Parent-Child Relations: The interactions between parent and child.Parenting: Performing the role of a parent by care-giving, nurturance, and protection of the child by a natural or substitute parent. The parent supports the child by exercising authority and through consistent, empathic, appropriate behavior in response to the child's needs. PARENTING differs from CHILD REARING in that in child rearing the emphasis is on the act of training or bringing up the children and the interaction between the parent and child, while parenting emphasizes the responsibility and qualities of exemplary behavior of the parent.Family Conflict: Struggle or disagreement between parents, parent and child or other members of a family.Parents: Persons functioning as natural, adoptive, or substitute parents. The heading includes the concept of parenthood as well as preparation for becoming a parent.Pediatric Nursing: The nursing specialty concerning care of children from birth to adolescence. It includes the clinical and psychological aspects of nursing care.Mother-Child Relations: Interaction between a mother and child.Object Attachment: Emotional attachment to someone or something in the environment.Play Therapy: A treatment technique utilizing play as a medium for expression and communication between patient and therapist.Acting Out: Expressing unconscious emotional conflicts or feelings, often of hostility or love, through overt behavior.Education, Nonprofessional: Education and training outside that for the professions.Nursing Theory: Concepts, definitions, and propositions applied to the study of various phenomena which pertain to nursing and nursing research.Conflict (Psychology): The internal individual struggle resulting from incompatible or opposing needs, drives, or external and internal demands. In group interactions, competitive or opposing action of incompatibles: antagonistic state or action (as of divergent ideas, interests, or persons). (from Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)Child Behavior Disorders: Disturbances considered to be pathological based on age and stage appropriateness, e.g., conduct disturbances and anaclitic depression. This concept does not include psychoneuroses, psychoses, or personality disorders with fixed patterns.Child Rearing: The training or bringing-up of children by parents or parent-substitutes. It is used also for child rearing practices in different societies, at different economic levels, in different ethnic groups, etc. It differs from PARENTING in that in child rearing the emphasis is on the act of training or bringing up the child and the interaction between the parent and child, while parenting emphasizes the responsibility and qualities of exemplary behavior of the parent.Mothers: Female parents, human or animal.Family Relations: Behavioral, psychological, and social relations among various members of the nuclear family and the extended family.Fathers: Male parents, human or animal.Family: A social group consisting of parents or parent substitutes and children.Feeding and Eating Disorders of Childhood: Mental disorders related to feeding and eating usually diagnosed in infancy or early childhood.Juvenile Delinquency: The antisocial acts of children or persons under age which are illegal or lawfully interpreted as constituting delinquency.Child Development: The continuous sequential physiological and psychological maturing of an individual from birth up to but not including ADOLESCENCE.Adoption: Voluntary acceptance of a child of other parents to be as one's own child, usually with legal confirmation.Nursing Assessment: Evaluation of the nature and extent of nursing problems presented by a patient for the purpose of patient care planning.Adaptation, Psychological: A state of harmony between internal needs and external demands and the processes used in achieving this condition. (From APA Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)Socialization: The training or molding of an individual through various relationships, educational agencies, and social controls, which enables him to become a member of a particular society.Child Behavior: Any observable response or action of a child from 24 months through 12 years of age. For neonates or children younger than 24 months, INFANT BEHAVIOR is available.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Intergenerational Relations: The interactions between individuals of different generations. These interactions include communication, caring, accountability, loyalty, and even conflict between related or non-related individuals.Acculturation: Process of cultural change in which one group or members of a group assimilate various cultural patterns from another.Father-Child Relations: Interaction between the father and the child.Adolescent Behavior: Any observable response or action of an adolescent.Play and Playthings: Spontaneous or voluntary recreational activities pursued for enjoyment and accessories or equipment used in the activities; includes games, toys, etc.Internal-External Control: Personality construct referring to an individual's perception of the locus of events as determined internally by his or her own behavior versus fate, luck, or external forces. (ERIC Thesaurus, 1996).Love: Affection; in psychiatry commonly refers to pleasure, particularly as it applies to gratifying experiences between individuals.Expressed Emotion: Frequency and quality of negative emotions, e.g., anger or hostility, expressed by family members or significant others, that often lead to a high relapse rate, especially in schizophrenic patients. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 7th ed)Personality Development: Growth of habitual patterns of behavior in childhood and adolescence.Models, Psychological: Theoretical representations that simulate psychological processes and/or social processes. These include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Social Environment: The aggregate of social and cultural institutions, forms, patterns, and processes that influence the life of an individual or community.Proxy: A person authorized to decide or act for another person, for example, a person having durable power of attorney.Communication: The exchange or transmission of ideas, attitudes, or beliefs between individuals or groups.Peer Group: Group composed of associates of same species, approximately the same age, and usually of similar rank or social status.Interpersonal Relations: The reciprocal interaction of two or more persons.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Social Adjustment: Adaptation of the person to the social environment. Adjustment may take place by adapting the self to the environment or by changing the environment. (From Campbell, Psychiatric Dictionary, 1996)Adolescent Psychology: Field of psychology concerned with the normal and abnormal behavior of adolescents. It includes mental processes as well as observable responses.Insemination, Artificial, Heterologous: Human artificial insemination in which the semen used is that of a man other than the woman's husband.Child of Impaired Parents: Child with one or more parents afflicted by a physical or mental disorder.Adult Children: Children who have reached maturity or the legal age of majority.Child Psychology: The study of normal and abnormal behavior of children.Authoritarianism: The personality pattern or syndrome consisting of behavioral and attitudinal characteristics reflecting a preoccupation with the factors of power and authority in interpersonal relationships.Social Behavior Disorders: Behaviors which are at variance with the expected social norm and which affect other individuals.Adolescent Development: The continuous sequential physiological and psychological changes during ADOLESCENCE, approximately between the age of 13 and 18.Family Health: The health status of the family as a unit including the impact of the health of one member of the family on the family as a unit and on individual family members; also, the impact of family organization or disorganization on the health status of its members.Depressive Disorder, Treatment-Resistant: Failure to respond to two or more trials of antidepressant monotherapy or failure to respond to four or more trials of different antidepressant therapies. (Campbell's Psychiatric Dictionary, 9th ed.)Language Development: The gradual expansion in complexity and meaning of symbols and sounds as perceived and interpreted by the individual through a maturational and learning process. Stages in development include babbling, cooing, word imitation with cognition, and use of short sentences.Child Abuse: Abuse of children in a family, institutional, or other setting. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 1994)Stress, Psychological: Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.Family Therapy: A form of group psychotherapy. It involves treatment of more than one member of the family simultaneously in the same session.Nursing Methodology Research: Research carried out by nurses concerning techniques and methods to implement projects and to document information, including methods of interviewing patients, collecting data, and forming inferences. The concept includes exploration of methodological issues such as human subjectivity and human experience.Personality Assessment: The determination and evaluation of personality attributes by interviews, observations, tests, or scales. Articles concerning personality measurement are considered to be within scope of this term.Criminals: Persons who have committed a crime or have been convicted of a crime.Aggression: Behavior which may be manifested by destructive and attacking action which is verbal or physical, by covert attitudes of hostility or by obstructionism.Family Characteristics: Size and composition of the family.Child Language: The language and sounds expressed by a child at a particular maturational stage in development.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Education: Acquisition of knowledge as a result of instruction in a formal course of study.Conduct Disorder: A repetitive and persistent pattern of behavior in which the basic rights of others or major age-appropriate societal norms or rules are violated. These behaviors include aggressive conduct that causes or threatens physical harm to other people or animals, nonaggressive conduct that causes property loss or damage, deceitfulness or theft, and serious violations of rules. The onset is before age 18. (From DSM-IV, 1994)Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Nuclear Family: A family composed of spouses and their children.Temperament: Predisposition to react to one's environment in a certain way; usually refers to mood changes.Feeding Behavior: Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.Maternal Behavior: The behavior patterns associated with or characteristic of a mother.Psychological Tests: Standardized tests designed to measure abilities, as in intelligence, aptitude, and achievement tests, or to evaluate personality traits.