Patient Selection: Criteria and standards used for the determination of the appropriateness of the inclusion of patients with specific conditions in proposed treatment plans and the criteria used for the inclusion of subjects in various clinical trials and other research protocols.Selection, Genetic: Differential and non-random reproduction of different genotypes, operating to alter the gene frequencies within a population.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Teaching Rounds: Systematic discussions and teaching relating to patient care.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Postoperative Complications: Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.Clinical Trials as Topic: Works about pre-planned studies of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule (if appropriate) of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. This concept includes clinical trials conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Fetal Therapies: Prenatal interventions to correct fetal anomalies or treat FETAL DISEASES in utero. Fetal therapies include several major areas, such as open surgery; FETOSCOPY; pharmacological therapy; INTRAUTERINE TRANSFUSION; STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION; and GENETIC THERAPY.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Survival Rate: The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Reoperation: A repeat operation for the same condition in the same patient due to disease progression or recurrence, or as followup to failed previous surgery.Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.Survival Analysis: A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic: Works about clinical trials that involve at least one test treatment and one control treatment, concurrent enrollment and follow-up of the test- and control-treated groups, and in which the treatments to be administered are selected by a random process, such as the use of a random-numbers table.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Clinical Trials, Phase I as Topic: Works about studies performed to evaluate the safety of diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques in healthy subjects and to determine the safe dosage range (if appropriate). These tests also are used to determine pharmacologic and pharmacokinetic properties (toxicity, metabolism, absorption, elimination, and preferred route of administration). They involve a small number of persons and usually last about 1 year. This concept includes phase I studies conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Selection Bias: The introduction of error due to systematic differences in the characteristics between those selected and those not selected for a given study. In sampling bias, error is the result of failure to ensure that all members of the reference population have a known chance of selection in the sample.Preoperative Care: Care given during the period prior to undergoing surgery when psychological and physical preparations are made according to the special needs of the individual patient. This period spans the time between admission to the hospital to the time the surgery begins. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Heart Valve Prosthesis Implantation: Surgical insertion of synthetic material to repair injured or diseased heart valves.Ambulatory Surgical Procedures: Surgery performed on an outpatient basis. It may be hospital-based or performed in an office or surgicenter.Stroke: A group of pathological conditions characterized by sudden, non-convulsive loss of neurological function due to BRAIN ISCHEMIA or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Stroke is classified by the type of tissue NECROSIS, such as the anatomic location, vasculature involved, etiology, age of the affected individual, and hemorrhagic vs. non-hemorrhagic nature. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp777-810)Neoplasm Recurrence, Local: The local recurrence of a neoplasm following treatment. It arises from microscopic cells of the original neoplasm that have escaped therapeutic intervention and later become clinically visible at the original site.Surgical Procedures, Minimally Invasive: Procedures that avoid use of open, invasive surgery in favor of closed or local surgery. These generally involve use of laparoscopic devices and remote-control manipulation of instruments with indirect observation of the surgical field through an endoscope or similar device.Combined Modality Therapy: The treatment of a disease or condition by several different means simultaneously or sequentially. Chemoimmunotherapy, RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY, chemoradiotherapy, cryochemotherapy, and SALVAGE THERAPY are seen most frequently, but their combinations with each other and surgery are also used.Prosthesis Design: The plan and delineation of prostheses in general or a specific prosthesis.Heart Failure: A heterogeneous condition in which the heart is unable to pump out sufficient blood to meet the metabolic need of the body. Heart failure can be caused by structural defects, functional abnormalities (VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION), or a sudden overload beyond its capacity. Chronic heart failure is more common than acute heart failure which results from sudden insult to cardiac function, such as MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.Cardiac Catheterization: Procedures in which placement of CARDIAC CATHETERS is performed for therapeutic or diagnostic procedures.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Liver Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy: The restoration of the sequential order of contraction and relaxation of the HEART ATRIA and HEART VENTRICLES by atrio-biventricular pacing.Laparoscopy: A procedure in which a laparoscope (LAPAROSCOPES) is inserted through a small incision near the navel to examine the abdominal and pelvic organs in the PERITONEAL CAVITY. If appropriate, biopsy or surgery can be performed during laparoscopy.Intraoperative Complications: Complications that affect patients during surgery. They may or may not be associated with the disease for which the surgery is done, or within the same surgical procedure.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Endoscopy: Procedures of applying ENDOSCOPES for disease diagnosis and treatment. Endoscopy involves passing an optical instrument through a small incision in the skin i.e., percutaneous; or through a natural orifice and along natural body pathways such as the digestive tract; and/or through an incision in the wall of a tubular structure or organ, i.e. transluminal, to examine or perform surgery on the interior parts of the body.Neoplasm Staging: Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Heart-Assist Devices: Small pumps, often implantable, designed for temporarily assisting the heart, usually the LEFT VENTRICLE, to pump blood. They consist of a pumping chamber and a power source, which may be partially or totally external to the body and activated by electromagnetic motors.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Prostheses and Implants: Artificial substitutes for body parts, and materials inserted into tissue for functional, cosmetic, or therapeutic purposes. Prostheses can be functional, as in the case of artificial arms and legs, or cosmetic, as in the case of an artificial eye. Implants, all surgically inserted or grafted into the body, tend to be used therapeutically. IMPLANTS, EXPERIMENTAL is available for those used experimentally.Genetics, Population: The discipline studying genetic composition of populations and effects of factors such as GENETIC SELECTION, population size, MUTATION, migration, and GENETIC DRIFT on the frequencies of various GENOTYPES and PHENOTYPES using a variety of GENETIC TECHNIQUES.Recurrence: The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.Angioplasty: Reconstruction or repair of a blood vessel, which includes the widening of a pathological narrowing of an artery or vein by the removal of atheromatous plaque material and/or the endothelial lining as well, or by dilatation (BALLOON ANGIOPLASTY) to compress an ATHEROMA. Except for ENDARTERECTOMY, usually these procedures are performed via catheterization as minimally invasive ENDOVASCULAR PROCEDURES.Cryosurgery: The use of freezing as a special surgical technique to destroy or excise tissue.Aortic Valve Stenosis: A pathological constriction that can occur above (supravalvular stenosis), below (subvalvular stenosis), or at the AORTIC VALVE. It is characterized by restricted outflow from the LEFT VENTRICLE into the AORTA.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Thrombolytic Therapy: Use of infusions of FIBRINOLYTIC AGENTS to destroy or dissolve thrombi in blood vessels or bypass grafts.Endarterectomy, Carotid: The excision of the thickened, atheromatous tunica intima of a carotid artery.Prosthesis Implantation: Surgical insertion of a prosthesis.Stents: Devices that provide support for tubular structures that are being anastomosed or for body cavities during skin grafting.Heart Valve Prosthesis: A device that substitutes for a heart valve. It may be composed of biological material (BIOPROSTHESIS) and/or synthetic material.Kaplan-Meier Estimate: A nonparametric method of compiling LIFE TABLES or survival tables. It combines calculated probabilities of survival and estimates to allow for observations occurring beyond a measurement threshold, which are assumed to occur randomly. Time intervals are defined as ending each time an event occurs and are therefore unequal. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1995)Hepatectomy: Excision of all or part of the liver. (Dorland, 28th ed)Practice Guidelines as Topic: Directions or principles presenting current or future rules of policy for assisting health care practitioners in patient care decisions regarding diagnosis, therapy, or related clinical circumstances. The guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by the convening of expert panels. The guidelines form a basis for the evaluation of all aspects of health care and delivery.Liver Transplantation: The transference of a part of or an entire liver from one human or animal to another.Disease-Free Survival: Period after successful treatment in which there is no appearance of the symptoms or effects of the disease.Feasibility Studies: Studies to determine the advantages or disadvantages, practicability, or capability of accomplishing a projected plan, study, or project.Salvage Therapy: A therapeutic approach, involving chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or surgery, after initial regimens have failed to lead to improvement in a patient's condition. Salvage therapy is most often used for neoplastic diseases.Catheterization: Use or insertion of a tubular device into a duct, blood vessel, hollow organ, or body cavity for injecting or withdrawing fluids for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. It differs from INTUBATION in that the tube here is used to restore or maintain patency in obstructions.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.United StatesEquipment Design: Methods of creating machines and devices.Molecular Targeted Therapy: Treatments with drugs which interact with or block synthesis of specific cellular components characteristic of the individual's disease in order to stop or interrupt the specific biochemical dysfunction involved in progression of the disease.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Lung Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.Diagnostic Imaging: Any visual display of structural or functional patterns of organs or tissues for diagnostic evaluation. It includes measuring physiologic and metabolic responses to physical and chemical stimuli, as well as ultramicroscopy.Neurosurgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the nervous system or its parts.Postoperative Care: The period of care beginning when the patient is removed from surgery and aimed at meeting the patient's psychological and physical needs directly after surgery. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Arthroplasty: Surgical reconstruction of a joint to relieve pain or restore motion.Treatment Failure: A measure of the quality of health care by assessment of unsuccessful results of management and procedures used in combating disease, in individual cases or series.Aortic Aneurysm, Abdominal: An abnormal balloon- or sac-like dilatation in the wall of the ABDOMINAL AORTA which gives rise to the visceral, the parietal, and the terminal (iliac) branches below the aortic hiatus at the diaphragm.Tumor Markers, Biological: Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.Research Design: A plan for collecting and utilizing data so that desired information can be obtained with sufficient precision or so that an hypothesis can be tested properly.Multicenter Studies as Topic: Works about controlled studies which are planned and carried out by several cooperating institutions to assess certain variables and outcomes in specific patient populations, for example, a multicenter study of congenital anomalies in children.Endovascular Procedures: Minimally invasive procedures, diagnostic or therapeutic, performed within the BLOOD VESSELS. They may be perfomed via ANGIOSCOPY; INTERVENTIONAL MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING; INTERVENTIONAL RADIOGRAPHY; or INTERVENTIONAL ULTRASONOGRAPHY.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Pneumonectomy: The excision of lung tissue including partial or total lung lobectomy.Carcinoma, Hepatocellular: A primary malignant neoplasm of epithelial liver cells. It ranges from a well-differentiated tumor with EPITHELIAL CELLS indistinguishable from normal HEPATOCYTES to a poorly differentiated neoplasm. The cells may be uniform or markedly pleomorphic, or form GIANT CELLS. Several classification schemes have been suggested.Registries: The systems and processes involved in the establishment, support, management, and operation of registers, e.g., disease registers.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Heart Septal Defects, Atrial: Developmental abnormalities in any portion of the ATRIAL SEPTUM resulting in abnormal communications between the two upper chambers of the heart. Classification of atrial septal defects is based on location of the communication and types of incomplete fusion of atrial septa with the ENDOCARDIAL CUSHIONS in the fetal heart. They include ostium primum, ostium secundum, sinus venosus, and coronary sinus defects.Cardiac Pacing, Artificial: Regulation of the rate of contraction of the heart muscles by an artificial pacemaker.Prostatectomy: Complete or partial surgical removal of the prostate. Three primary approaches are commonly employed: suprapubic - removal through an incision above the pubis and through the urinary bladder; retropubic - as for suprapubic but without entering the urinary bladder; and transurethral (TRANSURETHRAL RESECTION OF PROSTATE).Chi-Square Distribution: A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.Mating Preference, Animal: The selection or choice of sexual partner in animals. Often this reproductive preference is based on traits in the potential mate, such as coloration, size, or behavioral boldness. If the chosen ones are genetically different from the rejected ones, then NATURAL SELECTION is occurring.Chemotherapy, Adjuvant: Drug therapy given to augment or stimulate some other form of treatment such as surgery or radiation therapy. Adjuvant chemotherapy is commonly used in the therapy of cancer and can be administered before or after the primary treatment.Recovery of Function: A partial or complete return to the normal or proper physiologic activity of an organ or part following disease or trauma.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Septal Occluder Device: A CATHETER-delivered implant used for closing abnormal holes in the cardiovascular system, especially HEART SEPTAL DEFECTS; or passageways intentionally made during cardiovascular surgical procedures.Drug Resistance, Neoplasm: Resistance or diminished response of a neoplasm to an antineoplastic agent in humans, animals, or cell or tissue cultures.Outcome Assessment (Health Care): Research aimed at assessing the quality and effectiveness of health care as measured by the attainment of a specified end result or outcome. Measures include parameters such as improved health, lowered morbidity or mortality, and improvement of abnormal states (such as elevated blood pressure).Cardiac Surgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the heart.Brachytherapy: A collective term for interstitial, intracavity, and surface radiotherapy. It uses small sealed or partly-sealed sources that may be placed on or near the body surface or within a natural body cavity or implanted directly into the tissues.Colorectal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the COLON or the RECTUM or both. Risk factors for colorectal cancer include chronic ULCERATIVE COLITIS; FAMILIAL POLYPOSIS COLI; exposure to ASBESTOS; and irradiation of the CERVIX UTERI.Vascular Surgical Procedures: Operative procedures for the treatment of vascular disorders.Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Proportional Hazards Models: Statistical models used in survival analysis that assert that the effect of the study factors on the hazard rate in the study population is multiplicative and does not change over time.Medical Oncology: A subspecialty of internal medicine concerned with the study of neoplasms.Fibrinolytic Agents: Fibrinolysin or agents that convert plasminogen to FIBRINOLYSIN.Blood Vessel Prosthesis Implantation: Surgical insertion of BLOOD VESSEL PROSTHESES to repair injured or diseased blood vessels.Adenocarcinoma: A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.Alleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.Forecasting: The prediction or projection of the nature of future problems or existing conditions based upon the extrapolation or interpretation of existing scientific data or by the application of scientific methodology.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Clinical Trials, Phase III as Topic: Works about comparative studies to verify the effectiveness of diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques determined in phase II studies. During these trials, patients are monitored closely by physicians to identify any adverse reactions from long-term use. These studies are performed on groups of patients large enough to identify clinically significant responses and usually last about three years. This concept includes phase III studies conducted in both the U.S. and in other countries.Carotid Stenosis: Narrowing or stricture of any part of the CAROTID ARTERIES, most often due to atherosclerotic plaque formation. Ulcerations may form in atherosclerotic plaques and induce THROMBUS formation. Platelet or cholesterol emboli may arise from stenotic carotid lesions and induce a TRANSIENT ISCHEMIC ATTACK; CEREBROVASCULAR ACCIDENT; or temporary blindness (AMAUROSIS FUGAX). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp 822-3)Electric Stimulation Therapy: Application of electric current in treatment without the generation of perceptible heat. It includes electric stimulation of nerves or muscles, passage of current into the body, or use of interrupted current of low intensity to raise the threshold of the skin to pain.Genetic Drift: The fluctuation of the ALLELE FREQUENCY from one generation to the next.Laser Therapy: The use of photothermal effects of LASERS to coagulate, incise, vaporize, resect, dissect, or resurface tissue.Brain Ischemia: Localized reduction of blood flow to brain tissue due to arterial obstruction or systemic hypoperfusion. This frequently occurs in conjunction with brain hypoxia (HYPOXIA, BRAIN). Prolonged ischemia is associated with BRAIN INFARCTION.Prostatic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PROSTATE.Ventricular Dysfunction, Left: A condition in which the LEFT VENTRICLE of the heart was functionally impaired. This condition usually leads to HEART FAILURE; MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; and other cardiovascular complications. Diagnosis is made by measuring the diminished ejection fraction and a depressed level of motility of the left ventricular wall.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols: The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially in the drug therapy of neoplasms. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.Obesity, Morbid: The condition of weighing two, three, or more times the ideal weight, so called because it is associated with many serious and life-threatening disorders. In the BODY MASS INDEX, morbid obesity is defined as having a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2.Adaptation, Biological: Changes in biological features that help an organism cope with its ENVIRONMENT. These changes include physiological (ADAPTATION, PHYSIOLOGICAL), phenotypic and genetic changes.Defibrillators, Implantable: Implantable devices which continuously monitor the electrical activity of the heart and automatically detect and terminate ventricular tachycardia (TACHYCARDIA, VENTRICULAR) and VENTRICULAR FIBRILLATION. They consist of an impulse generator, batteries, and electrodes.Peritoneal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PERITONEUM.Prosthesis Failure: Malfunction of implantation shunts, valves, etc., and prosthesis loosening, migration, and breaking.Length of Stay: The period of confinement of a patient to a hospital or other health facility.Evidence-Based Medicine: An approach of practicing medicine with the goal to improve and evaluate patient care. It requires the judicious integration of best research evidence with the patient's values to make decisions about medical care. This method is to help physicians make proper diagnosis, devise best testing plan, choose best treatment and methods of disease prevention, as well as develop guidelines for large groups of patients with the same disease. (from JAMA 296 (9), 2006)Radiosurgery: A radiological stereotactic technique developed for cutting or destroying tissue by high doses of radiation in place of surgical incisions. It was originally developed for neurosurgery on structures in the brain and its use gradually spread to radiation surgery on extracranial structures as well. The usual rigid needles or probes of stereotactic surgery are replaced with beams of ionizing radiation directed toward a target so as to achieve local tissue destruction.Inbreeding: The mating of plants or non-human animals which are closely related genetically.Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung: A heterogeneous aggregate of at least three distinct histological types of lung cancer, including SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA; ADENOCARCINOMA; and LARGE CELL CARCINOMA. They are dealt with collectively because of their shared treatment strategy.Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized: Antibodies from non-human species whose protein sequences have been modified to make them nearly identical with human antibodies. If the constant region and part of the variable region are replaced, they are called humanized. If only the constant region is modified they are called chimeric. INN names for humanized antibodies end in -zumab.Positron-Emission Tomography: An imaging technique using compounds labelled with short-lived positron-emitting radionuclides (such as carbon-11, nitrogen-13, oxygen-15 and fluorine-18) to measure cell metabolism. It has been useful in study of soft tissues such as CANCER; CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM; and brain. SINGLE-PHOTON EMISSION-COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY is closely related to positron emission tomography, but uses isotopes with longer half-lives and resolution is lower.Reproduction: The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)Angiography: Radiography of blood vessels after injection of a contrast medium.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Thymus Gland: A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.Radiotherapy, Adjuvant: Radiotherapy given to augment some other form of treatment such as surgery or chemotherapy. Adjuvant radiotherapy is commonly used in the therapy of cancer and can be administered before or after the primary treatment.Liver Diseases: Pathological processes of the LIVER.Aortic Valve: The valve between the left ventricle and the ascending aorta which prevents backflow into the left ventricle.Neoplasm Metastasis: The transfer of a neoplasm from one organ or part of the body to another remote from the primary site.Protein Kinase Inhibitors: Agents that inhibit PROTEIN KINASES.Neoadjuvant Therapy: Preliminary cancer therapy (chemotherapy, radiation therapy, hormone/endocrine therapy, immunotherapy, hyperthermia, etc.) that precedes a necessary second modality of treatment.Sexual Behavior, Animal: Sexual activities of animals.Likelihood Functions: Functions constructed from a statistical model and a set of observed data which give the probability of that data for various values of the unknown model parameters. Those parameter values that maximize the probability are the maximum likelihood estimates of the parameters.ROC Curve: A graphic means for assessing the ability of a screening test to discriminate between healthy and diseased persons; may also be used in other studies, e.g., distinguishing stimuli responses as to a faint stimuli or nonstimuli.Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor: A cell surface receptor involved in regulation of cell growth and differentiation. It is specific for EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR and EGF-related peptides including TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR ALPHA; AMPHIREGULIN; and HEPARIN-BINDING EGF-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR. The binding of ligand to the receptor causes activation of its intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity and rapid internalization of the receptor-ligand complex into the cell.Decision Making: The process of making a selective intellectual judgment when presented with several complex alternatives consisting of several variables, and usually defining a course of action or an idea.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Hospital Mortality: A vital statistic measuring or recording the rate of death from any cause in hospitalized populations.EuropeSpecies Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Monitoring, Physiologic: The continuous measurement of physiological processes, blood pressure, heart rate, renal output, reflexes, respiration, etc., in a patient or experimental animal; includes pharmacologic monitoring, the measurement of administered drugs or their metabolites in the blood, tissues, or urine.Ultrasonography, Interventional: The use of ultrasound to guide minimally invasive surgical procedures such as needle ASPIRATION BIOPSY; DRAINAGE; etc. Its widest application is intravascular ultrasound imaging but it is useful also in urology and intra-abdominal conditions.Gene Frequency: The proportion of one particular in the total of all ALLELES for one genetic locus in a breeding POPULATION.Anesthesia: A state characterized by loss of feeling or sensation. This depression of nerve function is usually the result of pharmacologic action and is induced to allow performance of surgery or other painful procedures.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Sex Preselection: Methods for controlling genetic SEX of offspring.Recombination, Genetic: Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.Transplantation, Autologous: Transplantation of an individual's own tissue from one site to another site.Polymorphism, Genetic: The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.Rectal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the RECTUM.Genetic Fitness: The capability of an organism to survive and reproduce. The phenotypic expression of the genotype in a particular environment determines how genetically fit an organism will be.Codon: A set of three nucleotides in a protein coding sequence that specifies individual amino acids or a termination signal (CODON, TERMINATOR). Most codons are universal, but some organisms do not produce the transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER) complementary to all codons. These codons are referred to as unassigned codons (CODONS, NONSENSE).Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Cost-Benefit Analysis: A method of comparing the cost of a program with its expected benefits in dollars (or other currency). The benefit-to-cost ratio is a measure of total return expected per unit of money spent. This analysis generally excludes consideration of factors that are not measured ultimately in economic terms. Cost effectiveness compares alternative ways to achieve a specific set of results.Peptide Library: A collection of cloned peptides, or chemically synthesized peptides, frequently consisting of all possible combinations of amino acids making up an n-amino acid peptide.Heart Transplantation: The transference of a heart from one human or animal to another.Crosses, Genetic: Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.Pyrimidines: A family of 6-membered heterocyclic compounds occurring in nature in a wide variety of forms. They include several nucleic acid constituents (CYTOSINE; THYMINE; and URACIL) and form the basic structure of the barbiturates.Quantitative Trait, Heritable: A characteristic showing quantitative inheritance such as SKIN PIGMENTATION in humans. (From A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Coronary Artery Bypass: Surgical therapy of ischemic coronary artery disease achieved by grafting a section of saphenous vein, internal mammary artery, or other substitute between the aorta and the obstructed coronary artery distal to the obstructive lesion.Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee: Replacement of the knee joint.Lymph Node Excision: Surgical excision of one or more lymph nodes. Its most common use is in cancer surgery. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p966)Radiotherapy Dosage: The total amount of radiation absorbed by tissues as a result of radiotherapy.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Echocardiography: Ultrasonic recording of the size, motion, and composition of the heart and surrounding tissues. The standard approach is transthoracic.Electrocardiography: Recording of the moment-to-moment electromotive forces of the HEART as projected onto various sites on the body's surface, delineated as a scalar function of time. The recording is monitored by a tracing on slow moving chart paper or by observing it on a cardioscope, which is a CATHODE RAY TUBE DISPLAY.Genetic Markers: A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.Ischemia: A hypoperfusion of the BLOOD through an organ or tissue caused by a PATHOLOGIC CONSTRICTION or obstruction of its BLOOD VESSELS, or an absence of BLOOD CIRCULATION.Quality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation: Transfer of HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS from BONE MARROW or BLOOD between individuals within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS). Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation has been used as an alternative to BONE MARROW TRANSPLANTATION in the treatment of a variety of neoplasms.Pain Measurement: Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.Magnetic Resonance Angiography: Non-invasive method of vascular imaging and determination of internal anatomy without injection of contrast media or radiation exposure. The technique is used especially in CEREBRAL ANGIOGRAPHY as well as for studies of other vascular structures.Pancreatic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PANCREAS. Depending on the types of ISLET CELLS present in the tumors, various hormones can be secreted: GLUCAGON from PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS; INSULIN from PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; and SOMATOSTATIN from the SOMATOSTATIN-SECRETING CELLS. Most are malignant except the insulin-producing tumors (INSULINOMA).Lumbar Vertebrae: VERTEBRAE in the region of the lower BACK below the THORACIC VERTEBRAE and above the SACRAL VERTEBRAE.Bayes Theorem: A theorem in probability theory named for Thomas Bayes (1702-1761). In epidemiology, it is used to obtain the probability of disease in a group of people with some characteristic on the basis of the overall rate of that disease and of the likelihood of that characteristic in healthy and diseased individuals. The most familiar application is in clinical decision analysis where it is used for estimating the probability of a particular diagnosis given the appearance of some symptoms or test result.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Drug Delivery Systems: Systems for the delivery of drugs to target sites of pharmacological actions. Technologies employed include those concerning drug preparation, route of administration, site targeting, metabolism, and toxicity.

