Pain Measurement: Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.Pain: An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.Chronic Pain: Aching sensation that persists for more than a few months. It may or may not be associated with trauma or disease, and may persist after the initial injury has healed. Its localization, character, and timing are more vague than with acute pain.Pain Management: A form of therapy that employs a coordinated and interdisciplinary approach for easing the suffering and improving the quality of life of those experiencing pain.Pain Threshold: Amount of stimulation required before the sensation of pain is experienced.Pain, Postoperative: Pain during the period after surgery.Low Back Pain: Acute or chronic pain in the lumbar or sacral regions, which may be associated with musculo-ligamentous SPRAINS AND STRAINS; INTERVERTEBRAL DISK DISPLACEMENT; and other conditions.Back Pain: Acute or chronic pain located in the posterior regions of the THORAX; LUMBOSACRAL REGION; or the adjacent regions.Neck Pain: Discomfort or more intense forms of pain that are localized to the cervical region. This term generally refers to pain in the posterior or lateral regions of the neck.Abdominal Pain: Sensation of discomfort, distress, or agony in the abdominal region.Pain, Intractable: Persistent pain that is refractory to some or all forms of treatment.Pelvic Pain: Pain in the pelvic region of genital and non-genital origin and of organic or psychogenic etiology. Frequent causes of pain are distension or contraction of hollow viscera, rapid stretching of the capsule of a solid organ, chemical irritation, tissue ischemia, and neuritis secondary to inflammatory, neoplastic, or fibrotic processes in adjacent organs. (Kase, Weingold & Gershenson: Principles and Practice of Clinical Gynecology, 2d ed, pp479-508)Pain Perception: The process by which PAIN is recognized and interpreted by the brain.Facial Pain: Pain in the facial region including orofacial pain and craniofacial pain. Associated conditions include local inflammatory and neoplastic disorders and neuralgic syndromes involving the trigeminal, facial, and glossopharyngeal nerves. Conditions which feature recurrent or persistent facial pain as the primary manifestation of disease are referred to as FACIAL PAIN SYNDROMES.Acute Pain: Intensely discomforting, distressful, or agonizing sensation associated with trauma or disease, with well-defined location, character, and timing.Pain, Referred: A type of pain that is perceived in an area away from the site where the pain arises, such as facial pain caused by lesion of the VAGUS NERVE, or throat problem generating referred pain in the ear.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Shoulder Pain: Unilateral or bilateral pain of the shoulder. It is often caused by physical activities such as work or sports participation, but may also be pathologic in origin.

