Pest Control: The reduction or regulation of the population of noxious, destructive, or dangerous plants, insects, or other animals. This includes control of plants that serve as habitats or food sources for animal pests.Pest Control, Biological: Use of naturally-occuring or genetically-engineered organisms to reduce or eliminate populations of pests.Insect Control: The reduction or regulation of the population of noxious, destructive, or dangerous insects through chemical, biological, or other means.Organic Agriculture: Systems of agriculture which adhere to nationally regulated standards that restrict the use of pesticides, non-organic fertilizers, genetic engineering, growth hormones, irradiation, antibiotics, and non-organic ANIMAL FEED.Agrochemicals: Chemicals used in agriculture. These include pesticides, fumigants, fertilizers, plant hormones, steroids, antibiotics, mycotoxins, etc.Bedbugs: Bugs of the family CIMICIDAE, genus Cimex. They are flattened, oval, reddish insects which inhabit houses, wallpaper, furniture, and beds. C. lectularius, of temperate regions, is the common bedbug that attacks humans and is frequently a serious pest in houses, hotels, barracks, and other living quarters. Experiments have shown that bedbugs can transmit a variety of diseases, but they are not normal vectors under natural conditions. (From Dorland, 27th ed; Borror, et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p272)Insecticides: Pesticides designed to control insects that are harmful to man. The insects may be directly harmful, as those acting as disease vectors, or indirectly harmful, as destroyers of crops, food products, or textile fabrics.Crops, Agricultural: Cultivated plants or agricultural produce such as grain, vegetables, or fruit. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982)Pesticides: Chemicals used to destroy pests of any sort. The concept includes fungicides (FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL); INSECTICIDES; RODENTICIDES; etc.Tetranychidae: Family of spider MITES, in the superfamily Tetranychoidea, suborder Trombidiformes.Insects: The class Insecta, in the phylum ARTHROPODA, whose members are characterized by division into three parts: head, thorax, and abdomen. They are the dominant group of animals on earth; several hundred thousand different kinds having been described. Three orders, HEMIPTERA; DIPTERA; and SIPHONAPTERA; are of medical interest in that they cause disease in humans and animals. (From Borror et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p1)Herbivory: The act of feeding on plants by animals.Lepidoptera: A large order of insects comprising the butterflies and moths.Beetles: INSECTS of the order Coleoptera, containing over 350,000 species in 150 families. They possess hard bodies and their mouthparts are adapted for chewing.Cockroaches: Insects of the order Dictyoptera comprising several families including Blaberidae, BLATTELLIDAE, Blattidae (containing the American cockroach PERIPLANETA americana), Cryptocercidae, and Polyphagidae.Pyrethrins: The active insecticidal constituent of CHRYSANTHEMUM CINERARIIFOLIUM flowers. Pyrethrin I is the pyretholone ester of chrysanthemummonocarboxylic acid and pyrethrin II is the pyretholone ester of chrysanthemumdicarboxylic acid monomethyl ester.Moths: Insects of the suborder Heterocera of the order LEPIDOPTERA.Larva: Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.Agriculture: The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.Bacillus thuringiensis: A species of gram-positive bacteria which may be pathogenic for certain insects. It is used for the biological control of the Gypsy moth.Predatory Behavior: Instinctual behavior pattern in which food is obtained by killing and consuming other species.Population Dynamics: The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.Insect Proteins: Proteins found in any species of insect.Spodoptera: A genus of owlet moths of the family Noctuidae. These insects are used in molecular biology studies during all stages of their life cycle.Biodiversity: The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.Endotoxins: Toxins closely associated with the living cytoplasm or cell wall of certain microorganisms, which do not readily diffuse into the culture medium, but are released upon lysis of the cells.Environmental Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Weevils: BEETLES in the family Curculionidae and the largest family in the order COLEOPTERA. They have a markedly convex shape and many are considered pests.Hemiptera: A large order of insects characterized by having the mouth parts adapted to piercing or sucking. It is comprised of four suborders: HETEROPTERA, Auchenorrhyncha, Sternorrhyncha, and Coleorrhyncha.
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Classical Biological Control of Pest Insects of Trees in the Southern United States: A Review and RecommendationsClassical Biological Control of Pest Insects of Trees in the Southern United States: A Review and Recommendations ...
