Pain Measurement: Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.Pain: An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.Chronic Pain: Aching sensation that persists for more than a few months. It may or may not be associated with trauma or disease, and may persist after the initial injury has healed. Its localization, character, and timing are more vague than with acute pain.Pain Management: A form of therapy that employs a coordinated and interdisciplinary approach for easing the suffering and improving the quality of life of those experiencing pain.Pain Threshold: Amount of stimulation required before the sensation of pain is experienced.Pain, Postoperative: Pain during the period after surgery.Low Back Pain: Acute or chronic pain in the lumbar or sacral regions, which may be associated with musculo-ligamentous SPRAINS AND STRAINS; INTERVERTEBRAL DISK DISPLACEMENT; and other conditions.Back Pain: Acute or chronic pain located in the posterior regions of the THORAX; LUMBOSACRAL REGION; or the adjacent regions.Neck Pain: Discomfort or more intense forms of pain that are localized to the cervical region. This term generally refers to pain in the posterior or lateral regions of the neck.Abdominal Pain: Sensation of discomfort, distress, or agony in the abdominal region.Pain, Intractable: Persistent pain that is refractory to some or all forms of treatment.Pelvic Pain: Pain in the pelvic region of genital and non-genital origin and of organic or psychogenic etiology. Frequent causes of pain are distension or contraction of hollow viscera, rapid stretching of the capsule of a solid organ, chemical irritation, tissue ischemia, and neuritis secondary to inflammatory, neoplastic, or fibrotic processes in adjacent organs. (Kase, Weingold & Gershenson: Principles and Practice of Clinical Gynecology, 2d ed, pp479-508)Pain Perception: The process by which PAIN is recognized and interpreted by the brain.Facial Pain: Pain in the facial region including orofacial pain and craniofacial pain. Associated conditions include local inflammatory and neoplastic disorders and neuralgic syndromes involving the trigeminal, facial, and glossopharyngeal nerves. Conditions which feature recurrent or persistent facial pain as the primary manifestation of disease are referred to as FACIAL PAIN SYNDROMES.Acute Pain: Intensely discomforting, distressful, or agonizing sensation associated with trauma or disease, with well-defined location, character, and timing.Pain, Referred: A type of pain that is perceived in an area away from the site where the pain arises, such as facial pain caused by lesion of the VAGUS NERVE, or throat problem generating referred pain in the ear.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Shoulder Pain: Unilateral or bilateral pain of the shoulder. It is often caused by physical activities such as work or sports participation, but may also be pathologic in origin.

*  December 2007 - Volume 110 - Issue 6 - Contributor Index : Obstetrics & Gynecology

Comparative Measurement of Pelvic Floor Pain Sensitivity in Chronic Pelvic Pain. Tu, Frank F.; Fitzgerald, Colleen M.; Kuiken, ... Comparative Measurement of Pelvic Floor Pain Sensitivity in Chronic Pelvic Pain. Tu, Frank F.; Fitzgerald, Colleen M.; Kuiken, ... Women with chronic pelvic pain have enhanced pressure-pain detection on pelvic floor examination. ... Women with chronic pelvic pain have enhanced pressure-pain detection on pelvic floor examination. ...
journals.lww.com/greenjournal/pages/contributorindex.aspx?year=2007&issue=12000

*  "The Influence of Cutaneous Tissue Afferents on Masticatory Pain-Pressure Thresholds" by Kevin I....

Like other psychophysical measurements, however, this technique must stimulate cutaneous tissues before stimulating deeper ... This method is employed to stimulate deep tissue afferents, which are thought to be at least partially responsible for pain in ... Pain-pressure thresholds were significantly elevated after local anesthetic (P , .0001), suggesting that cutaneous tissues ... In a randomized, double-blind fashion, pain-pressure thresholds were recorded at four facial sites before and after subjects ...
https://works.bepress.com/charlescarlson/84/

*  Trial Comparing Morphine to Hydromorphone in Elderly Patients With Severe Pain - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov

Total mg of additional pain medications required after initial medication. *Pain relief measurement. *Patient satisfaction ... requiring assessment of pain at triage in the ED and referring to pain measurement as the "fifth vital sign" (Philips, 2000). ... Proper pain management is a tremendous challenge to ED physicians as pain is not only a noxious experience but also a symptom ... Acute Pain. Pain. Neurologic Manifestations. Nervous System Diseases. Signs and Symptoms. Morphine. Hydromorphone. Analgesics, ...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00305058

*  Knowledge attitude and performance of nurses regarding pain assessment and measurement Bandar Abbas Iran - Bimonthly Journal...

