Parasitic Diseases: Infections or infestations with parasitic organisms. They are often contracted through contact with an intermediate vector, but may occur as the result of direct exposure.Skin Diseases, Parasitic: Skin diseases caused by ARTHROPODS; HELMINTHS; or other parasites.Protozoan Infections: Infections with unicellular organisms formerly members of the subkingdom Protozoa.Antiparasitic Agents: Drugs used to treat or prevent parasitic infections.Schistosomiasis: Infection with flukes (trematodes) of the genus SCHISTOSOMA. Three species produce the most frequent clinical diseases: SCHISTOSOMA HAEMATOBIUM (endemic in Africa and the Middle East), SCHISTOSOMA MANSONI (in Egypt, northern and southern Africa, some West Indies islands, northern 2/3 of South America), and SCHISTOSOMA JAPONICUM (in Japan, China, the Philippines, Celebes, Thailand, Laos). S. mansoni is often seen in Puerto Ricans living in the United States.Amoebida: An order of ameboid protozoa that is commonly uninucleate and possess mitochondria. Most organisms are nonpathogenic.Helminthiasis: Infestation with parasitic worms of the helminth class.Eimeriida: An order of parasitic organisms in the class COCCIDIA. Families include CRYPTOSPORIDIIDAE; EIMERIIDAE; and SARCOCYSTIDAE.Neurocysticercosis: Infection of the brain, spinal cord, or perimeningeal structures with the larval forms of the genus TAENIA (primarily T. solium in humans). Lesions formed by the organism are referred to as cysticerci. The infection may be subacute or chronic, and the severity of symptoms depends on the severity of the host immune response and the location and number of lesions. SEIZURES represent the most common clinical manifestation although focal neurologic deficits may occur. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1998, Ch27, pp46-50)Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic: Infections of the INTESTINES with PARASITES, commonly involving PARASITIC WORMS. Infections with roundworms (NEMATODE INFECTIONS) and tapeworms (CESTODE INFECTIONS) are also known as HELMINTHIASIS.Antiprotozoal Agents: Substances that are destructive to protozoans.Leishmaniasis: A disease caused by any of a number of species of protozoa in the genus LEISHMANIA. There are four major clinical types of this infection: cutaneous (Old and New World) (LEISHMANIASIS, CUTANEOUS), diffuse cutaneous (LEISHMANIASIS, DIFFUSE CUTANEOUS), mucocutaneous (LEISHMANIASIS, MUCOCUTANEOUS), and visceral (LEISHMANIASIS, VISCERAL).Helminthiasis, Animal: Infestation of animals with parasitic worms of the helminth class. The infestation may be experimental or veterinary.Anthelmintics: Agents destructive to parasitic worms. They are used therapeutically in the treatment of HELMINTHIASIS in man and animal.Digestive System Diseases: Diseases in any part of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT or the accessory organs (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).Lung Diseases, Parasitic: Infections of the lungs with parasites, most commonly by parasitic worms (HELMINTHS).Antibodies, Helminth: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to HELMINTH ANTIGENS.Parasitology: The study of parasites and PARASITIC DISEASES.Echinococcosis: An infection caused by the infestation of the larval form of tapeworms of the genus Echinococcus. The liver, lungs, and kidney are the most common areas of infestation.Tropical Medicine: The branch of medicine concerned with diseases, mainly of parasitic origin, common in tropical and subtropical regions.Antigens, Helminth: Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.Trypanosomiasis: Infection with protozoa of the genus TRYPANOSOMA.Iodoquinol: One of the halogenated 8-quinolinols widely used as an intestinal antiseptic, especially as an antiamebic agent. It is also used topically in other infections and may cause CNS and eye damage. It is known by very many similar trade names world-wide.Amebiasis: Infection with any of various amebae. It is an asymptomatic carrier state in most individuals, but diseases ranging from chronic, mild diarrhea to fulminant dysentery may occur.Nematode Infections: Infections by nematodes, general or unspecified.Taenia solium: Species of tapeworm in the genus TAENIA, that infects swine. It is acquired by humans through the ingestion of cured or undercooked pork.Parasites: Invertebrate organisms that live on or in another organism (the host), and benefit at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.Echinococcus: A genus of very small TAPEWORMS, in the family Taeniidae. The adult form is found in various CARNIVORA but not humans. The larval form is seen in humans under certain epidemiologic circumstances.Schistosoma: A genus of trematode flukes belonging to the family Schistosomatidae. There are over a dozen species. These parasites are found in man and other mammals. Snails are the intermediate hosts.Dracunculiasis: Infection with nematodes of the genus Dracunculus. One or more worms may be seen at a time, with the legs and feet being the most commonly infected areas. Symptoms include pruritus, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, or asthmatic attacks.Cysticercus: The larval form of various tapeworms of the genus Taenia.Giardiasis: An infection of the SMALL INTESTINE caused by the flagellated protozoan GIARDIA LAMBLIA. It is spread via contaminated food and water and by direct person-to-person contact.Neglected Diseases: Diseases that are underfunded and have low name recognition but are major burdens in less developed countries. The World Health Organization has designated six tropical infectious diseases as being neglected in industrialized countries that are endemic in many developing countries (HELMINTHIASIS; LEPROSY; LYMPHATIC FILARIASIS; ONCHOCERCIASIS; SCHISTOSOMIASIS; and TRACHOMA).Cysticercosis: Infection with CYSTICERCUS, the larval form of the various tapeworms of the genus Taenia (usually T. solium in man). In humans they penetrate the intestinal wall and invade subcutaneous