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Mechanical pest control: Mechanical pest control is the management and control of pests using physical means such as fences, barriers or electronic wires. It includes also weeding and change of temperature to control pests.Biopesticide: Biopesticides, a contraction of 'biological pesticides', include several types of pest management intervention: through predatory, parasitic, or chemical relationships. The term has been associated historically with biological control - and by implication - the manipulation of living organisms.Organic farming and biodiversity: The effect of organic farming has been a subject of interest for researchers. Theory suggests that organic farming practices, which exclude the use of synthetic pesticides and fertilizers, would be beneficial for biodiversity, and this has proven true.Agrochemical F.C.: James Omondi|Bed bug infestation: A bed bug can individually and collectively cause a number of health effects including skin rashes, psychological effects and allergic symptoms. Bed bug bites or cimicosis may lead to a range of skin manifestations from no visible effects to prominent blisters.Insecticide: An insecticide is a substance used to kill insects. They include ovicides and larvicides used against insect eggs and larvae, respectively.Plant breeders' rights: Plant breeders' rights (PBR), also known as plant variety rights (PVR), are rights granted to the breeder of a new variety of plant that give the breeder exclusive control over the propagating material (including seed, cuttings, divisions, tissue culture) and harvested material (cut flowers, fruit, foliage) of a new variety for a number of years.Pesticides in the United States: Pesticides in the United States are used predominantly by the agricultural sector,Kellogg RL, Nehring R, Grube A, Goss DW, and Plotkin S (February 2000), Environmental indicators of pesticide leaching and runoff from farm fields. United States Department of Agriculture Natural Resources Conservation Service.Paul Pritchard: Paul Pritchard (born 1967 in Bolton, Lancashire) was one of the leading British climbers of the 1980s and 1990s. He started climbing at 16 in his native Lancashire, and within a year had started to repeat some of the hardest routes in the county, as well as beginning his own additions.Rakiura (genus): Rakiura is a genus of Trichoptera (caddisfly). The genus contains only one species, R.Chemical defense: Chemical defense is the use of chemical compounds by plants and animals to deter herbivory and predation. Chemical defenses can also be used in competitive interactions to prevent overgrowth or maintain spatial dominance.Adalia bipunctata: Adalia bipunctata, commonly known as the two-spot ladybird, two-spotted ladybug or two-spotted lady beetle, is a carnivorous beetle of the family Coccinellidae that is found throughout the holarctic region. It is very common in western and central Europe.Depopulation of cockroaches in post-Soviet states: A mass depopulation of cockroaches has been observed since the beginning of the 21st century in Russia and other countries of the former USSR. Observers note quick disappearance of various types of cockroaches from cities and towns in Russia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Ukraine, Moldova, and Belarus.Pyrethroid: A pyrethroid is an organic compound similar to the natural pyrethrins produced by the flowers of pyrethrums (Chrysanthemum cinerariaefolium and C. coccineum).Antheraea pernyi: Antheraea pernyi, the Chinese (Oak) tussah moth (or "Chinese tasar moth"), also known as temperate tussah moth, is a large moth in the family Saturniidae. Antheraea roylei is an extremely close relative, and the present species might actually have evolved from ancestral A.Andesobia jelskiiChilalo Agricultural Development Union: Chilalo Agricultural Development Union (CADU) is the first comprehensive package project established in Arsi Zone, Oromia Region, Ethiopia to modernize traditional subsistence agriculture. The major components of the package programmes include fertilizers, ameliorated seeds, farm credits, marketing facilities, better tools and implements, and improved storage facilities.Parasporal bodyIntraguild predation: Intraguild predation, or IGP, is the killing and eating of potential competitors. This interaction represents a combination of predation and competition, because both species rely on the same prey resources and also benefit from preying upon one another.Matrix population models: Population models are used in population ecology to model the dynamics of wildlife or human populations. Matrix population models are a specific type of population model that uses matrix algebra.Alliance for Zero Extinction: Formed in 2000 and launched globally in 2005, the Alliance for Zero Extinction (AZE) comprises 100 non-governmental biodiversity conservation organizations working to prevent species extinctions by identifying and safeguarding sites where species evaluated to be Endangered or Critically Endangered under International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) criteria only exist at one location on earth."Zero Extinction - Home.Matrix model: == Mathematics and physics ==Rice weevilSilverleaf whitefly
(1/1154) Role of the Trichoderma harzianum endochitinase gene, ech42, in mycoparasitism.