Nurses had very weak practice regarding pain assessment and measurement and 100% of them did not use any tool for measuring ... Conclusion: Knowledge of nurses regarding neonate pain assessment and measurement is very low and need continuous and periodic ... Knowledge, attitude and performance of nurses regarding pain assessment and measurement, Bandar Abbas, Iran . hmj. 2012; 16 (5 ... Knowledge, attitude and performance of nurses regarding pain assessment and measurement, Bandar Abbas, Iran ...
hmj.hums.ac.ir/browse.php?a_code=A-10-1-8&sid=1&slc_lang=en

*  NIOSHTIC-2 Publications Search - 00218551 - B-scan ultrasonic measurement of the lumbar spinal canal as a predictor of...

The subjects were given a B-scan ultrasonographic examination that included measurements of spinal canal di ... The ability of B-scan ultrasonographic measurements of spinal canal diameter to predict occupationally related back pain ... B-scan ultrasonic measurement of the lumbar spinal canal as a predictor of industrial back pain complaints and extended work ... The ultrasonographic measurements were examined as predictors of back pain. The ability of the data to predict extended work ...
https://cdc.gov/niosh/nioshtic-2/00218551.html

*  Shoulder Arthritis / Rotator Cuff Tears: causes of shoulder pain: Preoperative CT scan measurements - are they worth the...

The cost of using corrected scans to change the measurement of version by two degrees or the width by 1.2 mm is not provided.. ... Shoulder Arthritis / Rotator Cuff Tears: causes of shoulder pain Disclosure: the authors have no financial relationships with ... Failure to align the sagittal image to the 12-o'clock to 6-o'clock axis results in measurement error in both glenoid version ... Comment: While there is no question that measurements of pre and postoperative glenoid orientation are of interest, we find ...
shoulderarthritis.blogspot.com/2016/02/preoperative-ct-scan-measurements-are.html

*  CiNii 論文 - Relationship Between Functional Evaluation Measures and Self-Assessment in...

The Quebec back pain disability scale. Measurement properities KOPEC JA Spine 20, 341-352, 1995 ... A study of the natural history of back pain I-development of a reliable and sensitive measure of disability in low back pain ... Chronic low back pain : the relationship between patient satisfaction and pain, impairment, and disability outcomes HAZARD RG ... Relationship Between Functional Evaluation Measures and Self-Assessment in Nonacute Low Back Pain * * COX Martha E. ...
ci.nii.ac.jp/naid/10018098481

*  Pupillometry and Pain Thresholds Patients Substituted by Methadone and Buprenorphine - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov

measurement of mechanical bone pain threshold.. A first session shall be done at time of residual effect of the opiate. A ... The mechanical pressure pain threshold measured by Algometer on the tibial bone [ Time Frame: 24 hours after the last dose of ... The mechanical punctuate pain threshold as measured by Electronical Von Frey [ Time Frame: 24 hours after the last dose of ... Pupillometry and Pain Thresholds Patients Substituted by Methadone and Buprenorphine (PUPIDOL). The recruitment status of this ...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01560442?recr=Open&intr=methadone&rank=17

*  Ultrasound Guided Needling Versus Ultrasound Guided Corticosteroid Injection Alone, a Randomized Controlled Trial. - Full Text...

It is a objective measurement independent of the shoulder pain.. Secondary Outcome Measures: *Constant score [ Time Frame: ... Shoulder pain without improvement after 3 months despite conservative treatment. *Calcification on x-ray (Gartner type I of II ... In practice patients seem to have a maximum pain shortly after the us guided needling. To measure this a VAS score will be ... Calcifying tendinitis of the shoulder is a common cause of shoulder pain with an incidence ranging from 2.7 % to 6.8 %. This ...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01538758?recr=Open&cond="Tendinitis"&rank=3

*  Multinational Monitoring of Trends and Determinants in Cardiovascular Disease (MONICA) - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov

... chest pain symptoms, and cardiac enzyme measurements; population survey prevalence rates and distributions of risk factors ...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00005678

*  Effects of Breast Feeding on Post-Cesarean and Post-Vaginal Delivery Pain - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov

Patients will be recruited by a member of the research team when the patient is admitted to labor or delivery and when they are in the post-natal floor.. Patients will be divided into two groups initially depending on mode of delivery, vaginal vs. cesarean. The vaginal delivery group will be randomized into three groups. One group will be told that we are investigating the effect of oxytocin on pain intensity, the second group will be told that it reduces pain intensity, the third group will be told that it increases pain intensity.. The cesarean group are not going to be randomized, they will be told we are investigating the effect of oxytocin on pain intensity.. Demographic and obstetric will be collected by patient questioning as well as from the medical record on Day 1 post delivery. Analgesia data from the medical record will also be collected on days 1 and 2 post-delivery.. The primary outcome measure will be change in ...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01417260

*  急診筆記: 十二月 2010

Researchers prospectively evaluated the analgesic efficacy of atomized intranasal fentanyl (2 µg/kg; maximum dose, 100 µg) in 81 children (mean age, 8 years) who presented with clinically suspected fractures to a pediatric emergency department in Wisconsin. Eligible patients had moderate-to-severe pain according to scores on the Wong Baker Faces Scale (WBS) for children ages 3 to 8 years and a 100-mm visual analog scale (VAS) for children ages 9 to 18 years. The primary outcome measure was change in pain score at 10, 20, and 30 minutes. A significant response was defined as a decrease of one face on the WBS or 13 mm on the VAS ...
er119test.blogspot.com/2010/12/