*  Social listening platforms shaking up the marketing

Advancements in clinical research with the adoption of evolving technology has brought many new opportunities to patient ... Going electronic with patient stipends is another developing trend aimed at delivering an overall increase in patient reten- ... This is also useful to determine site selection based on geography and the potential for competing studies. The ability to ... Travel assistance for patients is also a growing area where the industry is seeing an increase of new opportunities to connect ...

*  Patient Selection Overview - Stanford APBI Trial - Stanford University School of Medicine

Patient Selection Overview. Over the past decade several clinical trials have demonstrated that proper patient selection are ...

*  Uterus transplantation for absolute uterine factor infertility: Ethics, patient selection, and consent

The male factor of infertility should not be an issue for the selection of patients for extended embryo culture programmes. ... Uterus transplantation for absolute uterine factor infertility: Ethics, patient selection, and consent. Authors. Mats ... This topic will discuss the ethics, indications, and patient selection for uterus transplantation, an experimental approach to ... The purpose of this topic is to provide information on this developing technology for clinicians and patients; the topic is not ...

*  The relationship of patient selection to prognosis following aortocoronary bypass. | Circulation

The relationship of patient selection to prognosis following aortocoronary bypass.. M J Conley, A S Wechsler, R W Anderson, H N ... The relationship of patient selection to prognosis following aortocoronary bypass.. M J Conley, A S Wechsler, R W Anderson, H N ... The relationship of patient selection to prognosis following aortocoronary bypass.. M J Conley, A S Wechsler, R W Anderson, H N ... This apparent variation in operative mortality over time was largely a consequence of changing patterns of patient selection, i ...

*  Urodynamic Studies for Urinary Incontinence: Overview, Patient Selection for Urodynamic Studies, Test Components

Patient Selection for Urodynamic Studies. The history and physical examination alone may not provide sufficient and accurate ... Selection of patients for complex urodynamic testing can be difficult. Universally agreed-upon criteria for complex testing do ... Patients with low flow rates may be at risk for prolonged catheterization. In one study, 38% of the patients with abnormal ... Patient position during testing varies, but most commonly, the patient is sitting, semi-erect, or standing. The catheters ...

*  Transcatheter versus surgical treatment for aortic stenosis : Patient selection and early outcome

To explore patient selection criteria for treatment with TAVI. Design. TAVI patients (n = 45) were matched to SAVR patients (n ... Transcatheter versus surgical treatment for aortic stenosis: Patient selection and early outcome. Appel, Carl-Fredrik ... In clinical practice, factors other than high logEuroSCORE play an important role in patient selection for TAVI. ... transcatheter aortic valve implantation, aortic valve replacement, outcome, echocardiography, patient selection National ...

*  Treatment of children with chronic hepatitis B virus infection in the United States: Patient selection and therapeutic options ...

... depending on the patient's history. The extent of evaluation for other causes of liver disease varies from patient to patient; ... Decisions regarding selection of patients who may benefit from treatment, appropriate timing of treatment, and the choice of ... Decisions regarding selection of patients for treatment, appropriate timing of treatment, and the choice of antiviral therapy ... Treatment of children with chronic hepatitis B virus infection in the United States: Patient selection and therapeutic options† ...

*  For Face Transplant Patients, Selection Criteria Could Stiffen in Future - ABC News

... medical ethicists are discussing how to make decisions on if and when patients should be eligible for the costly and complex ... For Face Transplant Patients, Selection Criteria Could Stiffen in Future. * By Dan Childs ... Rather, facial transplant patients are largely selected by a process of elimination -- those patients for whom other surgeries ... "Most programs do exclude patients who are non-compliant or not adherent with medical therapy, and most exclude patients who ...