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Diseases in Twins: Disorders affecting TWINS, one or both, at any age.Mexican Americans: Persons living in the United States of Mexican descent.Emigrants and Immigrants: People who leave their place of residence in one country and settle in a different country.Alcohol Drinking: Behaviors associated with the ingesting of alcoholic beverages, including social drinking.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Social Support: Support systems that provide assistance and encouragement to individuals with physical or emotional disabilities in order that they may better cope. Informal social support is usually provided by friends, relatives, or peers, while formal assistance is provided by churches, groups, etc.Antisocial Personality Disorder: A personality disorder whose essential feature is a pervasive pattern of disregard for, and violation of, the rights of others that begins in childhood or early adolescence and continues into adulthood. The individual must be at least age 18 and must have a history of some symptoms of CONDUCT DISORDER before age 15. (From DSM-IV, 1994)Nurse's Role: The expected function of a member of the nursing profession.Emotions: Those affective states which can be experienced and have arousing and motivational properties.Videotape Recording: Recording of visual and sometimes sound signals on magnetic tape.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Hispanic Americans: Persons living in the United States of Mexican (MEXICAN AMERICANS), Puerto Rican, Cuban, Central or South American, or other Spanish culture or origin. The concept does not include Brazilian Americans or Portuguese Americans.Self Concept: A person's view of himself.Schools: Educational institutions.Video Recording: The storing or preserving of video signals for television to be played back later via a transmitter or receiver. Recordings may be made on magnetic tape or discs (VIDEODISC RECORDING).Developmental Disabilities: Disorders in which there is a delay in development based on that expected for a given age level or stage of development. These impairments or disabilities originate before age 18, may be expected to continue indefinitely, and constitute a substantial impairment. Biological and nonbiological factors are involved in these disorders. (From American Psychiatric Glossary, 6th ed)Social Behavior: Any behavior caused by or affecting another individual, usually of the same species.Speech: Communication through a system of conventional vocal symbols.Behavior Therapy: The application of modern theories of learning and conditioning in the treatment of behavior disorders.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Pediatrics: A medical specialty concerned with maintaining health and providing medical care to children from birth to adolescence.United StatesPsychometrics: Assessment of psychological variables by the application of mathematical procedures.Substance-Related Disorders: Disorders related to substance abuse.Depression: Depressive states usually of moderate intensity in contrast with major depression present in neurotic and psychotic disorders.Self Report: Method for obtaining information through verbal responses, written or oral, from subjects.
Parent structure: In IUPAC nomenclature, a parent structure, parent compound, parent name or simply parent is the denotation for a compound consisting of an unbranched chain of skeletal atoms (not necessarily carbon), or consisting of an unsubstituted monocyclic or polycyclic ring system.Pediatric nursing: 'Pediatrics' comes from the Greek words 'pedia' which means child, 'iatrike' which means treatment and 'ics' which means branch of science. This means Pediatric nursing is the science of child care and scientific treatment of childhood.Down Syndrome CentreHahoe byeolsingut talnori: Hahoe byeolsingut talnori (하회별신굿탈놀이, 河回別神굿탈놀이) or "Hahoe special ritual drama to the gods" is a Korean masked dance-drama performed every three, five, or ten years at the request of the village deity in Hahoe, Andong, North Gyeongsang Province. The village is a UNESCO World Heritage Site, the dance-drama an Important Intangible Cultural Property, and a collection of thirteen masks are a National Treasure.Odd Eriksen: 250px|thumb|Odd EriksenMothers TalkFasting, Feasting: Fasting, Feasting is a novel by Indian writer Anita Desai, first published in 1999 in Great Britain by Chatto and Windus. It was shortlisted for the Booker Prize for fiction in 1999.Texas Juvenile Justice Department: The Texas Juvenile Justice Department (TJJD) is a state agency in Texas, headquartered in the Braker H Complex in Austin.David Rees Griffiths: David Rees Griffiths (November 6, 1882 – December 17, 1953), also known by his bardic name of Amanwy, was a Welsh poet, and an older brother of politician Jim Griffiths.Closed adoptionAvoidance coping: In psychology, avoidance coping, escape coping, or cope and avoid is a maladaptive coping mechanism