Pest Control: The reduction or regulation of the population of noxious, destructive, or dangerous plants, insects, or other animals. This includes control of plants that serve as habitats or food sources for animal pests.Pest Control, Biological: Use of naturally-occuring or genetically-engineered organisms to reduce or eliminate populations of pests.Insect Control: The reduction or regulation of the population of noxious, destructive, or dangerous insects through chemical, biological, or other means.Organic Agriculture: Systems of agriculture which adhere to nationally regulated standards that restrict the use of pesticides, non-organic fertilizers, genetic engineering, growth hormones, irradiation, antibiotics, and non-organic ANIMAL FEED.Agrochemicals: Chemicals used in agriculture. These include pesticides, fumigants, fertilizers, plant hormones, steroids, antibiotics, mycotoxins, etc.Bedbugs: Bugs of the family CIMICIDAE, genus Cimex. They are flattened, oval, reddish insects which inhabit houses, wallpaper, furniture, and beds. C. lectularius, of temperate regions, is the common bedbug that attacks humans and is frequently a serious pest in houses, hotels, barracks, and other living quarters. Experiments have shown that bedbugs can transmit a variety of diseases, but they are not normal vectors under natural conditions. (From Dorland, 27th ed; Borror, et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p272)Insecticides: Pesticides designed to control insects that are harmful to man. The insects may be directly harmful, as those acting as disease vectors, or indirectly harmful, as destroyers of crops, food products, or textile fabrics.Crops, Agricultural: Cultivated plants or agricultural produce such as grain, vegetables, or fruit. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982)Pesticides: Chemicals used to destroy pests of any sort. The concept includes fungicides (FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL); INSECTICIDES; RODENTICIDES; etc.Tetranychidae: Family of spider MITES, in the superfamily Tetranychoidea, suborder Trombidiformes.Insects: The class Insecta, in the phylum ARTHROPODA, whose members are characterized by division into three parts: head, thorax, and abdomen. They are the dominant group of animals on earth; several hundred thousand different kinds having been described. Three orders, HEMIPTERA; DIPTERA; and SIPHONAPTERA; are of medical interest in that they cause disease in humans and animals. (From Borror et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p1)Herbivory: The act of feeding on plants by animals.Lepidoptera: A large order of insects comprising the butterflies and moths.Beetles: INSECTS of the order Coleoptera, containing over 350,000 species in 150 families. They possess hard bodies and their mouthparts are adapted for chewing.Cockroaches: Insects of the order Dictyoptera comprising several families including Blaberidae, BLATTELLIDAE, Blattidae (containing the American cockroach PERIPLANETA americana), Cryptocercidae, and Polyphagidae.Pyrethrins: The active insecticidal constituent of CHRYSANTHEMUM CINERARIIFOLIUM flowers. Pyrethrin I is the pyretholone ester of chrysanthemummonocarboxylic acid and pyrethrin II is the pyretholone ester of chrysanthemumdicarboxylic acid monomethyl ester.Moths: Insects of the suborder Heterocera of the order LEPIDOPTERA.Larva: Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.Agriculture: The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.Bacillus thuringiensis: A species of gram-positive bacteria which may be pathogenic for certain insects. It is used for the biological control of the Gypsy moth.Predatory Behavior: Instinctual behavior pattern in which food is obtained by killing and consuming other species.Population Dynamics: The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.Insect Proteins: Proteins found in any species of insect.Spodoptera: A genus of owlet moths of the family Noctuidae. These insects are used in molecular biology studies during all stages of their life cycle.Biodiversity: The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.Endotoxins: Toxins closely associated with the living cytoplasm or cell wall of certain microorganisms, which do not readily diffuse into the culture medium, but are released upon lysis of the cells.Environmental Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.Weevils: BEETLES in the family Curculionidae and the largest family in the order COLEOPTERA. They have a markedly convex shape and many are considered pests.Hemiptera: A large order of insects characterized by having the mouth parts adapted to piercing or sucking. It is comprised of four suborders: HETEROPTERA, Auchenorrhyncha, Sternorrhyncha, and Coleorrhyncha.

