Disabled Persons: Persons with physical or mental disabilities that affect or limit their activities of daily living and that may require special accommodations.Homeless Persons: Persons who have no permanent residence. The concept excludes nomadic peoples.United StatesMentally Ill Persons: Persons with psychiatric illnesses or diseases, particularly psychotic and severe mood disorders.Visually Impaired Persons: Persons with loss of vision such that there is an impact on activities of daily living.Mentally Disabled Persons: Persons diagnosed as having significantly lower than average intelligence and considerable problems in adapting to everyday life or lacking independence in regard to activities of daily living.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Population Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Age Distribution: The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Single Person: The unmarried man or woman.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Health Status: The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Dementia: An acquired organic mental disorder with loss of intellectual abilities of sufficient severity to interfere with social or occupational functioning. The dysfunction is multifaceted and involves memory, behavior, personality, judgment, attention, spatial relations, language, abstract thought, and other executive functions. The intellectual decline is usually progressive, and initially spares the level of consciousness.Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome: An acquired defect of cellular immunity associated with infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), a CD4-positive T-lymphocyte count under 200 cells/microliter or less than 14% of total lymphocytes, and increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections and malignant neoplasms. Clinical manifestations also include emaciation (wasting) and dementia. These elements reflect criteria for AIDS as defined by the CDC in 1993.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Personhood: The state or condition of being a human individual accorded moral and/or legal rights. Criteria to be used to determine this status are subject to debate, and range from the requirement of simply being a human organism to such requirements as that the individual be self-aware and capable of rational thought and moral agency.Geriatric Assessment: Evaluation of the level of physical, physiological, or mental functioning in the older population group.Sex Distribution: The number of males and females in a given population. The distribution may refer to how many men or women or what proportion of either in the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Spinal Cord Injuries: Penetrating and non-penetrating injuries to the spinal cord resulting from traumatic external forces (e.g., WOUNDS, GUNSHOT; WHIPLASH INJURIES; etc.).Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Comorbidity: The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.Quality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Frail Elderly: Older adults or aged individuals who are lacking in general strength and are unusually susceptible to disease or to other infirmity.Rural Population: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.Caregivers: Persons who provide care to those who need supervision or assistance in illness or disability. They may provide the care in the home, in a hospital, or in an institution. Although caregivers include trained medical, nursing, and other health personnel, the concept also refers to parents, spouses, or other family members, friends, members of the clergy, teachers, social workers, fellow patients.Risk: The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.Hospitalization: The confinement of a patient in a hospital.Transgendered Persons: Persons having a sense of persistent identification with, and expression of, gender-coded behaviors not typically associated with one's anatomical sex at birth, and with or without a desire to undergo SEX REASSIGNMENT PROCEDURES.Travel: Aspects of health and disease related to travel.Cognition Disorders: Disturbances in mental processes related to learning, thinking, reasoning, and judgment.Mass Screening: Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.Mental Disorders: Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.CD4 Lymphocyte Count: The number of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD. Determination requires the use of a fluorescence-activated flow cytometer.Netherlands: Country located in EUROPE. It is bordered by the NORTH SEA, BELGIUM, and GERMANY. Constituent areas are Aruba, Curacao, Sint Maarten, formerly included in the NETHERLANDS ANTILLES.Residence Characteristics: Elements of residence that characterize a population. They are applicable in determining need for and utilization of health services.Transsexualism: Severe gender dysphoria, coupled with a persistent desire for the physical characteristics and social roles that connote the opposite biological sex. (APA, DSM-IV, 1994)Famous PersonsCaliforniaAccidental Falls: Falls due to slipping or tripping which may result in injury.ConnecticutRegression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.WisconsinRetrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Tuberculosis: Any of the infectious diseases of man and other animals caused by species of MYCOBACTERIUM.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Disability Evaluation: Determination of the degree of a physical, mental, or emotional handicap. The diagnosis is applied to legal qualification for benefits and income under disability insurance and to eligibility for Social Security and workmen's compensation benefits.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (U.S.): An agency of the UNITED STATES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE that conducts and supports programs for the prevention and control of disease and provides consultation and assistance to health departments and other countries.Urban Population: The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.Vaccination: Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.Interviews as Topic: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections: Opportunistic infections found in patients who test positive for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The most common include PNEUMOCYSTIS PNEUMONIA, Kaposi's sarcoma, cryptosporidiosis, herpes simplex, toxoplasmosis, cryptococcosis, and infections with Mycobacterium avium complex, Microsporidium, and Cytomegalovirus.Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.Wounds and Injuries: Damage inflicted on the body as the direct or indirect result of an external force, with or without disruption of structural continuity.Housing: Living facilities for humans.Contact Tracing: Identification of those persons (or animals) who have had such an association with an infected person, animal, or contaminated environment as to have had the opportunity to acquire the infection. Contact tracing is a generally accepted method for the control of sexually transmitted diseases.Refugees: Persons fleeing to a place of safety, especially those who flee to a foreign country or power to escape danger or persecution in their own country or habitual residence because of race, religion, or political belief. (Webster, 3d ed)Nursing Homes: Facilities which provide nursing supervision and limited medical care to persons who do not require hospitalization.Ethnic Groups: A group of people with a common cultural heritage that sets them apart from others in a variety of social relationships.Health Services for the Aged: Services for the diagnosis and treatment of diseases in the aged and the maintenance of health in the elderly.Self-Help Devices: Devices, not affixed to the body, designed to help persons having musculoskeletal or neuromuscular disabilities to perform activities involving movement.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.AlaskaDiabetes Mellitus: A heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by HYPERGLYCEMIA and GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE.HIV Seropositivity: Development of neutralizing antibodies in individuals who have been exposed to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/HTLV-III/LAV).Mortality: All deaths reported in a given population.San FranciscoHealth Services Accessibility: The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.Social Support: Support systems that provide assistance and encouragement to individuals with physical or emotional disabilities in order that they may better cope. Informal social support is usually provided by friends, relatives, or peers, while formal assistance is provided by churches, groups, etc.Neuropsychological Tests: Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.Homebound Persons: Those unable to leave home without exceptional effort and support; patients (in this condition) who are provided with or are eligible for home health services, including medical treatment and personal care. Persons are considered homebound even if they may be infrequently and briefly absent from home if these absences do not indicate an ability to receive health care in a professional's office or health care facility. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988, p309)Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Influenza, Human: An acute viral infection in humans involving the respiratory tract. It is marked by inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA; the PHARYNX; and conjunctiva, and by headache and severe, often generalized, myalgia.Mobility Limitation: Difficulty in walking from place to place.Odds Ratio: The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.Cost of Illness: The personal cost of acute or chronic disease. The cost to the patient may be an economic, social, or psychological cost or personal loss to self, family, or immediate community. The cost of illness may be reflected in absenteeism, productivity, response to treatment, peace of mind, or QUALITY OF LIFE. It differs from HEALTH CARE COSTS, meaning the societal cost of providing services related to the delivery of health care, rather than personal impact on individuals.Anti-HIV Agents: Agents used to treat AIDS and/or stop the spread of the HIV infection. These do not include drugs used to treat symptoms or opportunistic infections associated with AIDS.Interpersonal Relations: The reciprocal interaction of two or more persons.New York CityMultivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).GermanyDepression: Depressive states usually of moderate intensity in contrast with major depression present in neurotic and psychotic disorders.European Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Europe.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Walking: An activity in which the body advances at a slow to moderate pace by moving the feet in a coordinated fashion. This includes recreational walking, walking for fitness, and competitive race-walking.Demography: Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.Employment: The state of being engaged in an activity or service for wages or salary.Educational Status: Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.Foodborne Diseases: Acute illnesses, usually affecting the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT, brought on by consuming contaminated food or beverages. Most of these diseases are infectious, caused by a variety of bacteria, viruses, or parasites that can be foodborne. Sometimes the diseases are caused by harmful toxins from the microbes or other chemicals present in the food. Especially in the latter case, the condition is often called food poisoning.Self Concept: A person's view of himself.AIDS Serodiagnosis: Immunologic tests for identification of HIV (HTLV-III/LAV) antibodies. They include assays for HIV SEROPOSITIVITY and HIV SERONEGATIVITY that have been developed for screening persons carrying the viral antibody from patients with overt symptoms of AIDS or AIDS-RELATED COMPLEX.SwedenSmoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.HIV-1: The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active: Drug regimens, for patients with HIV INFECTIONS, that aggressively suppress HIV replication. The regimens usually involve administration of three or more different drugs including a protease inhibitor.Influenza Vaccines: Vaccines used to prevent infection by viruses in the family ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE. It includes both killed and attenuated vaccines. The composition of the vaccines is changed each year in response to antigenic shifts and changes in prevalence of influenza virus strains. The vaccine is usually bivalent or trivalent, containing one or two INFLUENZAVIRUS A strains and one INFLUENZAVIRUS B strain.KansasTreatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.MarylandQuadriplegia: Severe or complete loss of motor function in all four limbs which may result from BRAIN DISEASES; SPINAL CORD DISEASES; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; NEUROMUSCULAR DISEASES; or rarely MUSCULAR DISEASES. The locked-in syndrome is characterized by quadriplegia in combination with cranial muscle paralysis. Consciousness is spared and the only retained voluntary motor activity may be limited eye movements. This condition is usually caused by a lesion in the upper BRAIN STEM which injures the descending cortico-spinal and cortico-bulbar tracts.Attitude to Health: Public attitudes toward health, disease, and the medical care system.Health Services: Services for the diagnosis and treatment of disease and the maintenance of health.Cause of Death: Factors which produce cessation of all vital bodily functions. They can be analyzed from an epidemiologic viewpoint.Family: A social group consisting of parents or parent substitutes and children.Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System: Telephone surveys are conducted to monitor prevalence of the major behavioral risks among adults associated with premature MORBIDITY and MORTALITY. The data collected is in regard to actual behaviors, rather than on attitudes or knowledge. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) established the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) in 1984.Residential Facilities: Long-term care facilities which provide supervision and assistance in activities of daily living with medical and nursing services when required.Psychometrics: Assessment of psychological variables by the application of mathematical procedures.Intellectual Disability: Subnormal intellectual functioning which originates during the developmental period. This has multiple potential etiologies, including genetic defects and perinatal insults. Intelligence quotient (IQ) scores are commonly used to determine whether an individual has an intellectual disability. IQ scores between 70 and 79 are in the borderline range. Scores below 67 are in the disabled range. (from Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch55, p28)DenmarkWashingtonAdaptation, Psychological: A state of harmony between internal needs and external demands and the processes used in achieving this condition. (From APA Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)Sports for Persons with Disabilities: Activities or games played by PERSONS WITH DISABILITIES, usually requiring physical effort or skill. The activities or games may be specifically created or based on existing sports, with or without modifications, to meet the needs of persons with physical or intellectual disabilities.African Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Africa.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Continental Population Groups: Groups of individuals whose putative ancestry is from native continental populations based on similarities in physical appearance.Nutrition Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to the nutritional status of a human population within a given geographic area. Data from these surveys are used in preparing NUTRITION ASSESSMENTS.Institutionalization: The caring for individuals in institutions and their adaptation to routines characteristic of the institutional environment, and/or their loss of adaptation to life outside the institution.Substance-Related Disorders: Disorders related to substance abuse.Cardiovascular Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.Suicide: The act of killing oneself.Geriatrics: The branch of medicine concerned with the physiological and pathological aspects of the aged, including the clinical problems of senescence and senility.Haiti: A republic in the Greater Antilles in the West Indies. Its capital is Port-au-Prince. With the Dominican Republic it forms the island of Hispaniola - Haiti occupying the western third and the Dominican Republic, the eastern two thirds. Haiti belonged to France from 1697 until its rule was challenged by slave insurrections from 1791. It became a republic in 1820. It was virtually an American protectorate from 1915 to 1934. It adopted its present constitution in 1964 and amended it in 1971. The name may represent either of two Caribbean words, haiti, mountain land, or jhaiti, nest. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p481 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p225)Occupational Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.Registries: The systems and processes involved in the establishment, support, management, and operation of registers, e.g., disease registers.African Americans: Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the black groups of Africa.Tuberculin Test: One of several skin tests to determine past or present tuberculosis infection. A purified protein derivative of the tubercle bacilli, called tuberculin, is introduced into the skin by scratch, puncture, or interdermal injection.Persons With Hearing Impairments: Persons with any degree of loss of hearing that has an impact on their activities of daily living or that requires special assistance or intervention.FloridaPatient Compliance: Voluntary cooperation of the patient in following a prescribed regimen.Wheelchairs: Chairs mounted on wheels and designed to be propelled by the occupant.Mental Competency: The ability to understand the nature and effect of the act in which the individual is engaged. (From Black's Law Dictionary, 6th ed).Paraplegia: Severe or complete loss of motor function in the lower extremities and lower portions of the trunk. This condition is most often associated with SPINAL CORD DISEASES, although BRAIN DISEASES; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; NEUROMUSCULAR DISEASES; and MUSCULAR DISEASES may also cause bilateral leg weakness.Pilot Projects: Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.TennesseeJapanFinlandIndiaHispanic Americans: Persons living in the United States of Mexican (MEXICAN AMERICANS), Puerto Rican, Cuban, Central or South American, or other Spanish culture or origin. The concept does not include Brazilian Americans or Portuguese Americans.Proportional Hazards Models: Statistical models used in survival analysis that assert that the effect of the study factors on the hazard rate in the study population is multiplicative and does not change over time.Environmental Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Prejudice: A preconceived judgment made without factual basis.Rehabilitation, Vocational: Training of the mentally or physically disabled in work skills so they may be returned to regular employment utilizing these skills.Substance Abuse, Intravenous: Abuse, overuse, or misuse of a substance by its injection into a vein.Income: Revenues or receipts accruing from business enterprise, labor, or invested capital.Body Mass Index: An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)Anti-Retroviral Agents: Agents used to treat RETROVIRIDAE INFECTIONS.Education of Intellectually Disabled: The teaching or training of those individuals with subnormal intellectual functioning.Confidence Intervals: A range of values for a variable of interest, e.g., a rate, constructed so that this range has a specified probability of including the true value of the variable.Patient Acceptance of Health Care: The seeking and acceptance by patients of health service.Gait: Manner or style of walking.Health Status Indicators: The measurement of the health status for a given population using a variety of indices, including morbidity, mortality, and available health resources.Cognition: Intellectual or mental process whereby an organism obtains knowledge.Stereotyping: An oversimplified perception or conception especially of persons, social groups, etc.Canada: The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Health Care Costs: The actual costs of providing services related to the delivery of health care, including the costs of procedures, therapies, and medications. It is differentiated from HEALTH EXPENDITURES, which refers to the amount of money paid for the services, and from fees, which refers to the amount charged, regardless of cost.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Sampling Studies: Studies in which a number of subjects are selected from all subjects in a defined population. Conclusions based on sample results may be attributed only to the population sampled.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Schizophrenia: A severe emotional disorder of psychotic depth characteristically marked by a retreat from reality with delusion formation, HALLUCINATIONS, emotional disharmony, and regressive behavior.Philosophy, MedicalHomes for the Aged: Geriatric long-term care facilities which provide supervision and assistance in activities of daily living with medical and nursing services when required.GeorgiaTexasGrief: Normal, appropriate sorrowful response to an immediate cause. It is self-limiting and gradually subsides within a reasonable time.Human Rights: The rights of the individual to cultural, social, economic, and educational opportunities as provided by society, e.g., right to work, right to education, and right to social security.Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Home Nursing: Nursing care given to an individual in the home. The care may be provided by a family member or a friend. Home nursing as care by a non-professional is differentiated from HOME CARE SERVICES provided by professionals: visiting nurse, home health agencies, hospital, or other organized community group.Value of Life: The intrinsic moral worth ascribed to a living being. (Bioethics Thesaurus)ColoradoNorwayEpidemiologic Methods: Research techniques that focus on study designs and data gathering methods in human and animal populations.Life Expectancy: Based on known statistical data, the number of years which any person of a given age may reasonably expected to live.New JerseyLinear Models: Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.Health Services Needs and Demand: Health services required by a population or community as well as the health services that the population or community is able and willing to pay for.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Alzheimer Disease: A degenerative disease of the BRAIN characterized by the insidious onset of DEMENTIA. Impairment of MEMORY, judgment, attention span, and problem solving skills are followed by severe APRAXIAS and a global loss of cognitive abilities. The condition primarily occurs after age 60, and is marked pathologically by severe cortical atrophy and the triad of SENILE PLAQUES; NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES; and NEUROPIL THREADS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1049-57)Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Long-Term Care: Care over an extended period, usually for a chronic condition or disability, requiring periodic, intermittent, or continuous care.Public Health: Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.Viral Load: The quantity of measurable virus in a body fluid. Change in viral load, measured in plasma, is sometimes used as a SURROGATE MARKER in disease progression.Postural Balance: A POSTURE in which an ideal body mass distribution is achieved. Postural balance provides the body carriage stability and conditions for normal functions in stationary position or in movement, such as sitting, standing, or walking.Health Behavior: Behaviors expressed by individuals to protect, maintain or promote their health status. For example, proper diet, and appropriate exercise are activities perceived to influence health status. Life style is closely associated with health behavior and factors influencing life style are socioeconomic, educational, and cultural.
Inclusive language guidelines | Diversity at Work | HR Toolkit | hrcouncil.caWhile in most circumstances there will be no need to refer to a person's disability, if the need does arise, acceptable terminology for the specific disability or using the term preferred by the individual should be chosen. One person with a visual disability may prefer 'blind' while another person with a similar disability may prefer 'person with low or limited loss of vision.' Avoid outdated and derogatory terms such as 'handicapped,' 'crippled,' or 'physically challenged.' Back to top ...