tissue, brain, eye, muscle, heart, liver, lung, and peritoneum. Brain involvement results in NEUROCYSTICERCOSIS.Filariasis: Infections with nematodes of the superfamily FILARIOIDEA. The presence of living worms in the body is mainly asymptomatic but the death of adult worms leads to granulomatous inflammation and permanent fibrosis. Organisms of the genus Elaeophora infect wild elk and domestic sheep causing ischemic necrosis of the brain, blindness, and dermatosis of the face.Schistosoma japonicum: A species of trematode blood flukes belonging to the family Schistosomatidae whose distribution is confined to areas of the Far East. The intermediate host is a snail. It occurs in man and other mammals.Schistosoma mansoni: A species of trematode blood flukes of the family Schistosomatidae. It is common in the Nile delta. The intermediate host is the planorbid snail. This parasite causes schistosomiasis mansoni and intestinal bilharziasis.Leishmaniasis, Visceral: A chronic disease caused by LEISHMANIA DONOVANI and transmitted by the bite of several sandflies of the genera Phlebotomus and Lutzomyia. It is commonly characterized by fever, chills, vomiting, anemia, hepatosplenomegaly, leukopenia, hypergammaglobulinemia, emaciation, and an earth-gray color of the skin. The disease is classified into three main types according to geographic distribution: Indian, Mediterranean (or infantile), and African.Toxocariasis: Infection by round worms of the genus TOXOCARA, usually found in wild and domesticated cats and dogs and foxes, except for the larvae, which may produce visceral and ocular larva migrans in man.Chagas Disease: Infection with the protozoan parasite TRYPANOSOMA CRUZI, a form of TRYPANOSOMIASIS endemic in Central and South America. It is named after the Brazilian physician Carlos Chagas, who discovered the parasite. Infection by the parasite (positive serologic result only) is distinguished from the clinical manifestations that develop years later, such as destruction of PARASYMPATHETIC GANGLIA; CHAGAS CARDIOMYOPATHY; and dysfunction of the ESOPHAGUS or COLON.Schistosomiasis japonica: Schistosomiasis caused by Schistosoma japonicum. It is endemic in the Far East and affects the bowel, liver, and spleen.Central Nervous System Infections: Pathogenic infections of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges. DNA VIRUS INFECTIONS; RNA VIRUS INFECTIONS; BACTERIAL INFECTIONS; MYCOPLASMA INFECTIONS; SPIROCHAETALES INFECTIONS; fungal infections; PROTOZOAN INFECTIONS; HELMINTHIASIS; and PRION DISEASES may involve the central nervous system as a primary or secondary process.Entamoebiasis: Infection with amoebae of the genus ENTAMOEBA. Infection with E. histolytica causes DYSENTERY, AMEBIC and LIVER ABSCESS, AMEBIC.Schistosoma haematobium: A species of trematode blood flukes of the family Schistosomatidae which occurs at different stages in development in veins of the pulmonary and hepatic system and finally the bladder lumen. This parasite causes urinary schistosomiasis.Gnathostoma: A genus of parasitic nematodes that occurs in mammals including man. Infection in humans is either by larvae penetrating the skin or by ingestion of uncooked fish.Hookworm Infections: Infection of humans or animals with hookworms other than those caused by the genus Ancylostoma or Necator, for which the specific terms ANCYLOSTOMIASIS and NECATORIASIS are available.Communicable DiseasesEchinococcus multilocularis: A north temperate species of tapeworm (CESTODA) whose adult form infects FOXES and wild RODENTS. The larval form can infect humans producing HEPATIC HYDATID CYSTS.Host-Parasite Interactions: The relationship between an invertebrate and another organism (the host), one of which lives at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.Albendazole: A benzimidazole broad-spectrum anthelmintic structurally related to MEBENDAZOLE that is effective against many diseases. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p38)Trematode Infections: Infections caused by infestation with worms of the class Trematoda.Scabies: A contagious cutaneous inflammation caused by the bite of the mite SARCOPTES SCABIEI. It is characterized by pruritic papular eruptions and burrows and affects primarily the axillae, elbows, wrists, and genitalia, although it can spread to cover the entire body.Leishmania: A genus of flagellate protozoa comprising several species that are pathogenic for humans. Organisms of this genus have an amastigote and a promastigote stage in their life cycles. As a result of enzymatic studies this single genus has been divided into two subgenera: Leishmania leishmania and Leishmania viannia. Species within the Leishmania leishmania subgenus include: L. aethiopica, L. arabica, L. donovani, L. enrietti, L. gerbilli, L. hertigi, L. infantum, L. major, L. mexicana, and L. tropica. The following species are those that compose the Leishmania viannia subgenus: L. braziliensis, L. guyanensis, L. lainsoni, L. naiffi, and L. shawi.Leishmania donovani: A parasitic hemoflagellate of the subgenus Leishmania leishmania that infects man and animals and causes visceral leishmaniasis (LEISHMANIASIS, VISCERAL). The sandfly genera Phlebotomus and Lutzomyia are the vectors.Trichinellosis: An infection with TRICHINELLA. It is caused by eating raw or undercooked meat that is infected with larvae of nematode worms TRICHINELLA genus. All members of the TRICHINELLA genus can infect human in addition to TRICHINELLA SPIRALIS, the traditional etiological agent. It is distributed throughout much of the world and is re-emerging in some parts as a public health hazard and a food safety problem.Trypanosoma cruzi: The agent of South American trypanosomiasis or CHAGAS DISEASE. Its vertebrate hosts are man and various domestic and wild animals. Insects of several species are vectors.Abdomen, Acute: A clinical syndrome with acute abdominal pain that is severe, localized, and rapid in onset. Acute abdomen may be caused by a variety of disorders, injuries, or diseases.Paragonimiasis: Infection with TREMATODA of the genus