*  Biological Markers for Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Patient Selection for Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Tyrosine Kinase...

The selection of patients for tumor-specific therapies using molecular/biological properties of the patient's tumor has been a ... Patients with early-stage lung cancer and with a positive EGFR test have a superior survival compared with patients with a ... Biological Markers for Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Patient Selection for Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Tyrosine Kinase ... Biological Markers for Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Patient Selection for Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Tyrosine Kinase ...

*  MEDIC Regional Blood Center: Patient Selection of Platelet Pheresis Donors

Patient Selection of Platelet Pheresis Donors. Patient Selection of Platelet Pheresis Donors ...

*  Patient Selection for Immunotherapy in Gastric Cancer - Gastric Cancer Foundation

Curious about patient selection for immunotherapy in treating gastric cancer? Scientists explain here. ... Gastric Cancer Foundation , Research News , Patient Selection for Immunotherapy in Gastric Cancer ... Patient Selection for Immunotherapy in Gastric Cancer. By : ...

*  D.I.R.E. Score: Patient Selection for Chronic Opioid Analgesia | OpioidRisk

Risk assessment that addresses the risks of maintaining long-term opioid treatments in chronic pain patients. ...

*  Her2 alterations in muscle-invasive bladder cancer: Patient selection beyond protein expression for targeted therapy.

Although the introduction of novel targeted agents has improved patient outcomes in several human cancers, no such advance has ... Her2 alterations in muscle-invasive bladder cancer: Patient selection beyond protein expression for targeted therapy. Although ... Through an integrated analysis of 127 patients from three centers, we identified alterations of Her2 at the DNA, RNA and ... the introduction of novel targeted agents has improved patient outcomes in several human cancers, no such advance has been ...

*  CD34+ (Malignant) Stem Cell Selection for Patients Receiving Allogenic Stem Cell Transplant - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials...

CD34+ (Malignant) Stem Cell Selection for Patients Receiving Allogenic Stem Cell Transplant. The safety and scientific validity ... CD34+ Stem Cell Selection for Patients Receiving a Matched or Partially Matched Family or Unrelated Adult Donor Allogeneic Stem ... Patients will start their pre-conditioning regimen 9 days before their scheduled transplant. Patients will receive busulfan ... For patients with a history of hepatic toxicity and/or high-risk for veno-occlusive disease or other liver toxicity post stem ...

*  Effect of repetitive levosimendan treatment on clinical outcomes of chronic heart failure patients: focus on optimal patient...

The purpose of this study is to identify patients who benefit the most from intermittent levosimendan treatment using ... focus on optimal patient selection based on novel cardiac biomarkers. Next Previous ... Effect of repetitive levosimendan treatment on clinical outcomes of chronic heart failure patients: focus on optimal patient ... Effect of repetitive levosimendan treatment on clinical outcomes of chronic heart failure patients: ...

*  Silent Celiac Disease in Patients with Childhood Localization-Related Epilepsies - Labate - 2001 - Epilepsia - Wiley Online...

Patient selection. The study group consisted of 72 consecutive newly diagnosed patients (31 girls and 41 boys; mean age, 12.6 ... The patient receiving CBZ has been seizure free for 52 months; the patient receiving LTG has been seizure free for 9 months. ... Of the 25 patients with CPEO, two (8%) had antiendomysium immunoglobulin (Ig) A antibodies. In both of these patients, the ... Neuroradiologic investigation also was normal in these patients. Of the 25 patients with CPEO, two (8%; one girl and one boy, ...

*  Herceptin Dosage Guide -

Patient Selection. ​Select patients based on HER2 protein overexpression or HER2 gene amplification in tumor specimens [see ... If the patient has missed a dose of Herceptin by one week or less, then the usual maintenance dose (weekly schedule: 2 mg/kg; ... If the patient has missed a dose of Herceptin by more than one week, a re-loading dose of Herceptin should be administered over ... Interrupt the infusion in patients with dyspnea or clinically significant hypotension. *Discontinue Herceptin for severe or ...

*  Vectibix (Panitumumab Injection for Intravenous Use): Side Effects, Interactions, Warning, Dosage & Uses

Patient Selection. Prior to initiation of treatment with Vectibix, assess KRAS mutational status in colorectal tumors and ... ECOG performance was 0 in 32% of patients, 1 in 60% of patients, and 2 in 8% of patients. Median age was 61 years. More ... ECOG performance was 0 in 56% of patients, 1 in 38% of patients, and 2 in 6% of patients. Median age was 61.5 years. ... Dermatologic toxicities occurred in 90% of patients and were severe (NCI-CTC grade 3 and higher) in 15% of patients receiving ...

*  SALIVARY PROTEIN BIOMARKERS FOR HUMAN ORAL CANCER - The Regents of the University of California

Patient Selection, Sample Collection, and Processing:. All the OSCC patients involved in this example had not received any ... Patient Selection. All participants in this study signed the University of California-Los Angeles Institutional Review Board- ... in oral cancer patients are elevated significantly above those of control patients as well as advanced periodontitis patients, ... from a patient with cancer, in comparison to a biological sample from a patient without cancer. The term includes ...

*  Mekinist Dosage Guide -

Patient Selection. Melanoma. ​Confirm the presence of BRAF V600E or V600K mutation in tumor specimens prior to initiation of ...

*  Herceptin (Trastuzumab): Side Effects, Interactions, Warning, Dosage & Uses

Patient Selection. Select patients based on HER2 protein overexpression or HER2 gene amplification in tumor specimens [see ... c Includes 6 patients on chemotherapy arm, 10 patients on Herceptin arm with FISH-, IHC3+ and 8 patients on chemotherapy arm, 8 ... Table 4 : Per-Patient Incidence of Adverse Reactions Occurring in ≥ 5% of Patients in Uncontrolled Studies or at Increased ... 469 patients) and an open-label single agent clinical trial (Study 6, n = 222 patients). Both trials studied patients with ...

*  Plus it

Patient selection. The study was performed in a group of 62 type 1 diabetic patients. All were C-peptide negative (C-peptide , ... seven patients with one adverse effect, one patient with two adverse effects) compared with only two patients in the placebo ... These patients had been selected from 225 diabetic patients treated with CSII at our outpatient clinic. All of the patients in ... 45.1 ± 23.5 events · patient−1 · 6 months−1, respectively (7.8 ± 4.5 vs. 7.5 ± 3.9 events · patient−1 · month−1, NS). We ...

*  Coronary Computed Tomographic Angiography | Circulation

Patient Selection. The initial evaluation of acute chest pain requires an ECG and cardiac biomarkers (Figure 1A).11 Patients at ... Ultimately, appropriate patient selection will remain essential for ensuring optimal test use and patient management. ... Patient Preparation. In patients selected to undergo CTA, preparation with β-blockers and breathing instructions are paramount ... of patients with nonobstructive CAD were ultimately categorized as having ACS, including 3 patients with myocardial infarction ...

*  Geometric Vascular Remodeling After Balloon Angioplasty and β-Radiation Therapy | Circulation

Patient Selection. Patients eligible for the study were those treated successfully with BA followed by intracoronary ... Thirty-one patients were included in BERT-1.5 at our institution. Eight patients who received stent implantation for important ... At follow-up, the 3D IVUS analysis was not performed in 2 patients: 1 patient refused and the other returned prematurely with ... At follow-up, 14 (66%) patients remained asymptomatic. Six patients had stable angina pectoris: Canadian Cardiovascular Society ...

*  Downregulation of Immunodetectable Connexin43 and Decreased Gap Junction Size in the Pathogenesis of Chronic Hibernation in the...

Patient Selection. Principal entry criteria for the study included a history of previous myocardial infarction and subsequent ... Patients. Twenty-one patients were selected for the study: 91% male; median age, 61 years (range, 40 to 71 years); mean NYHA ... Four patients did not survive to follow-up, and the remaining 2 withdrew from the study. The demographic and clinical details ... Twenty-one patients went on to coronary artery bypass graft surgery, during which biopsies representative of each of the above ...