*  Pain Assessment Tool for Postoperative Pain-week 5 - WriteWork
Pain Assessment Tool for Postoperative PainIntroductionA study by Scott and Huskisson (1976) (N = 100) found no significant ... Week 5Pain Assessment Tool for Postoperative Pain[Writer Name][Institute Name] ... Pain and Symptom Management 20, 246-252. Ohnhaus e.e. & Adler R. (1975) Methodological problems in the measurement of pain: a ... Hanken, A. (1964) The measurement of pain. In A Study of Nurse Action in Relief of Pain ... ...
*  Rheumatologists Issue New Guides for Pain Measurements
VAS Pain), NRS Pain, McGill Pain Questionnaire (MPQ), Short-Form McGill Pain Questionnaire (SF-MPQ), Chronic Pain Grade Scale ( ... NRS Pain) for estimating patients' pain intensity and the Short Form-36 Bodily Pain Scale (SF-36 BPS) for evaluating pain in ... Rheumatologists Issue New Guides for Pain Measurements. New guidelines for measuring pain in patients with rheumatic conditions ... The authors also recommend the ICOAP for assessment of osteoarthritis-related pain. ...
*  A Study of Retreatment With Rituximab in Patients With Rheumatoid Arthritis Receiving Background Methotrexate - Full Text View ...
Patient's Assessment of Pain [visual analog scale: 0=no pain to 100=unbearable pain]; 4) Health Assessment Questionnaire [20 ... improvement in three of five additional measurements: 1) Physician's Global Assessment of disease activity [visual analog scale ... Patient's Assessment of Pain [visual analog scale: 0=no pain to 100=unbearable pain]; 4) Health Assessment Questionnaire [20 ... Patients rated their pain at baseline and Week 48 using the Visual Analog Scale (VAS) on a scale of 0 (none) to 100 (unbearable ...
*  Rheumatologists Issue New Guides for Pain Measurements
VAS Pain), NRS Pain, McGill Pain Questionnaire (MPQ), Short-Form McGill Pain Questionnaire (SF-MPQ), Chronic Pain Grade Scale ( ... NRS Pain) for estimating patients' pain intensity and the Short Form-36 Bodily Pain Scale (SF-36 BPS) for evaluating pain in ... Rheumatologists Issue New Guides for Pain Measurements. New guidelines for measuring pain in patients with rheumatic conditions ... The authors also recommend the ICOAP for assessment of osteoarthritis-related pain. ...
*  Patent US6659968 - Activity monitor for pain management efficacy measurement - Google Patents
The particular location and axes of the motion or activity sensors may be chosen based on the location of the pain being ... The effectiveness of a particular pain management stimulation parameter set is based on the statistics accumulated over a ... Increased levels of exertion are an indication of successful pain management. The patient's walking gait smoothness and walking ... gait stability are also graded as indicators of pain management effectiveness. The motion or activity sensors may be part of a ...
*  Measurement of Pain and Other Symptoms of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) Patients Following Thoracic Surgery - Full Text...
Measurement of Pain and Other Symptoms of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) Patients Following Thoracic Surgery. This study ... Longitudinal Measurement of Pain and Other Symptoms of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) Patients Following Thoracic Surgery. ...
*  Measurement of Pain and Other Symptoms of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) Patients Following Thoracic Surgery
Longitudinal Measurement of Pain and Other Symptoms of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) Patients Following Thoracic Surgery. ... Longitudinal Measurement of Pain and Other Symptoms of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) Patients Following Thoracic Surgery ...
*  PA-09-195: Mechanisms, Measurement, and Management of Pain in Aging: from Molecular to Clinical (R03)
Measurement, and Management of Pain in Aging: from Molecular to Clinical (R03) PA-09-195. NIA ... MEASUREMENT AND ASSESSMENT OF PAIN IN AGING. *Evaluating existing animal models or developing new animal models suitable for ... development of chronic pain and/or to widespread pain (pain at multiple sites) in older persons, in age-related diseases or ... motivational aspects of pain, including changes in anticipatory pain processes, placebo effects, self-regulation of pain ...
*  Measurement of Stress During Anesthesia With 'Pain Detector' on Patients Receiving Atropine - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials...
Measurement of Stress During Anesthesia With 'Pain Detector' on Patients Receiving Atropine. The recruitment status of this ... Drug: Administration of 0,7 mg of atropine Device: Measurement of skin conductance with Pain detector ...
*  Pain Monitoring Using Plurality of Non-invasive Physiological Measurement - No Study Results Posted -
Pain Monitoring Using Plurality of Non-invasive Physiological Measurement. The safety and scientific validity of this study is ...
*  Measurements and Chronic Pain Update | Fitty
I've been suffering with chronic pain for the past 5 months which is made worse when I exercise so I've had to severely scale ... Measurements and Chronic Pain Update. Leave a reply Backstory: I've been suffering with chronic pain for the past 5 months ... This entry was posted in Diet and Exercise Diary, Exercise, Exercise Routines and tagged chronic pain, eva fraser, exercise ... diary, facial exercise, measurements, rodney yee, Tracy Anderson, workout diary, yoga on September 23, 2015. by ljgodbolt. Post ...
*  Measurement of Substance P in Saliva of Low Back Pain Patients - Full Text View -
The measurement of capsaicin-sensitive sensory nerve fiber function in elderly patients with pain. Pain. 1990 Apr;41(1):19-25. ... Back Pain. Low Back Pain. Pain. Neurologic Manifestations. Nervous System Diseases. Signs and Symptoms. Substance P. Neurokinin ... A pain level of 6 or greater on the PI-NRS scale (0=no pain, 10= worst pain possible) ... Measurement of Substance P in Saliva of Low Back Pain Patients. This study has suspended participant recruitment. ...