PARAGONIMUS.Schistosomiasis mansoni: Schistosomiasis caused by Schistosoma mansoni. It is endemic in Africa, the Middle East, South America, and the Caribbean and affects mainly the bowel, spleen, and liver.Taenia: A genus of large tapeworms.Parasitic Sensitivity Tests: Tests that demonstrate the relative effectiveness of chemotherapeutic agents against specific parasites.Entamoeba histolytica: A species of parasitic protozoa causing ENTAMOEBIASIS and amebic dysentery (DYSENTERY, AMEBIC). Characteristics include a single nucleus containing a small central karyosome and peripheral chromatin that is finely and regularly beaded.Parasite Egg Count: Determination of parasite eggs in feces.Parasitic Diseases, Animal: Infections or infestations with parasitic organisms. The infestation may be experimental or veterinary.Disease Vectors: Invertebrates or non-human vertebrates which transmit infective organisms from one host to another.Helminth Proteins: Proteins found in any species of helminth.Leishmania infantum: A parasitic hemoflagellate of the subgenus Leishmania leishmania that infects man and animals and causes visceral leishmaniasis (LEISHMANIASIS, VISCERAL). Human infections are confined almost entirely to children. This parasite is commonly seen in dogs, other Canidae, and porcupines with humans considered only an accidental host. Transmission is by Phlebotomus sandflies.Malaria: A protozoan disease caused in humans by four species of the PLASMODIUM genus: PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM VIVAX; PLASMODIUM OVALE; and PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; and transmitted by the bite of an infected female mosquito of the genus ANOPHELES. Malaria is endemic in parts of Asia, Africa, Central and South America, Oceania, and certain Caribbean islands. It is characterized by extreme exhaustion associated with paroxysms of high FEVER; SWEATING; shaking CHILLS; and ANEMIA. Malaria in ANIMALS is caused by other species of plasmodia.Eosinophilia: Abnormal increase of EOSINOPHILS in the blood, tissues or organs.Praziquantel: An anthelmintic used in most schistosome and many cestode infestations.Trypanosomiasis, African: A disease endemic among people and animals in Central Africa. It is caused by various species of trypanosomes, particularly T. gambiense and T. rhodesiense. Its second host is the TSETSE FLY. Involvement of the central nervous system produces "African sleeping sickness." Nagana is a rapidly fatal trypanosomiasis of horses and other animals.Saudi ArabiaCommunicable Disease Control: Programs of surveillance designed to prevent the transmission of disease by any means from person to person or from animal to man.Travel: Aspects of health and disease related to travel.Coccidiosis: Protozoan infection found in animals and man. It is caused by several different genera of COCCIDIA.Elephantiasis, Filarial: Parasitic infestation of the human lymphatic system by WUCHERERIA BANCROFTI or BRUGIA MALAYI. It is also called lymphatic filariasis.Ivermectin: A mixture of mostly avermectin H2B1a (RN 71827-03-7) with some avermectin H2B1b (RN 70209-81-3), which are macrolides from STREPTOMYCES avermitilis. It binds glutamate-gated chloride channel to cause increased permeability and hyperpolarization of nerve and muscle cells. It also interacts with other CHLORIDE CHANNELS. It is a broad spectrum antiparasitic that is active against microfilariae of ONCHOCERCA VOLVULUS but not the adult form.BrazilSchistosomiasis haematobia: A human disease caused by the infection of parasitic worms SCHISTOSOMA HAEMATOBIUM. It is endemic in AFRICA and parts of the MIDDLE EAST. Tissue damages most often occur in the URINARY TRACT, specifically the URINARY BLADDER.Strongylida Infections: Infections with nematodes of the order STRONGYLIDA.Protozoan Proteins: Proteins found in any species of protozoan.Antibodies, Protozoan: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to PROTOZOAN ANTIGENS.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.Zoonoses: Diseases of non-human animals that may be transmitted to HUMANS or may be transmitted from humans to non-human animals.Antigens, Protozoan: Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous: An endemic disease that is characterized by the development of single or multiple localized lesions on exposed areas of skin that typically ulcerate. The disease has been divided into Old and New World forms. Old World leishmaniasis is separated into three distinct types according to epidemiology and clinical manifestations and is caused by species of the L. tropica and L. aethiopica complexes as well as by species of the L. major genus. New World leishmaniasis, also called American leishmaniasis, occurs in South and Central America and is caused by species of the L. mexicana or L. braziliensis complexes.Gastrointestinal Diseases: Diseases in any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT from ESOPHAGUS to RECTUM.Plasmodium falciparum: A species of protozoa that is the causal agent of falciparum malaria (MALARIA, FALCIPARUM). It is most prevalent in the tropics and subtropics.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Developing Countries: Countries in the process of change with economic growth, that is, an increase in production, per capita consumption, and income. The process of economic growth involves better utilization of natural and human resources, which results in a change in the social, political, and economic structures.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Dog Diseases: Diseases of the domestic dog (Canis familiaris). This term does not include diseases of wild dogs, WOLVES; FOXES; and other Canidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.Insect Vectors: Insects that transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.Toxoplasma: A genus of protozoa parasitic to birds and mammals. T. gondii is one of the most common infectious pathogenic animal parasites of man.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Mice, Inbred BALB C