*  New here, severe stomach pain under breastbone. Help - CatchMyPain Community

CatchMyPain is an intelligent pain diary app that helps you keep track of your pain and connect with similar patients in our pain community.
community.catchmypain.com/topic/new-here-severe-stomach-pain-under-breastbone-help.html

*  Fellow Sufferers - CatchMyPain Community

CatchMyPain is an intelligent pain diary app that helps you keep track of your pain and connect with similar patients in our pain community.
community.catchmypain.com/topic/fellow-sufferers.html

*  3 wks if flare and due injections in my spine on 21st - CatchMyPain Community

CatchMyPain is an intelligent pain diary app that helps you keep track of your pain and connect with similar patients in our pain community.
community.catchmypain.com/topic/-wks-if-flare-and-due-injections-in-my-spine-on-st.html

*  In complete Agony - CatchMyPain Community

CatchMyPain is an intelligent pain diary app that helps you keep track of your pain and connect with similar patients in our pain community.
community.catchmypain.com/topic/in-complete-agony.html

*  Just dont know what to do anymore - CatchMyPain Community

CatchMyPain is an intelligent pain diary app that helps you keep track of your pain and connect with similar patients in our pain community.
community.catchmypain.com/topic/just-dont-know-what-to-do-anymore.html

*  Freaked

CatchMyPain is an intelligent pain diary app that helps you keep track of your pain and connect with similar patients in our pain community.
community.catchmypain.com/topic/freaked-.html

*  Some people really do 'feel your pain' › News in Science (ABC Science)

Australian researchers have revealed physiological changes behind vicarious pain - where a person literally feels someone else's pain.
abc.net.au/science/articles/2014/12/19/4141652.htm


(1/9560) Relative efficacy of 32P and 89Sr in palliation in skeletal metastases.

32p and 89Sr have been shown to produce significant pain relief in patients with skeletal metastases from advanced cancer. Clinically significant pancytopenia has not been reported in doses up to 12 mCi (444 MBq) of either radionuclide. To date, no reports comparing the relative efficacy and toxicity of the two radionuclides in comparable patient populations have been available. Although a cure has not been reported, both treatments have achieved substantial pain relief. However, several studies have used semiquantitative measures such as "slight," "fair," "partial" and "dramatic" responses, which lend themselves to subjective bias. This report examines the responses to treatment with 32P or 89Sr by attempting a quantification of pain relief and quality of life using the patients as their own controls and compares toxicity in terms of hematological parameters. METHODS: Thirty-one patients with skeletal metastases were treated for pain relief with either 32P (16 patients) or 89Sr (15 patients). Inclusion criteria were pain from bone scan-positive sites above a subjective score of 5 of 10 despite analgesic therapy with narcotic or non-narcotic medication, limitation of movement related to the performance of routine daily activity and a predicted life expectancy of at least 4 mo. The patients had not had chemotherapy or radiotherapy during the previous 6 wk and had normal serum creatinine, white cell and platelet counts. 32P was given orally as a 12 mCi dose, and 89Sr was given intravenously as a 4 mCi (148 MBq) dose. The patients were monitored for 4 mo. RESULTS: Complete absence of pain was seen in 7 of 16 patients who were given 32P and in 7 of 15 patients who were given 89Sr. Pain scores fell by at least 50% of the pretreatment score in 14 of 16 patients who were given 32P and 14 of 15 patients who were given 89Sr. Mean duration of pain relief was 9.6 wk with 32P and 10 wk with 89Sr. Analgesic scores fell along with the drop in pain scores. A fall in total white cell, absolute granulocyte and platelet counts occurred in all patients. Subnormal values of white cells and platelets were seen in 5 and 7 patients, respectively, with 32P, and in 0 and 4 patients, respectively, after 89Sr therapy. The decrease in platelet count (but not absolute granulocyte count) was statistically significant when 32P patients were compared with 89Sr patients. However, in no instance did the fall in blood counts require treatment. Absolute granulocyte counts did not fall below 1000 in any patient. There was no significant difference between the two treatments in terms of either efficacy or toxicity. CONCLUSION: No justification has been found in this study for the recommendation of 89Sr over the considerably less expensive oral 32P for the palliation of skeletal pain from metastases of advanced cancer.  (+info)

(2/9560) Cardiovascular and neuronal responses to head stimulation reflect central sensitization and cutaneous allodynia in a rat model of migraine.