Selection (relational algebra): In relational algebra, a selection (sometimes called a restriction to avoid confusion with SQL's use of SELECT) is a unary operation written asCommunity-based clinical trial: Community-based clinical trials are clinical trials conducted directly through doctors and clinics rather than academic research facilities. They are designed to be administered through primary care physicians, community health centers and local outpatient facilities.Temporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studyingGlobal Risks Report: The Global Risks Report is an annual study published by the World Economic Forum ahead of the Forum’s Annual Meeting in Davos, Switzerland. Based on the work of the Global Risk Network, the report describes changes occurring in the global risks landscape from year to year and identifies the global risks that could play a critical role in the upcoming year.QRISK: QRISK2 (the most recent version of QRISK) is a prediction algorithm for cardiovascular disease (CVD) that uses traditional risk factors (age, systolic blood pressure, smoking status and ratio of total serum cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) together with body mass index, ethnicity, measures of deprivation, family history, chronic kidney disease, rheumatoid arthritis, atrial fibrillation, diabetes mellitus, and antihypertensive treatment.Cancer survival rates: Cancer survival rates vary by the type of cancer, stage at diagnosis, treatment given and many other factors, including country. In general survival rates are improving, although more so for some cancers than others.Molecular evolution: Molecular evolution is a change in the sequence composition of cellular molecules such as DNA, RNA, and proteins across generations. The field of molecular evolution uses principles of evolutionary biology and population genetics to explain patterns in these changes.Revision using distal inflow: Revision Using Distal Inflow (RUDI) is a surgical treatment for Dialysis-associated Steal Syndrome.Antileukemic drug: Antileukemic drugs, anticancer drugs that are used to treat one or more types of leukemia, include:Dense artery sign: In medicine, the dense artery sign or hyperdense artery sign is a radiologic sign seen on computer tomography (CT) scans suggestive of early ischemic stroke. In earlier studies of medical imaging in patients with strokes, it was the earliest sign of ischemic stroke in a significant minority of cases.AIP Conference Proceedings: AIP Conference Proceedings is a serial published by the American Institute of Physics since 1970. It publishes the proceedings from various conferences of physics societies.Genetic variation: right|thumbSilent mutation: Silent mutations are mutations in DNA that do not significantly alter the phenotype of the organism in which they occur. Silent mutations can occur in non-coding regions (outside of genes or within introns), or they may occur within exons.PinnacleHealth System: $1 billion (2013)List of kanji by stroke count: This Kanji index method groups together the kanji that are written with the same number of strokes. Currently, there are 2,186 individual kanji listed.Journal of Minimal Access Surgery: Journal of Minimal Access Surgery (ISSN: Print - 0972-9941, Online - 1998-3921) is peer-reviewed open access journal published on behalf of the Indian Association of Gastrointestinal Endo Surgeons. The journal publishes articles on the subject of Laparoscopic and thoracoscopic surgery, laparoscopic urology and gastrointestinal endoscopy.Abscopal effect: The abscopal effect is a phenomenon in the treatment of metastatic cancer where localized treatment of a tumor causes not only a shrinking of the treated tumor but also a shrinking of tumors in different compartments from the treated tumor. Initially associated with single-tumor, localized radiation therapy, the term has also come to encompass other types of localized treatments such as electroporation and intra-tumoral injection of therapeutics.Management of heart failure: Management of heart failure requires a multimodal approach. It involves a combination of lifestyle modifications, medications, and possibly the use of devices or surgery.Generalizability theory: Generalizability theory, or G Theory, is a statistical framework for conceptualizing, investigating, and designing reliable observations. It is used to determine the reliability (i.Coles PhillipsMetastatic liver disease: A liver metastasis is a malignant tumor in the liver that has spread from another organ affected by cancer. The liver is a common site for metastatic disease because of its rich, dual blood supply (the liver receives blood via the hepatic artery and portal vein).The Society of Elite Laparoscopic Surgeons: The Society of Elite Laparoscopic Surgeons is a non-profit organization based in Chandler, AZ, existing for the purpose of promoting access to minimally invasive surgery in the United States, and to lobby and promote the transition of the US medical system to adopt minimally invasive hysterectomy as standard of care.Society of Elite Laparoscopic Surgeons The organization is made up of member gynecologic surgeons, and holds annual meetings in various locales.Endoscopy unit: An endoscopy unit refers to a dedicated area where medical procedures are performed with endoscopes, which are cameras used to visualize structures within the body, such as the digestive tract and genitourinary system. Endoscopy units may be located within a hospital, incorporated within other medical care centres, or may be stand-alone in nature.ABCD rating: ABCD rating, also called the Jewett staging system or the Whitmore-Jewett staging system, is a staging system for prostate cancer that uses the letters A, B, C, and D.Age adjustment: In epidemiology and demography, age adjustment, also called age standardization, is a technique used to allow populations to be compared when the age profiles of the populations are quite different.ThoratecClonal Selection Algorithm: In artificial immune systems, Clonal selection algorithms are a class of algorithms inspired by the clonal selection theory of acquired immunity that explains how B and T lymphocytes improve their response to antigens over time called affinity maturation. These algorithms focus on the Darwinian attributes of the theory where selection is inspired by the affinity of antigen-antibody interactions, reproduction is inspired by cell division, and variation is inspired by somatic hypermutation.Panmixia: Panmixia (or panmixis) means random mating.King C and Stanfield W.Cryosurgery: Cryosurgery (cryotherapy) is the use of extreme cold in surgery to destroy abnormal or diseased tissue.DermNet NZ – Cryotherapy The term comes from the Greek words cryo (κρύο) ("icy cold") and surgery (cheirourgiki – χειρουργική) meaning "hand work" or "handiwork".Afterload: Afterload is the pressure in the wall of the left ventricle during ejection. In other words, it is the end load against which the heart contracts to eject blood.Branching order of bacterial phyla (Gupta, 2001): There are several models of the Branching order of bacterial phyla, one of these was proposed in 2001 by Gupta based on conserved indels or protein, termed "protein signatures", an alternative approach to molecular phylogeny. Some problematic exceptions and conflicts are present to these conserved indels, however, they are in agreement with several groupings of classes and phyla.Thrombolytic drug: Thrombolytic drugs are used in medicine to dissolve blood clots in a procedure termed thrombolysis. They limit the damage caused by the blockage or occlusion of a blood vessel.Multi-link suspension: __NOTOC__Robot-assisted double heart valve replacement: The first robotic-assisted double heart valve replacement was carried out in the Chennai region of India at Chettinad Hospital. Considered a rare form of surgery, this is the first instance of such a procedure using robotic surgery.National Clinical Guideline CentreJean Emond: Jean C. Emond is the current Thomas S.Clinical endpoint: In a clinical research trial, a clinical endpoint generally refers to occurrence of a disease, symptom, sign or laboratory abnormality that constitutes one of the target outcomes of the trial, but may also refer to any such disease or sign that strongly motivates the withdrawal of that individual or entity from the trial, then often termed humane (clinical) endpoint.Feasibility Study (The Outer Limits): "Feasibility Study" is an episode of The Outer Limits television show. It was first broadcast on 11 July 1997, during the third season.Balloon catheter: A balloon catheter is a type of "soft" catheter with an inflatable "balloon" at its tip which is used during a catheterization procedure to enlarge a narrow opening or passage within the body. The deflated balloon catheter is positioned, then inflated to perform the necessary procedure, and deflated again in order to be removed.HyperintensitySymmetry element: A symmetry element is a point of reference about which symmetry operations can take place. In particular, symmetry elements can be centers of inversion, axes of rotation and mirror planes.List of Parliamentary constituencies in Kent: The ceremonial county of Kent,Beta encoder: A beta encoder is an analog to digital conversion (A/D) system in which a real number in the unit interval is represented by a finite representation of a sequence in base beta, with beta being a real number between 1 and 2. Beta encoders are an alternative to traditional approaches to pulse code modulation.Assay sensitivity: Assay sensitivity is a property of a clinical trial defined as the ability of a trial to distinguish an effective treatment from a less effective or ineffective intervention. Without assay sensitivity, a trial is not internally valid and is not capable of comparing the efficacy of two interventions.Targeted therapy of lung cancer: Targeted therapy of lung cancer refers to using agents specifically designed to selectively target molecular pathways responsible for, or that substantially drive, the malignant phenotype of lung cancer cells, and as a consequence of this (relative) selectivity, cause fewer toxic effects on normal cells.Abdominal aortic aneurysmCancer biomarkers: A cancer biomarker refers to a substance or process that is indicative of the presence of cancer in the body. A biomarker may be a molecule secreted by a tumor or a specific response of the body to the presence of cancer.Lung cancer surgery: Lung cancer surgery describes the use of surgical operations in the treatment of lung cancer. It involves the surgical excision of cancer tissue from the lung.Fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinomaDisease registry: Disease or patient registries are collections of secondary data related to patients with a specific diagnosis, condition, or procedure, and they play an important role in post marketing surveillance of pharmaceuticals. Registries are different from indexes in that they contain more extensive data.Phenotype microarray: The phenotype microarray approach is a technology for high-throughput phenotyping of cells.Atrial septal defectVentricular dyssynchrony: In cardiology, Ventricular dyssynchrony is a difference in the timing, or lack of synchrony, of contractions in different ventricles in the heart. Large differences in timing of contractions can reduce cardiac efficiency and is correlated with heart failure.ProstatectomyBiological ornament: A biological ornament is a secondary sexual characteristic of an animal that appears to serve a decorative function rather than an ostensible, utilitarian function. Ornaments are used in displays to attract mates in a process known as sexual selection.

(1/7350) Geographic, demographic, and socioeconomic variations in the investigation and management of coronary heart disease in Scotland.

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether age, sex, level of deprivation, and area of residence affect the likelihood of investigation and treatment of patients with coronary heart disease. DESIGN, PATIENTS, AND INTERVENTIONS: Routine discharge data were used to identify patients admitted with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) between 1991 and 1993 inclusive. Record linkage provided the proportion undergoing angiography, percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA), and coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) over the following two years. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to determine whether age, sex, deprivation, and area of residence were independently associated with progression to investigation and revascularisation. SETTING: Mainland Scotland 1991 to 1995 inclusive. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Two year incidence of angiography, PTCA, and CABG. Results-36 838 patients were admitted with AMI. 4831 (13%) underwent angiography, 587 (2%) PTCA, and 1825 (5%) CABG. Women were significantly less likely to undergo angiography (p < 0.001) and CABG (p < 0.001) but more likely to undergo PTCA (p < 0.05). Older patients were less likely to undergo all three procedures (p < 0.001). Socioeconomic deprivation was associated with a reduced likelihood of both angiography and CABG (p < 0.001). There were significant geographic variations in all three modalities (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Variations in investigation and management were demonstrated by age, sex, geography, and socioeconomic deprivation. These are unlikely to be accounted for by differences in need; differences in clinical practice are, therefore, likely.  (+info)

(2/7350) Early death during chemotherapy in patients with small-cell lung cancer: derivation of a prognostic index for toxic death and progression.