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Mechanical pest control: Mechanical pest control is the management and control of pests using physical means such as fences, barriers or electronic wires. It includes also weeding and change of temperature to control pests.Biopesticide: Biopesticides, a contraction of 'biological pesticides', include several types of pest management intervention: through predatory, parasitic, or chemical relationships. The term has been associated historically with biological control - and by implication - the manipulation of living organisms.Organic farming and biodiversity: The effect of organic farming has been a subject of interest for researchers. Theory suggests that organic farming practices, which exclude the use of synthetic pesticides and fertilizers, would be beneficial for biodiversity, and this has proven true.Agrochemical F.C.: James Omondi|Bed bug infestation: A bed bug can individually and collectively cause a number of health effects including skin rashes, psychological effects and allergic symptoms. Bed bug bites or cimicosis may lead to a range of skin manifestations from no visible effects to prominent blisters.Insecticide: An insecticide is a substance used to kill insects. They include ovicides and larvicides used against insect eggs and larvae, respectively.Plant breeders' rights: Plant breeders' rights (PBR), also known as plant variety rights (PVR), are rights granted to the breeder of a new variety of plant that give the breeder exclusive control over the propagating material (including seed, cuttings, divisions, tissue culture) and harvested material (cut flowers, fruit, foliage) of a new variety for a number of years.Pesticides in the United States: Pesticides in the United States are used predominantly by the agricultural sector,Kellogg RL, Nehring R, Grube A, Goss DW, and Plotkin S (February 2000), Environmental indicators of pesticide leaching and runoff from farm fields. United States Department of Agriculture Natural Resources Conservation Service.Paul Pritchard: Paul Pritchard (born 1967 in Bolton, Lancashire) was one of the leading British climbers of the 1980s and 1990s. He started climbing at 16 in his native Lancashire, and within a year had started to repeat some of the hardest routes in the county, as well as beginning his own additions.Rakiura (genus): Rakiura is a genus of Trichoptera (caddisfly). The genus contains only one species, R.Chemical defense: Chemical defense is the use of chemical compounds by plants and animals to deter herbivory and predation. Chemical defenses can also be used in competitive interactions to prevent overgrowth or maintain spatial dominance.Adalia bipunctata: Adalia bipunctata, commonly known as the two-spot ladybird, two-spotted ladybug or two-spotted lady beetle, is a carnivorous beetle of the family Coccinellidae that is found throughout the holarctic region. It is very common in western and central Europe.Depopulation of cockroaches in post-Soviet states: A mass depopulation of cockroaches has been observed since the beginning of the 21st century in Russia and other countries of the former USSR. Observers note quick disappearance of various types of cockroaches from cities and towns in Russia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Ukraine, Moldova, and Belarus.Pyrethroid: A pyrethroid is an organic compound similar to the natural pyrethrins produced by the flowers of pyrethrums (Chrysanthemum cinerariaefolium and C. coccineum).Antheraea pernyi: Antheraea pernyi, the Chinese (Oak) tussah moth (or "Chinese tasar moth"), also known as temperate tussah moth, is a large moth in the family Saturniidae. Antheraea roylei is an extremely close relative, and the present species might actually have evolved from ancestral A.Andesobia jelskiiChilalo Agricultural Development Union: Chilalo Agricultural Development Union (CADU) is the first comprehensive package project established in Arsi Zone, Oromia Region, Ethiopia to modernize traditional subsistence agriculture. The major components of the package programmes include fertilizers, ameliorated seeds, farm credits, marketing facilities, better tools and implements, and improved storage facilities.Parasporal bodyIntraguild predation: Intraguild predation, or IGP, is the killing and eating of potential competitors. This interaction represents a combination of predation and competition, because both species rely on the same prey resources and also benefit from preying upon one another.Matrix population models: Population models are used in population ecology to model the dynamics of wildlife or human populations. Matrix population models are a specific type of population model that uses matrix algebra.Alliance for Zero Extinction: Formed in 2000 and launched globally in 2005, the Alliance for Zero Extinction (AZE) comprises 100 non-governmental biodiversity conservation organizations working to prevent species extinctions by identifying and safeguarding sites where species evaluated to be Endangered or Critically Endangered under International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) criteria only exist at one location on earth."Zero Extinction - Home.Rice weevilSilverleaf whitefly

(1/158) Myths, models and mitigation of resistance to pesticides.

