Pain: An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.Chronic Pain: Aching sensation that persists for more than a few months. It may or may not be associated with trauma or disease, and may persist after the initial injury has healed. Its localization, character, and timing are more vague than with acute pain.Pain Management: A form of therapy that employs a coordinated and interdisciplinary approach for easing the suffering and improving the quality of life of those experiencing pain.Pain Threshold: Amount of stimulation required before the sensation of pain is experienced.Pain, Postoperative: Pain during the period after surgery.Low Back Pain: Acute or chronic pain in the lumbar or sacral regions, which may be associated with musculo-ligamentous SPRAINS AND STRAINS; INTERVERTEBRAL DISK DISPLACEMENT; and other conditions.Back Pain: Acute or chronic pain located in the posterior regions of the THORAX; LUMBOSACRAL REGION; or the adjacent regions.Pain Measurement: Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.Abdominal Pain: Sensation of discomfort, distress, or agony in the abdominal region.Neck Pain: Discomfort or more intense forms of pain that are localized to the cervical region. This term generally refers to pain in the posterior or lateral regions of the neck.Pain, Intractable: Persistent pain that is refractory to some or all forms of treatment.Pelvic Pain: Pain in the pelvic region of genital and non-genital origin and of organic or psychogenic etiology. Frequent causes of pain are distension or contraction of hollow viscera, rapid stretching of the capsule of a solid organ, chemical irritation, tissue ischemia, and neuritis secondary to inflammatory, neoplastic, or fibrotic processes in adjacent organs. (Kase, Weingold & Gershenson: Principles and Practice of Clinical Gynecology, 2d ed, pp479-508)Pain Perception: The process by which PAIN is recognized and interpreted by the brain.Facial Pain: Pain in the facial region including orofacial pain and craniofacial pain. Associated conditions include local inflammatory and neoplastic disorders and neuralgic syndromes involving the trigeminal, facial, and glossopharyngeal nerves. Conditions which feature recurrent or persistent facial pain as the primary manifestation of disease are referred to as FACIAL PAIN SYNDROMES.Acute Pain: Intensely discomforting, distressful, or agonizing sensation associated with trauma or disease, with well-defined location, character, and timing.Pain, Referred: A type of pain that is perceived in an area away from the site where the pain arises, such as facial pain caused by lesion of the VAGUS NERVE, or throat problem generating referred pain in the ear.Shoulder Pain: Unilateral or bilateral pain of the shoulder. It is often caused by physical activities such as work or sports participation, but may also be pathologic in origin.Musculoskeletal Pain: Discomfort stemming from muscles, LIGAMENTS, tendons, and bones.Analgesics: Compounds capable of relieving pain without the loss of CONSCIOUSNESS.Nociceptive Pain: Dull or sharp aching pain caused by stimulated NOCICEPTORS due to tissue injury, inflammation or diseases. It can be divided into somatic or tissue pain and VISCERAL PAIN.Neuralgia: Intense or aching pain that occurs along the course or distribution of a peripheral or cranial nerve.Analgesics, Opioid: Compounds with activity like OPIATE ALKALOIDS, acting at OPIOID RECEPTORS. Properties include induction of ANALGESIA or NARCOSIS.Myofascial Pain Syndromes: Muscular pain in numerous body regions that can be reproduced by pressure on TRIGGER POINTS, localized hardenings in skeletal muscle tissue. Pain is referred to a location distant from the trigger points. A prime example is the TEMPOROMANDIBULAR JOINT DYSFUNCTION SYNDROME.Hyperalgesia: An increased sensation of pain or discomfort produced by mimimally noxious stimuli due to damage to soft tissue containing NOCICEPTORS or injury to a peripheral nerve.Complex Regional Pain Syndromes: Conditions characterized by pain involving an extremity or other body region, HYPERESTHESIA, and localized autonomic dysfunction following injury to soft tissue or nerve. The pain is usually associated with ERYTHEMA; SKIN TEMPERATURE changes, abnormal sudomotor activity (i.e., changes in sweating due to altered sympathetic innervation) or edema. The degree of pain and other manifestations is out of proportion to that expected from the inciting event. Two subtypes of this condition have been described: type I; (REFLEX SYMPATHETIC DYSTROPHY) and type II; (CAUSALGIA). (From Pain 1995 Oct;63(1):127-33)Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Visceral Pain: Pain originating from internal organs (VISCERA) associated with autonomic phenomena (PALLOR; SWEATING; NAUSEA; and VOMITING). It often becomes a REFERRED PAIN.Arthralgia: Pain in the joint.Analgesia: Methods of PAIN relief that may be used with or in place of ANALGESICS.Labor Pain: Pain associated with OBSTETRIC LABOR in CHILDBIRTH. It is caused primarily by UTERINE CONTRACTION as well as pressure on the CERVIX; BLADDER; and the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT. Labor pain mostly occurs in the ABDOMEN; the GROIN; and the BACK.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Nociceptors: Peripheral AFFERENT NEURONS which are sensitive to injuries or pain, usually caused by extreme thermal exposures, mechanical forces, or other noxious stimuli. Their cell bodies reside in the DORSAL ROOT GANGLIA. Their peripheral terminals (NERVE ENDINGS) innervate target tissues and transduce noxious stimuli via axons to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Fibromyalgia: A common nonarticular rheumatic syndrome characterized by myalgia and multiple points of focal muscle tenderness to palpation (trigger points). Muscle pain is typically aggravated by inactivity or exposure to cold. This condition is often associated with general symptoms, such as sleep disturbances, fatigue, stiffness, HEADACHES, and occasionally DEPRESSION. There is significant overlap between fibromyalgia and the chronic fatigue syndrome (FATIGUE SYNDROME, CHRONIC). Fibromyalgia may arise as a primary or secondary disease process. It is most frequent in females aged 20 to 50 years. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1494-95)Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Anesthetics, Local: Drugs that block nerve conduction when applied locally to nerve tissue in appropriate concentrations. They act on any part of the nervous system and on every type of nerve fiber. In contact with a nerve trunk, these anesthetics can cause both sensory and motor paralysis in the innervated area. Their action is completely reversible. (From Gilman AG, et. al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed) Nearly all local anesthetics act by reducing the tendency of voltage-dependent sodium channels to activate.Disability Evaluation: Determination of the degree of a physical, mental, or emotional handicap. The diagnosis is applied to legal qualification for benefits and income under disability insurance and to eligibility for Social Security and workmen's compensation benefits.Catastrophization: Cognitive and emotional processes encompassing magnification of pain-related stimuli, feelings of helplessness, and a generally pessimistic orientation.Flank Pain: Pain emanating from below the RIBS and above the ILIUM.Eye Pain: A dull or sharp painful sensation associated with the outer or inner structures of the eyeball, having different causes.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Morphine: The principal alkaloid in opium and the prototype opiate analgesic and narcotic. Morphine has widespread effects in the central nervous system and on smooth muscle.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Analgesics, Non-Narcotic: A subclass of analgesic agents that typically do not bind to OPIOID RECEPTORS and are not addictive. Many non-narcotic analgesics are offered as NONPRESCRIPTION DRUGS.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Injections, Spinal: Introduction of therapeutic agents into the spinal region using a needle and syringe.Sciatica: A condition characterized by pain radiating from the back into the buttock and posterior/lateral aspects of the leg. Sciatica may be a manifestation of SCIATIC NEUROPATHY; RADICULOPATHY (involving the SPINAL NERVE ROOTS; L4, L5, S1, or S2, often associated with INTERVERTEBRAL DISK DISPLACEMENT); or lesions of the CAUDA EQUINA.Toothache: Pain in the adjacent areas of the teeth.Lidocaine: A local anesthetic and cardiac depressant used as an antiarrhythmia agent. Its actions are more intense and its effects more prolonged than those of PROCAINE but its duration of action is shorter than that of BUPIVACAINE or PRILOCAINE.Nerve Block: Interruption of NEURAL CONDUCTION in peripheral nerves or nerve trunks by the injection of a local anesthetic agent (e.g., LIDOCAINE; PHENOL; BOTULINUM TOXINS) to manage or treat pain.Osteoarthritis, Knee: Noninflammatory degenerative disease of the knee joint consisting of three large categories: conditions that block normal synchronous movement, conditions that produce abnormal pathways of motion, and conditions that cause stress concentration resulting in changes to articular cartilage. (Crenshaw, Campbell's Operative Orthopaedics, 8th ed, p2019)Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Quality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Nociception: Sensing of noxious mechanical, thermal or chemical stimuli by NOCICEPTORS. It is the sensory component of visceral and tissue pain (NOCICEPTIVE PAIN).Physical Therapy Modalities: Therapeutic modalities frequently used in PHYSICAL THERAPY SPECIALTY by PHYSICAL THERAPISTS or physiotherapists to promote, maintain, or restore the physical and physiological well-being of an individual.Spinal Nerves: The 31 paired peripheral nerves formed by the union of the dorsal and ventral spinal roots from each spinal cord segment. The spinal nerve plexuses and the spinal roots are also included.Phantom Limb: Perception of painful and nonpainful phantom sensations that occur following the complete or partial loss of a limb. The majority of individuals with an amputated extremity will experience the impression that the limb is still present, and in many cases, painful. (From Neurol Clin 1998 Nov;16(4):919-36; Brain 1998 Sep;121(Pt 9):1603-30)Musculoskeletal Diseases: Diseases of the muscles and their associated ligaments and other connective tissue and of the bones and cartilage viewed collectively.Trigeminal Neuralgia: A syndrome characterized by recurrent episodes of excruciating pain lasting several seconds or longer in the sensory distribution of the TRIGEMINAL NERVE. Pain may be initiated by stimulation of trigger points on the face, lips, or gums or by movement of facial muscles or chewing. Associated conditions include MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, vascular anomalies, ANEURYSMS, and neoplasms. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p187)Temporomandibular Joint Disorders: A variety of conditions affecting the anatomic and functional characteristics of the temporomandibular joint. Factors contributing to the complexity of temporomandibular diseases are its relation to dentition and mastication and the symptomatic effects in other areas which account for referred pain to the joint and the difficulties in applying traditional diagnostic procedures to temporomandibular joint pathology where tissue is rarely obtained and x-rays are often inadequate or nonspecific. Common diseases are developmental abnormalities, trauma, subluxation, luxation, arthritis, and neoplasia. (From Thoma's Oral Pathology, 6th ed, pp577-600)Knee Joint: A synovial hinge connection formed between the bones of the FEMUR; TIBIA; and PATELLA.Radiculopathy: Disease involving a spinal nerve root (see SPINAL NERVE ROOTS) which may result from compression related to INTERVERTEBRAL DISK DISPLACEMENT; SPINAL CORD INJURIES; SPINAL DISEASES; and other conditions. Clinical manifestations include radicular pain, weakness, and sensory loss referable to structures innervated by the involved nerve root.Range of Motion, Articular: The distance and direction to which a bone joint can be extended. Range of motion is a function of the condition of the joints, muscles, and connective tissues involved. Joint flexibility can be improved through appropriate MUSCLE STRETCHING EXERCISES.Peripheral Nervous System Diseases: Diseases of the peripheral nerves external to the brain and spinal cord, which includes diseases of the nerve roots, ganglia, plexi, autonomic nerves, sensory nerves, and motor nerves.Spinal Cord: A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.Transcutaneous Electric Nerve Stimulation: The use of specifically placed small electrodes to deliver electrical impulses across the SKIN to relieve PAIN. It is used less frequently to produce ANESTHESIA.Acupuncture Analgesia: Analgesia produced by the insertion of ACUPUNCTURE needles at certain ACUPUNCTURE POINTS on the body. This activates small myelinated nerve fibers in the muscle which transmit impulses to the spinal cord and then activate three centers - the spinal cord, midbrain and pituitary/hypothalamus - to produce analgesia.Tramadol: A narcotic analgesic proposed for severe pain. It may be habituating.Intervertebral Disc Displacement: An INTERVERTEBRAL DISC in which the nucleus pulposus has protruded through surrounding fibrocartilage. This occurs most frequently in the lower lumbar region.Lumbosacral Region: Region of the back including the LUMBAR VERTEBRAE, SACRUM, and nearby structures.Oxycodone: A semisynthetic derivative of CODEINE.Cyclohexanecarboxylic AcidsBupivacaine: A widely used local anesthetic agent.Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal: Anti-inflammatory agents that are non-steroidal in nature. In addition to anti-inflammatory actions, they have analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions.They act by blocking the synthesis of prostaglandins by inhibiting cyclooxygenase, which converts arachidonic acid to cyclic endoperoxides, precursors of prostaglandins. Inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis accounts for their analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions; other mechanisms may contribute to their anti-inflammatory effects.Hot Temperature: Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.Osteoarthritis: A progressive, degenerative joint disease, the most common form of arthritis, especially in older persons. The disease is thought to result not from the aging process but from biochemical changes and biomechanical stresses affecting articular cartilage. In the foreign literature it is often called osteoarthrosis deformans.Headache: The symptom of PAIN in the cranial region. It may be an isolated benign occurrence or manifestation of a wide variety of HEADACHE DISORDERS.Injections, Intra-Articular: Methods of delivering drugs into a joint space.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Analgesia, Patient-Controlled: Relief of PAIN, without loss of CONSCIOUSNESS, through ANALGESIC AGENTS administered by the patients. It has been used successfully to control POSTOPERATIVE PAIN, during OBSTETRIC LABOR, after BURNS, and in TERMINAL CARE. The choice of agent, dose, and lockout interval greatly influence effectiveness. The potential for overdose can be minimized by combining small bolus doses with a mandatory interval between successive doses (lockout interval).Activities of Daily Living: The performance of the basic activities of self care, such as dressing, ambulation, or eating.Facial Neuralgia: Neuralgic syndromes which feature chronic or recurrent FACIAL PAIN as the primary manifestation of disease. Disorders of the trigeminal and facial nerves are frequently associated with these conditions.Exercise Therapy: A regimen or plan of physical activities designed and prescribed for specific therapeutic goals. Its purpose is to restore normal musculoskeletal function or to reduce pain caused by diseases or injuries.Acupuncture Therapy: Treatment of disease by inserting needles along specific pathways or meridians. The placement varies with the disease being treated. It is sometimes used in conjunction with heat, moxibustion, acupressure, or electric stimulation.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Ganglia, Spinal: Sensory ganglia located on the dorsal spinal roots within the vertebral column. The spinal ganglion cells are pseudounipolar. The single primary branch bifurcates sending a peripheral process to carry sensory information from the periphery and a central branch which relays that information to the spinal cord or brain.Palliative Care: Care alleviating symptoms without curing the underlying disease. (Stedman, 25th ed)Injections, Epidural: The injection of drugs, most often analgesics, into the spinal canal without puncturing the dura mater.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Fentanyl: A potent narcotic analgesic, abuse of which leads to habituation or addiction. It is primarily a mu-opioid agonist. Fentanyl is also used as an adjunct to general anesthetics, and as an anesthetic for induction and maintenance. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1078)Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Zygapophyseal Joint: The joint that occurs between facets of the interior and superior articular processes of adjacent VERTEBRAE.Anesthesia, Local: A blocking of nerve conduction to a specific area by an injection of an anesthetic agent.Posterior Horn Cells: Neurons in the SPINAL CORD DORSAL HORN whose cell bodies and processes are confined entirely to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. They receive collateral or direct terminations of dorsal root fibers. They send their axons either directly to ANTERIOR HORN CELLS or to the WHITE MATTER ascending and descending longitudinal fibers.Hypesthesia: Absent or reduced sensitivity to cutaneous stimulation.Anxiety: Feeling or emotion of dread, apprehension, and impending disaster but not disabling as with ANXIETY DISORDERS.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Temporomandibular Joint Dysfunction Syndrome: A symptom complex consisting of pain, muscle tenderness, clicking in the joint, and limitation or alteration of mandibular movement. The symptoms are subjective and manifested primarily in the masticatory muscles rather than the temporomandibular joint itself. Etiologic factors are uncertain but include occlusal dysharmony and psychophysiologic factors.Adaptation, Psychological: A state of harmony between internal needs and external demands and the processes used in achieving this condition. (From APA Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)Analgesia, Epidural: The relief of pain without loss of consciousness through the introduction of an analgesic agent into the epidural space of the vertebral canal. It is differentiated from ANESTHESIA, EPIDURAL which refers to the state of insensitivity to sensation.Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy: A syndrome characterized by severe burning pain in an extremity accompanied by sudomotor, vasomotor, and trophic changes in bone without an associated specific nerve injury. This condition is most often precipitated by trauma to soft tissue or nerve complexes. The skin over the affected region is usually erythematous and demonstrates hypersensitivity to tactile stimuli and erythema. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1360; Pain 1995 Oct;63(1):127-33)Spinal DiseasesElectric Stimulation Therapy: Application of electric current in treatment without the generation of perceptible heat. It includes electric stimulation of nerves or muscles, passage of current into the body, or use of interrupted current of low intensity to raise the threshold of the skin to pain.Occupational Diseases: Diseases caused by factors involved in one's employment.Recovery of Function: A partial or complete return to the normal or proper physiologic activity of an organ or part following disease or trauma.Dysmenorrhea: Painful menstruation.Paresthesia: Subjective cutaneous sensations (e.g., cold, warmth, tingling, pressure, etc.) that are experienced spontaneously in the absence of stimulation.Causalgia: A complex regional pain syndrome characterized by burning pain and marked sensitivity to touch (HYPERESTHESIA) in the distribution of an injured peripheral nerve. Autonomic dysfunction in the form of sudomotor (i.e., sympathetic innervation to sweat glands), vasomotor, and trophic skin changes may also occur. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1359)Depression: Depressive states usually of moderate intensity in contrast with major depression present in neurotic and psychotic disorders.Manipulation, Spinal: Adjustment and manipulation of the vertebral column.Single-Blind Method: A method in which either the observer(s) or the subject(s) is kept ignorant of the group to which the subjects are assigned.Hyperesthesia: Increased sensitivity to cutaneous stimulation due to a diminished threshold or an increased response to stimuli.Thermosensing: The sensation of cold, heat, coolness, and warmth as detected by THERMORECEPTORS.Illness Behavior: Coordinate set of non-specific behavioral responses to non-psychiatric illness. These may include loss of APPETITE or LIBIDO; disinterest in ACTIVITIES OF DAILY LIVING; or withdrawal from social interaction.Pelvic Girdle Pain: Discomfort associated with the bones that make up the pelvic girdle. It occurs frequently during pregnancy.Massage: The systematic and methodical manipulations of body tissues best performed with the hands for the purpose of affecting the nervous and muscular systems and the general circulation.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Joint DiseasesRisk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Neuralgia, Postherpetic: Pain in nerves, frequently involving facial SKIN, resulting from the activation the latent varicella-zoster virus (HERPESVIRUS 3, HUMAN). The two forms of the condition preceding the pain are HERPES ZOSTER OTICUS; and HERPES ZOSTER OPHTHALMICUS. Following the healing of the rashes and blisters, the pain sometimes persists.Sensory Receptor Cells: Specialized afferent neurons capable of transducing sensory stimuli into NERVE IMPULSES to be transmitted to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Sometimes sensory receptors for external stimuli are called exteroceptors; for internal stimuli are called interoceptors and proprioceptors.Ketorolac: A pyrrolizine carboxylic acid derivative structurally related to INDOMETHACIN. It is an NSAID and is used principally for its analgesic activity. (From Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 31st ed)Opioid-Related Disorders: Disorders related or resulting from abuse or mis-use of opioids.Intervertebral Disc: Any of the 23 plates of fibrocartilage found between the bodies of adjacent VERTEBRAE.Whiplash Injuries: Hyperextension injury to the neck, often the result of being struck from behind by a fast-moving vehicle, in an automobile accident. (From Segen, The Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Sciatic Neuropathy: Disease or damage involving the SCIATIC NERVE, which divides into the PERONEAL NERVE and TIBIAL NERVE (see also PERONEAL NEUROPATHIES and TIBIAL NEUROPATHY). Clinical manifestations may include SCIATICA or pain localized to the hip, PARESIS or PARALYSIS of posterior thigh muscles and muscles innervated by the peroneal and tibial nerves, and sensory loss involving the lateral and posterior thigh, posterior and lateral leg, and sole of the foot. The sciatic nerve may be affected by trauma; ISCHEMIA; COLLAGEN DISEASES; and other conditions. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1363)Amines: A group of compounds derived from ammonia by substituting organic radicals for the hydrogens. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Osteoarthritis, Hip: Noninflammatory degenerative disease of the hip joint which usually appears in late middle or old age. It is characterized by growth or maturational disturbances in the femoral neck and head, as well as acetabular dysplasia. A dominant symptom is pain on weight-bearing or motion.Capsaicin: An alkylamide found in CAPSICUM that acts at TRPV CATION CHANNELS.Spine: The spinal or vertebral column.Cervical Vertebrae: The first seven VERTEBRAE of the SPINAL COLUMN, which correspond to the VERTEBRAE of the NECK.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Physical Examination: Systematic and thorough inspection of the patient for physical signs of disease or abnormality.Freund's Adjuvant: An antigen solution emulsified in mineral oil. The complete form is made up of killed, dried mycobacteria, usually M. tuberculosis, suspended in the oil phase. It is effective in stimulating cell-mediated immunity (IMMUNITY, CELLULAR) and potentiates the production of certain IMMUNOGLOBULINS in some animals. The incomplete form does not contain mycobacteria.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Acetaminophen: Analgesic antipyretic derivative of acetanilide. It has weak anti-inflammatory properties and is used as a common analgesic, but may cause liver, blood cell, and kidney damage.Outcome Assessment (Health Care): Research aimed at assessing the quality and effectiveness of health care as measured by the attainment of a specified end result or outcome. Measures include parameters such as improved health, lowered morbidity or mortality, and improvement of abnormal states (such as elevated blood pressure).Sacroiliac Joint: The immovable joint formed by the lateral surfaces of the SACRUM and ILIUM.Heel: The back (or posterior) of the FOOT in PRIMATES, found behind the ANKLE and distal to the TOES.Cold Temperature: An absence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably below an accustomed norm.Central Nervous System Sensitization: An increased response to stimulation that is mediated by amplification of signaling in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM (CNS).Formaldehyde: A highly reactive aldehyde gas formed by oxidation or incomplete combustion of hydrocarbons. In solution, it has a wide range of uses: in the manufacture of resins and textiles, as a disinfectant, and as a laboratory fixative or preservative. Formaldehyde solution (formalin) is considered a hazardous compound, and its vapor toxic. (From Reynolds, Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p717)Pilot Projects: Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.Stress, Psychological: Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.Musculoskeletal Manipulations: Various manipulations of body tissues, muscles and bones by hands or equipment to improve health and circulation, relieve fatigue, promote healing.Abdomen, Acute: A clinical syndrome with acute abdominal pain that is severe, localized, and rapid in onset. Acute abdomen may be caused by a variety of disorders, injuries, or diseases.Breakthrough Pain: Acute pain that comes on rapidly despite the use of pain medication.Spinal Nerve Roots: Paired bundles of NERVE FIBERS entering and leaving the SPINAL CORD at each segment. The dorsal and ventral nerve roots join to form the mixed segmental spinal nerves. The dorsal roots are generally afferent, formed by the central projections of the spinal (dorsal root) ganglia sensory cells, and the ventral roots are efferent, comprising the axons of spinal motor and PREGANGLIONIC AUTONOMIC FIBERS.Cumulative Trauma Disorders: Harmful and painful condition caused by overuse or overexertion of some part of the musculoskeletal system, often resulting from work-related physical activities. It is characterized by inflammation, pain, or dysfunction of the involved joints, bones, ligaments, and nerves.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Hydromorphone: An opioid analgesic made from MORPHINE and used mainly as an analgesic. It has a shorter duration of action than morphine.Pressure: A type of stress exerted uniformly in all directions. Its measure is the force exerted per unit area. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Hip Joint: The joint that is formed by the articulation of the head of FEMUR and the ACETABULUM of the PELVIS.Shoulder: Part of the body in humans and primates where the arms connect to the trunk. The shoulder has five joints; ACROMIOCLAVICULAR joint, CORACOCLAVICULAR joint, GLENOHUMERAL joint, scapulathoracic joint, and STERNOCLAVICULAR joint.Foot Diseases: Anatomical and functional disorders affecting the foot.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Fatigue: The state of weariness following a period of exertion, mental or physical, characterized by a decreased capacity for work and reduced efficiency to respond to stimuli.Somatosensory Disorders: Disorders of sensory information received from superficial and deep regions of the body. The somatosensory system conveys neural impulses which pertain to proprioception, tactile sensation, thermal sensation, pressure sensation, and pain. PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; SPINAL CORD DISEASES; and BRAIN DISEASES may be associated with impaired or abnormal somatic sensation.Comorbidity: The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.Prilocaine: A local anesthetic that is similar pharmacologically to LIDOCAINE. Currently, it is used most often for infiltration anesthesia in dentistry.Bone Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer located in bone tissue or specific BONES.TRPV Cation Channels: A subgroup of TRP cation channels named after vanilloid receptor. They are very sensitive to TEMPERATURE and hot spicy food and CAPSAICIN. They have the TRP domain and ANKYRIN repeats. Selectivity for CALCIUM over SODIUM ranges from 3 to 100 fold.Perception: The process by which the nature and meaning of sensory stimuli are recognized and interpreted.Hypnosis: A state of increased receptivity to suggestion and direction, initially induced by the influence of another person.Sensation: The process in which specialized SENSORY RECEPTOR CELLS transduce peripheral stimuli (physical or chemical) into NERVE IMPULSES which are then transmitted to the various sensory centers in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Afferent Pathways: Nerve structures through which impulses are conducted from a peripheral part toward a nerve center.ArthritisSpinal Stenosis: Narrowing of the spinal canal.Dyspareunia: Recurrent genital pain occurring during, before, or after SEXUAL INTERCOURSE in either the male or the female.Autonomic Nerve Block: Interruption of sympathetic pathways, by local injection of an anesthetic agent, at any of four levels: peripheral nerve block, sympathetic ganglion block, extradural block, and subarachnoid block.Spinal Cord Injuries: Penetrating and non-penetrating injuries to the spinal cord resulting from traumatic external forces (e.g., WOUNDS, GUNSHOT; WHIPLASH INJURIES; etc.).Cross-Over Studies: Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Knee: A region of the lower extremity immediately surrounding and including the KNEE JOINT.Pancreatitis, Chronic: INFLAMMATION of the PANCREAS that is characterized by recurring or persistent ABDOMINAL PAIN with or without STEATORRHEA or DIABETES MELLITUS. It is characterized by the irregular destruction of the pancreatic parenchyma which may be focal, segmental, or diffuse.Chiropractic: An occupational discipline founded by D.D. Palmer in the 1890's based on the relationship of the spine to health and disease.Nerve Fibers, Unmyelinated: A class of nerve fibers as defined by their nerve sheath arrangement. The AXONS of the unmyelinated nerve fibers are small in diameter and usually several are surrounded by a single MYELIN SHEATH. They conduct low-velocity impulses, and represent the majority of peripheral sensory and autonomic fibers, but are also found in the BRAIN and SPINAL CORD.Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic: Works about clinical trials that involve at least one test treatment and one control treatment, concurrent enrollment and follow-up of the test- and control-treated groups, and in which the treatments to be administered are selected by a random process, such as the use of a random-numbers table.Migraine Disorders: A class of disabling primary headache disorders, characterized by recurrent unilateral pulsatile headaches. The two major subtypes are common migraine (without aura) and classic migraine (with aura or neurological symptoms). (International Classification of Headache Disorders, 2nd ed. Cephalalgia 2004: suppl 1)Irritable Bowel Syndrome: A disorder with chronic or recurrent colonic symptoms without a clearcut etiology. This condition is characterized by chronic or recurrent ABDOMINAL PAIN, bloating, MUCUS in FECES, and an erratic disturbance of DEFECATION.Shoulder Joint: The articulation between the head of the HUMERUS and the glenoid cavity of the SCAPULA.Statistics, Nonparametric: A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)Lifting: Moving or bringing something from a lower level to a higher one. The concept encompasses biomechanic stresses resulting from work done in transferring objects from one plane to another as well as the effects of varying techniques of patient handling and transfer.Analgesia, Obstetrical: The elimination of PAIN, without the loss of CONSCIOUSNESS, during OBSTETRIC LABOR; OBSTETRIC DELIVERY; or the POSTPARTUM PERIOD, usually through the administration of ANALGESICS.Needles: Sharp instruments used for puncturing or suturing.Trigeminal Nerve Diseases: Diseases of the trigeminal nerve or its nuclei, which are located in the pons and medulla. The nerve is composed of three divisions: ophthalmic, maxillary, and mandibular, which provide sensory innervation to structures of the face, sinuses, and portions of the cranial vault. The mandibular nerve also innervates muscles of mastication. Clinical features include loss of facial and intra-oral sensation and weakness of jaw closure. Common conditions affecting the nerve include brain stem ischemia, INFRATENTORIAL NEOPLASMS, and TRIGEMINAL NEURALGIA.Amitriptyline: Tricyclic antidepressant with anticholinergic and sedative properties. It appears to prevent the re-uptake of norepinephrine and serotonin at nerve terminals, thus potentiating the action of these neurotransmitters. Amitriptyline also appears to antagonize cholinergic and alpha-1 adrenergic responses to bioactive amines.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Trigeminal Nerve: The 5th and largest cranial nerve. The trigeminal nerve is a mixed motor and sensory nerve. The larger sensory part forms the ophthalmic, mandibular, and maxillary nerves which carry afferents sensitive to external or internal stimuli from the skin, muscles, and joints of the face and mouth and from the teeth. Most of these fibers originate from cells of the TRIGEMINAL GANGLION and project to the TRIGEMINAL NUCLEUS of the brain stem. The smaller motor part arises from the brain stem trigeminal motor nucleus and innervates the muscles of mastication.Diskectomy: Excision, in part or whole, of an INTERVERTEBRAL DISC. The most common indication is disk displacement or herniation. In addition to standard surgical removal, it can be performed by percutaneous diskectomy (DISKECTOMY, PERCUTANEOUS) or by laparoscopic diskectomy, the former being the more common.Touch: Sensation of making physical contact with objects, animate or inanimate. Tactile stimuli are detected by MECHANORECEPTORS in the skin and mucous membranes.Orthopedic Procedures: Procedures used to treat and correct deformities, diseases, and injuries to the MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM, its articulations, and associated structures.Foot: The distal extremity of the leg in vertebrates, consisting of the tarsus (ANKLE); METATARSUS; phalanges; and the soft tissues surrounding these bones.Tooth Extraction: The surgical removal of a tooth. (Dorland, 28th ed)Injections: Introduction of substances into the body using a needle and syringe.