Does Your Child Have ADHD? New Clues | Health Watch CenterLearning disabilities can present in a variety of different ways, which can make getting an exact diagnosis a difficult process. But an exact diagnosis is
Obesity | MedPage TodayAt MedPage Today, we are committed to ensuring that individuals with disabilities can access all of the content offered by MedPage Today through our website and other properties. If you are having trouble accessing www.medpagetoday.com, MedPageToday's mobile apps, please email email@example.com for assistance. Please put "ADA Inquiry" in the subject line of your email.. ...
People Would Find Out Eventually, And Judge MeSo, people have started finding out that I am out on disability. I got angry. Angry with myself for not realizing that it was going to bother me. I wasn't ready to confront that, fair or not, people are going to judge me because of this. They don't have to know anything about PTSD but they will still judge me ...
Density aims to end queueing for hospitals, homeless shelters, coffee shops and elsewhere « The Diversity Blog - SaaS, Cloud &...If you are interested in IoT, today's news about the launch of Density, a new people-counting sensor that has been created by alums from Apple and the Y Combinator accelerator, should catch your attention.. Density is a small sensor that anonymously measures how busy a location is in real-time. In practice, with the device mounted above an entryway, a business can use the Density API to access how many people have visited. A limitless variety of potential customers, from hospitals to homeless shelters, coffee shops to corporate campuses, can then use their space better.. Still a tiny company of six, Density was founded in 2014 in San Francisco and is launching its "sensor-as-a-service" offering today. The device, which is about the size of an Apple TV, is touted as a simple, anonymous and most importantly accessible people-counting product. Rather than focusing on the device per se, Density is really about providing a data platform that customers can integrate into their third-party solutions. ...
Homeless shelters activated downtown as region braces for cold temperatures | fox5sandiego.comHomeless shelters have been activated in the downtown area again tonight, as the region braces for more cold temperatures, according to officials.
Atlanta Homeless Children's Charity - Holiday G...Nationally, 1 in 45 children experience homelessness each year (The National Center on Family Homelessness) Child homelessness is up by more than 33% in 3 years (USA Today) Many emergency homeless shelters require families to ... | Homeless Shelter Makeovers
Homeless People's Network: Homeless People's Network ARCH!VES: 1,875 posts & growingrepost widely please-- For nearly 2,000 posts written or forwarded by homeless and ex-homelsss people, see HOMELESS PEOPLE'S NETWORK ARCHIVES. Nearly all posts focus on policy and programs affecting us. April threads are listed below. Hot topics in our dozen or so posts daily include: squatting, innovative housing, the criminalization of poverty and difference, plus homeless people's civil, economic and housing rights. HPN is a half year old Internet discussion group for homeless and ex-homeless people. Many who post are also activists, academics or service providers. We hail from three continents and seven nations. Views vary widely on our uncensored list. If you've been homeless or are now, I invite you to subscr_be. For details on us, see HPN URLs below. Thanks.--Tom Boland, HPN listowner Homeless People's Network http://aspin.asu.edu/hpn/ Home Page Archives http://aspin.asu.edu/hpn/archives.html read posts to HPN To Join http://aspin.asu.edu/hpn/join.html or email Tom ,firstname.lastname@example.org, ** ...
Homeless persons gathering on the sidewalk, Skid Row, Los Angeles, 1996 :: Jerry Berndt CollectionPhotograph of homeless persons gathering on the sidewalk, Skid Row, Los Angeles, 1996. A large amount of homeless people gather on a trash strewn sidewalk. There is a shopping cart filled with bags in the foreground. They are near a tall black fence that is covered in graffiti and an old brick building surrounded by a chain link fence ...
Homeless People's Network: NYC homeless showdown leaves solutions out in cold FWDhttp://www.usatoday.com/usatonline/19991217/1763757s.htm FWD USA Today - December 17, 1999 - Page 30A Today's Debate Dealing with the homeless [One of the articles in the series appears below.] N.Y. SHOWDOWN OVER HOMELESS LEAVES REAL SOLUTIONS OUT IN COLD Just in time for the opening of the holiday season last month, New York Mayor Rudolph Giuliani dropped a new policy on the most troublesome of the city's homeless: Get off the streets or go to jail. Since then, homeless advocates have shot back with sharp attacks and an all-night protest vigil, and Senate hopeful Hillary Rodham Clinton is weighing in, too, preaching against arrests in a season celebrating ''the birth of a homeless child.'' The Big Apple bout--belligerent Rudy vs. the benevolent first lady -- has thrown a spotlight on a particularly intractable aspect of homelessness that's far from unique to New York. Even when a city builds shelter for the homeless -- and in that regard New York is a model -- a small, sad number consistently ...
Homeless people are still people - The Sheaf - The University of Saskatchewan Newspaper Since 1912Homelessness has been one of the most talked about issues in Canada in recent years. All political parties have some sort of platform that aims to address it. However, it seems that the options provided by the government are more band-aid solutions than policies that actually tackle the problems at the source.. At the heart of the issue is the idea that homeless people are not usually perceived as actual people, deserving of respect and attention to the nuances of their different plights. They are seen as non-contributing members of society who are incompetent, lazy, careless or severely mentally ill.. Those who are mentally ill are even more harshly judged; their illnesses are dismissed or ignored. Paradoxically, society tends to see most or all homeless people as a little bit "off" mentally. Our society as a whole more often than not sees homeless people as nuisances in our day-to-day lives rather than humans who should be understood and empathized with.. An example of this outlook came to ...
Students "sleep out" for homelessYale students raised around $600 for the homeless in New Haven by huddling together in tents and sleeping bags on Old Campus Friday night.. Roughly 70 students gathered on Old Campus for a "sleepout," partaking in music and other activities before migrating to their tents for the night. The event was part of the Yale Hunger and Homelessness Action Project's "Shelter Now" fundraising campaign - an effort that began in 2008 and has continued every year since to bolster funding and awareness for New Haven's winter homeless shelters.. The money raised from this year's sleepout will go to Connecticut's Homelessness Prevention and Rapid Re-Housing Program, a government project initiated in February 2009 to help fund shelters nationwide. To date, the Shelter Now campaign has raised more than $92,000, according to YHHAP's website.. At the start of the evening, Alison Cunningham, director of Columbus House, a homeless services provider that runs a shelter on Ella Grasso Boulevard, spoke to the event's ...
Homeless People's Network: Fwd: University City: banning the homelessOriginal Message Follows---- -- --------- Forwarded Message --------- DATE: Thu, 19 Nov 1998 10:02:55 From: Blazing Star ,email@example.com, To: AHS-L@AMERICAN.EDU November 19, 1998 University City closer to ban of the homeless By Cynthia Burton INQUIRER STAFF WRITER A ban of homeless people from University City advanced significantly yesterday as a City Council committee fine-tuned an ordinance to keep the homeless from many of the city's business districts. Initially, Councilwoman Jannie Blackwell, who represents the West Philadelphia neighborhood, had her entire district pulled from the "sidewalk behavior" bill, passed by Council last spring. But angry residents pressured her to include University City in the legislation, which bans sitting or lying on public sidewalks in business areas. After polling hundreds of constituents, she said, she decided to follow the will of the people, who did not want the homeless walking from Center City to their neighborhoods. But, she said, she still ...
Volunteer helps homeless children give Mother's Day gifts - tribunedigital-orlandosentinelA child's present for Mother's Day may seem like a trivial thing -- especially when child and mom live in a homeless shelter. But the longing to give your mother something really special on the big
The co-occurrence of AIDS and homelessness: results from the integration of administrative databases for AIDS surveillance and...This study confirms in a large study population that homelessness and AIDS frequently co-occur. In Philadelphia, homeless shelter users have nine times the risk of having AIDS as the general population. And PWAs were observed to be three times as likely to have been homeless than the general population. Among shelter users, behavioural health problems, including both substance abuse and serious mental disorders, are associated with greater risk for AIDS, as is male gender. Among male PWAs, intravenous drug use history, black race, and having public or no health insurance are all positively related to risk for shelter admission, as is having any tuberculosis, while being Hispanic and having PCP are negatively related to shelter admission. This latter finding may be because of the reduced probability of shelter admission that results from the hospitalisation associated with PCP or severe AIDS illness. Among female PWAs, black race, intravenous drug use history and having public or no health ...
