Overweight: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is above certain standard of acceptable or desirable weight. In the scale of BODY MASS INDEX, overweight is defined as having a BMI of 25.0-29.9 kg/m2. Overweight may or may not be due to increases in body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE), hence overweight does not equal "over fat".Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Body Mass Index: An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)Thinness: A state of insufficient flesh on the body usually defined as having a body weight less than skeletal and physical standards. Depending on age, sex, and genetic background, a BODY MASS INDEX of less than 18.5 is considered as underweight.Weight Loss: Decrease in existing BODY WEIGHT.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Pediatric Obesity: BODY MASS INDEX in children (ages 2-12) and in adolescents (ages 13-18) that is grossly above the recommended cut-off for a specific age and sex. For infants less than 2 years of age, obesity is determined based on standard weight-for-length percentile measures.Diet, Reducing: A diet designed to cause an individual to lose weight.Exercise: Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.Body Image: Individuals' concept of their own bodies.Anthropometry: The technique that deals with the measurement of the size, weight, and proportions of the human or other primate body.Weight Gain: Increase in BODY WEIGHT over existing weight.Life Style: Typical way of life or manner of living characteristic of an individual or group. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Energy Intake: Total number of calories taken in daily whether ingested or by parenteral routes.Feeding Behavior: Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.Waist Circumference: The measurement around the body at the level of the ABDOMEN and just above the hip bone. The measurement is usually taken immediately after exhalation.Body Height: The distance from the sole to the crown of the head with body standing on a flat surface and fully extended.Body Composition: The relative amounts of various components in the body, such as percentage of body fat.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Motor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.Health Behavior: Behaviors expressed by individuals to protect, maintain or promote their health status. For example, proper diet, and appropriate exercise are activities perceived to influence health status. Life style is closely associated with health behavior and factors influencing life style are socioeconomic, educational, and cultural.Adiposity: The amount of fat or lipid deposit at a site or an organ in the body, an indicator of body fat status.Food Habits: Acquired or learned food preferences.Parents: Persons functioning as natural, adoptive, or substitute parents. The heading includes the concept of parenthood as well as preparation for becoming a parent.Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.United StatesTelevision: The transmission and reproduction of transient images of fixed or moving objects. An electronic system of transmitting such images together with sound over a wire or through space by apparatus that converts light and sound into electrical waves and reconverts them into visible light rays and audible sound. (From Webster, 3rd ed)Nutritional Status: State of the body in relation to the consumption and utilization of nutrients.Adolescent Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutritional physiology of children aged 13-18 years.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Nutrition Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to the nutritional status of a human population within a given geographic area. Data from these surveys are used in preparing NUTRITION ASSESSMENTS.Sedentary Lifestyle: Usual level of physical activity that is less than 30 minutes of moderate-intensity activity on most days of the week.Self Concept: A person's view of himself.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Obesity, Abdominal: A condition of having excess fat in the abdomen. Abdominal obesity is typically defined as waist circumferences of 40 inches or more in men and 35 inches or more in women. Abdominal obesity raises the risk of developing disorders, such as diabetes, hypertension and METABOLIC SYNDROME X.Social Class: A stratum of people with similar position and prestige; includes social stratification. Social class is measured by criteria such as education, occupation, and income.Odds Ratio: The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.Health Promotion: Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.Child Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutritional physiology of children aged 2-12 years.Schools: Educational institutions.Waist-Hip Ratio: The waist circumference measurement divided by the hip circumference measurement. For both men and women, a waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) of 1.0 or higher is considered "at risk" for undesirable health consequences, such as heart disease and ailments associated with OVERWEIGHT. A healthy WHR is 0.90 or less for men, and 0.80 or less for women. (National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, 2004)Urban Population: The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.Blood Glucose: Glucose in blood.Cardiovascular Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.Metabolic Syndrome X: A cluster of metabolic risk factors for CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES and TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS. The major components of metabolic syndrome X include excess ABDOMINAL FAT; atherogenic DYSLIPIDEMIA; HYPERTENSION; HYPERGLYCEMIA; INSULIN RESISTANCE; a proinflammatory state; and a prothrombotic (THROMBOSIS) state. (from AHA/NHLBI/ADA Conference Proceedings, Circulation 2004; 109:551-556)Insulin Resistance: Diminished effectiveness of INSULIN in lowering blood sugar levels: requiring the use of 200 units or more of insulin per day to prevent HYPERGLYCEMIA or KETOSIS.Beverages: Liquids that are suitable for drinking. (From Merriam Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)Mothers: Female parents, human or animal.Hispanic Americans: Persons living in the United States of Mexican (MEXICAN AMERICANS), Puerto Rican, Cuban, Central or South American, or other Spanish culture or origin. The concept does not include Brazilian Americans or Portuguese Americans.Physical Fitness: The ability to carry out daily tasks and perform physical activities in a highly functional state, often as a result of physical conditioning.Breakfast: The first meal of the day.Educational Status: Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.Sex Distribution: The number of males and females in a given population. The distribution may refer to how many men or women or what proportion of either in the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Linear Models: Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Rural Population: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.Dietary Sucrose: Sucrose present in the diet. It is added to food and drinks as a sweetener.BrazilDiabetes Mellitus, Type 2: A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.Hunger: The desire for FOOD generated by a sensation arising from the lack of food in the STOMACH.Bulimia: Eating an excess amount of food in a short period of time, as seen in the disorder of BULIMIA NERVOSA. It is caused by an abnormal craving for food, or insatiable hunger also known as "ox hunger".MexicoSkinfold Thickness: The measurement of subcutaneous fat located directly beneath the skin by grasping a fold of skin and subcutaneous fat between the thumb and forefinger and pulling it away from the underlying muscle tissue. The thickness of the double layer of skin and subcutaneous tissue is then read with a caliper. The five most frequently measured sites are the upper arm, below the scapula, above the hip bone, the abdomen, and the thigh. Its application is the determination of relative fatness, of changes in physical conditioning programs, and of the percentage of body fat in desirable body weight. (From McArdle, et al., Exercise Physiology, 2d ed, p496-8)Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Overnutrition: An imbalanced NUTRITIONAL STATUS resulting from excessive intake of nutrients. Generally, overnutrition generates an energy imbalance between food consumption and energy expenditure leading to disorders such as OBESITY.Body Weights and Measures: Measurements of the height, weight, length, area, etc., of the human and animal body or its parts.China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.Hypertension: Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.Lipids: A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Adipose Tissue: Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Anti-Obesity Agents: Agents that increase energy expenditure and weight loss by neural and chemical regulation. Beta-adrenergic agents and serotoninergic drugs have been experimentally used in patients with non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) to treat obesity.Parent-Child Relations: The interactions between parent and child.Food Preferences: The selection of one food over another.