Reduction of the threshold of cardiovascular and neuronal responses to facial and intracranial stimulation reflects central sensitization and cutaneous allodynia in a rat model of migraine. Current theories propose that migraine pain is caused by chemical activation of meningeal perivascular fibers. We previously found that chemical irritation of the dura causes trigeminovascular fibers innervating the dura and central trigeminal neurons receiving convergent input from the dura and skin to respond to low-intensity mechanical and thermal stimuli that previously induced minimal or no responses. One conclusion of these studies was that when low- and high-intensity stimuli induce responses of similar magnitude in nociceptive neurons, low-intensity stimuli must be as painful as the high-intensity stimuli. The present study investigates in anesthetized rats the significance of the changes in the responses of central trigeminal neurons (i.e., in nucleus caudalis) by correlating them with the occurrence and type of the simultaneously recorded cardiovascular responses. Before chemical stimulation of the dura, simultaneous increases in neuronal firing rates and blood pressure were induced by dural indentation with forces >/= 2.35 g and by noxious cutaneous stimuli such as pinching the skin and warming > 46 degrees C. After chemical stimulation, similar neuronal responses and blood pressure increases were evoked by much smaller forces for dural indentation and by innocuous cutaneous stimuli such as brushing the skin and warming it to >/= 43 degrees C. The onsets of neuronal responses preceded the onsets of depressor responses by 1.7 s and pressor responses by 4.0 s. The duration of neuronal responses was 15 s, whereas the duration of depressor responses was shorter (5.8 s) and pressor responses longer (22.7 s) than the neuronal responses. We conclude that the facilitated cardiovascular and central trigeminal neuronal responses to innocuous stimulation of the skin indicate that when dural stimulation induces central sensitization, innocuous stimuli are as nociceptive as noxious stimuli had been before dural stimulation and that a similar process might occur during the development of cutaneous allodynia during migraine.  (+info)

(3/9560) Cannabinoid suppression of noxious heat-evoked activity in wide dynamic range neurons in the lumbar dorsal horn of the rat.

The effects of cannabinoid agonists on noxious heat-evoked firing of 62 spinal wide dynamic range (WDR) neurons were examined in urethan-anesthetized rats (1 cell/animal). Noxious thermal stimulation was applied with a Peltier device to the receptive fields in the ipsilateral hindpaw of isolated WDR neurons. To assess the site of action, cannabinoids were administered systemically in intact and spinally transected rats and intraventricularly. Both the aminoalkylindole cannabinoid WIN55,212-2 (125 microg/kg iv) and the bicyclic cannabinoid CP55,940 (125 microg/kg iv) suppressed noxious heat-evoked activity. Responses evoked by mild pressure in nonnociceptive neurons were not altered by CP55,940 (125 microg/kg iv), consistent with previous observations with another cannabinoid agonist, WIN55,212-2. The cannabinoid induced-suppression of noxious heat-evoked activity was blocked by pretreatment with SR141716A (1 mg/kg iv), a competitive antagonist for central cannabinoid CB1 receptors. By contrast, intravenous administration of either vehicle or the receptor-inactive enantiomer WIN55,212-3 (125 microg/kg) failed to alter noxious heat-evoked activity. The suppression of noxious heat-evoked activity induced by WIN55,212-2 in the lumbar dorsal horn of intact animals was markedly attenuated in spinal rats. Moreover, intraventricular administration of WIN55,212-2 suppressed noxious heat-evoked activity in spinal WDR neurons. By contrast, both vehicle and enantiomer were inactive. These findings suggest that cannabinoids selectively modulate the activity of nociceptive neurons in the spinal dorsal horn by actions at CB1 receptors. This modulation represents a suppression of pain neurotransmission because the inhibitory effects are selective for pain-sensitive neurons and are observed with different modalities of noxious stimulation. The data also provide converging lines of evidence for a role for descending antinociceptive mechanisms in cannabinoid modulation of spinal nociceptive processing.  (+info)

(4/9560) Physiological properties of raphe magnus neurons during sleep and waking.

Neurons in the medullary raphe magnus (RM) that are important in the descending modulation of nociceptive transmission are classified by their response to noxious tail heat as ON, OFF, or NEUTRAL cells. Experiments in anesthetized animals demonstrate that RM ON cells facilitate and OFF cells inhibit nociceptive transmission. Yet little is known of the physiology of these cells in the unanesthetized animal. The first aim of the present experiments was to determine whether cells with ON- and OFF-like responses to noxious heat exist in the unanesthetized rat. Second, to determine if RM cells have state-dependent discharge, the activity of RM neurons was recorded during waking and sleeping states. Noxious heat applied during waking and slow wave sleep excited one group of cells (ON-U) in unanesthetized rats. Other cells were inhibited by noxious heat (OFF-U) applied during waking and slow wave sleep states in unanesthetized rats. NEUTRAL-U cells did not respond to noxious thermal stimulation applied during either slow wave sleep or waking. ON-U and OFF-U cells were more likely to respond to noxious heat during slow wave sleep than during waking and were least likely to respond when the animal was eating or drinking. Although RM cells rarely respond to innocuous stimulation applied during anesthesia, ON-U and OFF-U cells were excited and inhibited, respectively, by innocuous somatosensory stimulation in the unanesthetized rat. The spontaneous activity of >90% of the RM neurons recorded in the unanesthetized rat was influenced by behavioral state. OFF-U cells discharged sporadically during waking but were continuously active during slow wave sleep. By contrast, ON-U and NEUTRAL-U cells discharged in bursts during waking and either ceased to discharge entirely or discharged at a low rate during slow wave sleep. We suggest that OFF cell discharge functions to suppress pain-evoked reactions during sleep, whereas ON cell discharge facilitates pain-evoked responses during waking.  (+info)

(5/9560) Ketamine-induced peripheral analgesia in rats.