Resistance to pesticides in arthropod pests is a significant economic, ecological and public health problem. Although extensive research has been conducted on diverse aspects of pesticide resistance and we have learned a great deal during the past 50 years, to some degree the discussion about 'resistance management' has been based on 'myths'. One myth involves the belief that we can manage resistance. I will maintain that we can only attempt to mitigate resistance because resistance is a natural evolutionary response to environmental stresses. As such, resistance will remain an ongoing dilemma in pest management and we can only delay the onset of resistance to pesticides. 'Resistance management' models and tactics have been much discussed but have been tested and deployed in practical pest management programmes with only limited success. Yet the myth persists that better models will provide a 'solution' to the problem. The reality is that success in using mitigation models is limited because these models are applied to inappropriate situations in which the critical genetic, ecological, biological or logistic assumptions cannot be met. It is difficult to predict in advance which model is appropriate to a particular situation; if the model assumptions cannot be met, applying the model sometimes can increase the rate of resistance development rather than slow it down. Are there any solutions? I believe we already have one. Unfortunately, it is not a simple or easy one to deploy. It involves employing effective agronomic practices to develop and maintain a healthy crop, monitoring pest densities, evaluating economic injury levels so that pesticides are applied only when necessary, deploying and conserving biological control agents, using host-plant resistance, cultural controls of the pest, biorational pest controls, and genetic control methods. As a part of a truly multi-tactic strategy, it is crucial to evaluate the effect of pesticides on natural enemies in order to preserve them in the cropping system. Sometimes, pesticide-resistant natural enemies are effective components of this resistance mitigation programme. Another name for this resistance mitigation model is integrated pest management (IPM). This complex model was outlined in some detail nearly 40 years ago by V. M. Stern and colleagues. To deploy the IPM resistance mitigation model, we must admit that pest management and resistance mitigation programmes are not sustainable if based on a single-tactic strategy. Delaying resistance, whether to traditional pesticides or to transgenic plants containing toxin genes from Bacillus thuringiensis, will require that we develop multi-tactic pest management programmes that incorporate all appropriate pest management approaches. Because pesticides are limited resources, and their loss can result in significant social and economic costs, they should be reserved for situations where they are truly needed--as tools to subdue an unexpected pest population outbreak. Effective multi-tactic IPM programmes delay resistance (= mitigation) because the number and rates of pesticide applications will be reduced.  (+info)

(2/158) Ecological approaches and the development of "truly integrated" pest management.

Recent predictions of growth in human populations and food supply suggest that there will be a need to substantially increase food production in the near future. One possible approach to meeting this demand, at least in part, is the control of pests and diseases, which currently cause a 30-40% loss in available crop production. In recent years, strategies for controlling pests and diseases have tended to focus on short-term, single-technology interventions, particularly chemical pesticides. This model frequently applies even where so-called integrated pest management strategies are used because in reality, these often are dominated by single technologies (e.g., biocontrol, host plant resistance, or biopesticides) that are used as replacements for chemicals. Very little attention is given to the interaction or compatibility of the different technologies used. Unfortunately, evidence suggests that such approaches rarely yield satisfactory results and are unlikely to provide sustainable pest control solutions for the future. Drawing on two case histories, this paper demonstrates that by increasing our basic understanding of how individual pest control technologies act and interact, new opportunities for improving pest control can be revealed. This approach stresses the need to break away from the existing single-technology, pesticide-dominated paradigm and to adopt a more ecological approach built around a fundamental understanding of population biology at the local farm level and the true integration of renewable technologies such as host plant resistance and natural biological control, which are available to even the most resource-poor farmers.  (+info)

(3/158) Pesticide use in agriculture.

During the last three decades, the use of modern organic synthetic pesticides has increased about 40-fold. Total U.S. production, for domestic and expert use, in 1976 was about 1.4 million pounds. Crops receiving the most intensive application of various pesticides were cotton for insecticides, corn for herbicides, and fruits and vegetables for fungicides. Examination of use trends of pesticides indicates that the volume in pounds of herbicides used on crops is increasing, whereas the quantities of insecticides and fungicides remain stable. New chemical classes of compounds such as the synthetic pyrethroid insecticides are being introduced, but are not yet significant in terms of their share of the market. The increased usage of pesticides, together with knowledge of some of their adverse effects, has alerted the public to the need for regulation. To assist in the regulatory decision-making process, emphasis is being placed on benefit-cost analyses. Additional and improved biological inputs and methodologies are needed to provide accurate analyses.  (+info)

(4/158) Pheromone-triggered orientation flight of male moths can be disrupted by trifluoromethyl ketones.