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*  CDC - Parasites - Alphabetical Index of Parasitic Diseases

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Parasitic disease: A parasitic disease is an infectious disease caused or transmitted by a parasite. Many parasites do not cause diseases.Protozoan infection: Protozoan infections are parasitic diseases caused by organisms formerly classified in the Kingdom Protozoa. They include organisms classified in Amoebozoa, Excavata, and Chromalveolata.IvermectinSchistosomiasisSappinia pedata: Sappinia is a genus of Amoebozoa.Sappinia is a free-living amoeba (a single-celled organism), found in the environment.Soil-transmitted helminthiasis: Soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH) is a type of helminth infections (helminthiasis) caused by different species of roundworms. It is caused specifically by those worms which are transmitted through soil contaminated with faecal matter and are therefore called soil-transmitted helminths.Intestinal parasiteTenonitrozoleSurfbirdATCvet code QP52: ==QP52A Anthelmintics==Prifinium bromideStichosome: Stichosome (from Greek stichos (στίχος) = row; soma (σῶµα) = body) is a multicellular organ that is very prominent in some stages of nematodes and consists of a longitudinal series of glandular unicellular cells (stichocytes) arranged in a row along the oesophagus that form the posterior esophageal glands. It opens into the esophageal lumen and apparently functions as a secretory gland and storage organ.EchinococcosisTulane University School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine: The Tulane School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine is part of Tulane University of the U.S.Trypanosoma evansi: Trypanosoma evansi is a protozoan trypanosome in the genus Trypanosoma that causes one form of surra in animals. It has been proposed that T.Granulomatous amoebic encephalitisNematode infectionTaenia solium: Taenia solium is the pork tapeworm belonging to cyclophyllid cestodes in the family Taeniidae. It is an intestinal zoonotic parasite found throughout the world, and is most prevalent in countries where pork is eaten.Behavior-altering parasites and parasitoids: Some parasites and parasitoids cause changes in the behavior of their hosts by directly affecting the hosts' decision-making and behavior control mechanisms. The acquired or modified behaviors assist in parasite transmission, and often result in the host's demise.Echinococcus: The genus Echinococcus includes six parasite species of cyclophyllid tapeworms to date, of the family Taeniidae. Infection with Echinococcus results in hydatid disease, also known as echinococcosis.Schistosoma mekongi: Schistosoma mekongi is a trematode, also known as a flatworm or fluke. It is one of the five major schistosomes that account for all human infections, the other four being S.DracunculiasisGiardia: Giardia ( or ) is a genus of anaerobic flagellated protozoan parasites of the phylum Sarcomastigophora that colonise and reproduce in the small intestines of several vertebrates, causing giardiasis. Their life cycle alternates between an actively swimming trophozoite and an infective, resistant cyst.KPC Medical College and HospitalCysticercosisSchistosoma japonicum: Schistosoma japonicum is an important parasite and one of the major infectious agents of schistosomiasis.This parasite has a very wide host range, infecting at least 31 species of wild mammals, including 9 carnivores, 16 rodents, one primate (Human), two insectivores and three artiodactyls and therefore it can be considered a true zoonosis.Schistosoma mansoni: Schistosoma mansoni is a significant parasite of humans, a trematode that is one of the major agents of the disease schistosomiasis which is one type of helminthiasis, a neglected tropical disease. The schistosomiasis caused by Schistosoma mansoni is intestinal schistosomiasis.Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis: Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (also known as "Post-kala-azar dermatosis") is a cutaneous condition that is characterized by a macular, depigmented eruption found mainly on the face, arms, and upper part of the trunk. It occurs years(in the Indian variation)or a few months(in the African strain) after the successful treatment of visceral leishmaniasisToxocariasis: (ILDS B83.01)Chagas: Time to Treat campaign: The Chagas: Time to Treat Campaign is an international campaign started by the Drugs for Neglected Diseases initiative to advocate for increased research and development of treatments for Chagas disease. Chagas is a potentially fatal neglected disease that affects between 8 and 13 million people worldwide.Japonica: Japonica refers to things related to Japan.Schistosoma haematobium: Schistosoma haematobium is an important digenetic trematode, and is found in Africa and the Middle East. It is a major agent of schistosomiasis; more specifically, it is associated with urinary schistosomiasis.Gnathostoma: Not to be confused with Gnathostomata (singular: Gnathostoma), a Vertebrate Superclass.Hookworm vaccine: Hookworm vaccine is a vaccine against hookworm. No effective vaccine for the disease has yet been developed.Global Infectious Disease Epidemiology Network: Global Infectious Diseases Epidemiology Network (GIDEON) is a web-based program for decision support and informatics in the fields of Infectious Diseases and Geographic Medicine. As of 2005, more than 300 generic infectious diseases occur haphazardly in time and space and are challenged by over 250 drugs and vaccines.Echinococcus multilocularis: Echinococcus multilocularis is a cyclophyllid tapeworm that, along with some other members of the Echinococcus genus (especially E. granulosus), produces the disease known as echinococcosis in certain terrestrial mammals, including wolves, foxes, jackals, coyotes, domestic dogs and humans.AlbendazoleBithynia fuchsiana: Bithynia