*  Cancer pain - Wikipedia

Pain[edit]. Main article: Pain. Pain is classed as acute (short term) or chronic (long term).[8] Chronic pain may be continuous ... a b c d e f g Randall F. Ethical issues in cancer pain management. In: Sykes N, Bennett MI & Yuan C-S. Clinical pain management ... American pain society recommendations for improving the quality of acute and cancer pain management: American Pain Society ... a b c d Twycross R & Bennett M. Cancer pain syndromes. In: Sykes N, Bennett MI & Yuan C-S. Clinical pain management: Cancer ...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cancer_pain

*  Feeling Her Pain

The pain and chaos was way beyond the movie.' But Herrington, a lawyer, toughed it out -- not just one time but twice more over ... such as acute fear and anxiety when they could not alleviate their wife's pain,' wrote the authors. ... uncertainty about what to do and difficulty with seeing their partners in pain. ...
washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2006/07/03/AR2006070300790.html

*  Chest pain

Chest pain * 1. Chest Pain,br /,Angina and Heart Attacks,br /, * 2. Definitions,br /,Angina,br /,Angina is the pain associated ... The heart then receives too little oxygen, which causes pain in the heart that is felt as chest pain.,br /,In severe cases this ... 7. Signs and symptoms,br /,Heart Attack,br /,The same as those for Angina, although often more severe and the pain does not ... A suffocating pain in the centre of the chest, often induced by exercise and relieved by rest, which may radiate to the jaw, ...
https://slideshare.net/michaelmiotk/chest-pain

*  Pain Now, Gain Later

Pain Now, Gain Later. By Robert Thomson. Sunday, April 22, 2007 D ear Dr. Gridlock: ... I think the gain will be worth the pain, but it will be awhile. ...
washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2007/04/21/AR2007042101195_pf.html

*  Explaining childhood pain

ONGOING unexplained pain in children is often misdiagnosed and misunderstood, according to an expert. ... Migraine and abdominal pain are two of the most important predictors of bad outcomes in terms of pain and psychological issues ... Childhood pain can be disabling and specialists have not yet defined it adequately, says paediatric pain and joint specialist ... Explaining childhood pain. MIGRANES, irritable bowel syndrome and restless leg syndrome in adults can be linked to pain ...
news.com.au/lifestyle/parenting/expert-in-bid-to-explain-childhood-pain/news-story/675c10986009223f7c6eb85b80e1283b

*  Back Pain & Osteoarthritis

Home > About Arthritis > Types > Back Pain > More About Back Pain > Is Your Back Pain Caused By OA? ... Studies show that four out of five adults have back pain at some time in their lives. With an aging U.S. population, back pain ... But just how much of our nation's back pain is caused by OA? "That's the $64,000 question," says University of Pittsburgh pain ... "They're walking around on the street, pain free," says Norman Marcus, MD, director of the division of muscle pain research in ...
arthritis.org/about-arthritis/types/back-pain/articles/oa-and-back-pain.php

*  Alcohol & Stomach Pain | eHow

If you have stomach pain, it is best to avoid... ... Stomach Pain. Excessive alcohol consumption can lead to a ... Causes of Right Upper Quadrant Abdominal Pain Nearly everyone experiences abdominal pain at some point in their life. The pain ... Left side abdominal pain is often described as burning, a dull ache, stabbing or sharp. When left side abdominal pain is ... Alcoholism & Back Pain Moderate consumption of alcohol provides health benefits especially to the heart, but excessive alcohol ...
ehow.com/about_5438127_alcohol-stomach-pain.html

*  Joint pain - NHS Choices

Read about the common causes of joint pain, including injury and arthritis. ... pain in many joints Pain in just one joint. Knee pain. The knee joint is probably the most frequently damaged joint and is ... However, knee pain isn't always a joint problem. Learn about the most common causes of knee pain and what you should do. ... Pain in many joints. Rheumatoid arthritis. Rheumatoid arthritis is another type of arthritis that causes pain and swelling in ...
nhs.uk/conditions/joint-pain/pages/introduction.aspx

*  Costochondritis Pain Relief | eHow

Heat can speed up the healing process and help decrease your pain. Set your heating pad to a lower setting and apply it several ... Take a break from the activities that are increasing the pain. This may seem common sense but its advice that is often ignored ... While the cause of most cases are still a mystery to doctors, treatments are focused on helping minimize the pain while the ... See your doctor if you're experiencing chest pain as it could indicate a serious medical condition. ...
ehow.com/way_5150972_costochondritis-pain-relief.html

*  FRI0708 Neuropathic pain is a weak predictor of new onset chronic widespread pain | Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases

Methods In a population based study participant's pain reports were coded and those free of CWP (ACR criteria: pain lasting ≥3 months in the axial skeleton and contralateral body quadrants) identified. Participants also completed the Douleur Neuropathique 4 (DN4) (which has 7 sensory descriptors of pain (burning, painful cold, electric shocks, tingling, pins and needles, itching, and numbness), scores ≥3 indicating NP); demographics (date of birth, sex, English Index of Multiple Deprivation, occupational status); Hospital Anxiety and Depression (HAD) scale; Estimation of Sleep Problem Scale (ESPS); self-reported pain medications (summed to give a total count); and signed consent. Participants were classified as no pain, having some pain that wasn't neuropathic (NP-; DN4 score ,3), or neuropathic pain (NP+; DN4 score ≥3). A follow-up questionnaire mailed 12 months later ...
ard.bmj.com/content/76/Suppl_2/758.2

*  Pain Diagnoses per Body Region « University Pain Centre Maastricht

The various pain diagnoses are classified according to different body regions (body areas where the pain originates and/or irradiates to).. The clinical picture, diagnostics, and potential treatment modalities are discussed per diagnosis.. ...
pijn.com/en/health-care-providers/pain-diagnoses/

*  Is Your Pain Acute Or Chronic?

Acute pain is normal pain that warns that you've been hurt, Fraifeld says. "When you break your leg, when you hit your thumb with the hammer, when you put your hand on the hot plate and you burn yourself … that's good pain. It tells you that you have an injury." When you touch that scorching dish, your body will react immediately and you'll pull your hand away. Acute pain starts suddenly and usually doesn't last long. When the injury heals, the pain stops. For example, a broken leg will hurt during recovery, but "as time goes on, it gets better and better," Fraifeld says. With chronic pain, "the pain itself becomes a disease," Fraifeld says. "When the injury heals and you continue having pain beyond the time of expected recovery, that's chronic pain ...
eng.chauthiduniya.com/is-your-pain-acute-or-chronic/

*  One Woman's Story of a 30 Year Battle with Chronic Pain - National Pain Report

In her book, Cynthia is highly critical of the doctors that treated her. Those 13 years were "pure hell" she says.. "I couldn't speak for five years, and was bedridden for ten. I contemplated suicide. I tried to hurt myself and, at times, I just hated everyone and everything.". John met Cynthia in college at UC Irvine, he an aspiring actor and she the dancer, and never left her side. John shares his feelings at the end of each chapter in the book.. "To say that our relationship was tested is an understatement," said Garrett. "The pain that she suffered didn't play by the rules, but here we are today.". Toussaint has turned her considerable energy into a role as an advocate for chronic pain patients.. Her experience has made her skeptical of the medical profession and urges patients to "be in charge of our own pain.". She has also become politically active and testifies often in Sacramento on state health legislation.. "I also talk a lot about gender bias," ...
nationalpainreport.com/one-womans-story-of-a-30-year-battle-with-chronic-pain-8819275.html

*  Drugs to Treat Pain Tested With Pain Perception Model

Converting mouse and human skin cells into pain sensing neurons that respond to a number of stimuli causing acute inflammatory pain has been successfully done by scientists.
medindia.net/news/drugs-to-treat-pain-tested-with-pain-perception-model-144115-1.htm

*  Joint Pain Treatment - Does Supple Drink Really Work In Stopping Arthritis Pain and Knee Inflammation?

Various Joint pain treatments are continuously evolved, making current techniques for reducing the discomfort of joint pain to the people. Plenty of effective
agingparentsauthority.com/health-and-fitness/joint-pain-treatment-does-supple-drinkreally-work-in-stopping-arthritis-pain-and-knee-inflammation/

*  Serotonin May Perpetuate Chronic Pain - National Pain Report

On one side of this hub, three smaller bundles of wires - V1, V2 and V3 - branch off. Each bundle contains individual pain-sensing wires that split off to cover a specific area of the face. Signals are sent through the wires, and travel through the spinal cord to the brain, which interprets them as pain.. When the researchers pinched the V2 branch of the trigeminal nerve for a prolonged period of time, they found that the uninjured V2 and V3 territories also became sensitive to pain.. To figure out why, Dong's team inserted a gene into the DNA of mice so that the primary sensory nerve cells in their ears would glow green when activated.. A video of nerve cells in a mouse ear "lighting up" in response to pain can be seen here.. When the skin of their ears were bathed in a dose of capsaicin - the active ingredient in hot peppers - the pain-sensing nerves lit up in both regions of the ear. But the V3 nerves in the lower ear ...
nationalpainreport.com/serotonin-may-perpetuate-chronic-pain-8822871.html

*  Living with Chronic Pain: A letter to the healthy world...

An additional note is that this is a couple years old and now they know that our pain is based from our Central Nervous System, it sends out pain signals in a similar pattern to that of an epilleptic seizure, which is why things like Neurontin work on a fair number of us. It is an anti-seizure medication. They also know that once the pain signal reaches our muscles that our muscles seize it and start to reproduce the pain locally as well as stemming from our brains. So we get a double whammy of pain, just because our brain stops sending the signal it doesn't mean the pain will stop yet, now we know we have to wait for our muscles to agree to it as well. I sincerely hope that you all will take heart from this letter and share it with those you are close to. It made a big difference in my life. When I grasped who and what I had become, I wanted everyone to know and understand. I wanted everyone to have a fair ...
carly-livingwithchronicpain.blogspot.com/2010/08/letter-to-healthy-world.html

*  pinching pain - Symptoms, Treatments and Resources for pinching pain

pinching pain - MedHelp's pinching pain Center for Information, Symptoms, Resources, Treatments and Tools for pinching pain. Find pinching pain information, treatments for pinching pain and pinching pain symptoms.
medhelp.org/tags/show/27123/pinching-pain

*  Gum Infections May Cause Rheumatoid Arthritis, Johns Hopkins Research Says - National Pain Report