AIM: To examine whether ketamine may directly act at peripheral nociceptors to produce analgesia. METHODS: Wistar rats were anesthetized with urethane. As a nociceptive flexion reflex (FR), C responses from the posterior biceps semitendinosus (PBST) muscle was evoked by electrical stimulation (2 ms, 80 V, 2-3 pulses, 0.5 Hz) via a pair of stainless steel needles inserted subcutaneously applied to the two toes of ipsilateral hindpw. RESULTS: Subcutaneous injection of ketamine (36 mmol.L-1, 5 microL) into the ipsilateral hindpaw produced an inhibition of C responses. At 9 min after application of ketamine, injection of naloxone (1%, 5 microL) into the same area annulled ketamine-induced inhibition. CONCLUSION: Ketamine as a dissociate anesthetic acts on peripheral nociceptors to produce analgesia, which is related to activity of peripheral opioid receptors.  (+info)

(6/9560) Response surface analysis of synergism between morphine and clonidine.

Graded doses of morphine sulfate and clonidine hydrochloride were administered intrathecally to mice that were then tested for antinociception in the 55 degrees C tail immersion test. The dose-effect relations of each compound were used in calculations that permitted the construction of a three-dimensional plot of the expected additive effect (vertical scale) against the planar domain of dose pairs representing combinations administered simultaneously. This additive response surface became the reference surface for viewing the actual effects produced by three different fixed-ratio combinations of the drugs that were used in our tests. Each combination produced effects significantly greater than indicated by the additive surface, thereby illustrating marked synergism and a method for quantifying the synergism. This quantification, measured by the value of the interaction index (alpha), was found to be dependent on the fixed-ratio combination; accordingly, the actual response surface could not be described by a single value of the index alpha. Furthermore, we found that application of the common method of isoboles gave estimates of the index that agreed well with those obtained from the more extensive surface analysis. These results confirm earlier studies, which found synergism for these drugs while also providing surface views of additivity and synergism that form the basis of isobolographic analysis.  (+info)

(7/9560) Nitrocinnamoyl and chlorocinnamoyl derivatives of dihydrocodeinone: in vivo and in vitro characterization of mu-selective agonist and antagonist activity.

Two 14beta-p-nitrocinnamoyl derivatives of dihydrocodeinone, 14beta-(p-nitrocinnamoylamino)-7,8-dihydrocodeinone (CACO) and N-cyclopropylmethylnor-14beta-(p-nitrocinnamoylamino)- 7, 8-dihydrocodeinone (N-CPM-CACO), and the corresponding chlorocinnamoylamino analogs, 14beta-(p-chlorocinnamoylamino)-7, 8-dihydrocodeinone (CAM) and N-cyclopropylmethylnor-14beta-(p-chlorocinnamoylamino) -7, 8-dihydrocodeinone (MC-CAM), were tested in opioid receptor binding assays and the mouse tail-flick test to characterize the opioid affinity, selectivity, and antinociceptive properties of these compounds. In competition binding assays, all four compounds bound to the mu opioid receptor with high affinity. When bovine striatal membranes were incubated with any of the four dihydrocodeinones, binding to the mu receptor was inhibited in a concentration-dependent, wash-resistant manner. Saturation binding experiments demonstrated that the wash-resistant inhibition of mu binding was due to a decrease in the Bmax value for the binding of the mu-selective peptide [3H][D-Ala2, MePhe4,Gly(ol)5] enkephalin and not a change in the Kd value, suggesting an irreversible interaction of the compounds with the mu receptor. In the mouse 55 degrees C warm water tail-flick test, both CACO and N-CPM-CACO acted as short-term mu-selective agonists when administered by i. c.v. injection, whereas CAM and MC-CAM produced no measurable antinociception at doses up to 30 nmol. Pretreatment of mice for 24 h with any of the four dihydrocodeinone derivatives produced a dose-dependent antagonism of antinociception mediated by the mu but not the delta or kappa receptors. Long-term antagonism of morphine-induced antinociception lasted for at least 48 h after i.c. v. administration. Finally, shifts in the morphine dose-response lines after 24-h pretreatment with the four dihydrocodeinone compounds suggest that the nitrocinnamoylamino derivatives may produce a greater magnitude long-term antagonism of morphine-induced antinociception than the chlorocinnamoylamino analogs.  (+info)

(8/9560) Activation of peripheral kappa opioid receptors inhibits capsaicin-induced thermal nociception in rhesus monkeys.