fuchsiana is a species of small freshwater snail with a gill and an operculum, an aquatic gastropod mollusk in the family Bithyniidae.ScabiesLeishmania aethiopica: Leishmania aethiopica is a Leishmania species.Leishmania donovani: Leishmania donovani is a species of intracellular parasitic protozoan belonging to the genus Leishmania, a group of haemoflagellate kinetoplastids that cause the disease leishmaniasis. It is a human blood parasite responsible for visceral leishmaniasis or kala-azar, the most severe form of leishmaniasis.International Conference on Trichinellosis: The International Commission on Trichinellosis (ICT) was created in 1958 in Budapest and is aiming to exchange information on the biology, the physiopathology, the epidemiology, the immunology, and the clinical aspects of trichinellosis in humans and animals. Prevention is a primary goal (see ICTweb pages).Trypanosoma: Trypanosoma is a genus of kinetoplastids (class Kinetoplastida), a monophyletic group of unicellular parasitic flagellate protozoa. The name is derived from the Greek trypano- (borer) and soma (body) because of their corkscrew-like motion.Epiploic appendagitis: Epiploic appendagitis (EA) is an uncommon, benign, non-surgical, self-limiting inflammatory process of the epiploic appendices. Other, older terms for the process include appendicitis epiploica and appendagitis, but these terms are used less now in order to avoid confusion with acute appendicitis.ParagonimiasisTaenia crassiceps: Taenia crassiceps is a parasitic organism, and is a member of the Taenia genus. It is a tapeworm.Entamoeba histolytica: Entamoeba histolytica is an anaerobic parasitic protozoan, part of the genus Entamoeba. Predominantly infecting humans and other primates, E.Dactylogyrus: Dactylogyrus is a genus of the Dactylogyridae family. They are commonly known as gill flukesDitch: A ditch is a small to moderate depression created to channel water. A ditch can be used for drainage, to drain water from low-lying areas, alongside roadways or fields, or to channel water from a more distant source for plant irrigation.Leishmania infantum: Leishmania infantum is the causative agent of infantile visceral leishmaniasis in the Mediterranean region of the Old World and in Latin America, where it has been called Leishmania chagasi. It is also an unusual cause of cutaneous leishmaniasis, which is normally caused by specific lineages (or zymodemes).Roll Back Malaria Partnership: The Roll Back Malaria Partnership (RBM Partnership) is the global framework for coordinated action against malaria. It forges consensus among key actors in malaria control, harmonises action and mobilises resources to fight malaria in endemic countries.Eosinophilic gastroenteritisPraziquantelTrypanosomiasisEducational technology in Saudi ArabiaCarte Jaune: The Carte Jaune or Yellow Card is an international certificate of vaccination (ICV). It is issued by the World Health Organisation.Coccidiosis: Coccidiosis is a parasitic disease of the intestinal tract of animals caused by coccidian protozoa. The disease spreads from one animal to another by contact with infected feces or ingestion of infected tissue.ATCvet code QP54: ==QP54A Macrocyclic lactones==University of CampinasMicroneme: Micronemes are cellular organs, or organelles, possessed by Apicomplexa protozoans that are restricted to the apical third of the protozoan body. They are surrounded by a typical unit membrane.Eva Engvall: Eva Engvall, born 1940, is one of the scientists who invented ELISA in 1971.Eva Engvall, The Scientist 1995, 9(18):8Layout of the Port of Tianjin: The Port of Tianjin is divided into nine areas: the three core (“Tianjin Xingang”) areas of Beijiang, Nanjiang, and Dongjiang around the Xingang fairway; the Haihe area along the river; the Beitang port area around the Beitangkou estuary; the Dagukou port area in the estuary of the Haihe River; and three areas under construction (Hanggu, Gaoshaling, Nangang).Cutaneous leishmaniasisFunctional gastrointestinal disorder: Functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID) include a number of separate idiopathic disorders which affect different parts of the gastrointestinal tract and involve visceral hypersensitivity and impaired gastrointestinal motility. Heightened mast cell activation is a common factor among all FGIDs that contributes to visceral hypersensitivity as well as epithelial, neuromuscular, and motility dysfunction.Pregnancy-associated malaria: Pregnancy-associated malaria (PAM) or placental malaria is a presentation of the common illness that is particularly life-threatening to both mother and developing fetus. PAM is caused primarily by infection with Plasmodium falciparum, the most dangerous of the four species of malaria-causing parasites that infect humans.Lucas paradox: In economics, the Lucas paradox or the Lucas puzzle is the observation that capital does not flow from developed countries to developing countries despite the fact that developing countries have lower levels of capital per worker.}}Assay sensitivity: Assay sensitivity is a property of a clinical trial defined as the ability of a trial to distinguish an effective treatment from a less effective or ineffective intervention. Without assay sensitivity, a trial is not internally valid and is not capable of comparing the efficacy of two interventions.Old German Shepherd Dog: Old German Shepherd Dog () is a controversial predicate for the long-hair variation of the German Shepherd Dog (), which is not a separate breed recognized by the Fédération Cynologique Internationale. Nonetheless, there are efforts to establish this variety as a separate breed.SAG1 protein domain: In molecular biology, the SAG1 protein domain is an example of a group of glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-linked proteins named SRSs (SAG1 related sequence). SAG1 is found on the surface of a protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii.