characterized by the effort to avoid dealing with a stressor. Coping refers to behaviors that attempt to protect oneself from psychological damage.Madrasi chess: Madrasi chess is a chess variant invented in 1979 by Abdul Jabbar Karwatkar which uses the conventional rules of chess with the addition that when a piece is attacked by a piece of the same type but opposite colour (for example, a black queen attacking a white queen) it is paralysed and becomes unable to move, capture or give check. Most of the time, two like pieces attack each other mutually, meaning they are both paralysed (en passant pawn captures are an exception to this, since the attack is not mutual.I Love You Love Me Love: "I Love You Love Me Love" was a popular song by Gary Glitter. Written by Gary Glitter and Mike Leander and produced by Mike Leander, "I Love You Love Me Love" was Glitter's second number one single in the UK Singles Chart, spending four weeks at the top of the chart in November 1973, and establishing itself as Britain's best-selling single in 1973.History of communication studies: Various aspects of communication have been the subject of study since ancient times, and the approach eventually developed into the academic discipline known today as communication studies.Interpersonal reflex: Interpersonal reflex is a term created by Timothy Leary and explained in the book, Interpersonal Diagnosis of Personality: A functional theory and methodology for personality evaluation (1957).Closed-ended question: A closed-ended question is a question format that limits respondents with a list of answer choices from which they must choose to answer the question.Dillman D.Index of sociology articles: This is an index of sociology articles. For a shorter list, see List of basic sociology topics.Language pedagogy: Language education may take place as a general school subject, in a specialized language school, or out of school with a rich selection of proprietary methods online and in books, CDs and DVDs. There are many methods of teaching languages.Stressor: A stressor is a chemical or biological agent, environmental condition, external stimulus or an event that causes stress to an organism.Salvador Minuchin: Salvador Minuchin (born 1921) is a family therapist born and raised in San Salvador, Entre Ríos, Argentina. He developed structural family therapy, which addresses problems within a family by charting the relationships between family members, or between subsets of family (Minuchin, 1974).FBI Criminal Investigative Division: The Criminal Investigative Division (CID) is a division within the Criminal, Cyber, Response, and Services Branch of the Federal Bureau of Investigation. The CID is the primary component within the FBI responsible for overseeing FBI investigations of traditional crimes such as narcotics trafficking and violent crime.Dog aggression: Dog aggression is a term used by dog owners and breeders to describe canine-to-canine antipathy. Aggression itself is usually defined by canine behaviorists as "the intent to do harm".QRISK: QRISK2 (the most recent version of QRISK) is a prediction algorithm for cardiovascular disease (CVD) that uses traditional risk factors (age, systolic blood pressure, smoking status and ratio of total serum cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) together with body mass index, ethnicity, measures of deprivation, family history, chronic kidney disease, rheumatoid arthritis, atrial fibrillation, diabetes mellitus, and antihypertensive treatment.Age adjustment: In epidemiology and demography, age adjustment, also called age standardization, is a technique used to allow populations to be compared when the age profiles of the populations are quite different.Hyperthymic temperament: Hyperthymic temperament, or hyperthymia, from Greek hyper ("over", meaning here excessive) + θυμός ("spirited"), is a proposed personality type characterized by an excessively positive disposition similar to, but more stable than, the hypomania of bipolar disorder.Regression dilution: Regression dilution, also known as regression attenuation, is the biasing of the regression slope towards zero (or the underestimation of its absolute value), caused by errors in the independent variable.The Otwell Twins: The Otwell Twins are an American singing duo made up of identical twin brothers Roger and David, born August 2, 1956, in Tulia, Texas. They are best known as members of The Lawrence Welk Show from 1977-1982.Inequality within immigrant families in the United States: Inequality within immigrant families refers to instances in which members of the same family have differing access to resources. Much literature focuses on inequality between families, but inequality often exists within families as well.Alcohol and cardiovascular disease: Excessive alcohol intake is associated with an elevated risk of alcoholic liver disease (ALD), heart failure, some cancers, and accidental injury, and is a leading cause of preventable death in industrialized countries. However, extensive research has shown that moderate alcohol intake is associated with health benefits, including less cardiovascular disease, diabetes, hypertension, and lower all-cause mortality.History of psychopathy: Psychopathy, from psych (soul or mind) and pathy (suffering or disease), was coined by German psychiatrists in the 19th century and