The role of the Trichoderma harzianum endochitinase (Ech42) in mycoparasitism was studied by genetically manipulating the gene that encodes Ech42, ech42. We constructed several transgenic T. harzianum strains carrying multiple copies of ech42 and the corresponding gene disruptants. The level of extracellular endochitinase activity when T. harzianum was grown under inducing conditions increased up to 42-fold in multicopy strains as compared with the wild type, whereas gene disruptants exhibited practically no activity. The densities of chitin labeling of Rhizoctonia solani cell walls, after interactions with gene disruptants were not statistically significantly different than the density of chitin labeling after interactions with the wild type. Finally, no major differences in the efficacies of the strains generated as biocontrol agents against R. solani or Sclerotium rolfsii were observed in greenhouse experiments. (+info)
(2/1154) Overexpression of the Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Cry2Aa2 protein in chloroplasts confers resistance to plants against susceptible and Bt-resistant insects.
Evolving levels of resistance in insects to the bioinsecticide Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) can be dramatically reduced through the genetic engineering of chloroplasts in plants. When transgenic tobacco leaves expressing Cry2Aa2 protoxin in chloroplasts were fed to susceptible, Cry1A-resistant (20,000- to 40,000-fold) and Cry2Aa2-resistant (330- to 393-fold) tobacco budworm Heliothis virescens, cotton bollworm Helicoverpa zea, and the beet armyworm Spodoptera exigua, 100% mortality was observed against all insect species and strains. Cry2Aa2 was chosen for this study because of its toxicity to many economically important insect pests, relatively low levels of cross-resistance against Cry1A-resistant insects, and its expression as a protoxin instead of a toxin because of its relatively small size (65 kDa). Southern blot analysis confirmed stable integration of cry2Aa2 into all of the chloroplast genomes (5, 000-10,000 copies per cell) of transgenic plants. Transformed tobacco leaves expressed Cry2Aa2 protoxin at levels between 2% and 3% of total soluble protein, 20- to 30-fold higher levels than current commercial nuclear transgenic plants. These results suggest that plants expressing high levels of a nonhomologous Bt protein should be able to overcome or at the very least, significantly delay, broad spectrum Bt-resistance development in the field. (+info)
(3/1154) Specific binding of the E2 subunit of pyruvate dehydrogenase to the upstream region of Bacillus thuringiensis protoxin genes.
During sporulation, Bacillus thuringiensis produces inclusions comprised of different amounts of several related protoxins, each with a unique specificity profile for insect larvae. A major class of these genes designated cry1 have virtually identical dual overlapping promoters, but the upstream sequences differ. A gel retardation assay was used to purify a potential regulatory protein which bound with different affinities to these sequences in three cry1 genes. It was identified as the E2 subunit of pyruvate dehydrogenase. There was specific competition for binding by homologous gene sequences but not by pUC nor Bacillus subtilis DNA; calf thymus DNA competed at higher concentrations. The B. thuringiensis gene encoding E2 was cloned, and the purified glutathione S-transferase-E2 fusion protein footprinted to a consensus binding sequence within an inverted repeat and to a potential bend region, both sites 200-300 base pairs upstream of the promoters. Mutations of these sites in the cry1A gene resulted in decreased binding of the E2 protein and altered kinetics of expression of a fusion of this regulatory region with the lacZ gene. Recruitment of the E2 subunit as a transcription factor could couple the change in post exponential catabolism to the initiation of protoxin synthesis. (+info)
(4/1154) Can vector control play a useful supplementary role against bancroftian filariasis?
A single campaign of mass treatment for bancroftian filariasis with diethylcarbamazine (DEC) in Makunduchi, a town in Zanzibar, United Republic of Tanzania, combined with elimination of mosquito breeding in pit latrines with polystyrene beads was followed by a progressive decline over a 5-year period in the microfilarial rate from 49% to 3%. Evidence that vector control had contributed to this long-term decline was obtained by comparison with another town, Moga, where a DEC campaign was used without vector control and where resurgence of microfilariae could be observed 3-6 years after the campaign. In Zanzibar town, treatment of 3844 wet pit latrines and cesspits with polystyrene beads reduced the adult mosquito population in houses by about 65%. Supplementary treatment of open drains and marshes with Bacillus sphaericus produced little or no additional reduction compared to a sector of the town where only pit treatment with polystyrene was carried out. The cost and effort of achieving the 65% reduction in mosquito population could hardly be justified for its impact on filariasis alone, but its noticeable impact on biting nuisance might help to gain community support for an integrated programme. (+info)
(5/1154) Photorhabdus luminescens W-14 insecticidal activity consists of at least two similar but distinct proteins. Purification and characterization of toxin A and toxin B.