Some research has been done over the years about the role of antiotics in helping RA pain and also back pain. Antibiotics are thought to reduce inflammation and the idea has been that there MAY be an underlying bacterial component to the disease. Perhaps this study will open the door further…for more research and finding a treatment of the cause…rather than just treating the many symptoms! Some years ago, prior to an involved dental procedure, I started prophylactic amoxicillin 500mg at bedtime and a repeat dose in the morning…only to have the procedure cancelled by the dentist for reasons of his scheduling!! So, I didn't take any further doses. In a couple of days, I started realizing how MUCH better over all I felt since the day after I had taken that last dose….less pain, more stamina, even more energy and more drive! This lasted for about seven CONSECUTIVE days, which seemed nothing short of a miracle!! And just to see if I could repeat the experience, I ...
nationalpainreport.com/gum-infections-may-cause-rheumatoid-arthritis-johns-hopkins-research-says-8832335.html

*  About Pain Awareness Week

The Canadian Pain Coalition is a Partnership of patient pain groups, health professionals who care for people in pain, and scientists studying better ways of treating pain.
canadianpaincoalition.ca/index.php/en/national-pain-awareness-week/about

*  Plus it

There is an agreement that cannabinoids could produce peripherally mediated antihyperalgesic and antinociceptive effects via a variety of mechanisms (Richardson et al., 1998; Rice et al., 2002; Malan et al., 2003; Walker and Hohmann, 2005). Thus, despite the similar potent CB2 agonist properties of both WIN and AM1241, differences in their peripheral inhibitory actions have been reported (Johanek et al., 2001; Quartilho et al., 2003; Hohmann et al., 2004; Ibrahim et al., 2006). A diversity of hypothesized mechanisms has been proposed because cannabinoids could mediate their actions via different receptors (or channels) that are differentially activated in various pain models or by distinct experimental approaches (e.g., local vs systemic injection). In addition, cannabinoids can modulate sensory neurons as well as non-neuronal peripheral cells that play an important role in nociceptive signal transmission (Calignano et al., 2001; Maccarrone et al., 2003; Samson et al., 2003; Ibrahim et al., ...
jneurosci.org/content/28/5/1064

*  Pain - Canada.com

Pain is an unfortunate part of life. Even though everyone encounters it, our experience, sensitivity, and tolerance to pain vary greatly. One person may suffer from small aches while another will tolerate walking on a broken ankle. Still, everyone needs pain relief now and then. This month, we take a look at some of the conditions that may cause you pain and what you can do to find pain relief.
bodyandhealth.canada.com/healthfeature/gethealthfeature/pain

*  Belly pain. - Weddingbee

So I've been having VERY sharp pains in my uterus since about 10 am. The pain comes every few minutes, and when it goes away my uterus still feels like its burning. The pain goes deep into my back. It's just plain hurts. I've also been having sharp pains in my vagina, not just "achy". I called the nurse at my doctor's office and she told me to lay on my left side and hydrate. I've already drank over a gallon of water today so it's not that :/ I also haven't felt the baby move since yesterday, but I know that can be common at 19 weeks. I'm not constipated and it doesn't hurt when I pee. She told me if the pain doesn't go way to go to labor and delivery or the ER. Any advice on what else it could be?. ...
boards.weddingbee.com/topic/belly-pain/

*  crps/rsd a better life: December 2006

It hurts and our learned behaviour is to protect the hurting part by stopping things touching it and moving less or resting. This is the best thing to do if the pain was from an injury but it's not. I know that I need to override the normal pain response and move normally and not protect the hurt part. It isn't easy. That's where the mirrors come in. The brain message is wrong. I cannot take pain medicine but even if I could I'd only be treating the symptoms of pain not the cause. The cause is these false messages. By looking at the mirror image of the body part opposite to the one that hurts moving, the brain gets visual stimulus of a moving pain free limb. For me there is usually no instant difference. About 10 minutes after I've finished I notice that I don't feel quite as bad. I do it again and again. It takes effort and I need to keep doing it for several days or weeks. I treat each flare up immediately before it ...
crps-rsd-a-better-life.blogspot.com/2006/12/

*  crps/rsd a better life: May 2007

It hurts and our learned behaviour is to protect the hurting part by stopping things touching it and moving less or resting. This is the best thing to do if the pain was from an injury but it's not. I know that I need to override the normal pain response and move normally and not protect the hurt part. It isn't easy. That's where the mirrors come in. The brain message is wrong. I cannot take pain medicine but even if I could I'd only be treating the symptoms of pain not the cause. The cause is these false messages. By looking at the mirror image of the body part opposite to the one that hurts moving, the brain gets visual stimulus of a moving pain free limb. For me there is usually no instant difference. About 10 minutes after I've finished I notice that I don't feel quite as bad. I do it again and again. It takes effort and I need to keep doing it for several days or weeks. I treat each flare up immediately before it ...
crps-rsd-a-better-life.blogspot.com/2007/05/

*  Growing pains - In-depth - Mayo Clinic

Growing pains - Learn about this common condition involving leg pain in children, including growing pain symptoms and how to ease discomfort.
mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/growing-pains/more-about/in-depth/ssc-20235552

*  Jessica on Babies: Pain (and Pain Relief) in Labor

I'm not saying that every woman should or wants to experience a drug-free, natural birth. By the end of my third birth, I didn't really want to, either! It happened that way almost by accident, because I had decided that I wouldn't have an epidural long enough that there wasn't time to get one. My mindset was such that this pain was something I just had to get through, and there would be a baby eventually as a reward. There's nothing wrong with getting an epidural. It doesn't make you weak or less of a woman or mother. It doesn't make your child's birth less meaningful or less enjoyable. Indeed, it might make it more enjoyable, given that you can relax a little and not be in so much pain ...
jessicaonbabies.blogspot.com/2012/07/pain-and-pain-relief-in-labor.html

*  Advil PM Pain Relief Liqui-Gels | Walgreens

Advil PM Pain Relief Liqui-Gels at Walgreens. Get free shipping at $35 and view promotions and reviews for Advil PM Pain Relief Liqui-Gels
https://walgreens.com/store/c/advil-pm-pain-relief-liqui-gels/ID=prod6229811-product

*  Pain Level 0/10 Correlates with GCS 3 and Respiratory Rate 0 | GomerBlog

MORGANTOWN, WV - Multiple studies have examined the higher end of the pain scale, but there is a dearth of information regarding the achievement of pain 0/
gomerblog.com/2017/01/pain-level-gcs-3-and-respiratory-rate-0/

*  gas pain in lower back - MedHelp

This problem has increased in the past three years. The gas is so smelly and at times the gas causes pain in my lower left side of my back. I eat very healthy I ...
healthquestions.medhelp.org/gas-pain-in-lower-back

*  The pain chart at the doctor's office gets it right... - The Meta Picture

Funny pictures about The pain chart at the doctor's office gets it right.... Oh, and cool pics about The pain chart at the doctor's office gets it right.... Also, The pain chart at the doctor's office gets it right... photos.
themetapicture.com/the-pain-chart-at-the-doctors-office-gets-it-right/

*  Management of Pain | Patient Care Online

Most patients with advanced cancer, and up to 60% of patients with any stage of the disease, experience significant pain. The WHO estimates that 25% of all cancer patients die with unrelieved pain.
patientcareonline.com/cancer-management/management-pain

*  What Gets Fired Gets Wired - Is 'Pain Free' a Sensible Goal? Neuroplastics for Persistent Pain: Day 24 | Zig Zag Yogi

Pain is not an enemy -- it is an important messenger in our bodymind. It is a protective mechanism that saves our lives through letting us know about our
give.kiwi/2016/07/what-gets-fired-gets-wired-is-pain-free-a-sensible-goal-neuroplastics-for-persistent-pain-day-24/

*  I have on and off acute urethral pain. This has happened since

Question - I have on and off acute urethral pain. This has happened since - BP. Find the answer to this and other Medical questions on JustAnswer
justanswer.co.uk/medical/8rpal-off-acute-urethral-pain-this-happened.html