(1/422) Candidate parasitic diseases.

This paper discusses five parasitic diseases: American trypanosomiasis (Chagas disease), dracunculiasis, lymphatic filariasis, onchocerciasis and schistosomiasis. The available technology and health infrastructures in developing countries permit the eradication of dracunculiasis and the elimination of lymphatic filariasis due to Wuchereria bancrofti. Blindness due to onchocerciasis and transmission of this disease will be prevented in eleven West African countries; transmission of Chagas disease will be interrupted. A well-coordinated international effort is required to ensure that scarce resources are not wasted, efforts are not duplicated, and planned national programmes are well supported.  (+info)

(2/422) Preventing zoonotic diseases in immunocompromised persons: the role of physicians and veterinarians.

We surveyed physicians and veterinarians in Wisconsin about the risk for and prevention of zoonotic diseases in immunocompromised persons. We found that physicians and veterinarians hold significantly different views about the risks posed by certain infectious agents and species of animals and communicate very little about zoonotic issues; moreover, physicians believe that veterinarians should be involved in many aspects of zoonotic disease prevention, including patient education.  (+info)

(3/422) NK cells and apoptosis.

Natural killer (NK) cells are a cell of the innate immune system that play an important role in the early response to viral infections and tumours. Natural killer cells are cytolytic, and secrete cytokines that influence the developing antigen-specific immune response. In the present article the NK cell surface molecules regulating effector function, the NK cell effector mechanisms involved in apoptosis, and the role of NK cell effector mechanisms in immune responses are reviewed.  (+info)

(4/422) Glycosaminoglycan-binding microbial proteins in tissue adhesion and invasion: key events in microbial pathogenicity.

