Pesticide Residues: Pesticides or their breakdown products remaining in the environment following their normal use or accidental contamination.Pesticides: Chemicals used to destroy pests of any sort. The concept includes fungicides (FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL); INSECTICIDES; RODENTICIDES; etc.Hydrocarbons, Chlorinated: Hydrocarbon compounds with one or more of the hydrogens replaced by CHLORINE.Frozen FoodsAzinphosmethyl: An organothiophosphorus cholinesterase inhibitor. It has been used as an acaricide and as an insecticide.Dieldrin: An organochlorine insecticide whose use has been cancelled or suspended in the United States. It has been used to control locusts, tropical disease vectors, in termite control by direct soil injection, and non-food seed and plant treatment. (From HSDB)Insecticides: Pesticides designed to control insects that are harmful to man. The insects may be directly harmful, as those acting as disease vectors, or indirectly harmful, as destroyers of crops, food products, or textile fabrics.Food Contamination: The presence in food of harmful, unpalatable, or otherwise objectionable foreign substances, e.g. chemicals, microorganisms or diluents, before, during, or after processing or storage.Agriculture: The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.Lindane: An organochlorine insecticide that has been used as a pediculicide and a scabicide. It has been shown to cause cancer.Chromatography, Supercritical Fluid: A CHROMATOGRAPHY method using supercritical fluid, usually carbon dioxide under very high pressure (around 73 atmospheres or 1070 psi at room temperature) as the mobile phase. Other solvents are sometimes added as modifiers. This is used both for analytical (SFC) and extraction (SFE) purposes.Fungicides, Industrial: Chemicals that kill or inhibit the growth of fungi in agricultural applications, on wood, plastics, or other materials, in swimming pools, etc.Food Analysis: Measurement and evaluation of the components of substances to be taken as FOOD.Endosulfan: A polychlorinated compound used for controlling a variety of insects. It is practically water-insoluble, but readily adheres to clay particles and persists in soil and water for several years. Its mode of action involves repetitive nerve-discharges positively correlated to increase in temperature. This compound is extremely toxic to most fish. (From Comp Biochem Physiol (C) 1993 Jul;105(3):347-61)Chlorofluorocarbons, Methane: A group of methane-based halogenated hydrocarbons containing one or more fluorine and chlorine atoms.Pharmaceutic Aids: Substances which are of little or no therapeutic value, but are necessary in the manufacture, compounding, storage, etc., of pharmaceutical preparations or drug dosage forms. They include SOLVENTS, diluting agents, and suspending agents, and emulsifying agents. Also, ANTIOXIDANTS; PRESERVATIVES, PHARMACEUTICAL; COLORING AGENTS; FLAVORING AGENTS; VEHICLES; EXCIPIENTS; OINTMENT BASES.Wetting Agents: A surfactant that renders a surface wettable by water or enhances the spreading of water over the surface.Organophosphorus Compounds: Organic compounds that contain phosphorus as an integral part of the molecule. Included under this heading is broad array of synthetic compounds that are used as PESTICIDES and DRUGS.Carbamates: Derivatives of carbamic acid, H2NC(=O)OH. Included under this heading are N-substituted and O-substituted carbamic acids. In general carbamate esters are referred to as urethanes, and polymers that include repeating units of carbamate are referred to as POLYURETHANES. Note however that polyurethanes are derived from the polymerization of ISOCYANATES and the singular term URETHANE refers to the ethyl ester of carbamic acid.Herbicides: Pesticides used to destroy unwanted vegetation, especially various types of weeds, grasses (POACEAE), and woody plants. Some plants develop HERBICIDE RESISTANCE.Dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane: An organochlorine insecticide that is slightly irritating to the skin. (From Merck Index, 11th ed, p482)Environmental Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.DDT: A polychlorinated pesticide that is resistant to destruction by light and oxidation. Its unusual stability has resulted in difficulties in residue removal from water, soil, and foodstuffs. This substance may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen: Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP-85-002, 1985). (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Maximum Allowable Concentration: The maximum exposure to a biologically active physical or chemical agent that is allowed during an 8-hour period (a workday) in a population of workers, or during a 24-hour period in the general population, which does not appear to cause appreciable harm, whether immediate or delayed for any period, in the target population. (From Lewis Dictionary of Toxicology, 1st ed)Growth and Development: The series of changes to the shape, size, components, and functions of an individual organism that occur over time as the organism progresses from its initial form to full size and maturity.Vegetables: A food group comprised of EDIBLE PLANTS or their parts.Pyrethrins: The active insecticidal constituent of CHRYSANTHEMUM CINERARIIFOLIUM flowers. Pyrethrin I is the pyretholone ester of chrysanthemummonocarboxylic acid and pyrethrin II is the pyretholone ester of chrysanthemumdicarboxylic acid monomethyl ester.Grooming: An animal's cleaning and caring for the body surface. This includes preening, the cleaning and oiling of feathers with the bill or of hair with the tongue.Environmental Monitoring: The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.Soil Pollutants: Substances which pollute the soil. Use for soil pollutants in general or for which there is no specific heading.Agricultural Workers' Diseases: Diseases in persons engaged in cultivating and tilling soil, growing plants, harvesting crops, raising livestock, or otherwise engaged in husbandry and farming. The diseases are not restricted to farmers in the sense of those who perform conventional farm chores: the heading applies also to those engaged in the individual activities named above, as in those only gathering harvest or in those only dusting crops.Chromatography, Gas: Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.Water Pollutants, Chemical: Chemical compounds which pollute the water of rivers, streams, lakes, the sea, reservoirs, or other bodies of water.Solid Phase Extraction: An extraction method that separates analytes using a solid phase and a liquid phase. It is used for preparative sample cleanup before analysis by CHROMATOGRAPHY and other analytical methods.Agrochemicals: Chemicals used in agriculture. These include pesticides, fumigants, fertilizers, plant hormones, steroids, antibiotics, mycotoxins, etc.Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry: A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.Pest Control: The reduction or regulation of the population of noxious, destructive, or dangerous plants, insects, or other animals. This includes control of plants that serve as habitats or food sources for animal pests.Bees: Insect members of the superfamily Apoidea, found almost everywhere, particularly on flowers. About 3500 species occur in North America. They differ from most WASPS in that their young are fed honey and pollen rather than animal food.Fruit: The fleshy or dry ripened ovary of a plant, enclosing the seed or seeds.Occupational Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Chlorpyrifos: An organothiophosphate cholinesterase inhibitor that is used as an insecticide and as an acaricide.Organophosphate Poisoning: Poisoning due to exposure to ORGANOPHOSPHORUS COMPOUNDS, such as ORGANOPHOSPHATES; ORGANOTHIOPHOSPHATES; and ORGANOTHIOPHOSPHONATES.Fresh Water: Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.