Homelessness: Orange County Taps $1.2 Million in State Emergency Aid for Shelters, Rapid Re-Housing | Voice of OCShare Tweet Email The following is a press release from an organization unaffiliated with Voice of OC. The views expressed here are not those of Voice of OC. Homelessness: Orange County Taps $1.2 Million in State Emergency Aid for Shelters, Rapid Re-Housing One Week After Orange County Opens New Homeless Shelter (Santa Ana, California) - […]
VIDEO: 3,600 people homeless in Metro Vancouver - Langley AdvanceAs housing costs go up in the region, Council of Community Homelessness Tables chair Jonquil Hallgate said, the middle class is being pushed into housing that was once affordable for the lower class.. "It pushes everybody else down the ladder. People who marginally might have been able to afford a place to live become the next level of people who are homeless," said Hallgate.. READ: Advocates say $1.8B per year will tackle B.C.'s affordable housing crisis. According to BC Non-Profit Housing Association count coordinator Peer-Daniel Krause, this year's count has seen a sharp climb in the number of homeless camps. Volunteers counted 70 in 2017.. "There's an upward trend [in homeless camps] all across the region," said Krause.. The 2017 count was the first count during an emergency weather response, which led Metro Vancouver to open extra shelters. While the extra shelters can make it easier to do the count, it can also skew statistics.. "It may bias the data to men because we know that women and ...
What help is available to young homeless people? | Reference.comAssistance to young homeless people is available through targeted homeless assistance programs and non-targeted or mainstream programs. For instance, the Basic Center Program establishes or...
Housing improves plight of homeless people with mental illness, study finds | Toronto StarProviding housing to people who are homeless and suffering mental illness improves outcomes - and saves money, a Toronto study suggests.
In newspaper, hope for homeless Publishing: A growing South African monthly employs homeless people and creates awareness about...JOHANNESBURG, South Africa -- It is the unlikeliest of media success stories: a paper written by the homeless poor and bought by the well-housed rich.Homeless Talk, a monthly tabloid, is selling so
substance abuse treatment 57660 | - Approved Rehab Centers Nearest Your Locationsubstance abuse counseling is a phenomenon that has become extremely popular. With the popularity of programs like "Intervention" and "Star Rehab", we can see that individuals desire to see substance abuse counseling; However Why? Why do individuals gravitate to therapy? They want it. Individuals want to get therapy, without going to a therapist. The problem is, people do not wish to look uncomfortable; so they view others; but rather of judging the addicts, people relate. This connection deals with various levels. TV therapy assists audiences resolve their own problems. It also assists celebs confess there inmost concerns. Ultimately, the therapy phenomenon let the world unwind. Our world is filled with a lot stress, counseling TELEVISION lets us be delicate; because.we are.. The mean age of unaccompanied homeless individuals is 51 while the average age among adults in homeless families is 28, the Neighborhood Partnership for the Avoidance of Homelessness reports.. If you have health insurance, ...
substance abuse treatment Watauga SD | - Approved Rehab Centers Nearest Your Locationsubstance abuse counseling is a phenomenon that has become extremely popular. With the popularity of programs like "Intervention" and "Star Rehab", we can see that individuals desire to see substance abuse counseling; However Why? Why do individuals gravitate to therapy? They want it. Individuals want to get therapy, without going to a therapist. The problem is, people do not wish to look uncomfortable; so they view others; but rather of judging the addicts, people relate. This connection deals with various levels. TV therapy assists audiences resolve their own problems. It also assists celebs confess there inmost concerns. Ultimately, the therapy phenomenon let the world unwind. Our world is filled with a lot stress, counseling TELEVISION lets us be delicate; because.we are.. The mean age of unaccompanied homeless individuals is 51 while the average age among adults in homeless families is 28, the Neighborhood Partnership for the Avoidance of Homelessness reports.. If you have health insurance, ...
Pushing Rope: Rick Scott Making More People HomelessThe National Veterans Homeless Support advocacy group is attempting to help the approximately 700 homeless veterans in Brevard County; up from approximately 600 last year. The group is sponsoring their second annual "Warm, Full, Safe for Christmas" program. This event will provide local homeless veterans with a 2 night stay in a local hotel ...
Former worker at youth shelter charged with child sex abuse | Q13 FOX NewsHILLSBORO, Ore. -- She was fired from a homeless shelter for allegedly having sex with an at-risk teenager, and now a Hillsboro woman has officially been indicted and charged with sex abuse.
Screening for Tuberculosis and Tuberculosis Infection in High-Risk Populations Recommendations of the Advisory Council for...fibrotic lesions consistent with old, healed TB should be skin tested. Regardless of age, persons who have a positive skin test and parenchymal lung scarring are at high risk for TB if they have not previously received TB treatment or preventive therapy. Residents and Employees of High-Risk Congregate Settings High-risk environments are settings where a) persons who have infectious TB are more likely to live, b) environmental characteristics (e.g., type of ventilation and size) are conducive to transmission, and c) many susceptible persons at risk for prolonged exposure to potentially infectious patients may be located. These environments include prisons and jails (26,27), nursing homes and other long-term facilities for the elderly (28), health-care facilities (29), homeless shelters (30), and residential settings for HIV-infected persons (31). Persons working in these settings should be educated about the risk for ...
Homeless People's Network: May 19 DEMO against welfare deform, immigrant bashing: SacrementoFWD *excerpt* via Andrew Rose of SF Food Not Bombs May 19 day of action against welfare deform and immigrant scapegoating - KALIFORNIA Tuesday May 19 there will be a mass demonstration by poor people and immigrants in Sacramento at NOON on the WEST side of the Capital. The focus is on welfare reform and there will be a day long series of visits to representatives offices as well as speakers. Busses are leaving from Los Angeles monday call Frank 213 746 6511 x5# Busses leave SF Tuesday Morning from: Chinatown, 7:30 am Central Del Pueblo, 7:30 AM in the Mission Fruitvale BART 7:30 AM Castlemont High School Oakland 8 AM for bay area info call Anna Maria Loya, 415 243 8215 x 369 -Food Not Bombs List firstname.lastname@example.org -distributing food in opposition to violence -archive: http://www.tao.ca/~fnbtor/fnb-l/ -active cities: http://webcom.com/peace -send '(un)subscribe fnb-l' to email@example.com HOMELESS PEOPLE'S NETWORK ,http://aspin.asu.edu/hpn/, Home Page ARCHIVES ,http://aspin.asu.edu/hpn/archives.html, ...
Court rules that L.A. can't destroy homeless people's property - latimesLos Angeles and other cities are barred by the U.S. Constitution from randomly seizing and destroying property homeless people temporarily leave unattended on city streets, a federal appeals court
Is NYPD Sending Drunk Homeless People to Occupy Wall Street?The NYPD has allegedly come up with an ingenious way to sabotage the Occupy Wall Street protest in lower Manhattan: Just send drunks and homeless people down there!
Day 12: You Are Not Alone! How Joining a Community Can Improve Your Life - Pick the Brain | Motivation and Self ImprovementLink Up With Local Community Outreach. There are many ways to reach people in need. Remember, it's YOUR community. Working at a food bank, serving a holiday dinner at a homeless shelter, distributing toys to children, helping at churches or other places of worship, are all ways you can help make life happier for others around you.
State government launches survey of homeless people | Zee NewsAiming at including the homeless people in the 2011 Census and providing them facilities accordingly, Chief Minister SheilaDikshit Fridaylaunched a survey for them with assistance from UN Development Programme.
Volunteering in NGO for homeless peopleYour volunteering in an NGO for homeless people. Come to South America with NICE, the insider for Argentina. Also possible as Last Minute!
Police seek homeless man's attackers - tribunedigital-orlandosentinelCLERMONT -- Police are looking for information about the beating of a homeless man last week.James K. Smith of Clermont was found Friday near Scott Street with a broken leg and jaw. His skull also
Hare Krishna Archives - Religious Freedom ReviewExecutive Branch. Reports emerged that President Trump still plans to sign a version of the draft executive order on religious freedom that was circulated last month. It is now being refined after challenges to other executive order in the courts. Its most controversial component exempts businesses from being required to serve LGBT individuals.. The church of Sam Rodriguez Jr, an evangelical pastor who prayed at Donald Trump's inauguration, is offering sanctuary to congregants who fear raids by immigration authorities may lead to their deportation. In related news, the ICE staked out a church homeless shelter in Virginia, worrying religious organizations participating in the sanctuary movement.. Judicial Branch. A flurry of amicus briefs have been filed by religious groups on both sides of the upcoming Supreme Court case on the use of male restrooms by a transgender high school student.. Legal arguments continued over whether Sioux religious beliefs could halt the Dakota Access Pipeline under ...
Fat Johnny's Front Porch: July 2008she sets up her veggie stand every morning in the parking lot of an old gas station, got a couple hand painted signs (painted on a sheet of plywood) that she props up against the side her old chevy pickup truck ... and commences to do business out the tailgate dat ol' truck. she says she has several gardens on her farm a few miles outside topeka, where she was born & raised ... and still lives wit her dogs & cats. today i noticed an old dog was layin' in the shade under her truck ... dog looked pretty mangy, but i have no doubt that if i'd so much as looked cross-eyed at that ol' gal, that dog woulda come out from under that truck & ripped me to shreds lickety-split. i asked her if she did any canning & preserving, and she told me she did some ... but says at the end of the day, if she's got any veggies left, she drops them off at a local homeless shelter on her way home ...