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Caloric Restriction: Reduction in caloric intake without reduction in adequate nutrition. In experimental animals, caloric restriction has been shown to extend lifespan and enhance other physiological variables.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Netherlands: Country located in EUROPE. It is bordered by the NORTH SEA, BELGIUM, and GERMANY. Constituent areas are Aruba, Curacao, Sint Maarten, formerly included in the NETHERLANDS ANTILLES.Leisure Activities: Voluntary use of free time for activities outside the daily routine.Abdominal Fat: Fatty tissue in the region of the ABDOMEN. It includes the ABDOMINAL SUBCUTANEOUS FAT and the INTRA-ABDOMINAL FAT.Behavior Therapy: The application of modern theories of learning and conditioning in the treatment of behavior disorders.Diet Records: Records of nutrient intake over a specific period of time, usually kept by the patient.Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Dietary Carbohydrates: Carbohydrates present in food comprising digestible sugars and starches and indigestible cellulose and other dietary fibers. The former are the major source of energy. The sugars are in beet and cane sugar, fruits, honey, sweet corn, corn syrup, milk and milk products, etc.; the starches are in cereal grains, legumes (FABACEAE), tubers, etc. (From Claudio & Lagua, Nutrition and Diet Therapy Dictionary, 3d ed, p32, p277)Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Eating Disorders: A group of disorders characterized by physiological and psychological disturbances in appetite or food intake.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.African Americans: Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the black groups of Africa.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Birth Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual at BIRTH. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Pregnancy Complications: Conditions or pathological processes associated with pregnancy. They can occur during or after pregnancy, and range from minor discomforts to serious diseases that require medical interventions. They include diseases in pregnant females, and pregnancies in females with diseases.Child Nutrition Sciences: The study of NUTRITION PROCESSES as well as the components of food, their actions, interaction, and balance in relation to health and disease of children, infants or adolescents.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Child Behavior: Any observable response or action of a child from 24 months through 12 years of age. For neonates or children younger than 24 months, INFANT BEHAVIOR is available.Urban Health: The status of health in urban populations.Eating: The consumption of edible substances.Breast Feeding: The nursing of an infant at the breast.TriglyceridesAnalysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.European Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Europe.Body Fat Distribution: Deposits of ADIPOSE TISSUE throughout the body. The pattern of fat deposits in the body regions is an indicator of health status. Excess ABDOMINAL FAT increases health risks more than excess fat around the hips or thighs, therefore, WAIST-HIP RATIO is often used to determine health risks.Intervention Studies: Epidemiologic investigations designed to test a hypothesized cause-effect relation by modifying the supposed causal factor(s) in the study population.Satiation: Full gratification of a need or desire followed by a state of relative insensitivity to that particular need or desire.Leptin: A 16-kDa peptide hormone secreted from WHITE ADIPOCYTES. Leptin serves as a feedback signal from fat cells to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM in regulation of food intake, energy balance, and fat storage.Body Constitution: The physical characteristics of the body, including the mode of performance of functions, the activity of metabolic processes, the manner and degree of reactions to stimuli, and power of resistance to the attack of pathogenic organisms.Poverty: A situation in which the level of living of an individual, family, or group is below the standard of the community. It is often related to a specific income level.Child Nutrition Disorders: Disorders caused by nutritional imbalance, either overnutrition or undernutrition, occurring in children ages 2 to 12 years.Adolescent Behavior: Any observable response or action of an adolescent.Risk Reduction Behavior: Reduction of high-risk choices and adoption of low-risk quantity and frequency alternatives.Comorbidity: The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.Food Supply: The production and movement of food items from point of origin to use or consumption.Food: Any substances taken in by the body that provide nourishment.Nutrition Assessment: Evaluation and measurement of nutritional variables in order to assess the level of nutrition or the NUTRITIONAL STATUS of the individual. NUTRITION SURVEYS may be used in making the assessment.Health Status: The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.Income: Revenues or receipts accruing from business enterprise, labor, or invested capital.Diabetes Mellitus: A heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by HYPERGLYCEMIA and GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE.Puberty: A period in the human life in which the development of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal system takes place and reaches full maturity. The onset of synchronized endocrine events in puberty lead to the capacity for reproduction (FERTILITY), development of secondary SEX CHARACTERISTICS, and other changes seen in ADOLESCENT DEVELOPMENT.Absorptiometry, Photon: A noninvasive method for assessing BODY COMPOSITION. It is based on the differential absorption of X-RAYS (or GAMMA RAYS) by different tissues such as bone, fat and other soft tissues. The source of (X-ray or gamma-ray) photon beam is generated either from radioisotopes such as GADOLINIUM 153, IODINE 125, or Americanium 241 which emit GAMMA RAYS in the appropriate range; or from an X-ray tube which produces X-RAYS in the desired range. It is primarily used for quantitating BONE MINERAL CONTENT, especially for the diagnosis of OSTEOPOROSIS, and also in measuring BONE MINERALIZATION.Satiety Response: Behavioral response associated with the achieving of gratification.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Confidence Intervals: A range of values for a variable of interest, e.g., a rate, constructed so that this range has a specified probability of including the true value of the variable.Cholesterol, HDL: Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to high-density lipoproteins (HDL), including CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and free cholesterol.GermanySelf Report: Method for obtaining information through verbal responses, written or oral, from subjects.Snacks: Foods eaten between MEALTIMES.Obesity, Morbid: The condition of weighing two, three, or more times the ideal weight, so called because it is associated with many serious and life-threatening disorders. In the BODY MASS INDEX, morbid obesity is defined as having a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2.Pilot Projects: Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.School Health Services: Preventive health services provided for students. It excludes college or university students.Bulimia Nervosa: An eating disorder that is characterized by a cycle of binge eating (BULIMIA or bingeing) followed by inappropriate acts (purging) to avert weight gain. Purging methods often include self-induced VOMITING, use of LAXATIVES or DIURETICS, excessive exercise, and FASTING.Malnutrition: An imbalanced nutritional status resulted from insufficient intake of nutrients to meet normal physiological requirement.Prehypertension: Blood pressure levels that are between normotension and hypertension. Individuals with prehypertension are at a higher risk for developing cardiovascular diseases. Generally, prehypertension is defined as SYSTOLIC PRESSURE of 131-139 mm Hg and/or DIASTOLIC PRESSURE of 81-89 when the optimal is 120/80 mm Hg. For diabetics and other metabolism diseases the prehypertension is around 110-129/70-79 mm Hg.