*  The Benefits of the Geno/Grinder® High-Throughput Tissue Homogenizer to Increase Sample Throughput for Pesticide Residue...

... note evaluates a new approach using an innovative laboratory tissue homogenizer to extract various pesticide residues from ... High-Throughput Tissue Homogenizer to Increase Sample Throughput for Pesticide Residue Analysis by LC/MS/MS. 16 May 2013 ... note evaluates a new approach using an innovative laboratory tissue homogenizer to extract various pesticide residues from ...
selectscience.net/application-notes/the-benefits-of-the-geno grinder-high-throughput-tissue-homogenizer-to-increase-sample-throughput-for-pesticide-residue-analysis-by-lc ms ms/?artID=28718

*  In The News: Apples Reported Highest In Pesticide Residue

... 6/14/2011 1:47:32 PM. by Justine Patton Tags: Environmental Working ... stated that pesticide residue was found on 98 percent of the apples tested.. Photo by iMaffo/Courtesy Flickr ... So, why are we so concerned about pesticide residue on our produce, anyway? Turns out there are a lot of reasons to be worried ... With all of the hype surrounding pesticide residue on our produce, it would make sense to look to other food groups for the ...
motherearthliving.com/Natural-Health/apples-reported-highest-in-pesticide-contamination

*  Scientific support for preparing an EU position in the 49th Session of the Codex Committee on Pesticide Residues (CCPR) |...

Scientific support for preparing an EU position in the 49th Session of the Codex Committee on Pesticide Residues (CCPR). ... to provide support for the preparation of the EU position for 49th session of the Codex Committee on Pesticide Residues (CCPR ... consumer risk assessment, toxicological evaluation, residue definitions, MRL setting, CCPR meeting 2017 ... and 24 active substance regarding the setting of Maximum Residue Limits (MRLs) (acibenzolar-S-methyl, benzovindiflupyr, bixafen ...
efsa.europa.eu/en/efsajournal/pub/4929

*  Organophosphorus pesticide residues in Greek virgin olive oil: levels, dietary intake and risk assessment.