Cancer pain: Pain in cancer may arise from a tumor compressing or infiltrating nearby body parts; from treatments and diagnostic procedures; or from skin, nerve and other changes caused by a hormone imbalance or immune response. Most chronic (long-lasting) pain is caused by the illness and most acute (short-term) pain is caused by treatment or diagnostic procedures.Chronic painHypoalgesia: Hypoalgesia or hypalgesia denotes a decreased sensitivity to painful stimuli.Low back painPain scale: A pain scale measures a patient's pain intensity or other features. Pain scales are based on self-report, observational (behavioral), or physiological data.Avijit Lahiri: Avijit Lahiri is a researcher in cardiology[http://www.journals.Pelvic congestion syndrome: Pelvic congestion syndrome (also known as pelvic vein incompetence) is a chronic medical condition in women caused by varicose veins in the lower abdomen. The condition causes chronic pain, often manifesting as a constant dull ache, which can be aggravated by standing.Thermal grill illusion: The thermal grill illusion is a sensory illusion originally demonstrated in 1896 by the Swedish physician Torsten Thunberg. The illusion is created by an interlaced grill of warm (e.Journal of Musculoskeletal Pain: The Journal of Musculoskeletal Pain is a quarterly Peer review-peer-reviewed medical journal covering research on chronic muscle and bone pain, including fibromyalgia, myofascial pain, and other types of musculoskeletal pain. It is published by Informa Healthcare.Compound analgesic: Compound analgesics are those with multiple active ingredients; they include many of the stronger prescription analgesics.Neuropathic painOpioid: Opioids are substances that act on the nervous system in a similar way to opiates such as morphine and codeine. In a medical context the term usually indicates medications that are artificially made rather than extracted from opium.Dry needling: Dry needling (Myofascial Trigger Point Dry Needlinghttp://www.ncbi.Opioid-induced hyperalgesia: Opioid-induced hyperalgesia or opioid-induced abnormal pain sensitivity, also called paradoxical hyperalgesia is a phenomenon associated with the long term use of opioids such as morphine, hydrocodone, oxycodone, and methadone. Over time, individuals taking opioids can develop an increasing sensitivity to noxious stimuli, even evolving a painful response to previously non-noxious stimuli (allodynia).Rachel Morris (cyclist): Rachel Morris (born on 25 April 1979) is a British Paralympic handcyclist who won a gold medal at the 2008 Summer Paralympics. She lost both her legs to Complex regional pain syndrome and cycles, in part, to manage the pain.Non-communicable disease: Non-communicable disease (NCD) is a medical condition or disease that is non-infectious or non-transmissible. NCDs can refer to chronic diseases which last for long periods of time and progress slowly.Visceral pain: Visceral pain is pain that results from the activation of nociceptors of the thoracic, pelvic, or abdominal viscera (organs). Visceral structures are highly sensitive to distension (stretch), ischemia and inflammation, but relatively insensitive to other stimuli that normally evoke pain such as cutting or burning.Preventive analgesia: Preventive analgesia is a practice aimed at reducing short- and long-term post-surgery pain. Activity in the body's pain signalling system during surgery produces "sensitization"; that is, it increases the intensity of post-operative pain.Nociceptor: A nociceptor is a sensory neuron (nerve cell) that responds to potentially damaging stimuli by sending signals to the spinal cord and brain. This process, called nociception, usually causes the perception of pain.Fibromyalgia: – FibromyalgiaClosed-ended question: A closed-ended question is a question format that limits respondents with a list of answer choices from which they must choose to answer the question.Dillman D.Local anesthetic: Local anesthetic (LA) is a medication that causes reversible absence of pain sensation, although other senses are often affected as well. Also, when it is used on specific nerve pathways (local anesthetic nerve block), paralysis (loss of muscle power) can be achieved as well.International Disability and Development Consortium: The International Disability and Development Consortium (IDDC) is a global consortium of disability and development related organisations. The aim of IDDC is to promote inclusive development internationally, with a special focus on promoting human rights for all disabled people living in economically poor communities in lower and middle-income countries.Morphia (disambiguation): Morphia, also called morphine, is a highly potent opiate analgesic drug.Placebo-controlled study: Placebo-controlled studies are a way of testing a medical therapy in which, in addition to a group of subjects that receives the treatment to be evaluated, a separate control group receives a sham "placebo" treatment which is specifically designed to have no real effect. Placebos are most commonly used in blinded trials, where subjects do not know whether they are receiving real or placebo treatment.The Alligator's Toothache: The Alligator's Toothache is a 1962 children's picture book written and illustrated by Marguerite Dorian. It tells the tale of an alligator called Alli and his child-friendly experiences with a painful tooth and a dentist's surgery.Lidocaine: lignocaineNerve blockTemporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studyingTime-trade-off: Time-Trade-Off (TTO) is a tool used in health economics to help determine the quality of life of a patient or group. The individual will be presented with a set of directions such as:Select MedicalSuperior cluneal nerves: The superior cluneal nerves innervate the skin of the upper part of the buttocks. They are the terminal ends of lateral rami of the posterior rami of lumbar spinal nerves (L1, 2, 3).Phantom painMicrovascular decompression: Microvascular decompression (MVD), also known as the Jannetta procedure,http://neurosurgery.ucsf.Knee pain: Knee pain is a common complaint for many people. There are several factors that can cause knee pain.RadiculopathyVincristineNeuromere: Neuromeres are morphologically or molecularly defined transient segments of the early developing brain. Rhombomeres are such segments that make up the rhombencephalon or hindbrain.Electroanalgesia: Electroanalgesia is a form of analgesia, or pain relief, that uses electricity to ease pain. Electrical devices can be internal or external, at the site of pain (local) or delocalized throughout the whole body.Lumbar disc disease: Lumbar disc disease is the drying out of the spongy interior matrix of an intervertebral disc in the spine. Many physicians and patients use the term lumbar disc disease to encompass several different causes of back pain or sciatica.Oxycodone/paracetamolDicycloverineBupivacaineCelecoxibFishpaper: Fish paper or fishpaper is a strong, flexible, fibrous dielectric paper. It resists moderate heat and mechanical injury, and is often used for wrapping coils and insulating stove-top parts.Osteoarthritis Research Society International: The Osteoarthritis Research Society International (OARSI) is a non-profit scientific organization.OARSI.International Classification of Headache Disorders: The International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD) is a detailed hierarchical classification of all headache-related disorders published by the International Headache Society. It is considered the official classification of headaches by the World Health Organization, and, in 1992, was incorporated into the 10th edition of their International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10).Bristol Activities of Daily Living Scale: The Bristol Activities of Daily Living Scale (BADLS) is a 20-item questionnaire designed to measure the ability of someone with dementia to carry out daily activities such as dressing, preparing food and using transport.Exercise prescription software: Exercise prescription software is a branch of computer software designed to aid in the construction of exercise programmes or regimes for patients who require some kind of ongoing rehabilitation.AcupunctureHyperintensityOhmefentanylFacet joint injection: Facet joint injections are used to alleviate symptoms of facet joint syndrome.Facet Joint SyndromeHypoesthesiaHypervigilance: Hypervigilance is an enhanced state of sensory sensitivity accompanied by an exaggerated intensity of behaviors whose purpose is to detect threats. Hypervigilance is also accompanied by a state of increased anxiety which can cause exhaustion.

(1/11014) Pyorrhoea as cause of pyrexia.

Three patients with fever and malaise, one of whom also had joint pains, were extensively investigated before their condition was attributed to dental sepsis. Each patient recovered fully after appropriate dental treatment. Dental sepsis should be added to the list of possible causes of pyrexia of undetermined origin, and a routine dental examination should be carried out in each case.  (+info)

(2/11014) Diabetic peripheral neuropathy and quality of life.

The quality of life (QOL) of 79 people with type 1 and type 2 diabetes and 37 non-diabetic controls was assessed using the Nottingham Health Profile (NHP). The NHP consists of six domains assessing energy, sleep, pain, physical mobility, emotional reactions and social isolation. Symptomatic diabetic neuropathy was present in 41 of the patients. The neuropathy patients had significantly higher scores (impaired QOL) in 5/6 NHP domains than either the other diabetic patients (p < 0.01) or the non-diabetic (p < 0.001) controls. These were: emotional reaction, energy, pain, physical mobility and sleep. The diabetic patients without neuropathy also had significantly impaired QOL for 4/6 NHP domains compared with the non-diabetic control group (p < 0.05) (energy, pain, physical mobility and sleep). This quantification of the detrimental effect on QOL of diabetes, and in particular of chronic symptomatic peripheral diabetic neuropathy, emphasizes the need for further research into effective management of these patients.  (+info)

(3/11014) Relative efficacy of 32P and 89Sr in palliation in skeletal metastases.

32p and 89Sr have been shown to produce significant pain relief in patients with skeletal metastases from advanced cancer. Clinically significant pancytopenia has not been reported in doses up to 12 mCi (444 MBq) of either radionuclide. To date, no reports comparing the relative efficacy and toxicity of the two radionuclides in comparable patient populations have been available. Although a cure has not been reported, both treatments have achieved substantial pain relief. However, several studies have used semiquantitative measures such as "slight," "fair," "partial" and "dramatic" responses, which lend themselves to subjective bias. This report examines the responses to treatment with 32P or 89Sr by attempting a quantification of pain relief and quality of life using the patients as their own controls and compares toxicity in terms of hematological parameters. METHODS: Thirty-one patients with skeletal metastases were treated for pain relief with either 32P (16 patients) or 89Sr (15 patients). Inclusion criteria were pain from bone scan-positive sites above a subjective score of 5 of 10 despite analgesic therapy with narcotic or non-narcotic medication, limitation of movement related to the performance of routine daily activity and a predicted life expectancy of at least 4 mo. The patients had not had chemotherapy or radiotherapy during the previous 6 wk and had normal serum creatinine, white cell and platelet counts. 32P was given orally as a 12 mCi dose, and 89Sr was given intravenously as a 4 mCi (148 MBq) dose. The patients were monitored for 4 mo. RESULTS: Complete absence of pain was seen in 7 of 16 patients who were given 32P and in 7 of 15 patients who were given 89Sr. Pain scores fell by at least 50% of the pretreatment score in 14 of 16 patients who were given 32P and 14 of 15 patients who were given 89Sr. Mean duration of pain relief was 9.6 wk with 32P and 10 wk with 89Sr. Analgesic scores fell along with the drop in pain scores. A fall in total white cell, absolute granulocyte and platelet counts occurred in all patients. Subnormal values of white cells and platelets were seen in 5 and 7 patients, respectively, with 32P, and in 0 and 4 patients, respectively, after 89Sr therapy. The decrease in platelet count (but not absolute granulocyte count) was statistically significant when 32P patients were compared with 89Sr patients. However, in no instance did the fall in blood counts require treatment. Absolute granulocyte counts did not fall below 1000 in any patient. There was no significant difference between the two treatments in terms of either efficacy or toxicity. CONCLUSION: No justification has been found in this study for the recommendation of 89Sr over the considerably less expensive oral 32P for the palliation of skeletal pain from metastases of advanced cancer.  (+info)

(4/11014) Use of positron emission tomography in evaluation of brachial plexopathy in breast cancer patients.

18-Fluoro-2-deoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) has previously been used successfully to image primary and metastatic breast cancer. In this pilot study, 19 breast cancer patients with symptoms/signs referrable to the brachial plexus were evaluated with 18FDG-PET. In 11 cases computerized tomography (CT) scanning was also performed. Of the 19 patients referred for PET study, 14 had abnormal uptake of 18FDG in the region of the symptomatic plexus. Four patients had normal PET studies and one had increased FDG uptake in the chest wall that accounted for her axillary pain. CT scans were performed in 9 of the 14 patients who had positive brachial plexus PET studies; six of these were either normal or showed no clear evidence of recurrent disease, while three CTs demonstrated clear brachial plexus involvement. Of two of the four patients with normal PET studies, one has had complete resolution of symptoms untreated while the other was found to have cervical disc herniation on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan. The remaining two patients almost certainly had radiation-induced plexopathy and had normal CT, MRI and PET study. These data suggest that 18FDG-PET scanning is a useful tool in evaluation of patients with suspected metastatic plexopathy, particularly if other imaging studies are normal. It may also be useful in distinguishing between radiation-induced and metastatic plexopathy.  (+info)

(5/11014) Intensive weekly chemotherapy is not effective in advanced pancreatic cancer patients: a report from the Italian Group for the Study of Digestive Tract Cancer (GISCAD).

Twenty-two patients, with locally advanced unresectable and/or metastatic pancreatic carcinoma, received weekly administration of cisplatin 40 mg m(-2), 5-fluorouracil 500 mg m(-2), epidoxorubicin 35 mg m(-2), 6S stereoisomer of leucovorin 250 mg m(-2) and glutathione 1.5 mg m(-2), supported by a daily administration of lenograstim at a dose of 5 microg kg(-1). Nineteen patients were men and three were women. Median age was 63 years (range 47-70). At study entry, pain was present in 15 out of 22 patients (68%) with a mean value of Scott-Huskisson scale of 27.6+/-23.8, whereas a weight loss >10% was present in 15 patients. After eight weekly treatments, three partial responses were achieved for a response rate of 13% (95% CI 0-26%), five patients had stable disease and 14 progressed on therapy. Pain was present in 9 out of 22 patients (40%) with a mean value of Scott-Huskisson scale of 12.3+/-18.4. Eight patients (36%) (three partial response and five stable disease) had a positive weight change. Toxicity was mild: WHO grade III or IV toxicity was recorded in terms of anaemia in 7 out of 188 cycles (3.7%), of neutropenia in 9 out of 188 cycles (4.7%) and of thrombocytopenia in 3 out of 188 cycles (1.5%). Median survival of all patients was 6 months. The outcome of this intensive chemotherapy regimen does not support its use in pancreatic cancer.  (+info)

(6/11014) Paracrine changes in the peritoneal environment of women with endometriosis.

