*  NIOSHTIC-2 Publications Search - 20021869 - Spontaneous abortion, sex ratio and paternal occupational exposure to 2,3,7,8...

There is conflicting research regarding an association between fetal death and paternal exposure to Agent Orange, a phenoxy ... There is conflicting research regarding an association between fetal death and paternal exposure to Agent Orange, a phenoxy ... Spontaneous abortion, sex ratio and paternal occupational exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin.. ... providing additional evidence that paternal TCDD exposure does not increase the risk of spontaneous abortion at levels above ...
https://cdc.gov/niosh/nioshtic-2/20021869.html

*  NIOSHTIC-2 Publications Search - 00240917 - Paternal exposure of rabbits to lead: behavioral deficits in offspring.

... exposure were studied in rabbits. The study was part of a project of the National Toxicology Program to determine if the rabbit ... The reproductive and behavioral teratogenic effects of paternal lead (7439921) ... The results suggest that exploratory activity of rabbit pups may be affected by paternal exposures that produce blood lead ... The reproductive and behavioral teratogenic effects of paternal lead (7439921) exposure were studied in rabbits. The study was ...
https://cdc.gov/niosh/nioshtic-2/00240917.html

*  Effects of Paternal Occupational Exposure on Spontaneous Abortions

... Author. Lindbohm, Marja-Liisa ...
https://repository.library.georgetown.edu/handle/10822/848652

*  Chemical Exposures During Pregnancy

Potential for birth defects from chemical exposures during pregnancy. Carbon mooxide, insecticide,pesticide, paint, organic ... Paternal Exposures*Paternal exposures - reproductive risks Teratology 1999 *Paternal Exposures. Organization of Teratology ... Lead Exposure in Pregnancy Organization of Teratology Information Specialists SEARCH LITERATURE BACK TO TOP OF PAGE ... Environmental exposure to lead and children's intelligence at the age of seven years. The Port Pirie Cohort Study. N Engl J Med ...
perinatology.com/exposures/chemlist.htm

*  primitive neuroectodermal tumors

PATERNAL EXPOSURE AND SPORADIC BILATERAL RETINOBLASTOMA. Greta Bunin; Fiscal Year: 2005. ..Sporadic heritable RBL is a ... Farm-related exposures and childhood brain tumours in seven countries: results from the SEARCH International Brain Tumour Study ... Occupational Pesticide Exposure of Parents and Brain Tumor Risk in Children. Greta Bunin; Fiscal Year: 2008 ... 0) and unprocessed wool (OR = 3.0). Our findings suggest that various farm-related exposures are positively associated with CBT ...
https://labome.org/topics/diseases/neoplasms/neoplasms/glandular/neuroepithelial/primitive-neuroectodermal-tumors-5640.html

*  Table of contents | Occupational & Environmental Medicine

Paternal exposure to agricultural pesticides and cause specific fetal death Free E Regidor, E Ronda, A M García, V Domínguez ... Cigarette smoking, occupational exposure to noise, and self reported hearing difficulties Free K T Palmer, M J Griffin, H E ... Temporal association between serum prolactin concentration and exposure to styrene Free U Luderer, R Tornero-Velez, T Shay, S ... Biomarkers of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from environmental air pollution Free G Castaño-Vinyals, A D'Errico ...
oem.bmj.com/content/61/4

*  'What's On My Food?' website; Pesticides & leukemia; Fumigant rules unjust; more... | Pesticide Action...

Associations with paternal exposure were weaker and less consistent. Occupational exposures of reproductive-age adults to ... Mother's pesticide exposure doubles child leukemia risk. For childhood leukemia known risk factors include ionizing radiation, ... A separate related report addresses childhood leukemia and parental or childhood residential pesticide exposure. On June 16, ... probably because of their exposure to chemicals." Women's risk was found to be 3.4 times that of the men studied. The findings ...
panna.org/resources/panups/panup_20090618?quicktabs_1=2