A total of 30.5% of samples contained detectable residues, altho ... and their metabolite residues was investigated in 167 samples ... Pesticide Residues / analysis*, toxicity. Pesticides / analysis*, toxicity. Plant Oils / chemistry*. Proportional Hazards ... The occurrence of organophosphorus pesticide (OPs) and their metabolite residues was investigated in 167 samples of Greek ... 0/Dietary Fats, Unsaturated; 0/Organophosphorus Compounds; 0/Pesticide Residues; 0/Pesticides; 0/Plant Oils; 8001-25-0/olive ...
biomedsearch.com/nih/Organophosphorus-pesticide-residues-in-Greek/18636365.html

*  Multiresidue method for determination of pesticide residues in processed foods by GC/MS

A rapid and simple multiresidue method has been established for determination of pesticide residues in processed foods by GC/MS ... A survey of pesticide residues in 75 commercial processed foods was carried out. Chlorpropham was detected at 0.04 ppm in a ... A rapid and simple multiresidue method has been established for determination of pesticide residues in processed foods by GC/MS ... 2272985 - Residues in foods. 1989.. 1116615 - Drug and chemical residues in domestic animals.. 8455 - Titration behavior of ...
biomedsearch.com/nih/Multiresidue-Method-Determination-Pesticide-Residues/19897945.html

*  Breast-feeding nutrition: Tips for moms - Mayo Clinic

Wash your fruits and vegetables to reduce exposure to pesticide residue.. Eating a variety of different foods while breast- ...
mayoclinic.org/breastfeeding-nutrition/art-20046912?p=1

*  075. Introduction (FAO/PL:1967/M/11/1)

Pesticide Residues. Anal. Chem. 37, 131R-142R FAO/WHO. (1965) Evaluation of the toxicity of pesticide residues in food. FAO Mtg ... Committee on Pesticide Residues, the FAO Working Party of Experts on Pesticide Residues wished to emphasize that both acute and ... A Joint Meeting of the FAO Working Party of Experts on Pesticide Residues and the WHO Expert Committee on Pesticide Residues ... Working Party of Experts on Pesticide Residues and the WHO Expert Committee on Pesticide Residues" (FAO/WHO, 1968). Additional ...
inchem.org/documents/jmpr/jmpmono/v067pr01.htm

*  ENDS Europe | EFSA scientific support for international pesticide residue talks

EFSA scientific support for international pesticide residue talks. External Content The full text of this article is only ...
endseurope.com/article/42615/efsa-scientific-support-for-international-pesticide-residue-talks

*  Excessive pesticide residue found in sweet potato sample

... - up-to-the-minute news and headlines. 7thSpace is a online portal ... 3.6 times the maximum residue limit (0.01 ppm).. 'Based on the level of pesticide residue detected in the sample, adverse ... Any person who imports, manufactures or sells any food not in compliance with the requirements of the Pesticide Residues in ... Generally speaking, to reduce pesticide residues in vegetables, members of the public can rinse vegetables thoroughly under ...
7thspace.com/headlines/534977/excessive_pesticide_residue_found_in_sweet_potato_sample.html

*  USDA Claims Pesticide Residues in Food Is Safe

... but why does more than half of the food last year have detectable levels of pesticide residues? ... The monitoring of pesticide residue by the FDA and USDA received harsh criticism in a recent report created by the General ... A third issue that is completely ignored by the USDA when they claim pesticide residues in food are within safe levels is the ... According to the USDA, more than half of all foods tested last year had detectable levels of pesticide residues, but most, they ...
https://articles.mercola.com/sites/articles/archive/2099/12/31/glyphosate-gmo-pesticide-residue.aspx?e_cid=20150102Z1-NonBuyer_DNL_artTest_A2&

*  UT Extension - Fire Ants

The USER is always responsible for the effects of pesticide residues, as well as for problems that could arise from drift or ... The status of pesticide label clearances is subject to change and may have changed since this publication was printed. County ...
fireants.utk.edu/management/treatment/products.html

*  Indian State Bans Coke & Pepsi due to elevated pesticide residues, page 2

CSE found that the Indian-produced Pepsi's soft drink products had 36 times the level of pesticide residues permitted under ... Indian State Bans Coke & Pepsi due to elevated pesticide residues. page: 2 ... I doubt the coke price would compare to the pesticide price .. I'm tired and don't want to battle with your little ape-mind. ... here is a bit more of the situation in India whereas the pesticide - human-poisoning situation... www.highbeam.com... See more ...
abovetopsecret.com/forum/thread220898/pg2

*  Pesticide Residues by Leeder Consulting

... Agriculture chemicals including pesticides are widely used all over the world to ... No reviews were found for Pesticide Residues. Be the first to review! ... The residue of the pesticide chemical including the derivatives is tested to ensure that food safety is maintained. ... The Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) defines a pesticide as 'any substance or mixture of substances intended for ...
https://agriculture-xprt.com/services/pesticide-residues-118702

*  Fucoidan Brown Alga Extract /Plant Extract/植物提取物和石油/农业

... making pure tea extract without pesticide residue, additive free, natural and of excellent taste. ... of tea leaves and removes the useless elements like fiber and pectin and the harmful components such as pesticide residue and ...
https://kitairu.net/cn/agriculture-and-food/plant-extract-and-oil/plant-extract/161604.html