Clinical Assessment and Management of Adult Obesity | CirculationA desirable or healthy BMI is 18.5 to 24.9 kg/m2; overweight is 25 to 29.9 kg/m2; and obesity is ≥30 kg/m2. Obesity is further ... Overweight and obesity as determinants of cardiovascular risk: the Framingham experience. Arch Intern Med. 2002;162:1867-1872. ... Overweight and obesity are the most common medical problems seen in primary care practice, affecting ,68% of adults and 33.0% ... Overweight, obesity, and depression: a systematic review and meta-analysis of longitudinal studies. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2010; ...
"Intervention" for overweight friend. - Page 3 - Mothering...... but the negative affects of being overweight, far outweigh the benefits. You simply cannot ... as for other overweight friends, no, none of them do anything like that. if they do say something like i ate all the bread when ... But an extra 2lbs per year means in 30 years you will be 60 lbs overweight.. Add in a couple babies, those last 20 lbs are a ... But an extra 2lbs per year means in 30 years you will be 60 lbs overweight.. Add in a couple babies, those last 20 lbs are a ...
Bonfire | ignite your health | Page 2Being overweight isn't about 'being overweight' (or out of shape, or 'fat', or whatever), it's about being unhealthy. There is ... are overweight or outright obese. Being overweight is the hallmark feature of nearly all chronic diseases - heart disease, ... an overweight kid was somewhat of a rarity; or, for those of you old fossils like Dr. Paul, remember when there was that one ... no other way to put it - when someone is overweight, they're unhealthy. Period. Do you want to 'gain health' (i.e. lose weight ...
Weight and Metabolic Effects of an Almond Enriched Hypocaloric, Low Fat Diet on Overweight and Obese Persons - Full Text View -...Overweight. Metabolic Syndrome X. Hyperlipidemias. Hyperlipoproteinemias. Body Weight. Signs and Symptoms. Insulin Resistance. ... Weight and Metabolic Effects of an Almond Enriched Hypocaloric, Low Fat Diet on Overweight and Obese Persons. This study has ... Weight and Metabolic Effects of an Almond Enriched Hypocaloric, Low Fat Diet on Overweight and Obese Persons. ... low-fat diet on body weight and body composition in overweight and obese persons [ Time Frame: 6 months ]. ...
When Being Overweight Is a Health ProblemBut when people are severely overweight, it can cause health problems. ... So being overweight can impact a person's entire quality of life.. Defining Overweight. When people eat more calories than they ... In our looks-obsessed society, lots of people think that being overweight is an appearance issue. But being overweight is ... Overweight women also might have fertility problems.. *Insulin resistance and diabetes. When there is excess body fat, insulin ...
Why do alcoholics have a tendency to be overweight - Answers on HealthTapWartenberg on why do alcoholics have a tendency to be overweight: The majority of chronic alcoholics are actually underweight. ... so often are overweight. Alcohol itself has almost as many calories per gram (8) as does fat (9), so people drinking a liter of ... Overweight (Definition) Overweight = a body mass index (BMI) between 25 & 30 kg/m2. ...Read more ... of American men are overweight & 68% of American adults are obese or overweight. EGAD !!! ...Read more ...
A Study to Evaluate How VI-0521 Affect Psychomotor Performance in Healthy Overweight and Obese Subjects. - Full Text View -...Overweight Obesity Drug: VI-0521 Drug: Placebo Other: Alcohol Other: alcohol placebo Phase 2 ... Overweight. Body Weight. Signs and Symptoms. Ethanol. Anti-Infective Agents, Local. Anti-Infective Agents. Central Nervous ... A Study to Evaluate How VI-0521 Affect Psychomotor Performance in Healthy Overweight and Obese Subjects.. This study has been ... Cross-over Study to Evaluate the Psychomotor Effect of VI-0521 in Healthy Overweight and Obese Subjects.. ...
Re-iterating Overweight on Hasbro-Piper Jaffray's Wissink | Reuters.comRe-iterating Overweight on Hasbro-Piper Jaffray's Wissink. Monday, February 09, 2015 - 05:56 ... Re-iterating Overweight on Hasbro-Piper Jaffray's Wissink. Monday, February 09, 2015 - 05:56 ... https://www.reuters.com/video/2015/02/09/re-iterating-overweight-on-hasbro-piper?videoId=363138705&videoChannel=13979. ...
Plus itRESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Overweight/obese adults (n = 19), aged 45-65 years, were recruited for a randomized three-period, ... 1). Eligibility criteria included age between 45 and 65 years and BMI ,25 kg/m2 (overweight or obese), representing a ... Given the high prevalence of overweight and obesity among those of low socioeconomic status living in affluent populations (39 ... Our findings are the first to document, among overweight/obese adults, an elevated postprandial glucose and insulin response ...
Overweight Pets - Addressing the Epidemic | petMDFortunately, there are steps get your overweight pet back on track. ... More than half of the dogs and cats in the United States are overweight. ... How do Pets Become Overweight?. Pets become overweight for a variety of reasons, including too much caloric intake, too little ... If your pet is suffering from obesity or you believe it's overweight, the most important thing to do is discuss an appropriate ...
3 Ways to Be Overweight and Popular - wikiHowWhen you are overweight, it can be difficult to make friends. Some people may make fun of you for your weight. However, being ... overweight does not mean that you cannot be popular. It is important to not be... ... However, being overweight does not mean that you cannot be popular. It is important to not be overly concerned with being over ... When you are overweight, it can be difficult to make friends. Some people may make fun of you for your weight. ...
Risks of ObesityBeing overweight can cause a variety of problems, but the number one reason for losing excess body fat is to increase your ... FACT: Severely overweight people are four or more times likely to die of heart disease, and two or more times more likely to ... Overweight individuals also have an increased chance of developing obesity-related health conditions like high blood pressure, ... As overweight individuals age, these disease-related conditions (called co-morbid factors) are more likely to occur. ...