Based on an increased frequency of early death (death within the first treatment cycle) in our two latest randomized trials of combination chemotherapy in small-cell lung cancer (SCLC), we wanted to identify patients at risk of early non-toxic death (ENTD) and early toxic death (ETD). Data were stored in a database and logistic regression analyses were performed to identify predictive factors for early death. During the first cycle, 118 out of 937 patients (12.6%) died. In 38 patients (4%), the cause of death was sepsis. Significant risk factors were age, performance status (PS), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and treatment with epipodophyllotoxins and platinum in the first cycle (EP). Risk factors for ENTD were age, PS and LDH. Extensive stage had a hazard ratio of 1.9 (P = 0.07). Risk factors for ETD were EP, PS and LDH, whereas age and stage were not. For EP, the hazard ratio was as high as 6.7 (P = 0.0001). We introduced a simple prognostic algorithm including performance status, LDH and age. Using a prognostic algorithm to exclude poor-risk patients from trials, we could minimize early death, improve long-term survival and increase the survival differences between different regimens. We suggest that other groups evaluate our algorithm and exclude poor prognosis patients from trials of dose intensification.  (+info)

(3/7350) Peritoneal cytology in the surgical evaluation of gastric carcinoma.

Many patients undergoing surgery for gastric carcinoma will develop peritoneal metastases. A method to identify those patients at risk of peritoneal recurrence would help in the selection of patients for adjuvant therapy. Peritoneal cytology has received little attention in the West, but may prove a useful additional means of evaluating patients with gastric cancer. The aims of this study were to evaluate sampling techniques for peritoneal cytology in patients with gastric cancer, to assess the prognostic significance of free peritoneal malignant cells and to discover the effect of the operative procedure on dissemination of malignant cells. The study is based on 85 consecutive patients undergoing surgical treatment of gastric cancer and followed up for 2 years or until death. Peritoneal cytology samples were collected at laparoscopy, and at operation prior to resection by intraperitoneal lavage and serosal brushings. After resection, samples were taken by peritoneal lavage, imprint cytology of the resected specimen and post-operatively by peritoneal irrigation via a percutaneous catheter. Malignant cells were diagnosed by two independent microscopists. Preoperative peritoneal lavage yielded malignant cells in 16 out of 85 cases (19%). The yield of free malignant cells was increased by using serosal brushings (by four cases) and imprint cytology (by two cases); all of the cases had evidence of serosal penetration. One serosa-negative case exhibited positive cytology in the post-resection peritoneal specimen in which the preresection cytology specimen was negative. Survival was worse in the cytology-positive group (chi2 = 25.1; P< 0.0001). Among serosa-positive patients, survival was significantly reduced if cytology was positive, if cases yielded by brushings and imprint cytology were included (log-rank test = 8.44; 1 df, P = 0.004). In conclusion, free peritoneal malignant cells can be identified in patients with gastric cancer who have a poor prognosis; the yield can be increased with brushings and imprint cytology in addition to conventional peritoneal lavage. Evaluation of peritoneal cytology by these methods may have a role in the selection of patients with the poorest prognosis who may benefit most from adjuvant therapy.  (+info)

(4/7350) Profound variation in dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase activity in human blood cells: major implications for the detection of partly deficient patients.

Dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD) is responsible for the breakdown of the widely used antineoplastic agent 5-fluorouracil (5FU), thereby limiting the efficacy of the therapy. To identify patients suffering from a complete or partial DPD deficiency, the activity of DPD is usually determined in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBM cells). In this study, we demonstrated that the highest activity of DPD was found in monocytes followed by that of lymphocytes, granulocytes and platelets, whereas no significant activity of DPD could be detected in erythrocytes. The activity of DPD in PBM cells proved to be intermediate compared with the DPD activity observed in monocytes and lymphocytes. The mean percentage of monocytes in the PBM cells obtained from cancer patients proved to be significantly higher than that observed in PBM cells obtained from healthy volunteers. Moreover, a profound positive correlation was observed between the DPD activity of PBM cells and the percentage of monocytes, thus introducing a large inter- and intrapatient variability in the activity of DPD and hindering the detection of patients with a partial DPD deficiency.  (+info)

(5/7350) The effect of race and sex on physicians' recommendations for cardiac catheterization.

BACKGROUND: Epidemiologic studies have reported differences in the use of cardiovascular procedures according to the race and sex of the patient. Whether the differences stem from differences in the recommendations of physicians remains uncertain. METHODS: We developed a computerized survey instrument to assess physicians' recommendations for managing chest pain. Actors portrayed patients with particular characteristics in scripted interviews about their symptoms. A total of 720 physicians at two national meetings of organizations of primary care physicians participated in the survey. Each physician viewed a recorded interview and was given other data about a hypothetical patient. He or she then made recommendations about that patient's care. We used multivariate logistic-regression analysis to assess the effects of the race and sex of the patients on treatment recommendations, while controlling for the physicians' assessment of the probability of coronary artery disease as well as for the age of the patient, the level of coronary risk, the type of chest pain, and the results of an exercise stress test. RESULTS: The physicians' mean (+/-SD) estimates of the probability of coronary artery disease were lower for women (probability, 64.1+/-19.3 percent, vs. 69.2+/-18.2 percent for men; P<0.001), younger patients (63.8+/-19.5 percent for patients who were 55 years old, vs. 69.5+/-17.9 percent for patients who were 70 years old; P<0.001), and patients with nonanginal pain (58.3+/-19.0 percent, vs. 64.4+/-18.3 percent for patients with possible angina and 77.1+/-14.0 percent for those with definite angina; P=0.001). Logistic-regression analysis indicated that women (odds ratio, 0.60; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.4 to 0.9; P=0.02) and blacks (odds ratio, 0.60; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.4 to 0.9; P=0.02) were less likely to be referred for cardiac catheterization than men and whites, respectively. Analysis of race-sex interactions showed that black women were significantly less likely to be referred for catheterization than white men (odds ratio, 0.4; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.2 to 0.7; P=0.004). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that the race and sex of a patient independently influence how physicians manage chest pain.  (+info)

(6/7350) Studies on structural changes of the carotid arteries and the heart in asymptomatic renal transplant recipients.

BACKGROUND: The present study was designed to characterize early structural changes of large arteries in renal transplant recipients with no clinical evidence of cardiovascular disease and normal blood pressure values, and to analyse the relationship between arterial alterations and those of the heart. METHODS: Intima media thickness and atherosclerotic plaques of the carotid arteries as well as left ventricular geometry and function were examined in 35 asymtomatic renal transplant recipients and 29 age- and sex-matched healthy controls by high resolution B-mode ultrasound and by echocardiography. RESULTS: Intima-media thickness of the carotid arteries was significantly higher in renal transplant recipients (1.21+/-0.08 mm) than in healthy controls (0.74+/-0.04 mm) (P<0.001). Atherosclerotic plaques were found in the majority of renal transplant recipients (71% vs 14% in healthy controls, P<0.001). Left ventricular mass index was significantly increased in the group of renal transplant recipients (264+/-13 g, 146+/-7 g/m2) when compared with healthy controls (155+/-8 g, 83+/-4 g/m2) (P<0.001). Multiple regression analysis in renal transplant recipients showed that intima media thickness of the carotid arteries was significantly related to left ventricular mass index (P<0.02), but not to age, blood pressure, body mass index, serum creatinine, cholesterol and lipoprotein (a) levels. In the group of healthy controls, intima-media thickness of the carotid artery was related to age (P<0.002), but not to left ventricular mass index or the other independent variables. CONCLUSIONS: The present study documents pronounced intima-media thickening in asymptomatic renal transplant recipients. Atherosclerotic lesions are present in most renal transplant recipients with no clinical evidence of cardiovascular disease. We observed a parallelism between arterial wall thickening and left ventricular hypertrophy, although blood pressure levels were normal during haemodialysis therapy and after renal transplantation.  (+info)

(7/7350) Ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms: selecting patients for surgery.

OBJECTIVES: Mortality from ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm (RAAA) remains high. Despite this, withholding surgery on poor-prognosis patients with RAAA may create a difficult dilemma for the surgeon. Hardman et al. identified five independent, preoperative risk factors associated with mortality and proposed a model for preoperative patient selection. The aim of this study was to test the validity of the same model in an independent series of RAAA patients. METHODS: A consecutive series of patients undergoing surgery for RAAA was analysed retrospectively by case-note review. Thirty-day operative mortality and the presence of the five risk factors: age (> 76 years), creatinine (Cr) (> 190 mumol/l), haemoglobin (Hb) (< 9 g/dl), loss of consciousness and electrocardiographic (ECG) evidence of ischaemia were recorded for each patient. RESULTS: Complete data sets existed for 69 patients (mean age: 73 years, range: 38-86 years, male to female ratio: 6:1). Operative mortality was 43%. The cumulative effect of 0, 1 and 2 risk factors on mortality was 18%, 28% and 48%, respectively. All patients with three or more risk factors died (eight patients). CONCLUSIONS: These results lend support to the validity of the model. The potential to avoid surgery in patients with little or no chance of survival would spare unnecessary suffering, reduce operative mortality and enhance use of scarce resources.  (+info)

(8/7350) Repair of ruptured thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm is worthwhile in selected cases.