*  Health risk from pesticide residues is low, says EFSA

The health risk from pesticide residues in food is low, according to a report by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), ... "Food consumed in the European Union continues to be largely free of pesticide residues or to contain residues that fall within ... The health risk from pesticide residues in food is low, according to a report by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), ... EFSA publishes this report each year, analysing data submitted by individual countries on pesticide residues on the same basket ...
mobile.foodqualitynews.com/Sectors/Fresh-produce/Health-risk-from-pesticide-residues-is-low-says-EFSA

*  Traditional Medicine Hospital in Beijing | Greenpeace International

Greenpeace tested 65 traditional Chinese herbal products and exposed a toxic cocktail of pesticide residues - some of which are ... 24 June - China. Greenpeace tested 65 traditional Chinese herbal products and exposed a toxic cocktail of pesticide residues - ...
greenpeace.org/international/en/multimedia/slideshows/Year-in-Pictures-2013/Traditional-Medicine-Hospital-in-Beijing/?page=4

*  Pesticide Residues

... The U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is responsible for regulating pesticides and for setting ... EPA establishes tolerances for each pesticide based on the potential risks to human health posed by that pesticide. The U.S. ... pesticide tolerances are also referred to as maximum residue limits, or MRLs. ... This database exclusively reflects maximum residue levels (MRL) that have been established on a permanent basis under the U.S. ...
astaspice.org/government-relations-advocacy/public-policy-2/pesticide-rsidues/

*  PLOS ONE: Sub-Lethal Effects of Pesticide Residues in Brood Comb on Worker Honey Bee (Apis mellifera) Development and Longevity

Pesticide residue migration from comb containing high pesticide residues caused contamination of control comb after multiple ... Conclusions/Significance This study is the first to demonstrate sub-lethal effects on worker honey bees from pesticide residue ... Adult longevity was reduced by 4 days in bees exposed to pesticide residues in contaminated brood comb during development. ... In contrast, survivability increased in bees reared in treatment comb after multiple brood cycles when pesticide residues had ...
journals.plos.org/plosone/article/comments?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0014720&imageURI=info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0014720.g002

*  Pesticide Residues - India Environment Portal | News, reports, documents, blogs, data, analysis on environment & development |...

Andhra Pradesh and Telangana suffer from high pesticide residues. Residue exceeding permissible levels found in 100 out of ... Pesticide Residues. * Trade and food standards. Participation in the development of international food standards for trade is ... p,This study measured part of the in-hive pesticide exposome by analyzing residues from live in-hive bees, stored pollen, and ... Multi-residue method for the determination of pesticides and pesticide metabolites in honeybees by liquid and gas ...
indiaenvironmentportal.org.in/category/2644/thesaurus/pesticide-residues/

*  Pesticide Residues and Bees - A Risk Assessment

However, the large number of pesticide residues found in pollen and honey demand a thorough evaluation of all residual ... Using data from recent residue surveys and toxicity of pesticides to honey and bumble bees, a comprehensive evaluation of risks ... Whilst overall risks appear to be low, our analysis indicates that residues of pyrethroid and neonicotinoid insecticides pose ... More attention should be paid to specific residue mixtures that may result in synergistic toxicity to bees. ...
journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0094482

*  'Chinese herbal medicines contain pesticide residue' | health and fitness | Hindustan...

The presence of pesticide residues in what should be natural Chinese herbs should not be seen as an isolated case, but as " ... The green group warned long-term exposure to pesticide residues can have health impacts, such as reproductive abnormalities, ... Chinese herbal medicines contain pesticide residue' Many traditional Chinese herbal medicines sold in western countries contain ... Many traditional Chinese herbal medicines sold in western countries contain a "cocktail" of pesticide residues which exceed ...
hindustantimes.com/health-and-fitness/chinese-herbal-medicines-contain-pesticide-residue/story-od4DxSpIfZmQKP52zWxGcO.html

*  Pesticide residues in produce sold in Connecticut. :: State Publications

Pesticide residues in produce sold in Connecticut. Subject - LCSH 630.7; HD1421.P47; Connecticut Agricultural Experiment ... Pesticide residues in produce sold in Connecticut. File Format: Link to Web File - url ... Pesticide residues in food--Measurement--Statistics--Periodicals.; Farm produce--Quality--Connecticut--Statistics--Periodicals. ...
cslib.cdmhost.com/cdm/ref/collection/p128501coll2/id/173903/

*  Beyond Pesticides Daily News Blog » Blog Archive New CA Law Protects Farmers from GE Contamination of Crops - Beyond...