Parents' awareness of overweight in themselves and their children: cross sectional study within a cohort (EarlyBird 21) | The...... of overweight or obese boys were classified as at least "a little overweight," compared with 54% of overweight girls (P = 0.01 ... Overweight goes largely unrecognised; parents are poor at identifying overweight in themselves and their children, and less ... fathers were overweight (including obese). Among overweight parents, 40% mothers (45% fathers) judged their own weight "about ... if their child was overweight. Most parents (86%) who were unaware that their child was overweight, were also unconcerned about ...
Stress More Unhealthy for Overweight PeopleStress may be worse on people who are overweight, finds a new study, which suggests that the biochemical changes raise the risk ... However, overweight or obese individuals exhibited an interleukin-6 response on the second day nearly double that of their ... Researchers found that overweight people repeatedly placed in a stressful situation exhibited increasing amounts of interleukin ... The findings 'suggest a possible explanation for the increased risk of illness and disease in overweight and obese individuals ...
Systematic review and meta-analyses of risk factors for childhood overweight identifiable during infancy | Archives of Disease...The studies exploring maternal pre-pregnancy overweight as a risk factor found higher odds of overweight in offspring who had ... Significant and strong independent associations with childhood overweight were identified for maternal pre-pregnancy overweight ... 30-38 defined childhood overweight by IOTF cut-offs.18 Sixteen of the 30 studies28 ,29 ,39-52 defined childhood overweight by ... Seven studies28 ,29 ,33 ,40 ,42 ,48 ,54 identified high birth weight as a potential risk factor for childhood overweight. The ...
When Being Overweight Is a Health ProblemBut when people are severely overweight, it can cause health problems. ... When Being Overweight Is a Health Problem. Resources. Please Note: By clicking a link to any resource listed on this page, you ...
Obesity Denial - Science-Based MedicineOverweight and obese. Because BMI is a convenient measure, it has become the measure of choice in defining overweight and ... For adults overweight is defined as a BMI of ,=25.0 but ,30.0, obese is defined by BMI ,=30.0 and , 40.0, and extremely obese ... In 1998 the NIH decided to lower the cutoff for BMI for overweight, from 28 for men and 27 for women to 25 for both sexes. This ... The terms overweight and obesity have had various definitions in the past, but in recent years the various health organizations ...
Department of Health | About Overweight and Obesity... prevalence of overweight and obesity; how overweight and obesity is defined; calculate your BMI (for adults only); causes of ... Specific information on overweight and obesity is provided, including: ... About Overweight and Obesity. Specific information on overweight and obesity is provided, including: prevalence of overweight ... How overweight and obesity are defined. Adults. Overweight and obesity is measured at the population level for adults using the ...
Infant antibiotic use linked to overweight - UPI.com... who were treated with antibiotics may predispose them to being overweight in later in childhood, U.S. researchers suggest. ... 22 (UPI) -- Very young infants, who were treated with antibiotics may predispose them to being overweight in later in childhood ... The researchers cautioned the study did not prove antibiotics in early life cause young children to be overweight; it only ... By 38 months of age, children exposed to antibiotics had a 22 percent greater likelihood of being overweight. However, the ...
Combo of overweight, high sodium intake speeds cell aging in teens | EurekAlert! Science NewsLowering sodium intake may be an easier first step than losing weight for overweight young people who want to lower their risk ... Overweight or obese teenagers who eat lots of salty foods show signs of faster cell aging. ... Overweight or obese teenagers who eat lots of salty foods may show signs of faster cell aging, according to research presented ... In overweight/obese teens, telomeres were significantly shorter with high-sodium intake (T/S ratio of 1.24 vs. 1.32). T/S ...
Half of Europeans overweight, obese - UPI.comMore than half of Europeans are overweight or obese, a report by the European Commission and the Organization for Economic Co- ... Poll: Most U.S. adults obese or overweight *Almost half of Spanish children overweight *Study: It's a fat world, after all * ... 7 (UPI) -- More than half of Europeans are overweight or obese, a report by the European Commission and the Organization for ... The report finds one in seven children in the EU are overweight or obese. ...
Multiple Dose Safety Tolerability, Pharmacokinetics And Midazolam Interaction In Healthy Overweight And Obese Subjects - Full...Overweight. Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2. Glucose Metabolism Disorders. Metabolic Diseases. Endocrine System Diseases. Body Weight ... Multiple Dose Safety Tolerability, Pharmacokinetics And Midazolam Interaction In Healthy Overweight And Obese Subjects. This ... and pharmacokinetics of multiple oral 200-mg doses of PF-05175157 administered twice daily for 14 days in healthy overweight ... Pharmacokinetics Of Multiple Oral Doses Of PF-05175157 Administered In A Tablet Formulation In Otherwise Healthy Overweight And ...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01807377?term="Type 2 Diabetes"&lup_s=04/03/2013&lup_d=14&show_rss=Y&sel_rss=mod14
Overweight and Obesity... kids are considered overweight or obese. Helping kids adopt a healthy lifestyle begins with parents who lead by example. ... Overweight and Obesity. Resources. Please Note: By clicking a link to any resource listed on this page, you will be leaving ...
Ask UNMC: Overweight Children - YouTubeWhat are the health risks of overweight children? Terry Huang, Ph.D., UNMC College of Public Health ... Nightline from ABC News S2012 • E53 Boarding School for Overweight Kids - Duration: 5:35. ABC News 745,740 views ... Overweight kids face multitude of health problems - Duration: 2:03. ABC15 Arizona 1,159 views ... Child Obesity , Overweight Kids , Video , JoGo Equipment - Duration: 5:39. JoGo Equipment 2,139 views ...
Is Your Child Overweight? | ACTIVELearn the warning signs to determine if your child is overweight and how to get them healthy. ... When does baby fat turn into a problem? At what point are your children overweight and at risk for health problems down the ... The reality can be hard for parents to determine, but with a growing percentage of American children suffering from overweight ... recommend the use of BMI to screen for overweight and obesity in children beginning at two years old. ...