*  NIDA - Director's Report - February, 2007

Paternal Cocaine Exposure & Its Consequences. In a recent study, NIDA supported researchers, Dr. Michael Lidow and his ... He, F., Lidow, I.A., and Lidow, M.S. Consequences of Paternal Cocaine Exposure in Mice, Neurotoxicology and Teratology, 28, pp ... Further, stress exposure after a neurotoxic regimen of MDMA did not affect the neurotoxicity of MDMA, as indicated by unaltered ... Pre-exposure to MDMA and stress is not simply additive but synergizes to augment mesolimbic dopamine neurotransmission in a ...
https://archives.drugabuse.gov/DirReports/DirRep207/DirectorReport1.html

*  Dr Diana Oakes - The University of Sydney

Ritchie, H., Oakes, D., Hegedus, E., Hill, M., Kennedy, D. (2017). Counselling regarding paternal exposures: Can we do better? ... Ritchie, H., Oakes, D., Hegedus, E., Hill, M., Kennedy, D. (2017). Counselling regarding paternal exposures: Can we do better? ... Warner, R., Ritchie, H., Woodman, P., Oakes, D., Pourghasem, M. (2008). The effect of prenatal exposure to a repeat high dose ... Warner, R., Ritchie, H., Woodman, P., Oakes, D., Pourghasem, M. (2008). The effect of prenatal exposure to a repeat high dose ...
sydney.edu.au/medicine/people/academics/profiles/diana.oakes.php

*  Job Safety Remains a Deadly Serious Issue

But as to fathers' exposure, paternal exposure to pesticides increases the relative risk of brain tumors two-point-three fold ... The changes in our DNA come from exposure to our environment - it could be sunlight or a medical X-ray, or cancer-causing ...
https://voanews.com/a/a-13-2008-05-05-voa31/340262.html

*  Longer Duration and Earlier Age of Onset of Paternal Betel Chewing and Smoking Increase Metabolic Syndrome Risk in Human...

Offspring with paternal exposure to areca nut chewing from ,30 years of age had a higher risk of MetS than those with paternal ... Let te0 and te1 denote age of first paternal exposure before, or after, offspring birth, tb, the paternal age at offspring ... The bottom of Figure 1 shows the scheme for analyzing exposure to paternal betel quid chewing, or to paternal smoking, using ... and the duration of exposure and age of first exposure for both paternal habits before offspring birth. The time of an event of ...
circ.ahajournals.org/content/134/5/392

*  Plus it

For somatoform disorder, the influence was similar for maternal and paternal antidepressant exposure. For other diagnostic ... We hypothesised that if in utero exposure to antidepressants affected fetal brain development, such exposure may increase the ... paternal age at delivery (continuous variable), and paternal inpatient or outpatient psychiatric treatment from two years ... Antidepressant exposure in pregnancy and risk of autism spectrum disorders. Clin Epidemiol2013;358:449-59. doi:10.2147/CLEP. ...
bmj.com/content/358/bmj.j3668

*  Agent Orange Legacy: Over-Exposure to Everyday Chemicals Can Damage Male Fertility | TopNews New Zealand

Other Toxic Substances - Paternal Exposures (1) * Other Toxic Substances - PCBs and PBDEs (4) ... Over-Exposure to Everyday Chemicals Can Damage Male Fertility , TopNews New Zealand ... Over-Exposure to Everyday Chemicals Can Damage Male Fertility , TopNews New Zealand ...
agentorangelegacy.blogspot.com/2012/05/over-exposure-to-everyday-chemicals-can.html

*  The Protean Toxicities of Lead: New Chapters in a Familiar Story

The evidence that increased paternal or maternal lead exposure is associated with the risk of a congenital malformation in ... In a case-control study of primary smelter workers, arsenic exposure, but not lead exposure, was a risk factor for lung cancer ... In mice, maternal lead exposure (i.e., exposure of pups prenatally through weaning) is associated with increased tau ... paternal education, income, maternal smoking during pregnancy, exposure to second-hand smoke after birth, birth weight, ...
pubmedcentralcanada.ca/pmcc/articles/PMC3155319/?lang=en-ca

*  R T Lie

Paternal occupational exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields and risk of adverse pregnancy outcome. Geir Mjøen. ... Our objective was to assess associations between paternal occupational exposure to RFR and adverse pregnancy outcomes including ... Paternal age and the risk of birth defects in Norway. Method Kazaura. Centre for International Health, University of Bergen, N ... Maternal and paternal influences on length of pregnancy. Rolv T Lie. Medical Birth Registry of Norway, Locus for Registry Based ...
https://labome.org/expert/norway/university/lie/r-t-lie-665105.html