*  TRAIN OUT PAIN: Providing a Measurement for Aging Well
If the past week has been waking up twice a night with lower back pain and last night you were able to sleep through the night ... If every couple months you time it you will have a measurement of your grip. 2nd option is purchase a 20 dollar Iron Mind ... Resting heart rate is another easy measurement that has some correlation with increased mortality. After 90 beats per minute, ... Train Out Pain Chiropractic. 456 Plymouth NE Grand Rapids, MI 49505. 616-451-6160 ...
*  Daniel O. Schmitt, Professor of Evolutionary Anthropology and Associate of the Duke Initiative for Science & Society
PainPain Measurement • Postural Balance • Posture • Prevalence • Primates • Prognosis • Radiculopathy • Range of Motion, ...
*  Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Osteonecrosis of the Femoral Head - Full Text View -
Clinical outcomes (pain) by Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) [ Time Frame: 7 days and at 3, 6 and 12 months ]. Pain measurement by ... pain by visual analogue scale, quality of life by SF-36 and WOMAC Index). ...
*  July 2017 - Volume 33 - Issue 7 : The Clinical Journal of Pain
Evaluating the Association Between Acute and Chronic Pain After Surgery: Impact of Pain Measurement Methods. Gilron, Ian; ... Pain Sensitivity and its Relation to Spreading on the Body, Intensity, Frequency, and Duration of Pain: A Cross-Sectional ... Pressure Pain Threshold and Anxiety in Adolescent Females With and Without Juvenile Fibromyalgia: A Pilot Study. King, ... Impaired Pain Modulation in Fibromyalgia Patients in Response to Social Distress Manipulation. Canaipa, Rita; Castro-Caldas, ...
*  Physical activity level improves after periacetabular osteotomy for the treatment of symptomatic hip dysplasia.
We retrospectively evaluated the physical activity level and pain after periacetabular osteotomy (PAO) for the treatment of ... Hip pain secondary to acetabular dysplasia can prevent participation in recreational activities. ... Pain Measurement. Pain, Postoperative / diagnosis, etiology, physiopathology. Recovery of Function. Registries. Retrospective ... Mean postoperative WOMAC pain scores assessed at 1 year and at least 2 years were lower than mean preoperative scores. Age and ...
*  Ethics of treating postoperative pain.
Irk was in the emergency room having considerable wound pain following an above-knee amputation you performed 6 months ago. You ... Pain Measurement. Pain, Postoperative / diagnosis, drug therapy*, etiology. Referral and Consultation. Chemical. ... His last source of pain meds on the street has dried up. You admit him with orders for analgesics. What should your treatment ... You received a call advising that Mr S. H. Irk was in the emergency room having considerable wound pain following an above-knee ...
*  Cardiovascular responses to cognitive stress in patients with migraine and tension-type headache.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the temporal relationship between autonomic changes and pain activation in ... Pain Measurement. Reaction Time. Regional Blood Flow / physiology. Stress, Psychological / complications, physiopathology*. ... The pain response was defined as the highest pain response (max pain at t10?60min ? pain at t0min) among the eight location- ... and side-specific pain recoveries (minimal pain at t75?95min ? pain at t0min). Thereafter, the highest among these eight ...
*  Buprenorphine enhances and prolongs the postoperative analgesic effect of bupivacaine in patients receiving infragluteal...
Pain Measurement. Pain, Postoperative / drug therapy*. Patient Satisfaction. Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting / epidemiology. ... Patients receiving a combination of buprenorphine and bupivacaine for sciatic block had lower numeric rating pain scores and ... RESULTS: Although patients receiving buprenorphine either for sciatic block or intramuscularly had less pain in the ...
*  Three concentrations of levobupivacaine for ilioinguinal/iliohypogastric nerve block in ambulatory pediatric surgery.
Pain Measurement. Pain, Postoperative / drug therapy*. Prospective Studies. Chemical. Reg. No./Substance: 0/Anesthetics, ... Postoperative pain scores with CHEOPS (Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario Pain Scale) and need for rescue analgesia ... MEASUREMENTS: Heart rate (HR), non invasive blood pressure (NIBP), respiratory rate, end-tidal carbon dioxide concentration ( ... CONCLUSIONS: II/IH nerve block using 0.4 mL kg(-1) of 0.25% levobupivacaine provided satisfactory postoperative pain relief ...
*  Healthcare professionals' perceptions of pain in infants at risk for neurological impairment.
To determine whether healthcare professionals perceive the pain of infants differently due to their understanding of that ... Pain / etiology*, rehabilitation*. Pain Measurement*. Personnel, Hospital. Risk Assessment. Comments/Corrections. From MEDLINE ... no pain) to 10 (extreme pain). They also rated each infant's pain using a Faces Pain Scale (0 = no pain, 6 = extreme pain). ... They rated the pain (0-10 scale and 0-6 Faces Pain Scale), distress (0-10), effectiveness of cuddling to relieve pain (0-10) ...
*  The effect of education and supervised exercise vs. education alone on the time to total hip replacement in patients with...
Recent studies indicate that non-surgical interventions are effective in reducing pain and disability, even at later st ... Pain Measurement. Patient Education as Topic* / economics. Physical Examination. Prospective Studies. Questionnaires. Recovery ... Pain scores will be grouped into 0-2 indicating safe, , 2-5 acceptable, and , 5 high risk pain [18]. Self-reported pain after ... The day after training, their pain should subside to 'pain as usual' and not increase over time. 'Pain as usual' is defined as ...