Overweight PoochClassification of obesity: Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it has an adverse effect on health.WHO 2000 p.Management of obesity: The main treatment for obesity consists of dieting and physical exercise. Diet programs may produce weight loss over the short term, but maintaining this weight loss is frequently difficult and often requires making exercise and a lower calorie diet a permanent part of an individual's lifestyle.QRISK: QRISK2 (the most recent version of QRISK) is a prediction algorithm for cardiovascular disease (CVD) that uses traditional risk factors (age, systolic blood pressure, smoking status and ratio of total serum cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) together with body mass index, ethnicity, measures of deprivation, family history, chronic kidney disease, rheumatoid arthritis, atrial fibrillation, diabetes mellitus, and antihypertensive treatment.Dieter Weichert: Dieter Weichert (born 1948) is a German mechanical engineer specialising in solid mechanics and polymer rheology. Since 1995 he is the Director of the Institute for General Mechanics of RWTH Aachen.High-intensity interval training: High-intensity interval training (HIIT), also called high-intensity intermittent exercise (HIIE) or sprint interval training (SIT), is an enhanced form of interval training, an exercise strategy alternating short periods of intense anaerobic exercise with less-intense recovery periods. HIIT is a form of cardiovascular exercise.Figure rating scale: The Figure Rating Scale (FRS) also known as the Stunkard Scale is a psychometric measurement developed in 1983 as a tool to determine body dissatisfaction in women and men.Grogan, S.Mayo Clinic Diet: The Mayo Clinic Diet is a diet created by Mayo Clinic. Prior to this, use of that term was generally connected to fad diets which had no association with Mayo Clinic.List of countries by food energy intake: Food consumption refers to the amount of food available for human consumption as estimated by the FAO Food Balance Sheets. However the actual food consumption may be lower than the quantity shown as food availability depending on the magnitude of wastage and losses of food in the household, e.Waist-to-height ratio: A person's waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), also called waist-to-stature ratio (WSR), is defined as their waist circumference divided by their height, both measured in the same units. The WHtR is a measure of the distribution of body fat.Waterladder pumpClosed-ended question: A closed-ended question is a question format that limits respondents with a list of answer choices from which they must choose to answer the question.Dillman D.Behavior: Behavior or behaviour (see spelling differences) is the range of actions and [made by individuals, organism]s, [[systems, or artificial entities in conjunction with themselves or their environment, which includes the other systems or organisms around as well as the (inanimate) physical environment. It is the response of the system or organism to various stimuli or inputs, whether [or external], [[conscious or subconscious, overt or covert, and voluntary or involuntary.Parent structure: In IUPAC nomenclature, a parent structure, parent compound, parent name or simply parent is the denotation for a compound consisting of an unbranched chain of skeletal atoms (not necessarily carbon), or consisting of an unsubstituted monocyclic or polycyclic ring system.List of Parliamentary constituencies in Kent: The ceremonial county of Kent,Emergency (UK television programme): Emergency was a twentieth century UK television programme presented by Sue Robbie where a panel of experts gave advice on emergency situations. The programme was produced by David Crossman, and was an Action Time production for This Morning and Granada Television.Age adjustment: In epidemiology and demography, age adjustment, also called age standardization, is a technique used to allow populations to be compared when the age profiles of the populations are quite different.Abdominal obesityRelative index of inequality: The relative index of inequality (RII) is a regression-based index which summarizes the magnitude of socio-economic status (SES) as a source of inequalities in health. RII is useful because it takes into account the size of the population and the relative disadvantage experienced by different groups.Lifestyle management programme: A lifestyle management programme (also referred to as a health promotion programme, health behaviour change programme, lifestyle improvement programme or wellness programme) is an intervention designed to promote positive lifestyle and behaviour change and is widely used in the field of health promotion.St. Vrain Valley School DistrictBlood glucose monitoring: Blood glucose monitoring is a way of testing the concentration of glucose in the blood (glycemia). Particularly important in the care of diabetes mellitus, a blood glucose test is performed by piercing the skin (typically, on the finger) to draw blood, then applying the blood to a chemically active disposable 'test-strip'.HeartScore: HeartScore is a cardiovascular disease risk assessment and management tool developed by the European Society of Cardiology, aimed at supporting clinicians in optimising individual cardiovascular risk reduction.National Cholesterol Education Program: The National Cholesterol Education Program is a program managed by the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute, a division of the National Institutes of Health. Its goal is to reduce increased cardiovascular disease rates due to hypercholesterolemia (elevated cholesterol levels) in the United States of America.Sports drink: Sports drinks are beverages whose stated purpose is to help athletes replace water, electrolytes, and energy after training or competition, though their efficacy for that purpose has been questioned, particularly after exercise which is only moderate.Mothers TalkAnnual Fitness Test: In the British Army, the Annual Fitness Test is designed to assess soldiers' lower and upper body strength and endurance. The test was formally known as the Combat Fitness Test - and is still colloquially known by soldiers as the CFT.University of CampinasOutline of diabetes: The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to diabetes:Hunger (motivational state): Hunger is a sensationShorteningOld Portal de Mercaderes (Mexico City): Old Portal de Mercaderes in the historic center of Mexico City was and is the west side of the main plaza (otherwise known as the "Zócalo"). This side of the plaza has been occupied by commercial structures since the Spanish Conquest of Mexico in 1521.Regression dilution: Regression dilution, also known as regression attenuation, is the biasing of the regression slope towards zero (or the underestimation of its absolute value), caused by errors in the independent variable.Overnutrition: Overnutrition or hyperalimentation is a form of malnutrition in which the intake of nutrients is oversupplied. The amount of nutrients exceeds the amount required for normal growth, development, and metabolism.Layout of the Port of Tianjin: The Port of Tianjin is divided into nine areas: the three core (“Tianjin Xingang”) areas of Beijiang, Nanjiang, and Dongjiang around the Xingang fairway; the Haihe area along the river; the Beitang port area around the Beitangkou estuary; the Dagukou port area in the estuary of the Haihe River; and three areas under construction (Hanggu, Gaoshaling, Nangang).HypertensionLipid droplet: Lipid droplets, also referred to as lipid bodies, oil bodies or adiposomes, are lipid-rich cellular organelles that regulate the storage and hydrolysis of neutral lipids and are found largely in the adipose tissue.Mobilization and cellular uptake of stored fats and triacylglycerol (with Animation) They also serve as a reservoir for cholesterol and acyl-glycerols for membrane formation and maintenance.Adipose tissue macrophages: Adipose tissue macrophages (abbr. ATMs) comprise tissue resident macrophages present in adipose tissue.Prenatal nutrition: Nutrition and weight management before and during :pregnancy has a profound effect on the development of infants. This is a rather critical time for healthy fetal development as infants rely heavily on maternal stores and nutrient for optimal growth and health outcome later in life.Anti-obesity medication: Anti-obesity medication or weight loss drugs are all pharmacological agents that reduce or control weight. These drugs alter one of the fundamental processes of the human body, weight regulation, by altering either appetite, or absorption of calories.Global Risks Report: The Global Risks Report is an annual study published by the World Economic Forum ahead of the Forum’s Annual Meeting in Davos, Switzerland. Based on the work of the Global Risk Network, the report describes changes occurring in the global risks landscape from year to year and identifies the global risks that could play a critical role in the upcoming year.CALERIE: CALERIE (Comprehensive Assessment of Long-term Effects of Reducing Intake of Energy) is a trial currently underway in the U.S.Netherlands national rollball team: Vishwaraj JadejaIndex of energy articles: This is an index of energy articles.Carbohydrate loading: Carbohydrate loading, commonly referred to as carb-loading or carbo-loading, is a strategy used by endurance athletes, such as marathon runners, to maximize the storage of glycogen (or energy) in the muscles and liver.http://www.Insulin signal transduction pathway and regulation of blood glucose: The insulin transduction pathway is an important biochemical pathway beginning at the cellular level affecting homeostasis. This pathway is also influenced by fed versus fasting states, stress levels, and a variety of other hormones.Eating Disorder Inventory: The Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI) is a self-report questionnaire used to assess the presence of eating disorders, (a) Anorexia Nervosa both restricting and binge-eating/purging type; (b) Bulimia Nervosa; and (c) Eating disorder not otherwise specified including Binge Eating Disorder (BED). The original questionnaire consisted of 64 questions, divided into eight subscales.African-American family structure: The family structure of African-Americans has long been a matter of national public policy interest.Moynihan's War on Poverty report A 1965 report by Daniel Patrick Moynihan, known as The Moynihan Report, examined the link between black poverty and family structure.Birth weight: Birth weight is the body weight of a baby at its birth.Definitions from Georgia Department of Public Health.