8-Methyl-N-vanillyl-6-nonenamide (capsaicin) was locally applied in the tail of rhesus monkeys to evoke a nociceptive response, thermal allodynia, which was manifested as reduced tail-withdrawal latencies in normally innocuous 46 degrees C water. Coadministration of three kappa opioid ligands, U50,488 (3.2-100 microgram), bremazocine (0.1-3.2 microgram), and dynorphin A(1-13) (3.2-100 microgram), with capsaicin in the tail dose-dependently inhibited capsaicin-induced allodynia. This local antinociception was antagonized by a small dose of an opioid antagonist, quadazocine; (0.32 mg), applied in the tail; however, this dose of quadazocine injected s.c. in the back did not antagonize local U50,488. Comparing the relative potency of either agonist or antagonist after local and systemic administration confirmed that the site of action of locally applied kappa opioid agonists is in the tail. In addition, local nor-binaltorphimine (0.32 mg) and oxilorphan (0.1-10 microgram) antagonist studies raised the possibility of kappa opioid receptor subtypes in the periphery, which indicated that U50,488 produced local antinociception by acting on kappa1 receptors, but bremazocine acted probably on non-kappa1 receptors. These results provide functional evidence that activation of peripheral kappa opioid receptors can diminish capsaicin-induced allodynia in primates. This experimental pain model is a useful tool for evaluating peripherally antinociceptive actions of kappa agonists without central side effects and suggests new approaches for opioid pain management.  (+info)



postoperative


  • While there is no question that measurements of pre and postoperative glenoid orientation are of interest, we find that it is uncommon to need CT scans for 'decision-making and surgical treatment. (blogspot.com)
  • Pain [ Time Frame: 2-3 weeks before the operation and on 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 7th and 21st postoperative day. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Measurement of postoperative pain is done on the 1st, 2nd and 3rd day before mobilization. (clinicaltrials.gov)

chronic pain


  • [8] Chronic pain may be continuous with occasional sharp rises in intensity (flares), or intermittent: periods of painlessness interspersed with periods of pain. (wikipedia.org)
  • The majority of people with chronic pain notice memory and attention difficulties. (wikipedia.org)
  • Measuring an abnormal result in a chronic pain patient may provide us with the information that the underlying pain pathways somehow must be altered. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Finally, we observed that in mice rendered neuropathic by peripheral nerve ligation, TRPV1 is also expressed in cortical neurons, and its activation directly affects both the intrinsic membrane properties and the synaptic strength of cortical pyramidal neurons (PNs), likely accounting for the increased cortical excitability that characterizes chronic pain states. (nature.com)
  • Our primary objective is to assess whether inhaling vaporized cannabis ameliorates chronic pain in patients with sickle cell disease (SCD). (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Inhaled cannabis will significantly reduce chronic pain in patients with SCD. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • This is a proof-of-principle investigation of the safety and potential effectiveness of inhaled vaporized cannabis when added to a stable analgesic regimen in sickle cell disease (SCD) patients with chronic pain. (clinicaltrials.gov)

neuropathic pain


  • Pain in cancer can be produced by mechanical (e.g. pinching) or chemical (e.g. inflammation) stimulation of specialized pain-signalling nerve endings found in most parts of the body (called nociceptive pain ), or it may be caused by diseased, damaged or compressed nerves, in which case it is called neuropathic pain . (wikipedia.org)
  • Neuropathic pain is often accompanied by other feelings such as pins and needles . (wikipedia.org)
  • Indeed, in clinical practice 'classes' of drugs (e.g. antidepressants) are given to 'classes' of patients (e.g. neuropathic pain patients). (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Conversely, in the cortex of mice suffering from neuropathic pain, TRPV1 is also present in neurons affecting their intrinsic electrical properties and synaptic strength. (nature.com)
  • In the present study, we investigated the roles of TRPV1 in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) of the rodent brain 31 and we evaluated the impact of neuropathic pain on the channel function. (nature.com)

perception


  • Further complicating pain management is the large interpersonal variability in pain perception and expression reflecting cultural, contextual, and individual differences between people. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Reasons for under-treating pain include concern over side effects of opioids, perception of pain complaints as possible drug-seeking behavior, under-staffing, concern that analgesics will mask symptoms, delay early diagnosis, treatment, and contribute to risks of tolerance and dependence in vulnerable patients. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Quantitative sensory testing is a method that documents alterations in the pain perception system. (clinicaltrials.gov)

shoulder pain


  • Ultrasound guided needling is becoming an accepted treatment for patients with shoulder pain due to calcifying tendinitis. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • It is a objective measurement independent of the shoulder pain. (clinicaltrials.gov)

acute


  • The purpose of this research study is to determine which opiate pain medication (morphine or hydromorphone (Dilaudid)) is more effective in the treatment of acute pain in patients presenting to the emergency department. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • A recent Cochrane review on the use of hydromorphone found 32 studies that focused on acute pain (Quigley, 2003). (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Most chronic (long-lasting) pain is caused by the illness and most acute (short-term) pain is caused by treatment or diagnostic procedures. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pain is classed as acute (short term) or chronic (long term). (wikipedia.org)