Both the bacterium Photorhabdus luminescens alone and its symbiotic Photorhabdus-nematode complex are known to be highly pathogenic to insects. The nature of the insecticidal activity of Photorhabdus bacteria was investigated for its potential application as an insect control agent. It was found that in the fermentation broth of P. luminescens strain W-14, at least two proteins, toxin A and toxin B, independently contributed to the oral insecticidal activity against Southern corn rootworm. Purified toxin A and toxin B exhibited single bands on native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and two peptides of 208 and 63 kDa on SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The native molecular weight of both the toxin A and toxin B was determined to be approximately 860 kDa, suggesting that they are tetrameric. NH2-terminal amino acid sequencing and Western analysis using monospecific antibodies to each toxin demonstrated that the two toxins were distinct but homologous. The oral potency (LD50) of toxin A and toxin B against Southern corn rootworm larvae was determined to be similar to that observed with highly potent Bt toxins against lepidopteran pests. In addition, it was found that the two peptides present in toxin B could be processed in vitro from a 281-kDa protoxin by endogenous P. luminescens proteases. Proteolytic processing was shown to enhance insecticidal activity. (+info)
(6/1154) Integrative model for binding of Bacillus thuringiensis toxins in susceptible and resistant larvae of the diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella).
Insecticidal crystal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis in sprays and transgenic crops are extremely useful for environmentally sound pest management, but their long-term efficacy is threatened by evolution of resistance by target pests. The diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella) is the first insect to evolve resistance to B. thuringiensis in open-field populations. The only known mechanism of resistance to B. thuringiensis in the diamondback moth is reduced binding of toxin to midgut binding sites. In the present work we analyzed competitive binding of B. thuringiensis toxins Cry1Aa, Cry1Ab, Cry1Ac, and Cry1F to brush border membrane vesicles from larval midguts in a susceptible strain and in resistant strains from the Philippines, Hawaii, and Pennsylvania. Based on the results, we propose a model for binding of B. thuringiensis crystal proteins in susceptible larvae with two binding sites for Cry1Aa, one of which is shared with Cry1Ab, Cry1Ac, and Cry1F. Our results show that the common binding site is altered in each of the three resistant strains. In the strain from the Philippines, the alteration reduced binding of Cry1Ab but did not affect binding of the other crystal proteins. In the resistant strains from Hawaii and Pennsylvania, the alteration affected binding of Cry1Aa, Cry1Ab, Cry1Ac, and Cry1F. Previously reported evidence that a single mutation can confer resistance to Cry1Ab, Cry1Ac, and Cry1F corresponds to expectations based on the binding model. However, the following two other observations do not: the mutation in the Philippines strain affected binding of only Cry1Ab, and one mutation was sufficient for resistance to Cry1Aa. The imperfect correspondence between the model and observations suggests that reduced binding is not the only mechanism of resistance in the diamondback moth and that some, but not all, patterns of resistance and cross-resistance can be predicted correctly from the results of competitive binding analyses of susceptible strains. (+info)
(7/1154) Regional differences in production of aflatoxin B1 and cyclopiazonic acid by soil isolates of aspergillus flavus along a transect within the United States.
Soil isolates of Aspergillus flavus from a transect extending from eastern New Mexico through Georgia to eastern Virginia were examined for production of aflatoxin B1 and cyclopiazonic acid in a liquid medium. Peanut fields from major peanut-growing regions (western Texas; central Texas; Georgia and Alabama; and Virginia and North Carolina) were sampled, and fields with other crops were sampled in regions where peanuts are not commonly grown. The A. flavus isolates were identified as members of either the L strain (n = 774), which produces sclerotia that are >400 micrometer in diameter, or the S strain (n = 309), which produces numerous small sclerotia that are <400 micrometer in diameter. The S-strain isolates generally produced high levels of aflatoxin B1, whereas the L-strain isolates were more variable in aflatoxin production; variation in cyclopiazonic acid production also was greater in the L strain than in the S strain. There was a positive correlation between aflatoxin B1 production and cyclopiazonic acid production in both strains, although 12% of the L-strain isolates produced only cyclopiazonic acid. Significant differences in production of aflatoxin B1 and cyclopiazonic acid by the L-strain isolates were detected among regions. In the western half of Texas and the peanut-growing region of Georgia and Alabama, 62 to 94% of the isolates produced >10 microgram of aflatoxin B1 per ml. The percentages of isolates producing >10 microgram of aflatoxin B1 per ml ranged from 0 to 52% in the remaining regions of the transect; other isolates were often nonaflatoxigenic. A total of 53 of the 126 L-strain isolates that did not produce aflatoxin B1 or cyclopiazonic acid were placed in 17 vegetative compatibility groups. Several of these groups contained isolates from widely separated regions of the transect. (+info)
(8/1154) Ecological approaches and the development of "truly integrated" pest management.