(1/3453) Body mass status of school children and adolescents in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
Lifestyle and disease patterns in Malaysia have changed following rapid economic development. It is important to find out how these changes have affected the nutritional status and health behaviour of the population, especially school children and adolescents. Therefore a survey on school children's and adolescents' health behaviours and perception in Kuala Lumpur was initiated. This paper only reports the observed body mass status of the school children. A total of 3620 school children were selected in this survey using the method of multi-stage sampling. The students were surveyed using pre-tested questionnaires while weight and height were measured by the research team in the field. Using the cut-off of BMI-for-age >or= 95th percentile and <5th percentile for overweight and underweight respectively, there were a total of 7.3% of overweight students and 14.8% of underweight students. When analysed by gender; 7.5% of boys and 7.1% girls were overweight, while 16.2% of the boys and 13.3% of the girls were underweight. The youngest age group (11 years old) had the highest prevalence of underweight as well as overweight. With increasing age, the prevalence of underweight and overweight decreased and more children were in the normal weight range. The overall prevalence of overweight among the three ethnic groups was similar. However the prevalence of underweight was highest among the Indian students (24.9%), followed by Malays (18.9%) and Chinese (9.5%) (P <0.001). The results showed that both the problems of under- and over-nutrition co-exist in the capital city of Malaysia. The promotion of healthy eating and physical activities is required to address the problems of under- and over-nutrition in order to build up a strong and healthy nation in the future. (+info)
(2/3453) Noninvasive evaluation of endothelial function and arterial mechanics in overweight adolescents.
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate endothelial function and arterial mechanics in apparently healthy overweight adolescents. DESIGN: Analytical observational study. SETTING: Tertiary hospital. METHODS: 40 asymptomatic, normotensive and non-smoking adolescents (11 to 18 years old) were evaluated. Of these 20 were overweight or obese as per International Obesity Task Force criteria while 20 were controls. High resolution ultrasonography was performed to measure flow mediated and Glyceryltrinitrate induced dilation in brachial artery, and arterial mechanics in common carotid artery. RESULTS: Overweight adolescents had significantly lower ratio of flow mediated dilation to Glyceryltrinitrate mediated dilation (0.40 plusminus 0.41 versus 0.61 plusminus 0.17; P = 0.039). On age and sex adjusted multiple regression analysis, the ratio of flow mediated to Glyceryltrinitrate mediated dilation had a significant negative association with body mass index (P = 0.012) and mean skin fold thickness (P = 0.011). However, for mean skin fold thickness, flow mediated dilation also had a significant negative association (P = 0.027). None of the measures of arterial mechanics were significantly different amongst overweights and controls, or significantly associated with either body mass index or mean skin fold thickness. CONCLUSION: Endothelial function can be mildly impaired in apparently healthy adolescents who are overweight (assessed by body mass index) or adipose (assessed by skin fold thickness). The use of overweight for screening adolescents likely to develop coronary artery disease is therefore justified. Skin fold thickness is a better indicator than Body Mass Index for predicting endothelial function. (+info)
(3/3453) Prevalence of overweight, obesity, and comorbid conditions among U.S. and Kentucky adults, 2000-2002.
INTRODUCTION: Obesity rates for adults in Kentucky are regularly among the highest in the nation. Since 1991, adult obesity in Kentucky and the United States has nearly doubled. This trend is of great concern because excess weight has been associated with several chronic diseases and conditions. This paper reports on the prevalence of overweight and obesity among adults in Kentucky between 2000 and 2002. The estimates produced by this study will provide baseline figures for developing Kentucky's statewide obesity action plan. METHODS: A secondary data analysis was performed using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Prevalence estimates and odds ratios were calculated for the United States and Kentucky. RESULTS: In Kentucky, 24.2% of adults were obese, compared with 21.9% nationally (P < .001). There were also significantly more overweight adults in Kentucky than there were nationwide (P < .001). Logistic regression showed that overweight and obese adults were more likely to report various comorbid conditions. CONCLUSION: Overweight and obesity estimates in Kentucky were significantly higher than nationwide figures. However, overweight/obese adults in Kentucky were no more likely than their U.S. counterparts to report selected comorbid conditions. (+info)
(4/3453) Overweight and obesity at school entry among migrant and German children: a cross-sectional study.