(1/9560) Relative efficacy of 32P and 89Sr in palliation in skeletal metastases.

32p and 89Sr have been shown to produce significant pain relief in patients with skeletal metastases from advanced cancer. Clinically significant pancytopenia has not been reported in doses up to 12 mCi (444 MBq) of either radionuclide. To date, no reports comparing the relative efficacy and toxicity of the two radionuclides in comparable patient populations have been available. Although a cure has not been reported, both treatments have achieved substantial pain relief. However, several studies have used semiquantitative measures such as "slight," "fair," "partial" and "dramatic" responses, which lend themselves to subjective bias. This report examines the responses to treatment with 32P or 89Sr by attempting a quantification of pain relief and quality of life using the patients as their own controls and compares toxicity in terms of hematological parameters. METHODS: Thirty-one patients with skeletal metastases were treated for pain relief with either 32P (16 patients) or 89Sr (15 patients). Inclusion criteria were pain from bone scan-positive sites above a subjective score of 5 of 10 despite analgesic therapy with narcotic or non-narcotic medication, limitation of movement related to the performance of routine daily activity and a predicted life expectancy of at least 4 mo. The patients had not had chemotherapy or radiotherapy during the previous 6 wk and had normal serum creatinine, white cell and platelet counts. 32P was given orally as a 12 mCi dose, and 89Sr was given intravenously as a 4 mCi (148 MBq) dose. The patients were monitored for 4 mo. RESULTS: Complete absence of pain was seen in 7 of 16 patients who were given 32P and in 7 of 15 patients who were given 89Sr. Pain scores fell by at least 50% of the pretreatment score in 14 of 16 patients who were given 32P and 14 of 15 patients who were given 89Sr. Mean duration of pain relief was 9.6 wk with 32P and 10 wk with 89Sr. Analgesic scores fell along with the drop in pain scores. A fall in total white cell, absolute granulocyte and platelet counts occurred in all patients. Subnormal values of white cells and platelets were seen in 5 and 7 patients, respectively, with 32P, and in 0 and 4 patients, respectively, after 89Sr therapy. The decrease in platelet count (but not absolute granulocyte count) was statistically significant when 32P patients were compared with 89Sr patients. However, in no instance did the fall in blood counts require treatment. Absolute granulocyte counts did not fall below 1000 in any patient. There was no significant difference between the two treatments in terms of either efficacy or toxicity. CONCLUSION: No justification has been found in this study for the recommendation of 89Sr over the considerably less expensive oral 32P for the palliation of skeletal pain from metastases of advanced cancer.  (+info)

(2/9560) Cardiovascular and neuronal responses to head stimulation reflect central sensitization and cutaneous allodynia in a rat model of migraine.