INTRODUCTION: The risks and benefits of operating on patients with ruptured thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm (TAAA) have not been defined. The aim of the present study is to report this unit's experience with operations performed for ruptured TAAA over a 10-year period. METHODS: Interrogation of a prospectively gathered computerised database. PATIENTS: Between 1 January 1983 and 30 June 1996, 188 consecutive patients with TAAA were operated on, of whom 23 (12%) were operated for rupture. RESULTS: There were nine survivors (40%). Patients whose preoperative systolic blood pressure remained above 100 mmHg were significantly more likely to survive (4/8 vs. 13/15, p = 0.03 by Fisher's exact test). Survival was also related to Crawford type: type I (two of three survived); II (none of six); III (two of six); and IV (five of eight). All non-type II, non-shocked patients survived operation. Survivors spent a median of 28 (range 10-66) postoperative days in hospital, of which a median of 6 (range 2-24) days were spent in the intensive care unit. Survivor morbidity comprised prolonged ventilation (> 5 days) (n = 3); tracheostomy (n = 1); and temporary haemofiltration (n = 2). No survivor developed paraplegia or required permanent dialysis. CONCLUSIONS: Patients in shock with a Crawford type II aneurysm have such a poor prognosis that intervention has to be questioned except in the most favourable of circumstances. However, patients with types I, III and IV who are not shocked on presentation can be salvaged and, where possible, should be transferred to a unit where appropriate expertise and facilities are available.  (+info)


  • To describe short-term clinical and echocardiography outcomes in patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) and surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR). (
  • Although the introduction of novel targeted agents has improved patient outcomes in several human cancers, no such advance has been achieved in muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC). (
  • Effect of repetitive levosimendan treatment on clinical outcomes of chronic heart failure patients: focus on optimal patient selection based on novel cardiac biomarkers. (
  • The outcomes of men who are not treated for prostate cancer is dependent on cancer grade (the higher the grade the more aggressive), the life expectancy of the patient with the disease, and whether or not the cancer was detected through screening. (
  • Outcomes Research evaluates the impact of health care on the health outcomes of patients and populations (see AHRQ for further details). (
  • SOAR members hope, as part of the surgical outcomes research community, to improve overall outcomes for patients with surgical diseases. (


  • Over the past decade several clinical trials have demonstrated that proper patient selection are important for the success of accelerated partial breast irradiation. (
  • In clinical practice, factors other than high logEuroSCORE play an important role in patient selection for TAVI. (
  • Some prospective studies that select patients based on clinical features have been conducted, but the results are not yet available. (
  • To evaluate how many patients with a clinical picture of idiopathic childhood localization-related epilepsies may also have silent celiac disease (CD). (
  • Conversely, in children older than 2 years or in adults, the clinical picture is often dominated by nonbowel manifestations (2) , particularly neurologic disorders, which occur in ∼10% of patients (3) . (
  • Vectibix is not indicated for the treatment of patients with KRAS-mutant mCRC or for whom KRAS mutation status is unknown [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION , WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS , and CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY ]. (
  • 5 In addition, the use of CTA in the ED requires careful consideration of several key clinical, patient, and institutional factors ( Table 2 ). (
  • In 2006, the British National Health Service's National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) considered evidence of the effectiveness and the potential risks of the laser surgery stating "current evidence suggests that photorefractive (laser) surgery for the correction of refractive errors is safe and efficacious for use in appropriately selected patients. (
  • In March 2008, the American Society of Cataract and Refractive Surgery published a patient satisfaction meta-analysis of over 3,000 peer-reviewed articles from international clinical journals. (


  • RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS -A total of 62 patients (25 women and 37 men) were studied in a monocenter, randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled study, comparing metformin (850 mg b.i.d.) with placebo in association with CSII during a 6-month period. (
  • Methods and Results -Twenty-one consecutive patients treated with balloon angioplasty and β-radiation according to the Beta Energy Restenosis Trial-1.5 were included in the study. (

treated with placebo

  • C, hypothetical survival results from an EGFR test showing a favorable prognosis in stage IV NSCLC patients treated with placebo in a randomized trial comparing the EGFR TKI to placebo. (
  • Mild or moderate gastrointestinal side effects were also reported in eight patients treated with metformin and two patients treated with placebo ( P = 0.069). (


  • Despite these advances, alternative tests (eg, treadmill testing, stress echocardiography) remain reasonable options in selected patients. (


  • The relationship of patient selection to prognosis following aortocoronary bypass. (


  • This topic will discuss the ethics, indications, and patient selection for uterus transplantation, an experimental approach to restoring fertility in women with absolute uterine factor infertility. (
  • Patient selection for facial transplantation is ongoing. (


  • Patients eligible for the study were those treated successfully with BA followed by intracoronary irradiation according to the Beta Energy Restenosis Trial (BERT)-1.5. (
  • The purpose of this trial was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of low-dose irradiation after BA with or without stent implantation in patients with single de novo lesions of native coronary arteries. (
  • The Cincinnati Radiation Experiments were a series of total and partial body irradiation tests performed on at least 90 patients with advanced cancer at the Cincinnati General Hospital, now University Hospital, from 1960-1971. (
  • Dr. Saenger maintained that while the DOD funds were used to buy irradiation equipment, run laboratory tests, and hire personnel, only University funds directly financed the patients' irradiation treatment. (
  • and the irradiation was administered all at once, which diverged from the standard medical practice at the time, where cancer patients were given small doses cumulatively to maximize destruction of cancer cells. (
  • David Egilman, a doctor practicing in Massachusetts at the time, criticized the patient selection and irradiation processes in a statement to the Advisory Committee on Human Radiation Experiments, writing that many of the cancers were radio-resistant and could not have been treated effectively without killing the patient. (
  • On the other hand, the American College of Radiology, after sending representatives to Dr. Saenger's laboratory during the irradiation experiments, concluded in a 1972 peer review that the patient selection process and the experiments as a whole "conformed with good medical practice. (


  • The selection of patients for tumor-specific therapies using molecular/biological properties of the patient's tumor has been a long tradition in breast cancer (e.g., estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and HER-2/ neu ) but has not been widely accepted in lung cancer therapy selection ( 1 , 2 ). (
  • Active surveillance (AS) or watchful waiting is a management option for localized prostate cancer that can be offered to appropriate patients who would also be candidates for aggressive local therapies (surgery and radiotherapy), with the intent to intervene if the disease progresses. (
  • Different therapies are used for patients experiencing acute attacks, for patients who have the relapsing-remitting subtype, for patients who have the progressive subtypes, for patients without a diagnosis of MS who have a demyelinating event, and for managing the various consequences of MS. The primary aims of therapy are returning function after an attack, preventing new attacks, and preventing disability. (


  • Information on FDA-approved tests for the detection of KRAS mutations in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer is available at: (
  • As a single agent for treatment of HER2-overexpressing breast cancer in patients who have received one or more chemotherapy regimens for metastatic disease. (


  • Clinicians undertaking photorefractive (laser) surgery for the correction of refractive errors should ensure that patients understand the benefits and potential risks of the procedure. (


  • Because history alone is often inadequate to identify patients who may be safely discharged, 3 it is common practice to use observation and serial cardiac biomarkers for patient evaluation. (
  • The Artificial Cardiac Pump temporarily takes over the function of breathing and pumping blood for a patient. (
  • Cardiac pumps are most often used in heart surgery, so that a patient's heart can be disconnected from the body for longer than the twenty minutes or so it takes for a prepared patient to die. (


  • There have been a small number of studies that suggest that flushing the media through the tubes gives a short-term rise in fecundity in patients with unexplained infertility. (


  • Even so, in the progress reports sent to the DOD and in his testimony to the Subcommittee on Administrative Law and Governmental Relations in 1994, Dr. Saenger maintained that the primary goal of the study was to provide palliative and therapeutic care to the patients. (


  • 1 However, missed myocardial infarctions occur in up to 2% of patients with acute chest pain 2 and represent a leading cause of malpractice litigation. (


  • Although some of our findings present rare events in bladder cancer, our study suggests that comprehensively assessing Her2 status in the context of tumor molecular subtype may help select MIBC patients most likely to respond to Her2 targeted therapy. (


  • These patients had been selected from 225 diabetic patients treated with CSII at our outpatient clinic. (
  • Hence, most treatments are nowadays offered as day case or outpatient appointments and patients may enjoy rapid recovery and minimal pain and discomfort with low rates of complications. (


  • This will help determine whether investigation for CD should be restricted to those patients with childhood partial epilepsy with occipital paroxysms (CPEO) or should be extended to all patients with childhood partial epilepsy (CPE) regardless of seizure type and electroencephalographic (EEG) paroxysms. (


  • Reduce infusion rate by 50% in patients experiencing a mild or moderate (grade 1 or 2) infusion reaction for the duration of that infusion. (
  • Terminate the infusion in patients experiencing severe infusion reactions. (
  • OBJECTIVE -This study was designed to assess the insulin-sparing effect of oral administration of metformin along with a continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) for the treatment of type 1 diabetic patients. (
  • Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) can reduce the rate of severe hypoglycemia in type 1 diabetes, as compared with that seen in patients receiving multiple daily injections ( 2 ), although the results remain controversial ( 1 , 3 ). (


  • Risk assessment that addresses the risks of maintaining long-term opioid treatments in chronic pain patients. (
  • PML occurs almost exclusively in patients with severe immune deficiency, most commonly among patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), but people on chronic immunosuppressive medications including chemotherapy are also at increased risk of PML, such as patients with transplants, Hodgkin's lymphoma, multiple sclerosis, psoriasis and other autoimmune diseases. (