Salons at Stowe: Hartford Homeless Person's MemorialThe Salons at Stowe programs are a forum to connect the challenging issues (race, gender and class) that impelled Stowe to write and act with the contemporary face of those same issues. The Salon format is based on a robust level of audience participation, with the explicit goal of promoting civic engagement. Recent topics included: Teaching Acceptance; Is Prison the New Slavery; Traces of the Trade: A Story from the Deep North; Creativity and Change; Race, Gender and Politics Today; How to be an ...
Serial killer preying on California homeless people: 3 men stabbed to death as they slept | Daily Mail OnlineA serial killer is hunting down homeless men in southern California, stabbing them to death as they sleep alone in isolated locations.
An Urban Health Immersion | Geisel Med BlogBy Cristina Alcorta ('17). On Friday afternoon, we had the opportunity to meet with Dr. Jim O'Connell, President and one of the founding physicians for the Boston Health Care for the Homeless Program (BHCHP). We were very much looking forward to meeting the man who established the nation's first medical respite program for homeless persons and implemented the first electronic medical record for a homeless program.. With open arms, he welcomed us to his brainchild. Starting our tour off with a little history, Dr. O'Connell brought us to the historic main entrance of the old Mallory Building, describing its historical roots as Boston's center for medical pathology research and city morgue from the 1930s to the 1990s. We then shuffled to a conference room for a discussion about homeless health care and street medicine. Here, we learned about the Family Van, which brings necessary items such as blankets and warm soup to individuals on the streets. Dr. O'Connell feels that it is important not to ...
Homeless People's Network: Re: NCH and the Amarican Homeless SocietyWandering Bear, I understand your anger at people who patronize and explore the poor. I've felt that frustration myself, from the daycenter volunteer who was so gushingly, cooingly "proud" of me over the publication of my first poem that I sincerely craved to bite her nose, to the staff of the Low Income Housing Institute who regard it as silly and obstructive of SHARE to insist on equal decision-making power in a project we are "paper partners" in. But does this mean that as soon as anyone is accused of being "poverty pimps" you get angry at them? It is almost impossible to prove a negative. I'm over here in Seattle Washington -- go ahead and ask me to *prove* I don't patronize or take advantage of any of my colleagues. If you are determined to believe that I do, there isn't a damn thing I can do to change your mind. It takes money to do just about anything. It takes what seems to me to be an outlandish amount of money to fix a broken copying machine or to buy toner. If you were to set up a ...
They say they thought there were fewer homeless people than before. | MetaFilterDeputy Mayor Linda Gibbs, the Bloomberg administration official most significantly involved in its policies for the homeless, is a trim, gray-haired woman in her mid-fifties whose father was the mayor of Menands, a village north of Albany. She grew up there and came to New York City right after getting her degree at SUNY Buffalo Law School. Intricate questions of public policy that would confuse and baffle most people intrigue her. Her blue eyes often have an expression that can only be described as a twinkle. I've seen this look in other Bloomberg staffers' eyes, and in photos of the Mayor himself. It reminds me of the twinkle in the eyes of the Santa Claus in the Coca-Cola ads from the nineteen-fifties (inappropriately, given the Mayor's feelings about soft drinks ...
Organization says two men claiming to be God are blocking its service to homeless people | KVALCHATTANOOGA, Tenn. (WTVC) Two men who claim to be God and several other things have forced the shut down of an organization that helps Chattanooga's homeless. Organization says two men claiming to be God are blocking its service to homeles
More homeless people parking RVs in neighborhoods | KGW.comMore and more of Portland's homeless appear to be putting down roots on wheels, parking their RVs along residential or city streets for days at a time.
California City Kicks Homeless People Out Of Longtime Dwelling | Care2 CausesFor years, the homeless in Albany created their own small tent community where they could live in peace. That is, until the eviction notice came this week.
Award for life-changing research with homeless young people - News - Cardiff UniversityResearchers who helped change the lives of homeless young people in Wales have won the prestigious 'Social Innovation Award' at Cardiff University's Innovation and Impact Awards 2015, sponsored by leading law firm Geldards and IP Group.
The New Face Of Poverty: Homeless Children - FedUpUSAA list of products and services made right here in the USA. Choosing to buy American made products preserves and creates American jobs ...
34 CFR 303.17 - Homeless children. | US Law | LII / Legal Information InstituteThis is a list of United States Code sections, Statutes at Large, Public Laws, and Presidential Documents, which provide rulemaking authority for this CFR Part.. This list is taken from the Parallel Table of Authorities and Rules provided by GPO [Government Printing Office].. It is not guaranteed to be accurate or up-to-date, though we do refresh the database weekly. More limitations on accuracy are described at the GPO site. ...
Books for Homeless Kids - The United Methodist ChurchAs students across the country begin a new school year, some children face great challenges. Family crises often force homeless children to change schools multiple times. One shelter is using a literacy laboratory to bridge the gap. Heidi Robinson reports.. ...
10 million funding for hospital aftercare for the homeless - GOV.UKHomeless people are to receive better help once they leave hospital thanks to £10 million funding, Public Health Minister Anna Soubry announced today.
Sacred Heart Op Shop - Business RecyclingThrough generously donating goods and by choosing to shop at Sacred Heart Mission op shops, you are helping to fund essential programs and services to help people who are homeless or living in poverty.
NYS PTA Advocacy NewsbriefsThere is a unique population of students who move often and are considered "highly mobile." These students include kids from military families, those in foster care, those from migrant families as well as those who are homeless. The US Department of Education has issued a letter which explains the special responsibility of school districts to provide continuity when students with disabilities move from one district to another. The directive can be read by clicking here. ...
How many of you have health insurance?, page 6It amazes me that so many intelligent ppl are still thinking black and white. I'm talking about this debate over our current privately run healthcare system and a government run public healthcare system. Why can't we have a system that is seperate from either of these? Is it really out of the realm of possibilities to create a national company that is governed by the ppl. I'm talking about an organization that each individual would pay into based on your income factoring in a cap that put a limit on how much you would pay in. ie. a man making $100,000 a year might pay a montly premium of $450/month for his family to be insured and a homeless man might pay $5/month but each would be able to see a doctor if the need arises and the medications they might need would be distrubuted by the doctor they see. The higher income man might get a new supply of this medication where as the homeless man might get meds redistributed from a supply originally used, then disguarded, but both men would get the ...
San Diego's emergency winter shelter opens - CBS News 8 - San Diego, CA News Station - KFMB Channel 8San Diego's homeless adult emergency winter shelter opened Saturday in Barrio Logan. For the first time, referrals from homeless service providers will identify the most vulnerable men and women i...
Japan's Homeless Dog Epidemic | Care2 CausesJust like many countries in the world, Japan has an epidemic of homeless dogs. Most are abandoned after their owners realize the huge responsibility of pet
Hunger and homelessness rise in U.S. cities -report | ReutersAcross the United States, the number of hungry and homeless people is growing, and budget fights at the federal level are threatening the aid many need to survive, the U.S. Conference of Mayors said on Thursday.
Bum breaks tourist's nose outside Midtown hotel in random attack | New York PostA homeless man with a history of random drunken violence swung a two-by-four into the face of a tourist outside a Midtown hotel Saturday, police said.
Tory cuts could leave thousands of vulnerable young people homeless - YMCA - RT UKThousands of youngsters who have fled unstable backgrounds and abuse could be forced into homelessness as the government plans to strip unemployed 18-21 year olds of housing benefits, it has emerged.
b3ta.com qotwI was married to one. When she and I were first living together she was working in Intensive Care and used to come home with tales of homeless people who came in with maggots living in their festering wounds and the old woman who was admitted with spiders living in her hair and biting her scalp because she hadn't washed it in so long. Since she and I generally were talking over dinner at the time, it was pretty difficult to eat anything with rice. I finally informed her that if she didn't knock it off I was going to move out within the week- which was met by blank amazement, as she couldn't understand why I didn't want to listen to what she did at work that day ...
The Best Way To End Poverty | HuffPostIn May 2009, a small experiment involving 13 homeless men took off in London. Some of them had slept in the cold for more than 40 years. The presence of ...
Gene Estess dies at 78; left Wall Street to help New York's homeless - Orlando SentinelAfter more than two decades in finance, Gene Estess found the professional fulfillment he had lacked by leading the Jericho Project.
Homeless Await Clinton`s Inauguration With Hope - tribunedigital-chicagotribuneAt first glance it looks like a nativity scene. Swaddled in bulky overcoats and gray woolen blankets, some figures stand quietly while others sleep under the glare of spotlights that shine brightly
Fees & LocationsAnimal Rescue, Inc. is a refuge for homeless cats and dogs and provides forever homes either at our animal sanctuary serving South Central PA and MD or through adoptions by loving human companions.
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Guiding principles for the use of biological markers in the assessment of human exposure to environmental factors : an...R f. 106822 Fascicule, Congr s - En anglais Guiding principles for the use of biological markers in the assessment of human exposure to environmental factors. Workshop. European Centre for Environment and Health. Workshop. Cracow POL, 1993/09/13. TOXICOLOGY, vol. 101, n 1-2, 1995, 124 p., r f.bibl., ISSN 0300-483X, IRL YOUNES (Maged) / d., LARSEN (John-Christian) / d., KRZYZANOWSKI (Michal) / d.. Who European cent environment health. BA Bilthoven. NLD / com.. ...