Reduction of the threshold of cardiovascular and neuronal responses to facial and intracranial stimulation reflects central sensitization and cutaneous allodynia in a rat model of migraine. Current theories propose that migraine pain is caused by chemical activation of meningeal perivascular fibers. We previously found that chemical irritation of the dura causes trigeminovascular fibers innervating the dura and central trigeminal neurons receiving convergent input from the dura and skin to respond to low-intensity mechanical and thermal stimuli that previously induced minimal or no responses. One conclusion of these studies was that when low- and high-intensity stimuli induce responses of similar magnitude in nociceptive neurons, low-intensity stimuli must be as painful as the high-intensity stimuli. The present study investigates in anesthetized rats the significance of the changes in the responses of central trigeminal neurons (i.e., in nucleus caudalis) by correlating them with the occurrence and type of the simultaneously recorded cardiovascular responses. Before chemical stimulation of the dura, simultaneous increases in neuronal firing rates and blood pressure were induced by dural indentation with forces >/= 2.35 g and by noxious cutaneous stimuli such as pinching the skin and warming > 46 degrees C. After chemical stimulation, similar neuronal responses and blood pressure increases were evoked by much smaller forces for dural indentation and by innocuous cutaneous stimuli such as brushing the skin and warming it to >/= 43 degrees C. The onsets of neuronal responses preceded the onsets of depressor responses by 1.7 s and pressor responses by 4.0 s. The duration of neuronal responses was 15 s, whereas the duration of depressor responses was shorter (5.8 s) and pressor responses longer (22.7 s) than the neuronal responses. We conclude that the facilitated cardiovascular and central trigeminal neuronal responses to innocuous stimulation of the skin indicate that when dural stimulation induces central sensitization, innocuous stimuli are as nociceptive as noxious stimuli had been before dural stimulation and that a similar process might occur during the development of cutaneous allodynia during migraine.  (+info)

(3/9560) Cannabinoid suppression of noxious heat-evoked activity in wide dynamic range neurons in the lumbar dorsal horn of the rat.

The effects of cannabinoid agonists on noxious heat-evoked firing of 62 spinal wide dynamic range (WDR) neurons were examined in urethan-anesthetized rats (1 cell/animal). Noxious thermal stimulation was applied with a Peltier device to the receptive fields in the ipsilateral hindpaw of isolated WDR neurons. To assess the site of action, cannabinoids were administered systemically in intact and spinally transected rats and intraventricularly. Both the aminoalkylindole cannabinoid WIN55,212-2 (125 microg/kg iv) and the bicyclic cannabinoid CP55,940 (125 microg/kg iv) suppressed noxious heat-evoked activity. Responses evoked by mild pressure in nonnociceptive neurons were not altered by CP55,940 (125 microg/kg iv), consistent with previous observations with another cannabinoid agonist, WIN55,212-2. The cannabinoid induced-suppression of noxious heat-evoked activity was blocked by pretreatment with SR141716A (1 mg/kg iv), a competitive antagonist for central cannabinoid CB1 receptors. By contrast, intravenous administration of either vehicle or the receptor-inactive enantiomer WIN55,212-3 (125 microg/kg) failed to alter noxious heat-evoked activity. The suppression of noxious heat-evoked activity induced by WIN55,212-2 in the lumbar dorsal horn of intact animals was markedly attenuated in spinal rats. Moreover, intraventricular administration of WIN55,212-2 suppressed noxious heat-evoked activity in spinal WDR neurons. By contrast, both vehicle and enantiomer were inactive. These findings suggest that cannabinoids selectively modulate the activity of nociceptive neurons in the spinal dorsal horn by actions at CB1 receptors. This modulation represents a suppression of pain neurotransmission because the inhibitory effects are selective for pain-sensitive neurons and are observed with different modalities of noxious stimulation. The data also provide converging lines of evidence for a role for descending antinociceptive mechanisms in cannabinoid modulation of spinal nociceptive processing.  (+info)

(4/9560) Physiological properties of raphe magnus neurons during sleep and waking.

Neurons in the medullary raphe magnus (RM) that are important in the descending modulation of nociceptive transmission are classified by their response to noxious tail heat as ON, OFF, or NEUTRAL cells. Experiments in anesthetized animals demonstrate that RM ON cells facilitate and OFF cells inhibit nociceptive transmission. Yet little is known of the physiology of these cells in the unanesthetized animal. The first aim of the present experiments was to determine whether cells with ON- and OFF-like responses to noxious heat exist in the unanesthetized rat. Second, to determine if RM cells have state-dependent discharge, the activity of RM neurons was recorded during waking and sleeping states. Noxious heat applied during waking and slow wave sleep excited one group of cells (ON-U) in unanesthetized rats. Other cells were inhibited by noxious heat (OFF-U) applied during waking and slow wave sleep states in unanesthetized rats. NEUTRAL-U cells did not respond to noxious thermal stimulation applied during either slow wave sleep or waking. ON-U and OFF-U cells were more likely to respond to noxious heat during slow wave sleep than during waking and were least likely to respond when the animal was eating or drinking. Although RM cells rarely respond to innocuous stimulation applied during anesthesia, ON-U and OFF-U cells were excited and inhibited, respectively, by innocuous somatosensory stimulation in the unanesthetized rat. The spontaneous activity of >90% of the RM neurons recorded in the unanesthetized rat was influenced by behavioral state. OFF-U cells discharged sporadically during waking but were continuously active during slow wave sleep. By contrast, ON-U and NEUTRAL-U cells discharged in bursts during waking and either ceased to discharge entirely or discharged at a low rate during slow wave sleep. We suggest that OFF cell discharge functions to suppress pain-evoked reactions during sleep, whereas ON cell discharge facilitates pain-evoked responses during waking.  (+info)

(5/9560) Ketamine-induced peripheral analgesia in rats.