BACKGROUND: Overweight and obesity have become a global epidemic and are increasing rapidly in both childhood and adolescence. Obesity is linked both to socioeconomic status and to ethnicity among adults. It is unclear whether similar associations exist in childhood. The aim of the present study was to assess differences in overweight and obesity in migrant and German children at school entry. METHODS: The body mass index (BMI) was calculated for 525 children attending the 2002 compulsory pre-school medical examinations in 12 schools in Bielefeld, Germany. We applied international BMI cut off points for overweight and obesity by sex and age. The migration status of children was based on sociodemographic data obtained from parents who were interviewed separately. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of overweight in children aged 6-7 was 11.9% (overweight incl. obesity), the obesity prevalence was 2.5%. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was higher for migrant children (14.7% and 3.1%) than for German children (9.1% and 1.9%). When stratified by parental social status, migrant children had a significantly higher prevalence of overweight than German children in the highest social class. (27.6% vs. 10.0%, p = 0.032) Regression models including country/region and socioeconomic status as independent variables indicated similar results. The patterns of overweight among migrant children differed only slightly depending on duration of stay of their family in Germany. CONCLUSION: Our data indicate that children from ethnic minorities in Germany are more frequently overweight or obese than German children. Social class as well as family duration of stay after immigration influence the pattern of overweight and obesity in children at school entry. (+info)
(5/3453) Aging with quality of life--a challenge for society.
This article focus on biological, nutritional, psychological, medical and social variables which have proven useful indicators for assessing wellbeing of individuals. Such objective data (measured by the two investigators) and subjective information (self-reported by the participants) were collected between 2002-2003 from samples of healthy, free living females and males aged between 59 and 92 years from Vienna and surroundings. In both these groups some habitual practices (habit variables) were observed of elderly and old which have a negative influence on health i.e low daily liquid uptake and smoking. There is also a fair amount of overweight and obesity (BMI>or=30) and also of hypertension, particularly in males, There is also malnourishment, predominantly in females, as reflected by the Body Cell Mass Index. Several participants either were not aware of being hypertensive or admitted that they deliberately ignored medical advice. With respect to social variables there are greater percentages of married males and widowed females. Possibly partially resulting from this loss of the partner a greater number of females report feelings of loneliness than do males. Positive results relate to the overall high percentages of family contacts, positive feelings towards life and physical activity as reported by the large majority of the participants. These findings stress the need for further information of living habits of the elderly and old as a possible guide of helping improve their quality of life. (+info)
(6/3453) Childhood overweight and maturational timing in the development of adult overweight and fatness: the Newton Girls Study and its follow-up.
OBJECTIVE: Although several studies have suggested that early menarche is associated with the development of adult overweight, few have accounted for childhood overweight before menarche. STUDY DESIGN: A 30-year follow-up of the original participants in the Newton Girls Study, a prospective study of development in a cohort of girls followed through menarche, provided data on premenarcheal relative weight and overweight (BMI >85th percentile), prospectively obtained age at menarche, self-reported adult BMI, overweight (BMI > 25), obesity (BMI > 30) and, for a subset of participants, percentage body fat by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. RESULTS: Of the 448 women who participated in the adult follow-up at a mean age of 42.1 years (SD: 0.76 years), 307 had childhood data with which to characterize premenarcheal and menarcheal weight status and age at menarche. After a follow-up of 30.1 years (SD: 1.4 years), reported BMI was 23.4 (4.8), 28% were overweight, and 9% were obese. In multivariate linear and logistic-regression analyses, almost all of the influence on adult weight status was a result of premenarcheal weight status (model R2 = 0.199). Inclusion of a variable to reflect menarcheal timing provided very little additional information (model R2 = 0.208). Girls who were overweight before menarche were 7.7 times more likely to be overweight as adults (95% confidence interval: 2.3, 25.8), whereas early menarche (at < or = 12 years of age) did not elevate risk (odds ratio: 1.3, 95% confidence interval: 0.66, 2.43). A similar pattern of results was observed when percentage body fat in adulthood was evaluated. CONCLUSIONS: The apparent influence of early maturation on adult female overweight is largely a result of the influence of elevated relative weight on early maturation. Interventions to prevent and treat overweight should focus on girls before they begin puberty. (+info)
(7/3453) Intervertebral disc height in treated and untreated overweight post-menopausal women.
BACKGROUND: The effect of the menopause and HRT on the intervertebral discs has not been investigated. METHODS: One hundred women were recruited, comprising of 44 post-menopausal women on HRT, 33 untreated post-menopausal women and 23 pre-menopausal women. The height of the intervertebral discs between the 12th thoracic vertebra and the 3rd lumbar vertebra was measured by utilizing the bone densitometer height cursors. RESULTS: The untreated menopausal group of women had the lowest total disc height (D1-D3: 1.95 0.31 cm). This was significantly lower than the pre-menopausal group D1-D3: 2.16 0.24 cm) and the hormone-treated group (2.2 0.26 cm) (P > 0.02). The 2nd intervertebral disc consistently maintained a significant difference between the untreated menopausal group (D2: 0.63 0.13) and the other two groups (pre-menopausal group (D2: 0.72 0.09 cm) and treated menopausal group (D2: 0.73 0.12 cm) (P > 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: Estrogen-replete women appear to maintain higher intervertebral discs compared to untreated post-menopausal women. The estrogenic milieu may be relevant because of the significant impact it has on the hydrophilic glycosaminoglycans, the water content, collagen and elastin of the intervertebral discs. The maintenance of adequate disc height may allow the intervertebral discs to retain their discoid shape and viscoelastic function, containing vertical forces which may threaten spinal architecture leading to vertebral body compression fractures. (+info)
(8/3453) Basal endothelial nitric oxide release is preserved in overweight and obese adults.