*  Epigenetics - Wikipedia

"Elevated paternal glucocorticoid exposure alters the small noncoding RNA profile in sperm and modifies anxiety and depressive ... A person's paternal grandson is the son of a son of that person; a maternal grandson is the son of a daughter. ... In the Överkalix study, paternal (but not maternal) grandsons[129] of Swedish men who were exposed during preadolescence to ... Parental nutrition, in utero exposure to stress, male-induced maternal effects such as attraction of differential mate quality ...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Epigenetic

*  Peripartum cardiomyopathy: the need for a national database.

This immune response can be exacerbated by previous exposure to paternal antigens through prior pregnancies. PPCM is indeed ... because of the depressed immunological state in the mother during pregnancy and due to the weak immunogenicity of the paternal ...
biomedsearch.com/nih/Peripartum-cardiomyopathy-need-national-database/21475400.html

*  Staff Profile - Institute of Health and Society - Newcastle University

Pearce MS, Hammal DM, Dorak MT, McNally RJQ, Parker L. Paternal occupational exposure to electro-magnetic fields as a risk ... Pearce MS, Hammal DM, Dorak MT, McNally RJQ, Parker L. Paternal occupational exposure to pesticides or herbicides as risk ... Are early infectious exposures involved in the etiology of childhood CNS tumors?. Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics 2010, 10( ... Statistical analyses provide support for the role of environmental exposures in the aetiology of childhood sarcomas and Wilms' ...
ncl.ac.uk/ihs/staff/profile/richardmcnally.html

*  Federal Register :: Diseases Not Associated With Exposure to Certain Herbicide Agents

... has determined that a presumption of service connection based on exposure to herbicides used in the Republic of... ... Paternal exposure to lead and infertility. Epidemiology 11(2): 148-152.). NAS stated that there is no information in the ... NAS noted that the development of a peripheral neuropathy associated with a toxic exposure begins when the exposure is ... Exposure to high doses of ionizing radiation is a known risk factor. Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is the most common leukemia ...
https://federalregister.gov/documents/2002/06/24/02-15782/diseases-not-associated-with-exposure-to-certain-herbicide-agents

*  DailyMed - METHADONE HYDROCHLORIDE- methadone hydrochloride powder

... suggesting that paternal methadone exposure can produce physiological and behavioral changes in progeny in this model. ... Exposure margins for the following published study reports are based on a human daily dose (HDD) of 120 mg methadone using a ... Mechanistic studies in this rat model suggest that the developmental effects of "paternal" methadone on the progeny appear to ... Upon discontinuation of phenytoin, the incidence of withdrawal symptoms decreased and methadone exposure increased to a level ...
https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=2C560DBA-8B7E-4BA1-A390-30FFF6AF8AEB

*  DailyMed - DOLOPHINE- methadone hydrochloride tablet

... suggesting that paternal methadone exposure can produce physiological and behavioral changes in progeny in this model. ... Exposure margins for the following published study reports are based on a human daily dose (HDD) of 120 mg methadone using a ... Mechanistic studies in this rat model suggest that the developmental effects of "paternal" methadone on the progeny appear to ... NOWS can result from in utero exposure to opioids regardless of the source. Therefore, prescribers should discuss the ...
https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=7a4840d6-98e3-4523-81a0-ef0b3a47d0c2

*  Reproductive biology - Latest research and news | Nature

Prenatal Glucocorticoid Exposure Modifies Endocrine Function and Behaviour for 3 Generations Following Maternal and Paternal ...
nature.com/subjects/reproductive-biology

*  mothers

Prenatal exposure to maternal and paternal smoking on attention deficit hyperactivity disorders symptoms and diagnosis in ... prenatal exposure delayed effects*social support*pregnancy complications*fathers*socioeconomic factors*parents*child ... Continued exposure to maternal distress in early life is associated with an increased risk of childhood asthma. Anita L ... Factors influencing exposure to secondhand smoke in preschool children living with smoking mothers. Lynsey M Mills. Division of ...
https://labome.org/topics/persons/parents/mothers-18472.html