IBM News room - 2014-09-04 IBM Named a Leader in IDC MarketScape: Worldwide Oil and Gas Professional Services Vendor Assessment...IBM Press Room - IBM has been named a leader in the IDC MarketScape: Worldwide Oil and Gas Professional Services 2014 Vendor Assessment by IDC Energy Insights.
Medical College of Wisconsin study finds drug may limit radiation kidney damage in BM... ( Researchers at the Medical College...Health, ...Researchers at the Medical College of Wisconsin in Milwaukee have foun...It suggests that long-term administration of the drug captopril start...The research holds promise not only for protection of healthy tissue ...Kidney failure is a well known and serious complication of BMT and occ...,Medical,College,of,Wisconsin,study,finds,drug,may,limit,radiation,kidney,damage,in,BMT,patients,medicine,medical news today,latest medical news,medical newsletters,current medical news,latest medicine news
Culture - RioVida NetworksAlexander Hamilton, James Madison, and John Jay promoted the ratification of the United States Constitution with articles and essays that were collected and are still available at The Federalist Papers.*. Within these articles and essays these founders outlined their thinking about creating a federal union. They urged people to allow wise and experienced men who have the public good in mind to counter balance the needs, wishes, and desires of individual states. They believed that a federal union would better safeguard national borders, treaties with foreign nations. National Government would enforce the laws for all people better, instead of having individual states or individuals fall prey to undue influence for personal gain, personal wealth creation, or a desire of personal power, or by foreign powers.. The Federal Papers were used to educate American voters about the benefits of balancing individuals and individual states' freedoms with the public good and freedom as well as safety and ...
DPE NewsLine - April 2008 - DPEAFLCIOWELCOME, RWDSU! - Unanimity prevailed. By a unanimous vote, the Executive Board of the Retail, Wholesale and Department Store Union, RWDSU, sought to re-affiliate with DPE. Also by a unanimous vote, the DPE Executive Committee welcomed back RWDSU, a valued and active longtime affiliate. Our thanks to RWDSU President Stuart Appelbaum, the RWDSU Executive Board, and the members of RWDSU for renewing a constructive and productive relationship.. PUTTING PROFESSIONAL INTEGRITY ON THE AGENDA - Perhaps the outline will become a founding document: On March 25, 2008, representatives from the DPE Work Group on Professional Associations met for a fourth time since November 2007 with representatives from professional associations. Together they reached consensus on an outline of key elements defining professional integrity and challenges to it. That unprecedented consensus marks a crucial step toward strengthening the ability of professional and technical workers to do their work right.. Since July 2006, ...
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Erikson Institute for Education and Research | Austen Riggs CenterWelcome to the Erikson Institute for Education and Research of the Austen Riggs Center in Stockbridge, MA. Established in 1994, the Erikson Institute provides a place for psychoanalytic education, research, and community engagement. The mission of the Erikson Institute is to provide clinicians, educators, researchers, and scholars with opportunities for a complex conversation about how to understand and respond to the problems faced by individuals, groups, and society. Embedded in the rich tradition of the Austen Riggs Center and the psychoanalytic hospital treatment of adult patients, the Erikson Institute accomplishes its mission through many offerings: conferences, lectures, partnerships with other organizations, community engagement, clinical research, the Erikson Scholar-in-Residence program, a specialty library and growing archival collection of historical significance in the field of psychoanalytic hospital treatment, and national and international professional education provided by our ...
Stakeholder Recovery Efforts - Atlantic Salmon Recovery ProjectFor the past several years, the USFWS GOM Coastal Program has collaborated with other organizations to inventory road-stream crossings in an effort to identify barriers to stream connectivity (Abbott 2008). Aside from characterizing the geographic scope, magnitude, and nature of road-stream barriers in Maine, these inventories have considerable value in providing the basic information necessary to prioritize corrective action among the many severe barriers to the functioning of streams and recovery of key species of management interest. To that end, the Maine Interagency Stream Connectivity Work Group, a statewide effort to address connectivity issues in Maine, is working to develop a prioritization approach. The work group has drafted a provisional list of parameters (e.g., miles of accessible habitat upstream of the site) that would inform the relative ecological value of a given corrective action at any single road-stream crossing. It is anticipated that these parameters will be integrated ...
Federal Register :: Solicitation for a Cooperative Agreement-Curriculum Development: Planning and Implementing...The National Institute of Corrections (NIC) is soliciting proposals from organizations, groups, or individuals to enter into a cooperative agreement for an 18-month period to begin no later than September 15, 2013. Work under this cooperative agreement will involve developing curriculum, based on...
HotelExecutive.com - Business Review - Julie Pingston, Event Service Professionals Association (ESPA)After a decade of sacrifice and struggle, it seems that hotels and meeting planners have every reason to be optimistic about the group meeting business going forward. By every industry benchmark and measure, 2017 is shaping up to be a record year, which means more meetings in more locations for more attendees. And though no one in the industry is complaining about this rosy outlook, the strong demand is increasing competition among meeting planners across the board for the most desirable locations, for the best hotels, for the most creative experiences, for the most talented chefs, and for the best technology available. Because of this robust demand, hotels are in the driver s seat and they are flexing their collective muscles. Even though over 100,000 new rooms were added last year, hotel rates are expected to rise by a minimum of 4.0%, and they are also charging fees on amenities that were often gratis in the past. In addition, hotels are offering shorter lead times on booking commitments, ...
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Full text of "Flying Petrel, October 1963"EDITION Vol. 46 Published by National Alumni Association of Oglethorpe University October 1963 No. 3 ALUMNI ARE CHALLENGED Our alumni association has a tre- mendous challenge! At this period in the history of Oglethorpe University we find that the college must move for- ward. The enrollment is at an all time high. The addition of the evening classes places greater emphasis on the need and desire of students seeking an education at Oglethorpe. With increased enrollment, academic standards have also been raised even higher, the quality of our faculty has been able to keep pace with this growth thus far. However, it should be of con- cern to all of us to realize that with quality comes added financial and ad- ministrative burdens. Oglethorpe University as a small, in- dependent college receives very little, if any, financial support from govern- ment agencies. The main source of income to the college comes from stu- dent tuition. The money is used to maintain our present operation without capital ...
The State of the USA | Health Panel Created by Institute of Medicine in 2008 - Printer-FriendlyThe effort was launched in a public meeting on July 21, 2008, where representatives of State of the USA and other experts presented background information to the IOM panel and answered their questions. Presentations on that day included: an overview of State of the USA from Chris Hoenig, president and CEO of SUSA; a presentation and paper from health care consultant Cheryl Wold summarizing more than 20 other efforts to develop health indicators; a presentation on indicators and data quality from Robert Groves, director of the University of Michigan Survey Research Center and now the director of the U.S. Census Bureau. An overview of Healthy People 2020 from Carter Blakey of Health and Human Services; a review of community indicators from Richard Klein of the National Center for Health Statistics. Following the public meeting, the committee met privately on the next day and held two other closed meetings for its deliberations.. In the first week of December, the IOM delivered its recommendations ...
Baseline Assessment Project | Arms Trade TreatyThe Arms Trade Treaty-Baseline Assessment Project (ATT-BAP) helps States identify the requirements necessary to effectively implement the ATT. The project establishes the baseline against which to monitor the effectiveness of the ATT and highlights the specific capacity gaps and needs, as well as resources, of individual States and regions. The ATT-BAP has been devised in order to give clear guidance on the obligations contained within the ATT for States Parties; increase understanding of measures that can be taken to ensure that States are in a position to ratify the ATT and ensure effective implementation of the Treaty; contribute towards effective, targeted, and coordinated international assistance; deliver a baseline assessment of States' abilities to effectively implement the ATT; and provide indicators for monitoring the Treaty's impact.. ...
Healthy Lifestyle Habits After Breast Cancer Surgery | BlackDoctor(BlackDoctor.org) -- As many as 2.3 million American women have survived breast cancer or are living with breast cancer after surgery or other treatment. Most cancer survivors want to do everything they can to recover from surgery.
Home/Current Issue -> Daily News...MILPITAS, CA ─ The latest update to the World Fab Forecast report, published on September 5, 2017 by SEMI, again reveals record spending for fab equipment. Out of the 296 Front End facilities and lines tracked by SEMI, the report shows 30 facilities and lines with over $500 million in fab equipment spending. 2017 fab equipment spending (new and refurbished) is expected to increase by 37 percent, reaching a new annual spending record of about US$55 billion. The SEMI World Fab Forecast also forecasts that in 2018, fab equipment spending will increase even more, another 5 percent, for another record high of about $58 billion. The last record spending was in 2011 with about $40 billion. The spending in 2017 is now expected to top that by about $15 billion ...