In a wind tunnel trifluoromethyl ketones (TFMKs) have been found to disrupt the orientation flight of male moths to pheromone sources (virgin females or synthetic pheromone). This is demonstrated by comparison of the flight parameters of the Egyptian armyworm Spodoptera littoralis and the Mediterranean corn borer Sesamia nonagrioides, which had been topically treated with TFMKs, with those calculated for untreated insects. Inhibition occurred in all types of behavior and that of the source contact has been quantified and found to be dose-dependent. The same effect has also been noticed in Mediterranean corn borer males flying to an attraction source consisting of mixtures of (Z)-11-hexadecenyl trifluoromethyl ketone (8), a closely related analogue of the major component of the pheromone, and the natural pheromone blend. The most active TFMKs are those closest in structure to the natural pheromone, along with those chemicals which easily hydrate in solution, such as the beta-thiosubstituted derivatives. Along with the previously reported reduction of catches in the field, our results suggest the possible application of these chemicals in future new pest control strategies.  (+info)

(5/158) Asthma and the home environment of low-income urban children: preliminary findings from the Seattle-King County healthy homes project.

OBJECTIVES: Childhood asthma is a growing public health concern in low-income urban communities. Indoor exposure to asthma triggers has emerged as an important cause of asthma exacerbations. We describe indoor environmental conditions related to asthma triggers among a low-income urban population in Seattle/King County, Washington, as well as caregiver knowledge and resources related to control of these triggers. METHODS: Data are obtained from in-person, structured, closed-end interviews with the caretakers of children aged 4-12 years with persistent asthma living in households with incomes less than 200% of poverty. Additional information is collected during a home inspection. The children and their caregivers are participants in the ongoing Seattle-King County Healthy Homes Project, a randomized controlled trial of an intervention to empower low-income families to reduce exposure to indoor asthma triggers. We report findings on the conditions of the homes prior to this intervention among the first 112 enrolled households. RESULTS: A smoker was present in 37.5% of homes. Mold was visible in 26.8% of homes, water damage was present in 18.6% of homes, and damp conditions occurred in 64.8% of households, while 39.6% of caregivers were aware that excessive moisture can increase exposures to allergens. Dust-trapping reservoirs were common; 76.8% of children's bedrooms had carpeting. Cockroach infestation in the past 3 months was reported by 23.4% of caregivers, while 57.1% were unaware of the association of roaches and asthma. Only 19.8% of the children had allergy-control mattress covers. CONCLUSIONS: Many low-income urban children with asthma in King County live in indoor environments that place them at substantial risk of ongoing exposure to asthma triggers. Substandard housing and lack of resources often underlie these exposures. Initiatives involving health educators, outreach workers, medical providers, health care insurers, housing agencies, and elected officials are needed to reduce these exposures.  (+info)

(6/158) Neurologic function among termiticide applicators exposed to chlorpyrifos.

Chlorpyrifos is a moderately toxic organophosphate pesticide. Houses and lawns in the United States receive a total of approximately 20 million annual chlorpyrifos treatments, and 82% of U.S. adults have detectable levels of a chlorpyrifos metabolite (3,5, 6-trichloro-2-pyridinol; TCP) in the urine. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has estimated that there are 5,000 yearly reported cases of accidental chlorpyrifos poisoning, and approximately one-fourth of these cases exhibit symptoms. Organophosphates affect the nervous system, but there are few epidemiologic data on chlorpyrifos neurotoxicity. We studied neurologic function in 191 current and former termiticide applicators who had an average of 2.4 years applying chlorpyrifos and 2.5 years applying other pesticides, and we compared them to 189 nonexposed controls. The average urinary TCP level for 65 recently exposed applicators was 629.5 microg/L, as compared to 4.5 microg/L for the general U.S. population. The exposed group did not differ significantly from the nonexposed group for any test in the clinical examination. Few significant differences were found in nerve conduction velocity, arm/hand tremor, vibrotactile sensitivity, vision, smell, visual/motor skills, or neurobehavioral skills. The exposed group did not perform as well as the nonexposed group in pegboard turning tests and some postural sway tests. The exposed subjects also reported significantly more symptoms, including memory problems, emotional states, fatigue, and loss of muscle strength; our more quantitative tests may not have been adequate to detect these symptoms. Eight men who reported past chlorpyrifos poisoning had a pattern of low performance on a number of tests, which is consistent with prior reports of chronic effects of organophosphate poisoning. Overall, the lack of exposure effects on the clinical examination was reassuring. The findings for self-reported symptoms raise some concern, as does the finding of low performance for those reporting prior poisoning. Although this was a relatively large study based on a well-defined target population, the workers we studied may not be representative of all exposed workers, and caution should be exercised in generalizing our results.  (+info)