*  Endometriosis and Risk of Coronary Heart Disease | Circulation: Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes

Proportions and CIs were calculated following Lin et al,34 comparing the full model that includes the exposure, treatment ... maternal or paternal history of myocardial infarction ,60 years old (yes/no), body mass index at the age of 18 years (,18.5, ...
circoutcomes.ahajournals.org/content/9/3/257/tab-figures-data

*  JoVE | Peer Reviewed Scientific Video Journal - Methods and Protocols

Finally, the effects of paternal age: there is a significantly increased risk of the disease with increasing paternal age, ... the duration of exposure (administration time), the time between exposure and sample collection (sampling time), and the cell ... In this assay, a quantifiable increase in egg retention after E. faecalis exposure can be easily measured. The EIW assay is a ... or exposure to Ginkgo biloba extracts (Wu et al. 2006)] reproducibly alter the rate of paralysis induced by temperature upshift ...
https://jove.com/visualize/abstract/23776511/evolution-higher-intracellular-oxidizing-environment-caenorhabditis

(1/193) Possible carcinogenic effects of X-rays in a transgenerational study with CBA mice.

A lifetime experiment using 4279 CBA/J mice was carried out to investigate whether the pre-conceptual exposure of sperm cells to X-ray radiation or urethane would result in an increased cancer risk in the untreated progeny, and/or increased susceptibility to cancer following exposure to a promoting agent. The study consisted of four main groups, namely a control group (saline), a urethane group (1 mg/g body wt) and two X-ray radiation groups (1 Gy, 2 Gy). At 1, 3 and 9 weeks after treatment, the males of these four parental groups were mated with untreated virgin females. The offspring of each parental group was divided into two subgroups: one received s.c. urethane (0.1 mg/g body wt once) as a promoter, the other saline, at the age of 6 weeks. All animals were evaluated for the occurrence of tumours. K-ras oncogene and p53 tumour suppressor gene mutations were investigated in frozen lung tumour samples. The female offspring of male parents exposed to X-rays 1 week before their mating showed a trend towards a higher tumour incidence of the haematopoietic system than the F1 controls. In addition, a higher percentage of bronchioloalveolar adenocarcinomas in male offspring born to irradiated paternals mated 1 week after X-ray treatment points to a plausible increased sensitivity of post-meiotic germ cell stages towards transgenerational carcinogenic effects. On the other hand, no increased tumour incidence and malignancy were observed in the offspring born to irradiated paternals mated 3 and 9 weeks after X-ray treatment. Paternal urethane treatment 1, 3 and 9 weeks prior to conception did not result in significantly altered incidence or malignancy of tumours of the lung, liver and haematopoietic tissue in the offspring. K-ras mutations increased during tumour progression from bronchioloalveolar hyperplasia to adenoma. Codon 61 K-ras mutations were more frequent in lung tumours of urethane-promoted progeny from irradiated parents than from control parents. P53 mutations were absent from these lung alterations.  (+info)

(2/193) Environmental semen studies--is infertility increased by a decline in sperm count?

The objective of the studies was to evaluate infertility according to sperm count shifts. The distribution of the sperm count of 1024 Danish men (median 56 million/ml) served as reference. The data were transformed with multiplicative or additive models to create alternative distributions with median sperm count values changed by 25-100%. Sperm-count-specific fecundabilities were provided from a follow-up of first-pregnancy planners in a Danish population. The estimated average fecundability of the 1024 Danish men was 16.9% [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 16.7-17.2], and the proportion of cohabiting men with spouses pregnant within 1 year was 86.0% (95% CI 84.1-87.8). Simulations of alternative sperm count distributions indicated that the relationship between sperm count shift and fertility strongly depends on the median level of the sperm count at onset and the type of shift, a dramatic decline from a high level in a multiplicative model indicating a marginal change and a minor decline from a low level in an additive model representing a strong decrease in fertility. In some cases sperm count, therefore, may be an early warning of changes in fertility.  (+info)

(3/193) Objectives, designs and populations of the European Asclepios study on occupational hazards to male reproductive capability.