Perl::Critic::Policy::CodeLayout::ProhibitParensWithBuiltins - search.cpan.orgCoding with parentheses can sometimes lead to verbose and awkward constructs, so I think the intent of Conway's guideline is to remove only the unnecessary parentheses. This policy makes exceptions for some common situations where parentheses are usually required. However, you may find other situations where the parentheses are necessary to enforce precedence, but they cause still violations. In those cases, consider using the '## no critic' comments to silence Perl::Critic.. ...
The Pocomoke Public Eye: 1/2/11 - 1/9/11Under the new arrangement, the Second Fleet ships would be under the direct command of Adm. John C. Harvey Jr., the four-star head of Fleet Forces Command.. In a memo from the White House, the president said he accepted Gates' plan to shut down JFCOM - a move he announced in August - on a date to be determined by Gates.. Pentagon officials have said they expect that some parts of the command could remain in the region but have not specified how many of JFCOM's 3,760 jobs in the region might remain.. Gates said that officials are "still refining the details but expect that roughly 50 percent of the capabilities under JFCOM will be kept and assigned to other organizations.". The statement doesn't shed light on how many jobs might be lost and what kinds of positions might remain, said Craig Quigley, who heads the taxpayer-funded Hampton Roads Military and Federal Facilities Alliance, which lobbies to protect the region's military assets.. Local members of Congress said they don't have enough ...
DAMMIT JANET!: 07/01/2008 - 08/01/2008The Bush administration wants to require all recipients of aid under federal health programs to certify that they will not refuse to hire nurses and other providers who object to abortion and even certain types of birth control. Under the draft of a proposed rule, hospitals, clinics, researchers and medical schools would have to sign "written certifications" as a prerequisite to getting money under any program run by the Department of Health and Human Services. … The proposal defines abortion as follows: "any of the various procedures - including the prescription, dispensing and administration of any drug or the performance of any procedure or any other action - that results in the termination of the life of a human being in utero between conception and natural birth, whether before or after implantation." ...
May Article HighlightsBy Dr. Carolyn Anderson Learning is so important at every stage of our life, and I think even more important as we get older so we remain current and aware of the world around us. New research and studies can
Maternal, Child and Adolescent Health Outreach - Public Health - City of Pasadena, CaliforniaAgencies and individual professionals working with low-income women of reproductive age, infants, children, and adolescents are invited to participate in the MCAH Collaborative and the Pasadena Healthy Women, Healthy Babies Coalition. Through policy, planning, review of legislative policies that impact the MCAH population, and collaborative efforts, we strive to achieve optimal health and well-being for our community. Join us as we endeavor to promote healthy lifestyle choices for healthy families and children.. ...
Gustafs Gomma Tube: Buying Diazepam CheapOne quick search on the internet will reveal just how easy it is to buy diazepam cheap online without a prescription. Alternatively you can buy diazepam cheap online with a prescription it just depends on where the overseas pharmacy is located. These days so many people cannot afford healthcare that it means many people are forced to buy their own medication online without a prescription. Over 70 million Americans cannot afford medical insurance so people are left with no options but to order online ...
Federal Judicial CenterThe Federal Judicial Center produced and maintains this site in furtherance of its statutory mission. The Center regards the contents of this site to be responsible and valuable, but these contents do not reflect official policy or recommendation of the Board of the Federal Judicial Center. The site also contains links to relevant information on websites maintained by other organizations; providing these external links is for the convenience of this site's users and does not constitute verification or endorsement of the information or the sites to which the links are produced. Opinions expressed in the materials found on this site are those of the authors, and not necessarily those of the Federal Judicial Center.. ...
Digital Content Working Group | About ALASupporting the "Transformation" of libraries is a priority of the Association's 2015 Strategic Plan, and the rapid shift from print to digital content is one of the more dramatic developments now transforming libraries of all types.. New digital forms of information offer rich and extraordinary opportunities for libraries to expand community access to information and to revolutionize in positive ways the relationship between libraries and users. At the same time, these new forms of digital content pose new challenges.. As libraries struggle to meet the challenges of providing digital content in an environment characterized by significant uncertainty and changing on a daily basis, there is a need for an Association-wide group of experts, broadly representative of the many constituencies within the library community, that can proactively address these digital content opportunities and issues at the highest level and from both a policy and practical perspective.. To this end, the ALA Working Group ...
Learning Without Frontiers Summit Cancelled | S...It is with sincere regret that we must inform our community that the Learning Without Frontiers Summit in London will not now take place this June.
You don't need us to remind you of the current challenges facing the economy in general, and education in particular. But sadly, due to this unusually difficult economic environment we have been unable to secure sufficient commercial sponsorship support for LWF London early enough to be certain that we could run a superb event to the exacting standard we expect. We have spent eight years gaining the trust of this community and, in simple terms, we do it right, or not at all. | Studying Teaching and Learning
Obama's Health Plan Needs Spending Controls, CBO SaysPresident Obama's plan to expand health coverage to the uninsured is likely to dig the nation deeper into debt unless policymakers adopt politically painful controls on spending, such as sharp reductions in payments to doctors, hospitals and other providers, congressional budget analysts said yes...
Ritter 230 Power Procedures Table - Product DetailsA power procedures table is a wise investment for your practice. There are many challenges facing you and your practice today, so choosing the right equipment is more important than ever.More and more healthcare providers are investing in power tables when updating their existing facilities or building new ones. This new trend is making exam and procedure rooms more efficient and safe, allowing a better overall healthcare experience for the patient.. Product URL : http://www.med-electronics.com/Ritter_230_Power_ ...
The Raelian MovementPrivacy: We guarantee that your details will not be given or sold to any other organisation and never be used for anything other than the RaelScience service. ...
Official: Toshiba pulls out of European consumer PC market • The RegisterExclusive Scandal-hit Toshiba is slashing jobs across Europe as it beats a retreat from the region's consumer PC market.. Retailers are honouring existing orders for the first quarter of this year but are not placing any further ones, sources told us. Staff have been notified of the planned redundancies and a number put at risk.. "We are working with retailers on current inventory," a spokeswoman at Tosh confirmed.. The company will still sell retail PCs in the US and Japan, but more locally, it will push notebooks and tablets to businesses, where it expects more stable demand.. According to Canalys, Toshiba sold 2.8 million notebooks in EMEA during 2015, a 38 per cent decline on the prior year, giving it 3.5 per cent share of a market that declined 16 per cent to 78 million units.. Senior analyst Tim Coulling told us the move from the Japanese PC maker was a "long time coming" and he reckoned there is relatively more money to be made in B2B PCs, what with accessories and services used to ...
Plus itAll parties concerned in health care in the Netherlands have joined forces to tackle the long standing problem of excessive waiting times and avert the threat of a two tier service emerging.. The broad coalition of 14 national organisations representing doctors, hospitals, patients, health insurers, and employers have in five weeks reached a rare consensus. Their report calls … ...
Status Report: 9.7 Test 3 Patch NotesFixed some issues with the visual model of the following vehicles: AMX 30 1er prototype, FV201 (A45), JagdPz. E 100, Somua S35 ...
Skin Cancer Symptoms and TestsPlease note: only your personal physician or other health professional you consult can best advise you on matters of your health based on your medical history, your family medical history, your medication history, and how information from any of these databases may apply to you. Neither University of Cincinnati (NetWellness) nor any party involved in creating, producing or delivering this web site shall be liable for any damages arising out of access to or use of this web site, or any errors or omissions in the content thereof. (More) ...
Abbvie: An Arthritis Foundation SponsorWe would especially like to thank Abbvie a premier sponsor who makes it possible for us to serve more than 50 million Americans.
Higher EducationThe National Center for Public Policy and Higher Education is an independent, nonprofit, nonpartisan organization which seeks to provide leadership in the search for answers to critical questions about priorities for higher education. The National Center for Public Policy and Higher Education will serve as a resource, a clearinghouse and a constructive critic -- seeking to stimulate, assist and prod government and higher education toward constructive change.
Healthcare Administration MinorThe healthcare administration minor offers students of other majors a 21-semester-hour course of study that is designed to help prepare individuals to be leaders who recognize and deal with the challenges facing the healthcare industry in order to advance the quality of patient care. Students are required to obtain a minimum grade of C- in all courses taken for the minor.. ...
Affordable Care Act Dashboard- October 2015 » Horizon Government AffairsAs we enter the fall, Congress is considering a number of bills modifying and repealing certain provisions of the ACA. In addition, open enrollment for the 2016 plan year begins on November 1, 2015, running through January 31, 2016. To help set the stage for these upcoming developments, Horizon Government Affairs offers this October 2015 ACA Dashboard, providing a visual and concise update of the current landscape of the ACA marketplace.. ...
Conditions of Use | European Social Survey (ESS)The ESS ERIC, Core Scientific Team (CST) and the producers bear no responsibility for the uses of the ESS data, or for interpretations or inferences based on these uses. The ESS ERIC, CST and the producers accept no liability for indirect, consequential or incidental damages or losses arising from use of the data collection, or from the unavailability of, or break in access to the service for whatever reason.. ...