originally just meant what would today be called mental disorder, the study of which is still known as psychopathology. By the turn of the century 'psychopathic inferiority' referred to the type of mental disorder that might now be termed personality disorder, along with a wide variety of other conditions now otherwise classified.Emotion and memory: Emotion can have a powerful response on humans and animals. Numerous studies have shown that the most vivid autobiographical memories tend to be of emotional events, which are likely to be recalled more often and with more clarity and detail than neutral events.Video tape tracking: In a video tape recorder, tracking is a calibration adjustment which ensures that the spinning playback head is properly aligned with the helical scan signal written onto the tape.Temporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studyingSt. Vrain Valley School DistrictProfessional DiscDevelopmental Disability (California): In California, Developmental Disabilitymeans a disability that is attributable to mental retardation], [[cerebral palsy, epilepsy, autism, or disabling conditions found to be closely related to mental retardation or to require treatment similar to that required for individuals with mental retardation.Genetics of social behavior: The genetics of social behavior is an area of research that attempts to address the question of the role that genes play in modulating the neural circuits in the brain which influence social behavior. Model genetic species, such as D.Silent speech interface: Silent speech interface is a device that allows speech communication without using the sound made when people vocalize their speech sounds. As such it is a type of electronic lip reading.Generalizability theory: Generalizability theory, or G Theory, is a statistical framework for conceptualizing, investigating, and designing reliable observations. It is used to determine the reliability (i.British Pediatric Association Classification of Diseases: The British Pediatric Association Classification of Diseases is a system of diagnostic codes used for pediatrics.List of Parliamentary constituencies in Kent: The ceremonial county of Kent,David Budescu: David Budescu is a psychologist and academic. He is the Anne Anastasi Professor of Psychometrics and Quantitative Psychology at Fordham University.Substance-related disorder
(1/2108) Family factors affecting child development.
In a large, geographically defined population of children a number of family factors in addition to social class, determined by the father's occupation, were recorded by health visitors and school nurses with routine responsibility for these children. The quality of the children in normal schools was assessed in terms of nonverbal IQ and height at the ages of 5 and 10 years, and of behavior as reported by the teacher at the age of 10 years. By analysis of variance the sum of the independent effects of the other family factors greatly outweighed that of occupational social class, except in the case of the IQ at 10 years. The most important of the other family factors was the quality of the mother's care of her child during the first 3 years of life. (+info)
(2/2108) Like mother, like daughter: familial patterns of overweight are mediated by mothers' dietary disinhibition.
BACKGROUND: Obese parents are more likely to have obese children. Parents provide both the genes and eating environment for their children and familial patterns of adiposity are the result of gene-environment interactions. Environmental factors are implicated in the rapid increases in prevalence of childhood overweight that have occurred in the past 2 decades. Examination of aspects of the family environment may provide insight into increases in childhood overweight over time. OBJECTIVE: We examined parental characteristics associated with overweight and eating behaviors in preschool children. DESIGN: Seventy-five preschool children and their parents were recruited from local daycare centers. Information was obtained on parents' body mass indexes (BMIs), dietary restraint, and dietary disinhibition. A behavioral index of disinhibited eating in children was used to measure children's eating when given free access to palatable snack foods in the absence of hunger. Children's weight-for-height values were also calculated. RESULTS: Maternal dietary disinhibition (R2 = 0.35, P < 0.01) and maternal BMI (R2 = 0.19, P < 0.05) positively predicted daughters' overweight. Maternal disinhibition (R2 = 0.35, P < 0.05) mediated the relation between mothers' BMI and daughters' overweight when both maternal disinhibition and maternal BMI were used to predict daughters' overweight. Furthermore, when both mothers' disinhibition and daughters' free access intakes were used to predict daughters' overweight, mothers' disinhibition (P < 0.05) showed independent prediction. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that familial influences on child overweight differ according to parent and child sex. Also, these results suggest that mothers' dietary disinhibition mediates familial similarities in degree of overweight for mothers and daughters. (+info)
(3/2108) An office-based intervention to maintain parent-adolescent teamwork in diabetes management. Impact on parent involvement, family conflict, and subsequent glycemic control.