1996


  • Some studies have shown that the elderly are at risk for "oligoanalgesia" and receive inadequate doses of pain medication (Jones 1996). (clinicaltrials.gov)

Threshold


  • 0001), suggesting that cutaneous tissues contribute significantly to the pain-pressure threshold. (bepress.com)

assessment


  • The concern regarding under-treatment is reflected in new standards for pain management developed by the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations (JCAHO) requiring assessment of pain at triage in the ED and referring to pain measurement as the "fifth vital sign" (Philips, 2000). (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The purpose of this study was to determine the knowledge, attitude and performance of nurses working in neonatal units on pain assessment and measurement in neonates. (ac.ir)
  • Mean score of attitude was 54.22 out of 60 and mean scores of neonates' pain assessment practice was 4.22 out of 10. (ac.ir)
  • Nurses had very weak practice regarding pain assessment and measurement and 100% of them did not use any tool for measuring neonate's pain. (ac.ir)
  • Conclusion: Knowledge of nurses regarding neonate pain assessment and measurement is very low and need continuous and periodic educations regarding measurement procedure. (ac.ir)

symptoms


  • It can be estimated from the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey, an annual survey of a representative sample of visits to US EDs, that there are 17 million visits per year to US EDs for specific complaints of pain, 29 million visits including "back symptoms" and "injuries not otherwise specified" as well as specific mentions of pain. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • [17] The superior vena cava (a large vein carrying circulating, de-oxygenated blood into the heart) may be compressed by a tumor, causing superior vena cava syndrome , which can cause chest wall pain among other symptoms. (wikipedia.org)

mechanical


  • Can the computerized physical examination differentiate normal subjects from abnormal subjects with benign mechanical low back pain? (nii.ac.jp)

medication


  • Worldwide, nearly 80 percent of people with cancer receive little or no pain medication. (wikipedia.org)
  • Usually one of the classes of pain medication is given to patients with a similar clinical picture, although different pain mechanisms may be responsible for this clinical picture. (clinicaltrials.gov)

disorders


  • This method is employed to stimulate deep tissue afferents, which are thought to be at least partially responsible for pain in temporomandibular disorders. (bepress.com)
  • Solutions to pain disorders are still elusive but continued human and animal studies will help to further identify the biochemical and neurophysiological factors that influence pain. (gii.co.jp)

sensory


  • This study examined 39 asymptomatic volunteers to quantify the effect of cutaneous sensory afferents on pain-pressure thresholds. (bepress.com)
  • The capsaicin receptor TRPV1 has been widely characterized in the sensory system as a key component of pain and inflammation. (nature.com)

treatments


  • For example, it is possible through psychosurgery and some drug treatments, or by suggestion (as in hypnosis and placebo ), to reduce or eliminate the unpleasantness of pain without affecting its intensity. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, only a minor part of pain patients benefits from the available treatments or is able to tolerate the drugs. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The future of pain management will likely involve multidisciplinary departments dedicated to finding treatments that manage pain. (gii.co.jp)

drains


  • The pain and discomfort associated with drains is the No. 1 complaint of abdominoplasty patients. (realself.com)

tenderness


  • Pain-pressure thresholds are routinely used in orofacial pain research to record tenderness in masticatory muscles. (bepress.com)
  • It is usually felt as tenderness, with constant background pain and instances of spontaneous or movement-related exacerbation, and is frequently described as severe. (wikipedia.org)

significantly


  • This growing population has been significantly underrepresented in pain-related studies. (clinicaltrials.gov)

diameter


  • The ability of B-scan ultrasonographic measurements of spinal canal diameter to predict occupationally related back pain complaints and extended disability was examined. (cdc.gov)
  • The subjects were given a B-scan ultrasonographic examination that included measurements of spinal canal diameter. (cdc.gov)
  • The purpose is to study the relation between pupillary diameter measured under scotopic conditions, and the pain thresholds measured at the time of peak and residual effect of methadone/buprenorphine in opiate-dependent patients following a substitution program. (clinicaltrials.gov)

however


  • Like other psychophysical measurements, however, this technique must stimulate cutaneous tissues before stimulating deeper tissues. (bepress.com)
  • however, the L5/S1 measurement explained less than 1% of the variance in the data. (cdc.gov)
  • However, within those classes of patients very different pain mechanisms are likely to underlie the pain condition in different patients. (clinicaltrials.gov)

practice


  • In practice patients seem to have a maximum pain shortly after the us guided needling. (clinicaltrials.gov)