AIM: To examine whether ketamine may directly act at peripheral nociceptors to produce analgesia. METHODS: Wistar rats were anesthetized with urethane. As a nociceptive flexion reflex (FR), C responses from the posterior biceps semitendinosus (PBST) muscle was evoked by electrical stimulation (2 ms, 80 V, 2-3 pulses, 0.5 Hz) via a pair of stainless steel needles inserted subcutaneously applied to the two toes of ipsilateral hindpw. RESULTS: Subcutaneous injection of ketamine (36 mmol.L-1, 5 microL) into the ipsilateral hindpaw produced an inhibition of C responses. At 9 min after application of ketamine, injection of naloxone (1%, 5 microL) into the same area annulled ketamine-induced inhibition. CONCLUSION: Ketamine as a dissociate anesthetic acts on peripheral nociceptors to produce analgesia, which is related to activity of peripheral opioid receptors.  (+info)

(6/9560) Response surface analysis of synergism between morphine and clonidine.

Graded doses of morphine sulfate and clonidine hydrochloride were administered intrathecally to mice that were then tested for antinociception in the 55 degrees C tail immersion test. The dose-effect relations of each compound were used in calculations that permitted the construction of a three-dimensional plot of the expected additive effect (vertical scale) against the planar domain of dose pairs representing combinations administered simultaneously. This additive response surface became the reference surface for viewing the actual effects produced by three different fixed-ratio combinations of the drugs that were used in our tests. Each combination produced effects significantly greater than indicated by the additive surface, thereby illustrating marked synergism and a method for quantifying the synergism. This quantification, measured by the value of the interaction index (alpha), was found to be dependent on the fixed-ratio combination; accordingly, the actual response surface could not be described by a single value of the index alpha. Furthermore, we found that application of the common method of isoboles gave estimates of the index that agreed well with those obtained from the more extensive surface analysis. These results confirm earlier studies, which found synergism for these drugs while also providing surface views of additivity and synergism that form the basis of isobolographic analysis.  (+info)

(7/9560) Nitrocinnamoyl and chlorocinnamoyl derivatives of dihydrocodeinone: in vivo and in vitro characterization of mu-selective agonist and antagonist activity.

Two 14beta-p-nitrocinnamoyl derivatives of dihydrocodeinone, 14beta-(p-nitrocinnamoylamino)-7,8-dihydrocodeinone (CACO) and N-cyclopropylmethylnor-14beta-(p-nitrocinnamoylamino)- 7, 8-dihydrocodeinone (N-CPM-CACO), and the corresponding chlorocinnamoylamino analogs, 14beta-(p-chlorocinnamoylamino)-7, 8-dihydrocodeinone (CAM) and N-cyclopropylmethylnor-14beta-(p-chlorocinnamoylamino) -7, 8-dihydrocodeinone (MC-CAM), were tested in opioid receptor binding assays and the mouse tail-flick test to characterize the opioid affinity, selectivity, and antinociceptive properties of these compounds. In competition binding assays, all four compounds bound to the mu opioid receptor with high affinity. When bovine striatal membranes were incubated with any of the four dihydrocodeinones, binding to the mu receptor was inhibited in a concentration-dependent, wash-resistant manner. Saturation binding experiments demonstrated that the wash-resistant inhibition of mu binding was due to a decrease in the Bmax value for the binding of the mu-selective peptide [3H][D-Ala2, MePhe4,Gly(ol)5] enkephalin and not a change in the Kd value, suggesting an irreversible interaction of the compounds with the mu receptor. In the mouse 55 degrees C warm water tail-flick test, both CACO and N-CPM-CACO acted as short-term mu-selective agonists when administered by i. c.v. injection, whereas CAM and MC-CAM produced no measurable antinociception at doses up to 30 nmol. Pretreatment of mice for 24 h with any of the four dihydrocodeinone derivatives produced a dose-dependent antagonism of antinociception mediated by the mu but not the delta or kappa receptors. Long-term antagonism of morphine-induced antinociception lasted for at least 48 h after i.c. v. administration. Finally, shifts in the morphine dose-response lines after 24-h pretreatment with the four dihydrocodeinone compounds suggest that the nitrocinnamoylamino derivatives may produce a greater magnitude long-term antagonism of morphine-induced antinociception than the chlorocinnamoylamino analogs.  (+info)