Pesticide Residues (137) *►Pests (193) *Aphids (2) *Bedbugs (18) *brown marmorated stink bug (2) ... Cosmetic Lawn Pesticide Use Outlawed In Takoma Park, MD, First Local Ban Of Its Type in U.S. (8,184) ... Cosmetic Lawn Pesticide Use Outlawed In Takoma Park, MD, First Local Ban Of Its Type in U.S. (8,184) ... Maria Gallegos on Death of Four Texas Children Linked to Inadequately Regulated Pesticide, Follows Other Deaths ...
beyondpesticides.org/dailynewsblog/2008/10/new-ca-law-protects-farmers-from-ge-contamination-of-crops/

*  E-Newsletter Archives | Top Crop Manager

spring runoff , Licensing feed mills February 2015Strong start for canola pays off , Managing flax and hemp residues February ... Pesticide survey now online December 2013Ontario soybean yields impressed in 2013 , Evaluating tillage radishes December 2013 ... Offsetting pesticide reliance June 2015AAFC offers solutions to fix soil erosion , New irrigation technology promising June ... Benefits of surface crop residueApril 13, 2017Overland flooding in Manitoba , Wide row spacing in wheatApril 6, 2017New ...
https://topcropmanager.com/newsletter-archive

*  A comparative study of voltage-gated sodium channels in the Insecta: implications for pyrethroid resistance in Anopheline and...

Mengli Chen, Yuzhe Du, Yoshiko Nomura, Guonian Zhu, Boris S. Zhorov, Ke Dong, Mutations of two acidic residues at the ... an area of intensive pesticide usage in north-western Tanzania, Tropical Medicine & International Health, 2017, 22, 4, 388. ... gambiae: (1) allows prediction of likely single nucleotide polymorphisms that may arise at residue L1014 to cause resistance to ...
onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1365-2583.2007.00733.x/abstract

Pesticide residues in New Zealand: Pesticide residues are of concern in New Zealand and foods are regularly checked to see if they are within set limits.Pesticides in the United States: Pesticides in the United States are used predominantly by the agricultural sector,Kellogg RL, Nehring R, Grube A, Goss DW, and Plotkin S (February 2000), Environmental indicators of pesticide leaching and runoff from farm fields. United States Department of Agriculture Natural Resources Conservation Service.God's Providence House, Chester: God's Providence House is at 9 Watergate Street and 11–11A Watergate Row, Chester, Cheshire, England. The house incorporates part of the Chester Rows, is recorded in the National Heritage List for England as a designated Grade II listed building,} and is included in the English Heritage Archive.DieldrinInsecticide: An insecticide is a substance used to kill insects. They include ovicides and larvicides used against insect eggs and larvae, respectively.SAFE FOODSChilalo Agricultural Development Union: Chilalo Agricultural Development Union (CADU) is the first comprehensive package project established in Arsi Zone, Oromia Region, Ethiopia to modernize traditional subsistence agriculture. The major components of the package programmes include fertilizers, ameliorated seeds, farm credits, marketing facilities, better tools and implements, and improved storage facilities.LindaneSupercritical carbon dioxideFungicide: Fungicides are biocidal chemical compounds or biological organisms used to kill or inhibit fungi or fungal spores.Interaction of 2,4,5-trich|orophenylsulphonylmethyl thiocyanate with fungal spores Fungi can cause serious damage in agriculture, resulting in critical losses of yield, quality, and profit.EndosulfanRefrigerant: A refrigerant is a substance or mixture, usually a fluid, used in a heat pump and refrigeration cycle. In most cycles it undergoes phase transitions from a liquid to a gas and back again.Fenclozic acidSuperhydrophilicity: Under light irradiation, water dropped onto titanium dioxide forms no contact angle (almost 0 degrees). This effect, called superhydrophilicity, was discovered in 1995 by the Research Institute of Toto Ltd.Chloro(cyclopentadienyl)bis(triphenylphosphine)rutheniumM-Cumenyl methylcarbamateHerbicide: Herbicide(s), also commonly known as weedkillers, are pesticides used to control unwanted plants. Selective herbicides control specific weed species, while leaving the desired crop relatively unharmed.DichlorodiphenyldichloroethaneDDT in New Zealand: The use of DDT in New Zealand was banned in 1989 due to negative environmental impacts.Bresle methodVegetable juicePyrethroid: A pyrethroid is an organic compound similar to the natural pyrethrins produced by the flowers of pyrethrums (Chrysanthemum cinerariaefolium and C. coccineum).Charles Ottley Groom NapierPyromorphiteElectron-capture mass spectrometry: Electron-capture mass spectrometry (EC-MS) is a type of mass spectrometry that uses electron capture ionization (ECI) to form negative ions from chemical compounds with positive electron affinities. The approach is particularly effective for electrophiles.Agrochemical F.C.: James Omondi|Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry: right|300 px|Example of a GC-MS instrument|thumbMechanical pest control: Mechanical pest control is the management and control of pests using physical means such as fences, barriers or electronic wires. It includes also weeding and change of temperature to control pests.List of diseases of the honey bee: Diseases of the honey bee or abnormal hive conditions include:Fruit snack: A fruit snack is a processed food eaten as a snack in the United States. Fruit snacks are very similar to gummi candies.Occupational hygiene: Occupational (or "industrial" in the U.S.Protein primary structure: The primary structure of a peptide or protein is the linear sequence of its amino acid structural units, and partly comprises its overall biomolecular structure. By convention, the primary structure of a protein is reported starting from the amino-terminal (N) end to the carboxyl-terminal (C) end.ChlorpyrifosOrganophosphate: An organophosphate (sometimes abbreviated OP) or phosphate ester is the general name for esters of phosphoric acid. Many of the most important biochemicals are organophosphates, including DNA and RNA as well as many cofactors that are essential for life.Bulloo-Bancannia drainage basin: The Bulloo-Bancannia drainage basin is a drainage basin that covers part of western Queensland and New South Wales. It is adjacent to the much larger Lake Eyre basin.Coles Phillips