The main objective of the Asclepios program was to examine occupational risk factors for the male reproductive system. The program focused on occupational exposure to fungicides (farmers, greenhouse workers, and vineyard workers), styrene (laminators in the reinforced plastics industry) and inorganic lead (battery workers, foundry workers, and lead smelters). Questionnaire studies of time to pregnancy were combined with longitudinal and cross-sectional studies of semen quality. The 8 data-collecting centers addressed 6553 male workers and contributed time-to-pregnancy values on the 3077 most recent pregnancies. Data collection was by interview or self-collection. The average response rate across all exposures and centers was 69.8%. The Asclepios project is the first international multicenter research project on environmental risks to male reproductive function. A protocol for epidemiologic research on occupational risk factors to the male reproductive system was developed, and links between epidemiologic and experimental units were established. The majority, but not all, of the studies was completed within the given time frame.  (+info)

(4/193) Cancer in children of nuclear industry employees: report on children aged under 25 years from nuclear industry family study.

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether children of men and women occupationally exposed to ionising radiation are at increased risk of developing leukaemia or other cancers before their 25th birthday. DESIGN: Cohort study of children of nuclear industry employees. SETTING: Nuclear establishments operated by the Atomic Energy Authority, Atomic Weapons Establishment, and British Nuclear Fuels. SUBJECTS: 39 557 children of male employees and 8883 children of female employees. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Cancer incidence in offspring reported by parents. Employment and radiation monitoring data (including annual external dose) supplied by the nuclear authorities. RESULTS: 111 cancers were reported, of which 28 were leukaemia. The estimated standardised incidence ratios for children of male and female employees who were born in 1965 or later were 98 (95% confidence interval 73 to 129) and 96 (50 to 168) for all malignancies and 109 (61 to 180) and 95 (20 to 277) for leukaemia. The leukaemia rate in children whose fathers had accumulated a preconceptual dose of >/=100 mSv was 5.8 times that in children conceived before their fathers' employment in the nuclear industry (95% confidence interval 1.3 to 24.8) but this was based on only three exposed cases. Two of these cases were included in the west Cumbrian ("Gardner") case-control study. No significant trends were found between increasing dose and leukaemia. CONCLUSIONS: Cancer in young people is rare, and our results are based on small numbers of events. Overall, the findings suggest that the incidence of cancer and leukaemia among children of nuclear industry employees is similar to that in the general population. The possibility that exposure of fathers to relatively high doses of ionising radiation before their child's conception might be related to an increased risk of leukaemia in their offspring could not be disproved, but this result was based on only three cases, two of which have been previously reported. High conceptual doses are rare, and even if the occupational association were causal, the number of leukaemias involved would be small; in this study of over 46 000 children, fewer than three leukaemias could potentially be attributed to such an exposure.  (+info)

(5/193) Effects of pesticide exposure on time to pregnancy: results of a multicenter study in France and Denmark. ASCLEPIOS Study Group.

The aim of this study was to determine whether there was a relation between male exposure to pesticides and the amount of time needed to conceive (time to pregnancy) for farmers and agricultural workers in France and Denmark. The authors used retrospective studies to compare the time to pregnancy of couples in which the man was exposed to pesticides during the year before the birth of their youngest child with that of couples in which the man was not exposed. In 1995 and 1996, the authors studied 362 French rural workers (142 exposed to pesticides and 220 not exposed), 449 Danish farmers (326 conventional farmers exposed to pesticides and 123 nonexposed organic farmers), and 121 Danish greenhouse workers exposed to pesticides. The fecundability ratio for exposure to pesticides (Cox model, before and after adjustment for confounding factors) did not differ from 1 in any of the three populations. In France, the adjusted fecundability ratio was 1.17 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.89-1.55) for exposed and nonexposed agricultural workers. In Denmark, it was 1.09 (95% CI 0.82-1.43) for exposed and nonexposed farmers and 0.83 (95% CI 0.69-1.18) for greenhouse workers and nonexposed farmers. Thus, this study found no relation between fertility (time to pregnancy) and male exposure to pesticides.  (+info)

(6/193) Are the children of fathers whose jobs involve contact with many people at an increased risk of leukaemia?