OBJECTIVE: Impaired basal nitric oxide release is associated with a number of cardiovascular disorders including hypertension, arterial spasm, and myocardial infarction. We determined whether basal endothelial nitric oxide release is reduced in otherwise healthy overweight and obese adult humans. RESEARCH METHODS AND PROCEDURES: Seventy sedentary adults were studied: 32 normal weight (BMI <25 kg/m(2)), 24 overweight (BMI > or = 25 < 30 kg/m(2)), and 14 obese (BMI > or = 30 kg/m(2)). Forearm blood flow (FBF) responses to intra-arterial infusions of N(g)-monomethyl-L-arginine (5 mg/min), a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, were used as an index of basal nitric oxide release. RESULTS: N(g)-monomethyl-L-arginine elicited significant reductions in FBF in the normal weight (from 4.1 +/- 0.2 to 2.7 +/- 0.2 mL/100 mL tissue/min), overweight (4.1 +/- 0.1 to 2.8 +/- 0.2 mL/100 mL tissue/min), and obese (3.9 +/- 0.3 to 2.7 +/- 0.2 mL/100 mL tissue/min) subjects. Importantly, the magnitude of reduction in FBF (approximately 30%) was similar among the groups. DISCUSSION: These results indicate that the capacity of the endothelium to release nitric oxide under basal conditions is not compromised in overweight and obese adults. (+info)
classified as overweight or obese
- In the UK in 2008, 31% of boys and 29% of girls aged 2-15 years were classified as overweight or obese. (bmj.com)
- When compared to results from 1995, using the same measure, the proportion of adults classified as overweight or obese has increased substantially. (health.gov.au)
- Given the high levels of obesity in young children, number of children in out-of-home care, and data suggesting a link between early care and education (ECE) participation and overweight/obesity, obesity prevention in ECE settings is critical. (healthyeatingresearch.org)
- More than half of British adults are overweight, and obesity among preschool children has increased by an alarming 70% in the past generation. (bmj.com)
- 1 2 We aimed to explore parents' awareness of overweight and obesity in themselves and their children, and their degree of concern about weight. (bmj.com)
- 3 Overweight and obesity were defined as body mass index at least 25 and 30 in adults, and at least 91st and 98th centiles of the UK 1990 body mass index reference curves for children. (bmj.com)
- Conclusions Several risk factors for both overweight and obesity in childhood are identifiable during infancy. (bmj.com)
- The rates of overweight and Obesity amongst adults have doubled over the past two decades with Australia now being ranked as one of the fattest developed nations. (health.gov.au)
- These figures suggest that since 1995, the rates of overweight within each age category have remained relatively consistent, however the rates of obesity have increased. (health.gov.au)
- Overweight and obesity is measured at the population level for adults using the Body Mass Index (BMI) which is calculated by dividing weight in kilograms by height in metres squared. (health.gov.au)
- Overweight is measured at a BMI of 25 or more with obesity determined at a BMI of 30 or more. (health.gov.au)
- Fat distribution is also an important consideration in assessing overweight or obesity and the associated risk of disease. (health.gov.au)
- For children and adolescents, Australian standard definitions for measuring overweight and obesity at the population level were endorsed in December 2002 for inclusion in the 12th edition of the National Health Data Dictionary. (health.gov.au)
- 52/277 (19%) children, 141/273 (52%) mothers, and 165/230 (72%) fathers were overweight (including obese). (bmj.com)
- Parents were less likely to identify overweight in sons than daughters: only 27% of overweight or obese boys were classified as at least "a little overweight," compared with 54% of overweight girls (P = 0.01). (bmj.com)
- More than half of the parents of obese children expressed some degree of concern about their child's weight, but only a quarter were even "a little worried" if their child was overweight. (bmj.com)
- Around 20-25% of Australian children in 1995, aged 7-15 years were considered to be overweight or obese. (health.gov.au)
- In 1995, 38% of males and 21% of females were classified as overweight and 11% of males and 11% of females were classified as obese 2 . (health.gov.au)
- For both males and females, increases have been recorded in both the overweight and obese groups across all age groups 2 . (health.gov.au)
- For females, 31% between the ages of 55-64, 31% between the ages of 65-74 and 25% aged 75 years and over, were classified as overweight, while 23%, 17% and 10% respectively, were classified as obese 2 . (health.gov.au)
- For example, in 1995, 45% of males between the ages of 55-64, 40% of males between the ages of 65-74 and 31% of males aged 75 years and over, were classified as overweight, while 15%, 11% and 5% respectively were classified as obese 2 . (health.gov.au)
- For females, 30% between the ages of 55-64, 26% between the ages of 65-74 and 21% aged 75 years and over, were classified as overweight, while 16%, 14% and 7% respectively, were classified as obese 2 . (health.gov.au)
- RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS - We performed a prospective analysis among 1,401 overweight diabetic adults aged ≥35 years sampled in the National Health Interview Survey. (diabetesjournals.org)
- CONCLUSIONS -Overweight diabetic adults trying to lose weight have a reduced risk of all-cause mortality, independent of whether they lose weight. (diabetesjournals.org)
- Thus, it is difficult to conclude from most studies of weight loss whether overweight adults with diabetes will lower their mortality risk by embarking on weight loss programs. (diabetesjournals.org)
- Among overweight parents, 40% mothers (45% fathers) judged their own weight "about right" and 27% (61%) were unconcerned about their weight. (bmj.com)
- Maternal weight status did not affect mothers' awareness of their chidren's weight: 82% of overweight mothers were correct compared with 82% of normal weight mothers (P = 0.50). (bmj.com)
- Before we weighed them, parents completed a written questionnaire asking them to estimate their own and their child's weight on a five point scale ranging from "very underweight" to "very overweight. (bmj.com)
- Responses indicating level of concern about weight were similarly ranked from "very worried about underweight" to "very worried about overweight. (bmj.com)
- However, only 74% overweight fathers were correct compared with 85% normal weight fathers (P = 0.08). (bmj.com)
- Most parents (86%) who were unaware that their child was overweight, were also unconcerned about their child's weight. (bmj.com)
- The reasons for poor awareness might include denial, reluctance to admit a weight problem, or desensitisation to excess weight because being overweight has become normal. (bmj.com)
- The layperson's perception of average weight, however, now conflicts with the clinical definition of normal weight, and a label of overweight from a health professional may be insufficient motivation for a change in lifestyle. (bmj.com)
- Significant and strong independent associations with childhood overweight were identified for maternal pre-pregnancy overweight, high infant birth weight and rapid weight gain during the first year of life. (bmj.com)
- OBJECTIVE -The aim of this study was to examine the relationships between intention to lose weight, actual weight loss, and all-cause mortality among overweight individuals with diabetes. (diabetesjournals.org)
- In 2004-05, some 41% of males and 25% of females were classified as overweight (Body Mass Index of between 25.0 and 30.0). (health.gov.au)
- 1 These figures are supported by data collected in 2010 by the National Child Measurement Programme showing that 23% of children aged 4-5 years and 33% of 10-11 year olds are overweight. (bmj.com)
- parents are poor at identifying overweight in themselves and their children, and less likely to identify overweight in sons. (bmj.com)
- Objective To determine risk factors for childhood overweight that can be identified during the first year of life to facilitate early identification and targeted intervention. (bmj.com)
- No association with childhood overweight was found for maternal age or education at birth, maternal depression or infant ethnicity. (bmj.com)
- There was some evidence associating early introduction of solid foods and childhood overweight. (bmj.com)