(1/281) Relationships between environmental organochlorine contaminant residues, plasma corticosterone concentrations, and intermediary metabolic enzyme activities in Great Lakes herring gull embryos.

Experiments were conducted to survey and detect differences in plasma corticosterone concentrations and intermediary metabolic enzyme activities in herring gull (Larus argentatus) embryos environmentally exposed to organochlorine contaminants in ovo. Unincubated fertile herring gull eggs were collected from an Atlantic coast control site and various Great Lakes sites in 1997 and artificially incubated in the laboratory. Liver and/or kidney tissues from approximately half of the late-stage embryos were analyzed for the activities of various intermediary metabolic enzymes known to be regulated, at least in part, by corticosteroids. Basal plasma corticosterone concentrations were determined for the remaining embryos. Yolk sacs were collected from each embryo and a subset was analyzed for organochlorine contaminants. Regression analysis of individual yolk sac organochlorine residue concentrations, or 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents (TEQs), with individual basal plasma corticosterone concentrations indicated statistically significant inverse relationships for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDDs/PCDFs), total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), non-ortho PCBs, and TEQs. Similarly, inverse relationships were observed for the activities of two intermediary metabolic enzymes (phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and malic enzyme) when regressed against PCDDs/PCDFs. Overall, these data suggest that current levels of organochlorine contamination may be affecting the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis and associated intermediary metabolic pathways in environmentally exposed herring gull embryos in the Great Lakes.  (+info)

(2/281) Does an association between pesticide use and subsequent declines in catch of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) represent a case of endocrine disruption?

Historical aerial applications of the insecticide Matacil 1.8D provide an opportunity to look for potential effects of the endocrine disrupting compound 4-nonylphenol (4-NP) on Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) populations. Matacil 1.8D contained the carbamate insecticide aminocarb, with 4-NP as primary solvent. Between 1975 and 1985 Matacil 1.8D was applied to forests in Atlantic Canada to control damage from the spruce budworm (Choristoneura fumiferana). After spraying, estimated concentrations of 4-NP in water fell within a range in which estrogenic effects might be anticipated. The spraying coincided with final stages of smolt development in salmon. Salmon catch data were evaluated considering effects on survival of the smolt stage. There was a significant negative relationship between the returns of salmon and the proportion of tributaries sprayed within the Restigouche River drainage basin in 1977. There was also a broader event of unusually heavy salmon smolt mortality in 1977, which contains a significant relationship indicating that where Matacil 1.8D spraying occurred, the smolt mortality increased. For 16 rivers exposed to spraying between 1973 and 1990, a significant proportion (p<0.005) of the lowest salmon catches coincided with Matacil 1.8D spraying. A decline coinciding with the use of Matacil 1.8D was also apparent in blueback herring (Alosa aestivalis) catches in New Brunswick. Because similar relationships were not evident for Matacil 1.8F or fenitrothion, neither of which were formulated with 4-NP, we hypothesize that the 4-NP in Matacil 1.8D was the causal agent. Concentrations of 4-NP described here are within current ranges encountered in industrial effluents and municipal sewage outfalls.  (+info)

(3/281) Dermal transfer of chlorpyrifos residues from residential surfaces: comparison of hand press, hand drag, wipe, and polyurethane foam roller measurements after broadcast and aerosol pesticide applications.