Glycosaminoglycans such as heparin, heparan sulphate and dermatan sulphate, are distributed widely in the human body. Several glycosaminoglycans form part of the extracellular matrix and heparan sulphate is expressed on all eukaryotic surfaces. The identification of specific binding to different glycosaminoglycan molecules by bacteria (e.g., Helicobacter pylori, Bordetella pertussis and Chlamydia trachomatis), viruses (e.g., herpes simplex and dengue virus), and protozoa (e.g., Plasmodium and Leishmania), is therefore of great interest. Expression of glycosaminoglycan-binding proteins depends on growth and culture conditions in bacteria, and differs in various phases of parasite development. Glycosaminoglycan-binding microbial proteins may mediate adhesion of microbes to eukaryotic cells, which may be a primary mechanism in mucosal infections, and are also involved in secondary effects such as adhesion to cerebral endothelia in cerebral malaria or to synovial membranes in arthritis caused by Borrelia burgdorferi. It has been suggested that they may enhance intracellular survival in macrophages. Microbial binding of heparin may interfere with heparin-dependent growth factors. Whether or not glycosaminoglycan-binding proteins mediate invasion of epithelial cells is a matter of controversy. Heparin and other glycosaminoglycans may have potential uses as therapeutic agents in microbial infections and could form part of future vaccines against such infections.  (+info)

(5/422) Ocular linguatuliasis in Ecuador: case report and morphometric study of the larva of Linguatula serrata.

Linguatula serrata is a pentastomid, a cosmopolitan parasite belonging to the Phylum Pentastomida. Humans may act as an intermediate or accidental definitive host of this parasite, manifesting the nasopharyngeal or visceral form, with the latter having been described more frequently. The occurrence of ocular linguatuliasis is extremely rare, but it has been reported in the United States and Israel. The objective of the present paper was to report the first case of ocular linguatuliasis in Ecuador and to extend the morphologic study of L. serrata by morphometric analysis. The patient studied was a 34-year old woman from Guayaquil, Ecuador who complained of ocular pain with conjunctivitis and visual difficulties of two-months duration. Biomicroscopic examination revealed a mobile body in the anterior chamber of the eye. The mobile body was surgically removed. The specimen was fixed in alcohol, cleared using the technique of Loos, stained with acetic carmine, and mounted on balsam between a slide and a coverslip. It was observed with stereoscopic and common light microscopes in combination with an automatic system for image analysis and processing. The morphologic and morphometric characteristics corresponded to the third-instar larval form of L. serrata. To our knowledge, ocular linguatuliasis has not been previously described in South America, with this being the first report for Ecuador and South America. The present study shows that computer morphometry can adequately contribute both to the morphologic study and to the systematic classification of Pentastomids, and L. serrata in particular.  (+info)

(6/422) Assessing morbidity in the paediatric community.

INTRODUCTION: Morbidity information is easily available from medical records but its scope is limited to the population attended by the health services. Information on the prevalence of diseases requires community surveys, which are not always feasible. These two sources of information represent two alternative assessments of disease occurrence, namely demand morbidity and perceived morbidity. The present study was conceived so as to elicit a potential relationship between them so that the former could be used in the absence of the latter. METHODS: A community of 13,365 families on the outskirts of S. Paulo, Brazil, was studied during the period from 15/Nov/1994 to 15/Jan/1995. Data regarding children less than 5 years old were collected from a household survey and from the 2 basic health units in the area. Prevalence of diseases was ascertained from perceived morbidity and compared to estimates computed from demand morbidity. RESULTS: Data analysis distinguished 2 age groups, infants less than 1 year old and children 1 to less than 5. The most important groups of diseases were respiratory diseases, diarrhoea, skin problems and infectious & parasitical diseases. Basic health units presented a better coverage for infants. Though disease frequencies were not different within or outside these units, a better coverage was found for diarrhoea and infectious & parasitical diseases in the infant group, and for diarrhoea in the older age group. Equivalence between the two types of morbidity was found to be limited to the infant group and concerned only the best covered diseases. The odds of a disease being seen at the health service should be of at least 4:10 to ensure this equivalence. CONCLUSION: It was concluded that, provided that health service coverage is good, demand morbidity can be taken as a reliable estimate of community morbidity.  (+info)

(7/422) Anaemia and iron deficiency disease in children.

Iron deficiency is the single most common nutritional disorder world-wide and the main cause of anaemia in infancy, childhood and pregnancy. It is prevalent in most of the developing world and it is probably the only nutritional deficiency of consideration in industrialised countries. In the developing world the prevalence of iron deficiency is high, and is due mainly to a low intake of bioavailable iron. However, in this setting, iron deficiency often co-exists with other conditions such as, malnutrition, vitamin A deficiency, folate deficiency, and infection. In tropical regions, parasitic infestation and haemoglobinopathies are also a common cause of anaemia. In the developed world iron deficiency is mainly a single nutritional problem. The conditions previously mentioned might contribute to the development of iron deficiency or they present difficulties in the laboratory diagnosis of iron deficiency.  (+info)

(8/422) Economic evaluation of parasitic diseases: a critique of the internal and external validity of published studies.