(7/158) Activity of wheat alpha-amylase inhibitors towards bruchid alpha-amylases and structural explanation of observed specificities.

Plant alpha-amylase inhibitors show great potential as tools to engineer resistance of crop plants against pests. Their possible use is, however, complicated by observed variations in specificity of enzyme inhibition, even within closely related families of inhibitors. Five alpha-amylase inhibitors of the structural 0.19 family were isolated from wheat kernels, and assayed against three insect alpha-amylases and porcine pancreatic alpha-amylase, revealing several intriguing differences in inhibition profiles, even between proteins sharing sequence identity of up to 98%. Inhibition of the enzyme from a commercially important pest, the bean weevil Acanthoscelides obtectus, is observed for the first time. Using the crystal structure of an insect alpha-amylase in complex with a structurally related inhibitor, models were constructed and refined of insect and human alpha-amylases bound to 0.19 inhibitor. Four key questions posed by the differences in biochemical behaviour between the five inhibitors were successfully explained using these models. Residue size and charge, loop lengths, and the conformational effects of a Cys to Pro mutation, were among the factors responsible for observed differences in specificity. The improved structural understanding of the bases for the 0.19 structural family inhibitor specificity reported here may prove useful in the future for the rational design of inhibitors possessing altered inhibition characteristics.  (+info)

(8/158) Preliminary parasitological results of a pilot mollusciciding campaign to control transmission of Schistosoma mansoni in St Lucia.

A mollusciciding campaign was begun in Cul-de-Sac Valley, St Lucia, at the end of 1970, following several years of epidemiological studies in which transmission of Schistosoma mansoni was found to be high in settlements on the valley floor but low in hillside settlements. Postcontrol (1971-73) findings in children, when compared with precontrol data and with data from an adjacent valley having a similar transmission pattern, show significant reductions in prevalence, incidence, and intensity of infection.  (+info)


  • The University decided to re-inspect the affected suite and its neighboring room during spring break, even though the rooms were treated for bedbugs within two days of finding the pest in February. (
  • Bedbugs, a common household pest for centuries, all but vanished in the 1940s and '50s with the widespread use of DDT. (
  • Indeed, if there's any risk it operates in reverse - jurisdictions that fail to control bedbugs can increase the risk of infestation for their neighbors. (


  • An integrated pest management approach, including cleaning and getting rid of clutter, daily vacuuming, sealing cracks and openings, and washing and drying linens, is the most effective way to deal with a bedbug infestation. (


  • If bed bugs are located in bedding material or mattresses, control should focus on mechanical methods, such as vacuuming, caulking, and removing or sealing loose wallpaper, to minimize the use of pesticides (Frishman 2000). (
  • Pesticides have been widely used to control pest and pest-related diseases in agriculture, fishery, forestry and the food industry. (
  • Earlier this summer Environmental Protection Agency and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reported the little pests had made an "alarming resurgence," possibly due to increased resistance to available pesticides and a decline in local pest control programs. (
  • Some pesticides once used for bedbug control have been phased out from indoor use, if not altogether, and the blood-sucking insects have developed resistance to their replacements. (


  • Although stink bugs are quite hard to control, there are a number of accepted organic methods, including kaolin clay, insecticidal soap sprays and good wee. (


  • However, since 1995, pest management professionals have noticed an increase in bed-bug-related complaints (Krueger 2000). (
  • The agency also warned of an increase in pest control companies and others making "unrealistic promises of effectiveness or low cost. (


  • Pest control companies should have experience with bed bugs and use licensed exterminators. (


  • A telephone survey of all pest control operators listed in the Toronto telephone directory was conducted by using a structured interview. (
  • The survey documented the number of bed bug-related calls received, the number of treatments provided by pest control operators in 2003, and the types of insecticides used to treat bed bug infestations. (