Indoor residential pesticide applications present the potential for human exposures, particularly for small children. Personal contact with target and nontarget surfaces can result in transfer of pesticides to the skin, but the magnitude of such transfer is uncertain. This research compared surface sampling techniques [wipe and polyurethane foam (PUF) roller] with the removal ability of human skin following broadcast and total aerosol release applications of Dursban (Dow Elanco, Midland, MI), a residential formulation containing the insecticide chlorpyrifos. Hands were washed immediately after surface contact, following a protocol that included a laboratory-generated adjustment factor to account for incomplete removal of chlorpyrifos from skin. Chlorpyrifos transfer was similar for hand press and hand drag techniques, averaging approximately 1-6 ng/cm2 of carpet contacted. These amounts represented < 1% of the amount of chlorpyrifos deposited on the surfaces 3.5 hr earlier. Chlorpyrifos transfer from carpet to skin was 23-24 times lower than for wipe sampling and 33-36 times lower than for PUF roller sampling (p = 0.0007 and p = 0.0006 for broadcast and aerosol applications, respectively). Hand press sampling removed approximately 4.5 times less chlorpyrifos from nontarget furniture surfaces (12 ng/cm2) than did wipe sampling (56 ng/cm2; p = 0.009). Chlorpyrifos residues on carpet were substantially higher after broadcast applications than after aerosol applications, but residues on such nontarget surfaces as furniture were substantially higher for the aerosol application. This study indicates that human skin removes substantially less residue from carpets and furniture than either conventional wipe or PUF roller sampling methods following residential pest control applications of chlorpyrifos. Although this paper focuses on quantifying residue transfer from surface to skin using different surface sampling techniques, no attempt is made to quantify the amount of chlorpyrifos residue that is subsequently absorbed.  (+info)

(4/281) Environmental health in the east Baltic region--pesticides and persistent organic compounds.

Exposure to, and the potential effects of, pesticides and persistent organic pollutants in the East Baltic region are reviewed. Exposure of the average population to chlorinated compounds seems lower than in most of western Europe, and current pesticide use is very low. However, due to infrastructure failures and poor management controls, industrial hot spots and inadequate storage sites exist that cause high risks to small population fractions. The low exposure of the general population is indicated by low concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans and biphenyls in milk fat. Chlorophenol concentrations are also generally lower than in Scandinavia. Some organic pesticides have been found at higher concentrations in Baltic countries and the St. Petersburg area than in Norway, but the range is roughly similar to that in central Europe. Thus the overall risk caused by pesticide residues and persistent organic compounds in the Baltic countries and northwestern Russia is low, but local sites of concern exist.  (+info)

(5/281) Mortality among workers in an Italian cigarette factory.

A cohort study was conducted to evaluate the mortality pattern among female and male workers in a cigarette factory. The study followed 972 female workers and 761 male workers with at least 6 months of cumulative employment from 1 January 1962 through 1 July 1996. Among women, mortality from all causes of death [standardized mortality ratio (SMR) = 0.9; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.8-1.1] and mortality from all malignant neoplasms (SMR = 1.1; CI = 0.9-1.3) were consistent with reference rates. Male workers had a significantly reduced overall mortality (SMR = 0.8; CI = 0.7-0.9), while mortality from all malignant neoplasms was as expected (SMR = 0.9; CI = 0.7-1.0). Among female workers the frequencies of deaths from diseases of nervous system (SMR = 2.0; CI = 1.1-3.4) and from non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) (SMR = 2.7; CI = 1.0-5.6) were elevated at a statistically significant level. No association between duration of employment and diseases of nervous system was observed. A higher risk for NHL, based on three deaths, was reported among female workers with 15 or more years of employment (SMR = 8.1; CI = 2.2-21.0). Although based on small numbers, the excess of NHL here reported suggests that potential exposure to foliar residues of pesticides should be thoroughly considered in tobacco manufacturing.  (+info)

(6/281) Breast adipose tissue concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls and other organochlorines and breast cancer risk.

Numerous studies have examined the relationship between organochlorines and breast cancer, but the results are not consistent. In most studies, organochlorines were measured in serum, but levels in breast adipose tissue are higher and represent cumulative internal exposure at the target site for breast cancer. Therefore, a hospital-based case-control study was conducted in Ontario, Canada to evaluate the association between breast cancer risk and breast adipose tissue concentrations of several organochlorines. Women scheduled for excision biopsy of the breast were enrolled and completed a questionnaire. The biopsy tissue of 217 cases and 213 benign controls frequency matched by study site and age in 5-year groups was analyzed for 14 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, total PCBs, and 10 other organochlorines, including p,p'-1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene. Multiple logistic regression was used to assess the magnitude of risk. While adjusting for age, menopausal status, and other factors, odds ratios (ORs) were above 1.0 for almost all organochlorines except five pesticide residues. The ORs were above two in the highest concentration categories of PCB congeners 105 and 118, and the ORs for these PCBs increased linearly across categories (Ps for trend < or =0.01). Differences by menopausal status are noted especially for PCBs 105 and 118, with risks higher among premenopausal women, and for PCBs 170 and 180, with risks higher among postmenopausal women. Clear associations with breast cancer risk were demonstrated in this study for some PCBs measured in breast adipose tissue.  (+info)

(7/281) Examination of selected food additives and organochlorine food contaminants for androgenic activity in vitro.