(8/9560) Activation of peripheral kappa opioid receptors inhibits capsaicin-induced thermal nociception in rhesus monkeys.

8-Methyl-N-vanillyl-6-nonenamide (capsaicin) was locally applied in the tail of rhesus monkeys to evoke a nociceptive response, thermal allodynia, which was manifested as reduced tail-withdrawal latencies in normally innocuous 46 degrees C water. Coadministration of three kappa opioid ligands, U50,488 (3.2-100 microgram), bremazocine (0.1-3.2 microgram), and dynorphin A(1-13) (3.2-100 microgram), with capsaicin in the tail dose-dependently inhibited capsaicin-induced allodynia. This local antinociception was antagonized by a small dose of an opioid antagonist, quadazocine; (0.32 mg), applied in the tail; however, this dose of quadazocine injected s.c. in the back did not antagonize local U50,488. Comparing the relative potency of either agonist or antagonist after local and systemic administration confirmed that the site of action of locally applied kappa opioid agonists is in the tail. In addition, local nor-binaltorphimine (0.32 mg) and oxilorphan (0.1-10 microgram) antagonist studies raised the possibility of kappa opioid receptor subtypes in the periphery, which indicated that U50,488 produced local antinociception by acting on kappa1 receptors, but bremazocine acted probably on non-kappa1 receptors. These results provide functional evidence that activation of peripheral kappa opioid receptors can diminish capsaicin-induced allodynia in primates. This experimental pain model is a useful tool for evaluating peripherally antinociceptive actions of kappa agonists without central side effects and suggests new approaches for opioid pain management.  (+info)