It was estimated that in 1990, major parasitic diseases accounted for 11.7% of the disease burden from communicable disease. As advances in the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of parasitic diseases are made and implemented, there is a growing economic literature to help decision-makers choose the most efficient control method. The aim of this paper is to identify, describe and analyse the available published data on the efficiency of control strategies against parasitic diseases. Internal validity is assessed through the quality of economic evaluations over time using a series of standard questions, and external validity is assessed in terms of the potential to extrapolate results to other settings. This leads to a discussion of the legitimacy and feasibility of pooling data or results from studies for priority setting in the health sector, resulting in three recommendations: to increase the coverage of economic evaluations for parasitic diseases and types of interventions; to improve the internal validity of studies through guidelines and review procedures; and to explore the external validity of research results by examining their predictive validity across settings.  (+info)

afflicts more than 200 million

  • London, Mar 17 (ANI): Researchers at the Illinois State University (ISU) in Normal, Ill., and NIHs Chemical Genomics Center (NCGC) have identified chemical compounds that hold promise as potential therapies for schistosomiasis, a parasitic disease that afflicts more than 200 million people worldwide. (


  • Research goals involve the development and field evaluation of malaria control strategies as well as studies of the physiology and behavior of insect vectors of parasitic diseases. (
  • In terms of impact this disease is second only to malaria as the most devastating parasitic disease, and is the most deadly Neglected Tropical Disease (NTD) , killing an estimated 280,000 people each year in the African region alone. (


  • My laboratory studies various aspects of infection with the parasitic worm, Schistosoma mansoni. (
  • In the study, researchers report that chemical compounds known as oxadiazoles can inhibit an enzyme crucial for the survival of Schistosoma, a group of parasitic flatworms that cause schistosomiasis. (


  • The survey will assess current rates of schistosomiasis and either help verify the disease has been eliminated, or design a strategy for transmission elimination. (
  • Schistosomiasis , also known as bilharzia, is a disease caused by parasitic worms. (
  • Although the parasitic worms that cause schistosomiasis are not found in the United States, more than 200 million people are infected and 700 million people are at risk in 74 countries worldwide. (


  • Wide-ranging awardee-defined opportunities are available to develop an innovative, related area of study utilizing the entomological, molecular, and parasite infection capabilities of the Division of Parasitic Disease. (
  • Current projects focus mainly on immunologic aspects of human disease that range from development of better diagnostic tools to markers of morbidity to impact of helminth infection on susceptibility to other infections. (
  • Parasitic liver diseases are caused by infection with parasites, such as liver flukes (trematoda) and tapeworms (cestoda). (

PLoS Neglected Tropical

  • PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases is the top Open Access tropical medicine journal, featuring an International Editorial Board and increased support for developing country authors. (


  • The Asian liver fluke is a parasitic worm that is linked to an increased risk of malignant cancer. (


  • Parasitic worms infect billions of people worldwide. (
  • As well-known therapeutic targets in mammals, nuclear receptors have begun to be studied in parasitic worms, where they are widely distributed and play key roles in governing metabolic and developmental transcriptional networks. (


  • Find basic information about signs, symptoms and prevention of of parasitic diseases. (


  • v) to promote WHO leadership in communicable disease control, health security, and environment and health programmes, including through relevant regional initiatives and specific research projects. (


  • Giardiasis, a diarrheal disease caused by the microscopic parasite Giardia, often affects children in child care settings and those who consume contaiminated water or food. (


  • These pathogens cause many waterborne ailments like typhoid, diarrhea, and parasitic diseases. (


  • Great progress has been made against this disease that affects more than 120 million people in 74 countries. (


  • We conducted a Pubmed (MEDLINE) search of case and series referring to any kind of thrombotic events described in three conditions characterised by persistent blood eosinophilia, i.e. the hypereosinophilic syndrome (HES), the Churg Strauss syndrome (CSS), and parasitic infestations from 1966 to date. (


  • World Health Organisation Staff is the author of 'Who Model Prescribing Information : Drugs Used in Parasitic Diseases', published 1995 under ISBN 9789241401043 and ISBN 9241401044. (


  • One hundred and seventy- seven articles dealing with parasitic diseases and thrombosis were found, but only 15 manuscripts reporting thrombosis of unknown origin in 22 patients were selected. (


  • Deborah and her grandchildren often suffered from these diseases, and while they sought medical treatment, it always seemed only a matter of time until their suffering returned. (