In order to produce a reporter gene assay for androgenic chemicals, a constitutive expression vector coding for the human androgen receptor and a reporter construct containing the firefly luciferase coding sequence under transcriptional control of the androgen responsive MMTV promoter were cotransfected into the androgen-insensitive human PC-3 prostate carcinoma cell line and stable transfectants selected. One colony of transfectants, PC-3 LUCAR+, was characterized further. 5alpha-Dihydrotestosterone (DHT) enhanced luciferase activity in a linear fashion for up to 3 days of culture. The Kd for DHT activation was within the range of 25.0-60.0 pM (r2 values >0.95). Flutamide competitively inhibited DHT activation (mean Ki value of 0.89 microM). Progesterone, estradiol, dexamethasone, and hydrocortisone were weak agonists (100-fold less effective than DHT) and diethylstilbestrol was without effect. The effects of organochlorine food contaminants (0, 0.1, 1.0, and 10.0 microM) on luciferase activity in PC-3 LUCAR+ cells were determined after exposure to the chemical for 18 h in the presence and absence of DHT (50 pM). 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-ethylene (p,p'-DDE) induced luciferase activity in the absence of DHT (100 microM p,p'-DDE equivalent to 50 pM DHT), but in the presence of DHT (50 pM), p,p'-DDE acted antagonistically. 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, kepone, butylated hydroxyanisole, and butylated hydroxytoluene all partially inhibited activation by DHT (50 pM) but alone had little or no effect. Toxaphene at 10 microM induced luciferase activity in the absence of DHT but decreased cell viability. Alpha- and delta-Hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCH) at 10 microM antagonized the DHT effect, but beta-HCH and gamma-HCH mirex, photomirex, oxychlordane, cis- and trans-nonachlor were without effect. Thus, of the chemicals tested, some interact with the human androgen receptor in vitro as agonists, others as antagonists, and some as partial agonists/antagonists.  (+info)

(8/281) Salmonid sexual development is not consistently altered by embryonic exposure to endocrine-active chemicals.

Fish sexual development is sensitive to exogenous hormone manipulation, and salmonids have been used extensively as environmental sentinels and models for biomedical research. We simulated maternal transfer of contaminants by microinjecting rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) embryos. Fish were reared for 6 months and sexed, and gonads were removed for histology and measurement of in vitro steroid production. Analysis of fat samples showed that dichlorodiphenylethylene (DDE) levels, o, p'M-DDE and p,o, p'-DDE isomers, were elevated 6 months after treatment. A preliminary study showed an increased ratio of males to females after treatment with 80 mg/kg and 160 mg/kg of the xenoestrogen o,o, p'-DDE. One fish treated with 160 mg/kg o,o, p'-DDE had gonads with cells typical of both males and females. A follow-up study, using more fish and excluding the highly toxic 160 mg/kg o,o, p'-DDE dose, showed no effect on sex ratio or gonadal histology. Embryonic exposure of monosex male trout, monosex female trout, and mixed sex salmon to o, o, p'-DDE, p,o, p'-DDE, mixtures of DDE isomers, and octylphenol failed to alter sexual development. We observed no treatment-dependent changes in in vitro gonadal steroid production in any experiments. Trout exposed in ovo and reared to maturity spawned successfully. These results suggest that mortality attributable to the xenoestrogens o,o, p'-DDE, chlordecone, and octylphenol, and the antiandrogen p,o, p'-DDE, is likely to occur before the appearance of subtle changes in sexual development. Because trout appeared to be sensitive to endocrine disruption, we cannot dismiss the threat of heavily contaminated sites or complex mixtures to normal sexual development of salmonids or other aquatic organisms.  (+info)



Endosulfan


  • 4. USES 4.1 Uses 4.1.1 Uses Pesticide for use against invertebrate animals 4.1.2 Description Endosulfan is a non-systemic insecticide and acaricide with contact and stomach action. (inchem.org)
  • In Tier 2 the distribution of total endosulfan in fish tissue (whole body) from South Florida freshwaters was also used to determine the probability of exceeding a distribution of whole body residues of endosulfan producing mortality (critical lethal residues). (springer.com)
  • The freshwater fish species which contain tissue concentrations of endosulfan (total) with the highest potential risk for lethal whole body tissue residues were marsh killifish, flagfish and mosquitofish. (springer.com)