During the past decade, macrophage-derived substances such as prostanoids, cytokines, growth factors and angiogenic factors have been detected in the peritoneal fluid of women with endometriosis. In particular, growth-promoting and angiogenic factors are considered to be substantially involved in the pathogenesis of endometriosis. In this study, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) and intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), substances recently detected in the peritoneal fluid of women with endometriosis, were assessed with regard to their concentrations in different stages of endometriosis and changes of the peritoneal paracrine activity after medical treatment with a gonadotrophin releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa). Peritoneal fluid was obtained from patients with endometriosis during laparoscopy before and after a 4-month treatment with a GnRHa. VEGF, TGF-beta and ICAM-1 could be detected in all women presenting with various stages of active endometriosis. After GnRHa therapy, all patients showed significant decreases in mean concentrations of VEGF (194+/-77 pg/ml), TGF-beta (902+/-273 pg/ml) and ICAM-1 (157+/-52 ng/ml). Patients with stage III and IV endometriosis (according to the rAFS score) had much higher concentrations of VEGF and TGF-beta before treatment compared with those patients with mild endometriosis (rAFS stages I and II). The most striking decrease in concentration was for TGF-beta, from 902 pg/ml before to 273 pg/ml after therapy. These results indicate an important role for paracrine activity in the establishment and maintenance of endometriosis. Indeed, treatment with a GnRHa may reduce paracrine activity in the peritoneal cavity via hypo-oestrogenism and provide proof of successful therapy.  (+info)

(7/11014) Gabapentin suppresses ectopic nerve discharges and reverses allodynia in neuropathic rats.

Repetitive ectopic discharges from injured afferent nerves play an important role in initiation and maintenance of neuropathic pain. Gabapentin is effective for treatment of neuropathic pain but the sites and mechanisms of its antinociceptive actions remain uncertain. In the present study, we tested a hypothesis that therapeutic doses of gabapentin suppress ectopic afferent discharge activity generated from injured peripheral nerves. Mechanical allodynia, induced by partial ligation of the sciatic nerve in rats, was determined by application of von Frey filaments to the hindpaw. Single-unit afferent nerve activity was recorded proximal to the ligated sciatic nerve site. Intravenous gabapentin, in a range of 30 to 90 mg/kg, significantly attenuated allodynia in nerve-injured rats. Furthermore, gabapentin, in the same therapeutic dose range, dose-dependently inhibited the ectopic discharge activity of 15 injured sciatic afferent nerve fibers through an action on impulse generation. However, the conduction velocity and responses of 12 normal afferent fibers to mechanical stimulation were not affected by gabapentin. Therefore, this study provides electrophysiological evidence that gabapentin is capable of suppressing the ectopic discharge activity from injured peripheral nerves. This action may contribute, at least in part, to the antiallodynic effect of gabapentin on neuropathic pain.  (+info)

(8/11014) The Sock Test for evaluating activity limitation in patients with musculoskeletal pain.

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Assessment within rehabilitation often must reflect patients' perceived functional problems and provide information on whether these problems are caused by impairments of the musculoskeletal system. Such capabilities were examined in a new functional test, the Sock Test, simulating the activity of putting on a sock. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Intertester reliability was examined in 21 patients. Concurrent validity, responsiveness, and predictive validity were examined in a sample of 337 patients and in subgroups of this sample. RESULTS: Intertester reliability was acceptable. Sock Test scores were related to concurrent reports of activity limitation in dressing activities. Scores also reflected questionnaire-derived reports of problems in a broad range of activities of daily living and pain and were responsive to change over time. Increases in age and body mass index increased the likelihood of Sock Test scores indicating activity limitation. Pretest scores were predictive of perceived difficulties in dressing activities after 1 year. CONCLUSION AND DISCUSSION: Sock Test scores reflect perceived activity limitations and restrictions of the musculoskeletal system.  (+info)



symptoms


  • [17] The superior vena cava (a large vein carrying circulating, de-oxygenated blood into the heart) may be compressed by a tumor, causing superior vena cava syndrome , which can cause chest wall pain among other symptoms. (wikipedia.org)
  • The most common symptoms in young children include headaches, tummy pains and growing pains. (news.com.au)
  • Symptoms may include abdominal pain, vomiting and loss of appetite. (ehow.com)
  • This medication is able to suppress the withdrawal symptoms and cravings experienced by those addicted to pain medication. (pitchengine.com)
  • If an adult does experience ear pain, the treatments and symptoms associated with his ear pain are similar to the treatments and symptoms for children. (ehow.com)
  • A fever of greater than 100 degrees F, a feeling that the ear is blocked, muffled hearing, dizziness and a temporary loss of hearing are all symptoms that an adult may have an inner ear infection that is causing the ear pain. (ehow.com)

chronic


  • Most chronic (long-lasting) pain is caused by the illness and most acute (short-term) pain is caused by treatment or diagnostic procedures. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pain is classed as acute (short term) or chronic (long term). (wikipedia.org)
  • [8] Chronic pain may be continuous with occasional sharp rises in intensity (flares), or intermittent: periods of painlessness interspersed with periods of pain. (wikipedia.org)
  • The majority of people with chronic pain notice memory and attention difficulties. (wikipedia.org)
  • Past studies have found psychological reasons for chronic pain disorders, which has been explained through social learning and shared experience between the child and parents. (news.com.au)
  • Chronic pain in children causes a lot of functional disability. (news.com.au)
  • He says children with chronic pain should undergo a multidisciplinary medical, psychological and social assessment. (news.com.au)
  • When a person takes opiates as a medication for chronic pain or another condition, this medication can become addicting. (pitchengine.com)
  • These stretching and strengthening exercises can help chronic back pain and prevent future episodes. (webmd.com)

department of anesthesiology


  • They're walking around on the street, pain free," says Norman Marcus, MD, director of the division of muscle pain research in the department of anesthesiology at the New York University School of Medicine. (arthritis.org)
  • The research mission of the Department of Anesthesiology & Pain Medicine of the University of Washington is to advance medical science and improve clinical care by conducting state-of-the art pre-clinical, clinical, translational, and outcomes research. (washington.edu)
  • The Department of Anesthesiology & Pain Medicine will be recognized as a leader in innovative research programs. (washington.edu)
  • The Department of Anesthesiology & Pain Medicine recognizes research as the cornerstone of our academic program. (washington.edu)
  • Welcome to the research pages of the Department of Anesthesiology & Pain Medicine web site. (washington.edu)

abdominal pain


  • Migraine and abdominal pain are two of the most important predictors of bad outcomes in terms of pain and psychological issues later in life,' says Dr Champion, whose research is based on questionnaires sent to 4000 families through the Australian Twin Registry. (news.com.au)
  • Ulcers are a small lesion in the lining of the stomach, and they can cause abdominal pain during flareups. (ehow.com)
  • Nearly everyone experiences abdominal pain at some point in their life. (ehow.com)
  • Left side abdominal pain is often described as burning, a dull ache, stabbing or sharp. (ehow.com)

tenderness


  • It is usually felt as tenderness, with constant background pain and instances of spontaneous or movement-related exacerbation, and is frequently described as severe. (wikipedia.org)
  • Your doctor will be looking for areas that have tenderness, pain or swelling, as well as indications the joint may be damaged. (arthritis.org)
  • Your doctor will be looking for areas with tenderness, pain or swelling, as well as indications the joint may be damaged. (arthritis.org)

nonsteroidal anti-


  • Some patients respond well to simple over-the-counter pain relievers such as ibuprofen and other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). (arthritis.org)
  • NSAIDs -- or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs -- are among the most common pain relief medicines in the world. (webmd.com)

relievers


  • NSAIDs are among the most common pain relievers in the world. (webmd.com)

relief


  • While your doctor may prescribe medicine to assist in pain relief, here are some simple tips to help the healing process. (ehow.com)
  • Back Pain Relief is designed to help you manage your back pain issues. (lulu.com)
  • This is your 'no fluff' quick guide to most common, effective, natural pain relief methods. (lulu.com)
  • But in some -- especially those who need pain relief regularly -- there can be a downside. (webmd.com)
  • Over-the-counter medications can help adults as well as children receive some relief from the pain. (ehow.com)
  • A warm compress placed over the ear that is in pain can also provide relief. (ehow.com)

chest


  • The heart then receives too little oxygen, which causes pain in the heart that is felt as chest pain. (slideshare.net)
  • See your doctor if you're experiencing chest pain as it could indicate a serious medical condition. (ehow.com)
  • By following these step by step techniques you can alleviate chest pain, groin pain, back pain and more, with gentle touch. (lulu.com)

alleviate


  • The 14 fathers interviewed 'experienced many emotions, such as acute fear and anxiety when they could not alleviate their wife's pain,' wrote the authors. (washingtonpost.com)

back pain


  • Migraine, neck and back pain are most common in adolescence and some children suffer more than one type of pain. (news.com.au)
  • Is Your Back Pain Caused By OA? (arthritis.org)
  • Studies show that four out of five adults have back pain at some time in their lives. (arthritis.org)
  • With an aging U.S. population, back pain may be a growing problem, since osteoarthritis (OA) typically emerges in people over age 40, and the spine is a prime target for this common joint condition. (arthritis.org)
  • But just how much of our nation's back pain is caused by OA? (arthritis.org)
  • That's the $64,000 question," says University of Pittsburgh pain specialist Debra K. Weiner, MD. Back pain is a complex condition, and OA is often just one piece of the puzzle. (arthritis.org)
  • Dr. Marks estimates that OA is the likely culprit in about 20% of 40-year-old men and women who develop back pain, a figure he says rises to as much as 75% among people over age 60. (arthritis.org)
  • However, some doctors who treat back pain feel that OA gets too much of the blame. (arthritis.org)
  • Dr. Weiner feels that while there's "definitely too much focus" on OA as a source of back pain, she says it can be part of the problem. (arthritis.org)
  • Back pain is usually multifactorial," she says. (arthritis.org)
  • For instance, studies show that 7% of women over 60 have fibromyalgia, a condition of unknown origin that can cause back pain. (arthritis.org)
  • Given that back pain has many causes beyond OA, it's no surprise experts say there's no one-size-fits-all treatment. (arthritis.org)
  • Regardless what's causing your back pain, all doctors agree that getting it under control requires exercise to increase the strength and flexibility of muscles that support the spine. (arthritis.org)
  • How Can I Prevent Back Pain? (webmd.com)
  • Maintaining a healthy lifestyle is key to helping prevent back pain . (webmd.com)
  • Practicing good posture is another way to help prevent back pain . (webmd.com)