OBJECTIVE: To design and evaluate an office-based intervention aimed at maintaining parent-adolescent teamwork in diabetes management tasks without increasing diabetes-related family conflict. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: There were 85 patients (aged 10-15 years, mean 12.6 years) with type 1 diabetes (mean duration 5.5 years; mean HbA1c 8.5%) who were randomly assigned to one of three study groups--teamwork, attention control, and standard care--and followed for 24 months. At each visit, parent involvement in insulin administration and blood glucose monitoring was assessed. The teamwork and attention control interventions were integrated into routine ambulatory visits over the first 12 months (four medical visits). Measures of diabetes-related family conflict were collected at baseline and after 12 months. All patients were followed for an additional 12 months with respect to glycemic control. RESULTS: In the teamwork group, there was no major deterioration (0%) in parent involvement in insulin administration, in contrast to 16% major deterioration in the combined comparison (attention control and standard care) group (P < 0.03). Similarly, no teamwork families showed major deterioration in parent involvement with blood glucose monitoring versus 11% in the comparison group (P < 0.07). On both the Diabetes Family Conflict Scale and the Diabetes Family Behavior Checklist, teamwork families reported significantly less conflict at 12 months. An analysis of HbA1c over the 12- to 24-month follow-up period indicated that more adolescents in the teamwork group (68%) than in the comparison group (47%) improved their HbA1c (P < 0.07). CONCLUSIONS: The data demonstrate that parent involvement in diabetes management tasks can be strengthened through a low-intensity intervention integrated into routine follow-up diabetes care. Moreover, despite increased engagement between teen and parent centered around diabetes tasks, the teamwork families showed decreased diabetes-related family conflict. Within the context of a broader cultural recognition of the protective function of parent involvement in the lives of adolescents, the findings of this study reinforce the potential value of a parent-adolescent partnership in managing chronic disease. (+info)
(4/2108) Teenage partners' communication about sexual risk and condom use: the importance of parent-teenager discussions.
CONTEXT: Teenagers' communication with their partners about sex and their use of condoms may be influenced by the discussions teenagers have with their parents about sex. However, little is known about the process of parent-teenager communication on this topic. Understanding both what parents discuss with their children and how they discuss it may lead to a greater understanding of teenagers' sexual behavior. METHODS: Interviews were conducted with 372 sexually active black and Hispanic youth aged 14-17 from Alabama, New York and Puerto Rico. Regression analyses were used to examine parent-teenager discussions about sexuality and about sexual risk, and parental communication skills as predictors of teenagers' discussions about sexual risk with a partner and teenagers' condom use. RESULTS: Parent-teenager discussions about sexuality and sexual risk were associated with an increased likelihood of teenager-partner discussions about sexual risk and of teenagers' condom use, but only if parents were open, skilled and comfortable in having those discussions. Teenagers' communication with their partner about sexual risk also was associated with greater condom use, but the relationship between parent-teenager communication and teenagers' condom use was independent of this association. CONCLUSIONS: The influence on teenagers of parent-teenager discussions about sexuality and sexual risk depends on both what parents say and how they say it. Programs that foster parent-teenager communication about sexuality and sexual risk must emphasize both of these aspects. (+info)
(5/2108) Dependence, locus of control, parental bonding, and personality disorders: a study in alcoholics and controls.
Personality traits, socio-cultural factors, and dysfunctional family systems are considered to be important in the aetiology and clinical development of alcoholism. Particularly, conflict and issues involving psychological (emotional) dependence have long been associated with alcohol addiction. The present work, part of a more extensive study to validate a new rating scale to measure emotional dependence, the Dependence Self-rating Scale (DSRS), assesses dependence, orientation of locus of control, parental bonding perceptions, and personality disorders (PDs) in alcoholic and non-alcoholic samples. The alcoholics showed a prevalence of PDs of 31.3%. The most frequent is the Schizoid PD (40%) followed by the Dependent PD (20%). Subjects with antisocial PD were not included in our selection criteria. The alcoholics scored higher on the DSRS than the controls, but this difference was not statistically significant. By making a comparison between subjects with and without PDs, the DSRS scores were significantly higher in alcoholics with PDs. No significant differences between alcoholics and non-alcoholics in the parental perceptions and locus of control were seen. These findings are sufficiently coherent to encourage further studies on psychological emotional dependence in alcoholics using the DSRS. (+info)
(6/2108) Intellectual outcome at 12 years of age in congenital hypothyroidism.