  • methods
  • METHODS: We measured pain, blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR) and skin blood flow (BF) during and after controlled low-grade cognitive stress in 22 migraineurs during headache-free periods, 18 patients with tension-type headache (TTH) and 44 healthy controls. (
  • Pain measurement tools and methods in clinical research in palliative care: recommendations of an Expert Working Group of the European Association of Palliative Care" (PDF). (
  • There is evidence showing that visual analogue scales have superior metrical characteristics than discrete scales, thus a wider range of statistical methods can be applied to the measurements. (
  • GS offer advantages over other methods of pain assessment. (
  • It was reported that post hoc GS (but not real-time GS) indicated a significant proportion of the mice were in low-level pain at 24 h which were not identified as such by traditional assessment methods. (
  • Importantly, those mice identified as experiencing low-level pain responded to analgesic treatment, indicating the traditional methods of welfare assessment were insensitive in this aspect of pain recognition. (
  • patient's
  • An activity monitoring system measures the effectiveness of pain management using using data from motion or activity sensors attached to the patient's body to compute measures of exertion level of a patient. (
  • The patient's walking gait smoothness and walking gait stability are also graded as indicators of pain management effectiveness. (
  • Assessing
  • Premise 2: Vascular occlusion testing measures microcirculatory dysfunction NIRS measurement of peripheral tissue oxygen saturation (StO2), combined with a reproducible ischemia-reperfusion challenge to induce reactive hyperemia (vascular occlusion testing - VOT), has been described as a valid and reliable method for assessing microcirculatory dysfunction (De Backer et al. (
  • For mice at least, the GS has been shown to be a highly accurate, repeatable and reliable means of assessing pain requiring only a short period of training for the observer. (
  • In mice, the GS offers a means of assessing post-operative pain that is as effective as manual behavioural-based scoring, without the limitations of such approaches. (
  • Assessing a child's pain based on the judgement of their parents or caregivers may lead to underestimation, as there is a widespread tendency for people to underestimate others' pain. (
  • facial
  • The facial expression of the animals is sometimes referred to as the pain face. (
  • In 2010, a team of researchers successfully developed the first method to assess pain using changes in facial expression in any non-human animal species. (
  • Goodell
  • They developed a pain scale, called the "Hardy-Wolff-Goodell" scale, with 10 gradations, or 10 levels. (
  • Analgesia
  • Comparison of Ultrasonography-guided Bilateral Intercostal Nerve Blocks and Conventional Patient-controlled Intravenous Analgesia for Pain Control After the Nuss Procedure in. (
  • severe
  • The pain can range from mild to severe cramping or stabbing pain that occurs on both sides of the pelvis, in the lower back and rectal area, and even down the legs. (
  • The amount of pain a woman feels correlates weakly with the extent or stage (1 through 4) of endometriosis, with some women having little or no pain despite having extensive endometriosis or endometriosis with scarring, while other women may have severe pain even though they have only a few small areas of endometriosis. (
  • Severe pain as a child is associated with higher reports of pain in adults. (
  • inflammation
  • Recent clinical investigations have suggested that the cause of abnormal pain in complex regional pain syndrome could be ischemia and inflammation, due to poor blood flow to deep tissues from microvascular pathology. (
  • This may further lead to swelling, which triggers inflammation with the activation of cytokines, which results in pain. (
  • scales
  • Pain scales are based on trust, cartoons (behavioral), or imaginary data. (
  • These advantages extend to measurement instruments made up from combinations of visual analogue scales, such as semantic differentials. (
  • Interval level measurement with visual analogue scales in Internet-based research: VAS Generator" (PDF). (
  • effectiveness
  • The effectiveness of a particular pain management stimulation parameter set is based on the statistics accumulated over a period of time, for example one hour. (
  • It is used in basic pain research and to test the effectiveness of analgetics by observing the reaction to gradually increasing pressure on an inflamed paw. (
  • The effectiveness of the GS at identifying pain was compared with a traditional welfare scoring system based on behavioural, clinical and procedure-specific criteria. (
  • patients
  • CONCLUSION: It is hypothesized that TTH patients have different stress adaptive mechanisms than controls and migraineurs, involving delayed cardiovascular adaptation and reduced pain control system inhibition. (
  • The use of FACS has been proposed for use in the analysis of depression, and the measurement of pain in patients unable to express themselves verbally. (
  • abnormal
  • The pathophysiology of CRPS-1 is unknown yet a considerable number of studies suggest that the fundamental cause of abnormal pain is due to microvascular pathology of deep tissues. (
  • treatments
  • Treatments can vary among health care providers according to providers' personalities, cultures, beliefs and acceptance of pain in children. (
  • The suggested treatments for pain do not always resolve the problem, and in some cases, treatments and medications for pain actually cause pain. (
  • inflammatory
  • 2010) have theorized that the resulting microcirculatory dysfunction causes a persistent inflammatory state which is then responsible for pain generation. (
  • Pain also increases the release of anti-inflammatory steroids that reduce the ability to fight infection, increase the metabolic rate and affect healing. (
  • management
  • Inadequate pain management in children can lead to psycho-social consequences, including lack of interest in food, apathy, sleep problems, anxiety, avoidance of discussions about health, fear, hopelessness and powerlessness. (
  • complications
  • Untreated pain can greatly increase the chances of further complications and even death, making it important to identify the cause of pain quickly. (
  • response
  • Measurement of this hyperemic response using NIRS has been demonstrated to be a feasible non-invasive method of quantifying microcirculatory function. (
  • 1997) describe the use of a CO2 laser or a contact thermode to heat the skin and elicit a pain response. (
  • The Randall-Selitto test or paw pressure test is a technique for the measurement of the pain response in animals. (
  • Pain is deemed to be present if the animal starts to exhibit the flight or struggle response. (
  • method
  • Harvard Medical School Professor and Massachusetts General Hospital Anaesthetist Henry K. Beecher (1957) expressed skepticism about this method of measuring pain. (
  • In some cases, the best method to prevent and relieve pain is to build self-esteem. (
  • possible
  • Individuals with technical expertise and experience are more likely to minimize the pain as much as possible. (
  • skin
  • They found that most people expressed a pain sensation when the skin temperature reached 113 °F (45 °C). They also found that after the skin temperature reached 152 °F (67 °C), the pain sensations did not intensify even if the heat was increased. (
  • stimulation
  • Dolorimeters apply steady pressure, heat, or electrical stimulation to some area, or move a joint or other body part and determine what level of heat or pressure or electric current or amount of movement produces a sensation of pain. (