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the hypothesis that children of men whose jobs involve contact with many people (particularly children) are at an increased risk of leukaemia. METHODS: A population based dataset obtained from routinely collected death certificates involving 14,168 cancer deaths occurring before the age of 15 years registered in England and Wales between 1959-63 and 1970-90. Associations were assessed with the proportional cancer mortality ratio (PCMR), with all childhood cancer deaths forming the standard for comparison. The PCMRs were adjusted, by stratification, for age and year of death (in 1-year bands) and paternal social class (nine categories). Analyses were performed by estimated level of paternal occupational social contact (high, medium, and low) for all leukaemias, leukaemia subtype, age at death, year of death, and individual occupation. RESULTS: Out of 223 occupations, 36 (16%) were identified as having potentially high levels of social contact, and 27 (12%) as having potentially medium levels of social contact. No associations were found between paternal occupational social contact and death during childhood from leukaemia (high social contact: PCMR 94, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 87 to 102; medium social contact: 101, 95 to 106). No associations were found when the data were analysed by leukaemia subtype, age at death, year of death, or individual occupation. CONCLUSION: The findings presented here do not support the suggestion that childhood leukaemia is related to the amount of social contact that fathers experience at work.  (+info)

(7/193) Low birthweight and prematurity in relation to paternal factors: a study of recurrence.

BACKGROUND: The importance of paternal determinants in the occurrence of low birthweight and prematurity is not well known. We investigated these outcomes in siblings and paternal half siblings as a function of changes in putative external determinants between two births in fathers who had experienced the birth of a premature and/or low birthweight (PTB/LBW) infant. METHODS: All fathers who, between 1980 and 1992, had an infant born before 37 completed weeks' gestation or weighing <2500 g and a following child were studied. We identified 14 147 pairs of siblings from Danish national registers. The recurrence risk was studied in three sub-cohorts defined by the outcome in the index child (PTB only, PTB/LBW, LBW only). We estimated the recurrence risk in the younger sibling according to changes of female partner, municipality type, occupation, and father's social status. RESULTS: The overall recurrence risk was 16.7% for preterm delivery and 16.8% for LBW. Changing female partner was, as expected, associated with a reduction in the recurrence risk for both outcomes (RR = 0.40; 95% CI: 0.27-0.60 for preterm delivery and RR = 0.38; 95% CI : 0.26-0.56 for LBW). None of the other studied factors was associated with changes in the recurrence risk. Fathers who changed partner had offspring with similar birthweight and gestational length between the three sub-cohorts, while a difference was evident in offspring to fathers whose female partner was unchanged. CONCLUSIONS: We did not identify any paternal factor of importance in the occurrence of LBW and preterm delivery.  (+info)

(8/193) Influence of paternal exposure to oil and oil products on time to pregnancy and spontaneous abortions.

The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of exposure to oil and oil products among men on the time taken for their wives to conceive and on the incidence of spontaneous abortion among them. A cross-sectional study was performed by posting questionnaires to 1,269 men employed as offshore mechanics, offshore operators, offshore drilling personnel, car mechanics (the 'exposed' occupations) and carpenters ('unexposed'). The married men were asked to give a separate questionnaire to their wives for details about their pregnancies. The time elapsed between the beginning of coitus without contraception and the wife becoming pregnant (time to pregnancy) was analyzed with Cox regression analysis by calculating fecundability ratios for the pregnancies for the men exposed to oil and oil products as compared with the men who were not exposed. Spontaneous abortions were analyzed with logistic regression by calculating odds ratios for the pregnancies in which the men were exposed vs. not exposed. A total of 741 (58%) men returned the questionnaires. A total of 301 pregnancies were analyzed for time taken to conceive and 580 for spontaneous abortion. The results were adjusted for variables that could significantly influence conception time (previous infections of the reproductive system and coffee drinking) or the incidence of spontaneous abortion (mother's age, parity and smoking). The outcomes between the exposed and unexposed pregnancies showed no significant differences. Car mechanics had a lower fecundability ratio before 1992 than after 1992. Paternal exposure to hydrocarbons in the occupations studied did not seem to have had a major influence on time to conception or the incidence of spontaneous abortion among the wives of the men exposed to oil products.  (+info)



reproductive


  • The reproductive and behavioral teratogenic effects of paternal lead (7439921) exposure were studied in rabbits. (cdc.gov)