inflammation


  • Tumors cause pain by crushing or infiltrating tissue, triggering infection or inflammation, or releasing chemicals that make normally non-painful stimuli painful. (wikipedia.org)

physicians


  • Proper pain management is a tremendous challenge to ED physicians as pain is not only a noxious experience but also a symptom of injury and disease that needs to be understood and appropriately treated. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Drug therapy in patients with chronic low back pain is a major challenge for physicians. (clinicaltrials.gov)

complaints


  • B-scan ultrasonic measurement of the lumbar spinal canal as a predictor of industrial back pain complaints and extended work loss. (cdc.gov)
  • Mean spinal canal diameters were smaller for subjects filing back pain complaints than those without complaints. (cdc.gov)

drugs


  • Guidelines for the use of drugs in the management of cancer pain have been published by the World Health Organization (WHO) and others. (wikipedia.org)
  • The World Market for Pain Management Drugs and Devices encompasses a wide variety of products that treat and ease pain. (gii.co.jp)

Treatment


  • Drug therapy is an essential part of pain treatment. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • A keen awareness of all facets of the industry including barriers will enable manufacturers to effectively challenge these issues and formulate plans to reduce or eliminate barriers in the treatment of pain. (gii.co.jp)

management


  • Hydromorphone is another powerful opiate that has been used extensively for the management of post-operative pain and morphine-resistant cancer-related pain. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • With competent management, cancer pain can be eliminated or well controlled in 80 to 90 percent of cases, but nearly one in two people with cancer in the developed world receives less than optimal care. (wikipedia.org)
  • [5] [6] Healthcare professionals have an ethical obligation to ensure that, whenever possible, the patient or patient's guardian is well-informed about the risks and benefits associated with their pain management options. (wikipedia.org)
  • Adequate pain management may sometimes slightly shorten a dying person's life. (wikipedia.org)
  • The need is great worldwide for management of pain and there are still many facets of pain management that need to be explored. (gii.co.jp)
  • Faced with intensifying competition and increasingly price sensitive markets, manufacturers in the area of pain management therapeutics are trying to differentiate their products to avoid price competition and to increase profits. (gii.co.jp)
  • The driving forces for this market include growth and aging of the global population, new products and technology, and increasing interest in multidisciplinary approaches to pain management. (gii.co.jp)

baseline


  • Subjects will complete a 5-day pain diary prior to admission to the Clinical Research Center (CRC) to establish a baseline of pain. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The study will be comprised of two 5-day intervention periods in the inpatient setting (the Clinical Research Center at SFGH), with completion of a 5-day daily pain diary prior to admission to establish an outpatient baseline. (clinicaltrials.gov)

back


  • They were then followed for a mean of 3.7 years for reports of back pain utilizing company medical or safety department data and industrial insurance claims. (cdc.gov)
  • The ultrasonographic measurements were examined as predictors of back pain. (cdc.gov)
  • A total of 352 subjects reported back pain during the followup period. (cdc.gov)
  • The authors conclude that B-scan ultrasonography of the lumbar spinal canal appears to be of little value for screening for industrial back pain risk. (cdc.gov)

scale


  • they will usually be asked to estimate intensity on a scale of 0-10 (with 0 being no pain and 10 being the worst pain they have ever felt). (wikipedia.org)

subjects


  • In a randomized, double-blind fashion, pain-pressure thresholds were recorded at four facial sites before and after subjects received intradermal local anesthetic or a dry needle stick. (bepress.com)

patients


  • The elderly represent a group of patients who may experience pain differently from the non-elderly patient (Li 2001, Collins 1966, Walsh 1989, Woodrow 1972). (clinicaltrials.gov)

experience


  • [1] At any given time, about half of all people diagnosed with malignant cancer are experiencing pain, and two thirds of those with advanced cancer experience pain of such intensity that it adversely affects their sleep, mood, social relations and activities of daily living . (wikipedia.org)

function


  • [11] Persistent pain reduces function and overall quality of life, and is demoralizing and debilitating for the person experiencing pain and for those who care for them. (wikipedia.org)

affect


  • These authors point out that computed tomography (CT) scans of the shoulder are often not well aligned to the axis of the scapula and glenoid and that these malalignments can affect axial measurements of anterior-posterior (AP) glenoid width and glenoid version. (blogspot.com)

study


  • The purpose of this study is to measure the effect of fibrin sealant on reducing blood loss, pain and swelling when operated for bilateral total knee arthroplasty. (clinicaltrials.gov)

causes


  • It causes swelling and pain in the legs, especially the calf, and (rarely) in the arms. (wikipedia.org)

scores


  • The between-group difference in before-after improvement in pain scores measured 30 minutes after medications are infused. (clinicaltrials.gov)

another


  • Sometimes, pain caused in one part of the body feels like it is coming from another part of the body. (wikipedia.org)

cost


  • The cost of using corrected scans to change the measurement of version by two degrees or the width by 1.2 mm is not provided. (blogspot.com)

long