  • Although CTA avoids the inherent risks of stress testing in patients with suspected acute coronary syndrome (ACS), there are several strengths and limitations to consider ( Table 1). (
  • A , Proposed testing strategy in patients with possible acute coronary syndrome (ACS). (


  • For patients with coronary artery disease, a physician may recommend a bypass to reroute blood around blocked arteries to restore and improve blood flow and oxygen to the heart. (


  • The exciting discovery that certain mutations in the tyrosine-binding domain of the EGFR receptor were associated with objective response to EGFR TKIs brought renewed interest in molecular selection of patients ( 12 , 13 ). (
  • Some large phase II trials in Caucasian patients failed to show a significant association between EGFR mutations and survival ( 25 , 26 ). (
  • The predictive value of EGFR mutations could depend on the type of EGFR mutation and/or the genetic background of patients. (


  • Of the 25 patients with CPEO, two (8%) had antiendomysium immunoglobulin (Ig) A antibodies. (


  • To explore patient selection criteria for treatment with TAVI. (
  • Evaluate left ventricular function in all patients prior to and during treatment with Herceptin. (
  • A decrease in basal requirement of insulin was also observed in patients treated with metformin of −2.6 ± 3.2 units (−7.9 ± 23.8%) compared with an increase with placebo treatment of 1.9 ± 5.7 units (8.8 ± 27.1%) ( P = 0.023). (
  • In the meantime, active surveillance for the treatment of low risk prostate cancer is now being offered to more and more patients where it is generally considered that prostate cancer will not cause the man harm during his lifetime if treatment is delayed or avoided. (
  • In the European Union, it has been approved for human use only for the treatment of multiple sclerosis and only then as a monotherapy because the initial cases of PML, and later the fatalities, were said by the manufacturers to be linked to the use of previous medicines by the patients. (
  • Natalizumab may be appropriate in patients who do not respond to medications that block tumor necrosis factor-alpha such as infliximab, with some evidence to support combination treatment of Crohn's disease with natalizumab and infliximab may be helpful in inducing remission. (
  • Treatment of adolescent patients with natalizumab demonstrates an effectiveness similar to that of adult patients. (
  • Some patients need to wear contact lenses or glasses even after treatment. (
  • These factors demonstrate the importance of careful patient selection for LASIK treatment. (
  • Although they were all cancerous, Dr. Saenger sought patients that were in good nutritional health, and who had not been exposed to previous radiation treatment. (


  • Accurate estimates of benefits and risks of aortocoronary bypass surgery are necessary in the management of specific patients. (


  • For patients with moderate to high myopia or thin corneas which cannot be treated with LASIK and PRK, the phakic intraocular lens is an alternative. (


  • For example, a randomized trial comparing chemotherapy alone to chemotherapy with erlotinib, EGFR -mutated patients had a superior outcome regardless of the therapy ( 19 ). (


  • The incidence and severity was highest in patients receiving Herceptin with anthracycline-containing chemotherapy regimens. (


  • Within 699 patients who underwent elective bypass only, operative mortality was 8.8% before January 1, 1972, and 5.4% subsequently. (


  • Contrast and radiation remain potential concerns, but advances in CT hardware and software have improved overall patient safety. (
  • By contrast, fundus perimetry, produces reliable results even in patients with unstable or eccentric fixation. (


  • This apparent variation in operative mortality over time was largely a consequence of changing patterns of patient selection, i.e., a two- to three-fold decrease in the prevalence of ventricular dysfunction. (
  • The 55 patients with left main disease had 12.7% operative mortality. (
  • In the 192 patients without left main disease who had one- or two-vessel disease, operative mortality was 1.0%, whereas, 197 patients with three-vessel disease had a 6.6% operative mortality. (
  • The 103 patients with three-vessel disease less than 50 years of age underwent operation with a 2.9% mortality. (
  • Although these results demonstrate that selected patients may undergo operation with a mortality approaching 1%, it is not clear that only such low risk patients should be offered surgery. (
  • The mission of SOAR is to decrease perioperative morbidity and mortality, address health care disparities, and increase overall patient survival and quality of life. (


  • However, recent cases of successful SDR procedures among those with spastic diplegia across all major age ranges (years 3-40 and even above) has finally proven its universal effectiveness and safety regardless of the age of the spastic diplegic patient. (
  • The FDA reports "The safety and effectiveness of refractive procedures has not been determined in patients with some diseases. (


  • Dermatologic toxicities occurred in 90% of patients and were severe (NCI-CTC grade 3 and higher) in 15% of patients receiving Vectibix monotherapy [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION , WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS , and ADVERSE REACTIONS ]. (


  • Twenty-five patients had CPEO, whereas the remaining 47 had CPE with centrotemporal spikes (CPEC). (


  • Monitor patients until symptoms completely resolve. (
  • 11 Patients at very low risk for CAD and those with an alternative explanation for their symptoms require no further testing. (
  • Some patients describe these symptoms post-operatively and associate them with the LASIK technique including the formation of the flap and the tissue ablation. (


  • As of May 2011, over 130 cases of PML had been reported in MS patients, all in patients who had taken natalizumab for more than a year. (
  • Natalizumab also slowed the progression of disability in patients with relapsing MS. In combination with interferon beta-1a (IB1A), relapsing and disability progression were reduced more than IB1A alone. (
  • Other benefits of natalizumab use by patients with relapsing MS included reduced visual loss, a significant increase in the proportion of disease-free individuals, significantly improved assessments of health-related quality of life in relapsing individuals, reduced cognitive decline of a portion of individuals with MS, reduced hospitalizations and steroid use, and prevention of the formation of new lesions. (
  • Several randomized controlled trials have demonstrated that natalizumab is effective in increasing rates of remission and maintaining symptom-free status in patients with Crohn's disease. (


  • Through an integrated analysis of 127 patients from three centers, we identified alterations of Her2 at the DNA, RNA and protein level, and demonstrate that Her2 relevance as a tumor driver likely may vary even within ERBB2 amplified cases. (


  • The Glaucoma Book: A Practical, Evidence-Based Approach to Patient Care. (


  • In 1994, families of the patients filed a class-action lawsuit against the team of 15 researchers. (


  • The patients were referred to Dr. Saenger's experiments by the Cincinnati General Hospital's Tumor Clinic. (


  • Patients with early-stage lung cancer and with a positive EGFR test have a superior survival compared with patients with a negative test. (
  • The study compared more than 8,500 propensity-adjusted patients and revealed that EVH significantly reduced wound complications without compromising long-term survival or freedom from repeat revascularization. (


  • The most sophisticated study is videourodynamics, the criterion standard in the evaluation of a patient with incontinence. (
  • Our study indicates that CD screening should be performed routinely only in patients with CPEO. (
  • In our study, involving the use of metformin in type 1 diabetic patients treated with CSII, the effect on blood glucose control, IR, and hypoglycemic episodes is reported. (
  • The study was performed in a group of 62 type 1 diabetic patients. (
  • The experiments were conducted without patient consent in the first five years of the study and with disputed levels of consent thereafter. (


  • Thus, ideal candidates for CTA are patients at low to intermediate risk of obstructive CAD ( Figure 2 ). (


  • Totaling more than 16,000 patients tracked, these three studies provide strong evidence that EVH is a safe and viable technique to use to obtain a saphenous vein conduit for CABG surgery. (
  • Surveys of LASIK surgery find rates of patient satisfaction between 92 and 98 percent. (
  • A small percentage of patients may need to have another surgery because their condition is over-corrected or under-corrected. (


  • SOAR's goal is to examine quality, delivery, and financing of care in order to have an immediate impact on patient care and system improvements. (
  • The information learned can have an immediate impact on patient care and system improvement. (


  • The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is an excellent target for lung cancer therapy, and it should be possible to select patients based on their expression of the EGFR gene, EGFR protein, or related genes and proteins ( 3 ). (


  • In type 1 diabetes, addition of metformin to insulin therapy has been assessed in a few trials involving few patients or in uncontrolled studies of short duration ( 10 - 12 ). (


  • When central vision is compromised, as in the case of macular scotoma, patients develop an eccentric or extra-foveal vision, normally with unstable fixation. (

quality of l

  • Between 1908 and 1912 Harvey Cushing performed 3 dorsal rhizotomies to improve his patients' quality of life. (


  • With several training sessions, some patients are able to gain better use of their peripheral vision. (


  • TAVI patients (n = 45) were matched to SAVR patients (n = 45) with respect to age within +/- 10 years, sex and systolic left ventricular function. (


  • Select patients for therapy based on an FDA-approved companion diagnostic for Herceptin [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION ]. (
  • 4 The greatest utility of CTA lies in its high negative predictive value (≥95%) to exclude obstructive CAD and thus to identify patients who can be safely discharged without further diagnostic testing. (


  • In 1888, Robert Abbe in New York as well as W.H. Bennett in London independently performed the first dorsal rhizotomy in patients with ascending neuritis and sciatica, respectively. (

select patients

  • The history and physical examination alone may not provide sufficient and accurate information on which to base surgical therapy, but such basic data may provide the foundation from which to select patients for more invasive and complex testing. (


  • This practice does not harm the remaining blood vessel network, which heals and maintains sufficient blood flow to the extremities, allowing the patient to return to normal function without noticeable effects. (


  • Gastrointestinal events, including diarrhea and abdominal pain, were reported in three patients in the metformin group who discontinued the trial. (


  • Once the best retinal area is selected, patients are asked to move their gaze towards that direction, while audio signals guide them to the desired target. (