medication


  • Worldwide, nearly 80 percent of people with cancer receive little or no pain medication. (wikipedia.org)
  • Why The Pain Medication You're Currently Taking May Be Making Your Situation Worse -Mind-Body Techniques That Allow You To Disassociate Yourself From Pain at It's Worse Moments -Natural Remedies For Digestive Problems, Rheumatoid Arthritis, Migraines, Osteoporosis, Cancer Prevention, Varicose Veins, Herniated Disks, Back Pains, and more! (lulu.com)

adults


  • MIGRANES, irritable bowel syndrome and restless leg syndrome in adults can be linked to pain experienced as a child. (news.com.au)
  • Ear pain in adults is not as common as ear pain in children. (ehow.com)
  • Much of the ear pain adults have stems from high altitudes. (ehow.com)
  • However, adults also can sometimes have ear infections that cause pain. (ehow.com)
  • Adults who have weak immune systems are more likely to have ear pain because ear infections often begin with viral infections such as colds. (ehow.com)
  • Adults who are prone to ear pain may want to use some over-the-counter decongestants or a medicine used to treat allergies. (ehow.com)

common


  • Invasion of bone by cancer is the most common source of cancer pain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Joint pain is a very common problem with many possible causes - but it's usually a result of injury or arthritis. (www.nhs.uk)
  • Learn about the most common causes of knee pain and what you should do. (www.nhs.uk)
  • The most common and more unusual causes of pain in a single joint are described below. (www.nhs.uk)
  • Pregnancy Pain Guide: The information in this book is a list of the most common types of pains and discomforts facing women who are pregnant. (lulu.com)
  • Ear infections and ear pain are more common among all age groups in the fall and winter. (ehow.com)

nerves


  • Pain in cancer can be produced by mechanical (e.g. pinching) or chemical (e.g. inflammation) stimulation of specialized pain-signalling nerve endings found in most parts of the body (called nociceptive pain ), or it may be caused by diseased, damaged or compressed nerves, in which case it is called neuropathic pain . (wikipedia.org)
  • On a basic level, pain is the result of an electrical signal being sent from your nerves to your brain . (webmd.com)

arthritis


  • Rheumatoid arthritis is another type of arthritis that causes pain and swelling in the joints - usually the hands, feet and wrists. (www.nhs.uk)
  • Sign up to get tips, tools, and resources to help you better understand, treat and prevent arthritis pain. (arthritis.org)
  • Scott Zashin, MD, clinical assistant professor at the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center in Dallas and author of Arthritis Without Pain . (webmd.com)

outcomes


  • Faculty in our Department engage in multidisciplinary basic, translational, and clinical research, with major emphasis in neuroscience and pain, genomics and mitochondria biology, outcomes, and medical training and patient education. (washington.edu)

physician


  • People often believe their pain is unsafe," says Carol Hartigan, MD, a spine physician at New England Baptist Hospital in Boston. (arthritis.org)
  • For Dr. Lynn Webster, a longtime pain management physician, the startling numbers were a call to action. (scienceblogs.com)

treatments


  • For example, it is possible through psychosurgery and some drug treatments, or by suggestion (as in hypnosis and placebo ), to reduce or eliminate the unpleasantness of pain without affecting its intensity. (wikipedia.org)
  • While the cause of most cases are still a mystery to doctors, treatments are focused on helping minimize the pain while the problem heals itself (usually within a week or two). (ehow.com)

clinic


  • At the Albuquerque pain clinic , doctors work closely with the patients to ensure that their health is in good hands. (pitchengine.com)

cause pain


  • Tumors cause pain by crushing or infiltrating tissue, triggering infection or inflammation, or releasing chemicals that make normally non-painful stimuli painful. (wikipedia.org)
  • This acid can seep into the esophagus, which can cause pain and discomfort. (ehow.com)

disorder


  • Parents and siblings of a child with pain disorder are also at more risk themselves. (news.com.au)

management


  • With competent management, cancer pain can be eliminated or well controlled in 80 to 90 percent of cases, but nearly one in two people with cancer in the developed world receives less than optimal care. (wikipedia.org)
  • Guidelines for the use of drugs in the management of cancer pain have been published by the World Health Organization (WHO) and others. (wikipedia.org)
  • [5] [6] Healthcare professionals have an ethical obligation to ensure that, whenever possible, the patient or patient's guardian is well-informed about the risks and benefits associated with their pain management options. (wikipedia.org)
  • Adequate pain management may sometimes slightly shorten a dying person's life. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is very exciting research,' says Professor George Chalkiadis, head of the children's pain management at the Royal Children's Hospital in Melbourne. (news.com.au)
  • Albuquerque, New Mexico - New Mexico Pain, home to two of the best pain management clinics in Albuquerque now offers an outpatient drug rehabilitation program. (pitchengine.com)
  • New Mexico Pain offers an outpatient program in which patients work closely with a board-certified pain management doctor. (pitchengine.com)
  • Pain management doctors Albuquerque may also recommend a Suboxone treatment. (pitchengine.com)
  • The potential for abuse of Suboxone is relatively low, which is why it is recommended by pain management doctors. (pitchengine.com)
  • If you or a family member are facing a drug addiction, you should seek the help of a highly qualified pain management doctor. (pitchengine.com)
  • For more information on the outpatient drug rehabilitation offered at the pain management clinics in Albuquerque, contact New Mexico Pain. (pitchengine.com)
  • New Mexico Pain is made up of two pain management clinics in the Albuquerque area. (pitchengine.com)
  • The pain management doctors in Albuquerque are board-certified and boast over a 90% success rate. (pitchengine.com)
  • Want more info about pain management? (arthritis.org)

help


  • Heat can speed up the healing process and help decrease your pain. (ehow.com)
  • The board-certified and award-winning doctors at New Mexico Pain can help treat patients with an addiction to narcotic medications. (pitchengine.com)
  • Here is their explanation of how NSAIDs help ease your pain -- and sometimes cause side effects in the process. (webmd.com)
  • How Do NSAIDs Help Relieve Pain? (webmd.com)

usually


  • they will usually be asked to estimate intensity on a scale of 0-10 (with 0 being no pain and 10 being the worst pain they have ever felt). (wikipedia.org)
  • The pain is usually short-lived and causes minimal discomfort. (ehow.com)
  • In older people, joint pain that gets steadily worse is usually a sign of osteoarthritis . (www.nhs.uk)

disability


  • It's important to correctly diagnose gout, as treatment will prevent future attacks of joint pain and disability. (www.nhs.uk)

often


  • Neuropathic pain is often accompanied by other feelings such as pins and needles . (wikipedia.org)
  • ONGOING unexplained pain in children is often misdiagnosed and misunderstood, according to an expert. (news.com.au)
  • Childhood pain is often an indicator of adult conditions such as migraines, irritable bowel syndrome and restless leg syndrome. (news.com.au)

fever


  • And as if that wasn't enough, in addition to dulling pain NSAIDs also lower fever and reduce swelling. (webmd.com)

adult


  • An adult who has ear pain may have an inner ear infection. (ehow.com)

include


  • The Top 5 Pain-Killing Foods - Include These In Your Diet and Never Experience a Lockup Again! (lulu.com)
  • The goals of departmental research programs include advancing knowledge in health and disease, and improving the quality of patient care in perioperative and pain medicine. (washington.edu)

Sometimes


  • Sometimes, pain caused in one part of the body feels like it is coming from another part of the body. (wikipedia.org)

less


  • This means less swelling and less pain. (webmd.com)
  • The less congestion you have, the less likely you are to have inner ear pain. (ehow.com)

problem


  • However, knee pain isn't always a joint problem. (www.nhs.uk)

children


  • [4] Cancer pain in children is also reported as being under-treated. (wikipedia.org)
  • Childhood pain can be disabling and specialists have not yet defined it adequately, says paediatric pain and joint specialist Professor David Champion of the Sydney Children's Hospital. (news.com.au)

anxiety


  • [10] Pain is also associated with increased depression , anxiety, fear, and anger. (wikipedia.org)
  • The study found that 41 percent of the 44 dads questioned reported negative feelings about the labor experience, including helplessness, anxiety, frustration, uncertainty about what to do and difficulty with seeing their partners in pain. (washingtonpost.com)

affects


  • [1] At any given time, about half of all people diagnosed with malignant cancer are experiencing pain, and two thirds of those with advanced cancer experience pain of such intensity that it adversely affects their sleep, mood, social relations and activities of daily living . (wikipedia.org)

Source


  • Set your heating pad to a lower setting and apply it several times a day to the source of the pain. (ehow.com)

joint


  • If the skin over the joint is hot and red, and the pain comes in repeated attacks, the cause is likely to be either gout or pseudogout. (www.nhs.uk)

condition


  • If you think you are experiencing alcohol-related stomach pain, or if you want to know how alcohol may affect a stomach condition that you have, be sure to talk to your doctor. (ehow.com)
  • The information and advice on this page shouldn't be used to self-diagnose your condition, but may give you a better idea of what's causing your pain. (www.nhs.uk)
  • Knee pain that feels worse when going up or down stairs could be a sign of a damaged kneecap - a condition called chondromalacia patellae. (www.nhs.uk)

understand


  • First, it helps to understand what pain is. (webmd.com)

conditions


  • Dizziness accompanied by ear pain can stem from a number of conditions and most are not very serious or permanent. (ehow.com)

especially


  • It causes swelling and pain in the legs, especially the calf, and (rarely) in the arms. (wikipedia.org)

feel


experience


  • If you experience a stabbing pain in your ear, your. (ehow.com)

body


  • So while an NSAID may do a great job of easing your pain, it may also be having other effects -- some of them unwanted -- in other parts of your body. (webmd.com)

work


  • From blood work to X-rays, tests your doctor uses to find the cause of your knee pain. (arthritis.org)

blood


  • Angina is the pain associated with restricted blood supply to the heart muscle. (slideshare.net)