the type strain of a new species and should be named Marinobacter aquaeolei. P. nautica may have been misclassified, as suggested previously, and may also belong to the genus Marinobacter. (+info)
(8/660) The role of dermal irritation in the skin tumor promoting activity of petroleum middle distillates.
Petroleum middle distillates (PMDs), a class of hydrocarbons which boil between 350-700 degrees F, are tumor promoters in mouse skin. The promotional activity is produced under conditions that also result in local changes, including chronic irritation and epidermal hyperplasia. The present study was conducted by comparing equal weekly doses of irritating and minimally or nonirritating test materials, to assess whether tumor promotion was a secondary response to these effects. Four PMDs, C10-C14 normal paraffins (NP), lightly refined paraffinic oil (LRPO), Jet Fuel A (JF), and steam-cracked gas oil (SCGO), were evaluated. Test materials were applied undiluted (2x/week) or as 28.6% (7x/week) or 50% (4x/week) concentrations in mineral oil for 52 weeks following initiation with dimethylbenzanthracene (DMBA). When applied undiluted, all materials produced moderate irritation and significant increase in tumor incidence. When NP, LRPO, or JF were applied in mineral oil diluent, skin irritation was generally ameliorated and few, if any, tumors were produced. SCGO was irritating and produced a significant increase in tumor frequency when administered in mineral-oil diluent. These data indicate that the promotional activity of straight-run PMDs is likely related to chronic irritation at the application site and not to dose. Thus, when used appropriately in the absence of prolonged irritation, these materials should not present a tumorigenic hazard to humans. (+info)