BACKGROUND: The intellectual outcome in children with congenital hypothyroidism detected by neonatal screening is generally good; however, subtle neurological dysfunctions, subnormal IQ, or both, have been reported. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the intellectual outcome in 12-year-old patients with congenital hypothyroidism, detected by neonatal screening, in an attempt to identify factors that may affect intellectual development. METHODS: The intelligence quotient (IQ) of 40 children with congenital hypothyroidism was evaluated at 12 years of age, using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children -- Revised, and compared with the IQ of 40 healthy siblings (control group). RESULTS: The mean IQ score (88.4+/-13.1) was not significantly different from that of the control group (93.4+/-10.7). Thirteen patients showed subnormal IQ score (72.4+/-4.9) compared with their siblings (86.7+/-9.6; P<0.0001) and with the other patients (96.1+/-9.6; P<0.0001). The low IQ score was associated with lower serum concentrations of thyroxine at diagnosis, poor treatment compliance during follow-up and lower familial IQ. Interviews with parents of children with congenital hypothyroidism revealed that a refusal to acknowledge the disease was linked to poor attention to the child's emotional life and to poor treatment compliance in some cases (11%). CONCLUSION: Even though the mean IQ score in patients with congenital hypothyroidism falls within normal for the control population, low IQ scores may be present in patients with severe hypothyroidism, inadequate compliance to replacement therapy during follow-up and poor parental pedagogic attitude. (+info)
(7/2108) Quality of early family relationships and individual differences in the timing of pubertal maturation in girls: a longitudinal test of an evolutionary model.
In an 8-year prospective study of 173 girls and their families, the authors tested predictions from J. Belsky, L. Steinberg, and P. Draper's (1991) evolutionary model of individual differences in pubertal timing. This model suggests that more negative-coercive (or less positive-harmonious) family relationships in early childhood provoke earlier reproductive development in adolescence. Consistent with the model, fathers' presence in the home, more time spent by fathers in child care, greater supportiveness in the parental dyad, more father-daughter affection, and more mother-daughter affection, as assessed prior to kindergarten, each predicted later pubertal timing by daughters in 7th grade. The positive dimension of family relationships, rather than the negative dimension, accounted for these relations. In total, the quality of fathers' investment in the family emerged as the most important feature of the proximal family environment relative to daughters' pubertal timing. (+info)
(8/2108) Slapping and spanking in childhood and its association with lifetime prevalence of psychiatric disorders in a general population sample.
BACKGROUND: Little information is available in Canada about the prevalence of and outcomes associated with a history of slapping and spanking in childhood. The objectives of this study were to estimate the prevalence of a history of slapping or spanking in a general population sample and to assess the relation between such a history and the lifetime prevalence of psychiatric disorders. METHODS: In this general population survey, a probability sample of 9953 residents of Ontario aged 15 years and older who participated in the Ontario Health Supplement was used to examine the prevalence of a history of slapping and spanking. A subgroup of this sample (n = 4888), which comprised people aged 15 to 64 years who did not report a history of physical or sexual abuse during childhood, was used to assess the relation between a history of slapping or spanking and the lifetime prevalence of 4 categories of psychiatric disorder. The measures included a self-administered questionnaire with a question about frequency of slapping and spanking during childhood, as well as an interviewer-administered questionnaire to measure psychiatric disorder. RESULTS: The majority of respondents indicated that they had been slapped or spanked, or both, by an adult during childhood "sometimes" (33.4%) or "rarely" (40.9%); 5.5% reported that this occurred "often." The remainder (20.2%) reported "never" experiencing these behaviours. Among the respondents without a history of physical or sexual abuse during childhood, those who reported being slapped or spanked "often" or "sometimes" had significantly higher lifetime rates of anxiety disorders (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 1.43, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.04-1.96), alcohol abuse or dependence (adjusted OR 2.02, 95% CI 1.27-3.21) and one or more externalizing problems (adjusted OR 2.08, 95% CI 1.36-3.16), compared with those who reported "never" being slapped or spanked. There was also an association between a history of slapping or spanking and major depression, but it was not statistically significant (adjusted OR 1.64, 95% CI 0.96-2.80). INTERPRETATION: There appears to be a linear association between the frequency of slapping and spanking during childhood and a lifetime prevalence of anxiety disorder, alcohol abuse or dependence and externalizing problems. (+info)