CAMH: Evaluate Your DrinkingA recent national survey looked at how much people drank in a week and how their drinking was affecting different areas of their lives. People were asked about their physical health, outlook on life, friends/social life, relationships with their spouses or partners and children, home life, financial position and work or studies. Not surprisingly, the results showed that the more people drank in a week, the greater the chance that the drinking was affecting more and more areas of their lives. How likely are you to have problems as a result of your drinking? Look at the chart below to see where you fit.. Chance of negative consequences related to number of drinks per week. ...
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When used, an observer may make judgements and rate a person at a specified scale level with respect to identified characteristics.Four Seasons Baltimore and Residences: Four Seasons Hotel Baltimore is currently a 22 story highrise hotel complex building which opened on November 14, 2011. The building's construction began back in 2007 and went through several changes.
(1/12) Selecting subjects for participation in clinical research: one sphere of justice.
Recent guidelines from the US National Institutes of Health (NIH) mandate the inclusion of adequate numbers of women in clinical trials. Ought such standards to apply internationally? Walzer's theory of justice is brought to bear on the problem, the first use of the theory in research ethics, and it argues for broad application of the principle of adequate representation. A number of practical conclusions for research ethics committees (RECs) are outlined. Eligibility criteria in clinical trials ought to be justified by trial designers. Research ethics committees ought to question criteria that seem to exclude unnecessarily women from research participation. The issue of adequate representation should be construed broadly, so as to include consideration of the representation of the elderly, persons with HIV, mental illness and substance abuse disorders in clinical research. (+info)
(2/12) Health outcomes and managed care: discussing the hidden issues.
Too often the debate over health outcomes and managed care has glossed over a series of complex social, political, and ethical issues. Exciting advances in outcomes research have raised hopes for logical medical reform. However, science alone will not optimize our patients' health, since value judgements are necessary and integral parts of attempts to improve health outcomes within managed care organizations. Therefore, to form healthcare policy that is both fair and efficient, we must examine the fundamental values and ethical concerns that are imbedded in our efforts to shape care. We must openly discuss the hidden issues including: (1) trade-offs between standardization of care and provider-patient autonomy; (2) effects of financial incentives on physicians' professionalism; (3) opportunity costs inherent in the design of insurance plans; (4) responsibilities of managed care plans for the health of the public; (5) judicious and valid uses of data systems; and (6) the politics of uncertainty. (+info)
(3/12) Impact of therapeutic research on informed consent and the ethics of clinical trials: a medical oncology perspective.
PURPOSE: To create a more meaningful understanding of the informed consent process as it has come to be practiced and regulated in clinical trials, this discussion uses the experience gained from the conduct of therapeutic research that involves cancer patients. DESIGN: After an introduction of the ethical tenets of the consent process in clinical research that involves potentially vulnerable patients as research subjects, background that details the use of written consent documents and of the term "informed consent" is provided. Studies from the cancer setting that examine the inadequacies of written consent documents, and the outcome of the consent process itself, are reviewed. Two ethically challenging areas of cancer clinical research, the phase I trial and the randomized controlled trial, are discussed briefly as a means of highlighting many dilemmas present in clinical trials. Before concluding, areas for future research are discussed. RESULTS: Through an exclusive cancer research perspective, many current deficiencies in the informed consent process for therapeutic clinical trials can be critically examined. Also, new directions for improvements and areas of further research can be outlined and discussed objectively. The goals of such improvements and research should be prevention of further misguided or ineffective efforts to regulate the informed consent process. CONCLUSION: To ignore this rich and interesting perspective potentially contributes to continued misunderstanding and apathy toward fulfilling the regulatory and ethically obligatory requirements involved in an essential communication process between a clinician-investigator and a potentially vulnerable patient who is considering clinical trial participation. (+info)
(4/12) Protective truthfulness: the Chinese way of safeguarding patients in informed treatment decisions.
The first part of this paper examines the practice of informed treatment decisions in the protective medical system in China today. The second part examines how health care professionals in China perceive and carry out their responsibilities when relaying information to vulnerable patients, based on the findings of an empirical study that I had undertaken to examine the moral experience of nurses in practice situations. In the Chinese medical ethics tradition, refinement [jing] in skills and sincerity [cheng] in relating to patients are two cardinal virtues that health care professionals are required to possess. This notion of absolute sincerity carries a strong sense of parental protectiveness. The empirical findings reveal that most nurses are ambivalent about telling the truth to patients. Truth-telling would become an insincere act if a patient were to lose hope and confidence in life after learning of his or her disease. In this system of protective medical care, it is arguable as to whose interests are being protected: the patient, the family or the hospital. I would suggest that the interests of the hospital and the family members who legitimately represent the patient's interests are being honoured, but at the expense of the patient's right to know. (+info)
(5/12) The psychological profile of parents who volunteer their children for clinical research: a controlled study.
Three standard psychometric tests were administered to parents who volunteered their children for a randomised, double-blind placebo-controlled trial of a new asthma drug and to a control group of parents whose children were eligible for the trial but had declined the invitation. The trial took place at a children's hospital in Australia. The subjects comprised 68 parents who had volunteered their children and 42 who had not, a participation rate of 94 per cent and 70 per cent, respectively. The responses of these parents to the Gordon Survey of Interpersonal Values Questionnaire, the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory and the Cattell Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire were analysed by computer. There was a marked difference between the psychological profiles of the two groups of parents. Volunteering parents put more value on benevolence while non-volunteering parents were more concerned with power and prestige. The self-esteem of volunteering parents was much lower than that of non-volunteering parents. Finally, volunteering parents were more introverted, exhibited greater anxiety and low supergo, while non-volunteering parents appeared to have greater social confidence and emotional stability. Since an individual's values, self-esteem and personality may be important antecedents of behaviour, these findings suggest that parents who volunteer their children for clinical research are not only socially disadvantaged and emotionally vulnerable, but may also be psychologically predisposed to volunteering. Furthermore, these findings provide evidence for the existence of a psychosocial 'filter' effect of the informed consent procedure, which may be discouraging the better educated, more privileged and psychologically resilient members of society from participation as research subjects. (+info)
(6/12) Sociodemographic and motivational characteristics of parents who volunteer their children for clinical research: a controlled study.
OBJECTIVE: To determine the sociodemographic and motivational characteristics of parents who volunteer their children for clinical research. DESIGN: A questionnaire was administered to parents who volunteered their children for a randomised, double blind, placebo controlled trial of a drug to treat asthma and to a control group of parents whose children were eligible for the trial but had refused the invitation. SETTING: A children's hospital in Australia. SUBJECTS: 68 Parents who had volunteered their children and 42 who had not; a response rate of 94% and 70%, respectively. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Responses of parents to questionnaire designed to assess their perceptions, attitudes, and health seeking behaviour as well as sociodemographic data. RESULTS: Volunteering parents were less well educated with only 15% (10/68) of mothers and 16% (11/68) and of fathers having had a tertiary or university education compared with 26% (11/42) of mothers and 45% (19/42) in the non-volunteering group. Fewer volunteering parents had professional or administrative jobs than did non-volunteering parents (mothers 6% (4/68); fathers 9% (6/68) v mothers 14% (6/42); fathers 31% (13/42)). Volunteering parents had less social support, and they displayed greater health seeking behaviour and consumed more habit forming substances. They were motivated by a desire to help others and to contribute to medical research, but they were also searching for more information and better ways to help their own children. CONCLUSION: Parents who volunteer their children for medical research are significantly more socially disadvantaged and emotionally vulnerable. (+info)
(7/12) A classification of clinical paediatric research with analysis of related ethical themes.
Different types of clinical research are associated with different degrees of risk and with varying utility. Usually classified as therapeutic or non-therapeutic, clinical research involving children necessitates a balance between the conflicts of intrusion into a group of vulnerable subjects, and the obvious advantages which such intrusion engenders. To understand better the potential ethical dilemmas of paediatric research the author has expanded the classification of such clinical research involving children. Five types of such research--preventive research, curative research, research to alleviate symptoms, studies to establish norms and baselines, and curiosity research--are discussed in the context of their ethical constraints, and the different ethical questions which confront workers operating in each of these different themes. (+info)
(8/12) How to do it. Get patients' consent to enter clinical trials.
Gaining patients' consent to enter clinical trials is essential, but not easy. Giving careful thought to the design of the study itself, information which patients receive, and the use of a signed consent form may all help. To be properly informed, patients need to know something about their condition, the proposed study, and alternative options. The type and amount of information will vary and investigators need to judge the level appropriate for each person. Patients should understand that taking part in a clinical trial is voluntary and that their decision will not affect the quality of care they receive. The process of obtaining consent requires time and good communication. Working with young, elderly, or mentally impaired patients, or those particularly vulnerable to coercion, requires special sensitivity to the potential dangers. (+info)