Recent predictions of growth in human populations and food supply suggest that there will be a need to substantially increase food production in the near future. One possible approach to meeting this demand, at least in part, is the control of pests and diseases, which currently cause a 30-40% loss in available crop production. In recent years, strategies for controlling pests and diseases have tended to focus on short-term, single-technology interventions, particularly chemical pesticides. This model frequently applies even where so-called integrated pest management strategies are used because in reality, these often are dominated by single technologies (e.g., biocontrol, host plant resistance, or biopesticides) that are used as replacements for chemicals. Very little attention is given to the interaction or compatibility of the different technologies used. Unfortunately, evidence suggests that such approaches rarely yield satisfactory results and are unlikely to provide sustainable pest control solutions for the future. Drawing on two case histories, this paper demonstrates that by increasing our basic understanding of how individual pest control technologies act and interact, new opportunities for improving pest control can be revealed. This approach stresses the need to break away from the existing single-technology, pesticide-dominated paradigm and to adopt a more ecological approach built around a fundamental understanding of population biology at the local farm level and the true integration of renewable technologies such as host plant resistance and natural biological control, which are available to even the most resource-poor farmers. (+info)
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- Since 2001 we have been using Biological Pest Control to control harmful insects. (burtsgh.com)
- CORVALLIS, Ore. - Researchers at Oregon State University have discovered that the circadian rhythms or biological "clocks" in some insects can make them far more susceptible to pesticides at some times of the day instead of others. (oregonstate.edu)
- For this approach to be useful in agriculture or other places pesticides are used, we will need to test specific insects against specific pesticides, and we will probably find differences in time of maximum effectiveness for various pest-pesticide configurations," Giebultowicz said. (oregonstate.edu)
- Because these compounds are toxic to insects, they also show promise for development as biological agents for control of insecticide-resistant agricultural pests. (mdpi.com)
- Highly effective pest bait products targeting prevailing cockroaches of all species Powered by Japanese Grade A level insecticidal formula, Robot Cockroach gel Bait combines co. (tradekey.com)
- We have also been using Biological Control of fungus problems since 2004. (burtsgh.com)
- To combat disease, most fungus-growing ants (Attini) use antibiotics from mutualistic bacteria ( Pseudonocardia ) that are cultured on the ants' exoskeletons and chemical cocktails from exocrine glands, especially the metapleural glands (MG). Previous work has hypothesized that (i) Pseudonocardia antibiotics are narrow-spectrum and control a fungus ( Escovopsis ) that parasitizes the ants' fungal symbiont, and (ii) MG secretions have broad-spectrum activity and protect ants and brood. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
- Quite often, we think of high tech approaches when imagine what "Biological Pest Control" might be. (kalikasan-philippines.org)
- Approaches such as this may also be highly useful in programs of "integrated pest management," the researchers said, which aim to minimize pesticide use, prevent development of resistance to pesticides, and use a broad range of physical or chemical control measures to enhance the long-term effectiveness of an insect control program in crop agriculture. (oregonstate.edu)
- A fundamental understanding of the functional significance of circadian rhythms in chemical exposures may facilitate strategies to reduce adverse events in humans, promote control of pest species and reduce pesticide use," the researchers wrote in their report. (oregonstate.edu)
integrated pest manag
- Pesticide resistance has been a driving force behind the evolution of the field of integrated pest management, as growers realized that sustainable pest control is not as simple as using the same pesticide, year after year, which often becomes increasingly ineffective and more expensive. (oregonstate.edu)
- Fujian Jinlu Daily Chemical Company Ltd., specializes in household insecticide control for 33 years. (tradekey.com)
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