Process Assessment (Health Care): An evaluation procedure that focuses on how care is delivered, based on the premise that there are standards of performance for activities undertaken in delivering patient care, in which the specific actions taken, events occurring, and human interactions are compared with accepted standards.Outcome and Process Assessment (Health Care): Evaluation procedures that focus on both the outcome or status (OUTCOMES ASSESSMENT) of the patient at the end of an episode of care - presence of symptoms, level of activity, and mortality; and the process (ASSESSMENT, PROCESS) - what is done for the patient diagnostically and therapeutically.Health Status: The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.Public Health: Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.Outcome Assessment (Health Care): Research aimed at assessing the quality and effectiveness of health care as measured by the attainment of a specified end result or outcome. Measures include parameters such as improved health, lowered morbidity or mortality, and improvement of abnormal states (such as elevated blood pressure).Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Delivery of Health Care: The concept concerned with all aspects of providing and distributing health services to a patient population.Health Policy: Decisions, usually developed by government policymakers, for determining present and future objectives pertaining to the health care system.Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.Health Promotion: Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.Mental Health: The state wherein the person is well adjusted.Health Care Reform: Innovation and improvement of the health care system by reappraisal, amendment of services, and removal of faults and abuses in providing and distributing health services to patients. It includes a re-alignment of health services and health insurance to maximum demographic elements (the unemployed, indigent, uninsured, elderly, inner cities, rural areas) with reference to coverage, hospitalization, pricing and cost containment, insurers' and employers' costs, pre-existing medical conditions, prescribed drugs, equipment, and services.Health: The state of the organism when it functions optimally without evidence of disease.Attitude to Health: Public attitudes toward health, disease, and the medical care system.Primary Health Care: Care which provides integrated, accessible health care services by clinicians who are accountable for addressing a large majority of personal health care needs, developing a sustained partnership with patients, and practicing in the context of family and community. (JAMA 1995;273(3):192)Health Care Surveys: Statistical measures of utilization and other aspects of the provision of health care services including hospitalization and ambulatory care.Quality of Health Care: The levels of excellence which characterize the health service or health care provided based on accepted standards of quality.Health Planning: Planning for needed health and/or welfare services and facilities.Health Services Accessibility: The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.Health Behavior: Behaviors expressed by individuals to protect, maintain or promote their health status. For example, proper diet, and appropriate exercise are activities perceived to influence health status. Life style is closely associated with health behavior and factors influencing life style are socioeconomic, educational, and cultural.Health Services: Services for the diagnosis and treatment of disease and the maintenance of health.Health Personnel: Men and women working in the provision of health services, whether as individual practitioners or employees of health institutions and programs, whether or not professionally trained, and whether or not subject to public regulation. (From A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, 1976)Insurance, Health: Insurance providing coverage of medical, surgical, or hospital care in general or for which there is no specific heading.World Health: The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.Health Services Research: The integration of epidemiologic, sociological, economic, and other analytic sciences in the study of health services. Health services research is usually concerned with relationships between need, demand, supply, use, and outcome of health services. The aim of the research is evaluation, particularly in terms of structure, process, output, and outcome. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Health Services Needs and Demand: Health services required by a population or community as well as the health services that the population or community is able and willing to pay for.Health Education: Education that increases the awareness and favorably influences the attitudes and knowledge relating to the improvement of health on a personal or community basis.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Oral Health: The optimal state of the mouth and normal functioning of the organs of the mouth without evidence of disease.Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).Pregnancy Outcome: Results of conception and ensuing pregnancy, including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; SPONTANEOUS ABORTION; INDUCED ABORTION. The outcome may follow natural or artificial insemination or any of the various ASSISTED REPRODUCTIVE TECHNIQUES, such as EMBRYO TRANSFER or FERTILIZATION IN VITRO.Health Expenditures: The amounts spent by individuals, groups, nations, or private or public organizations for total health care and/or its various components. These amounts may or may not be equivalent to the actual costs (HEALTH CARE COSTS) and may or may not be shared among the patient, insurers, and/or employers.Public Health Administration: Management of public health organizations or agencies.Environmental Health: The science of controlling or modifying those conditions, influences, or forces surrounding man which relate to promoting, establishing, and maintaining health.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Occupational Health: The promotion and maintenance of physical and mental health in the work environment.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Patient Acceptance of Health Care: The seeking and acceptance by patients of health service.Health Status Disparities: Variation in rates of disease occurrence and disabilities between population groups defined by socioeconomic characteristics such as age, ethnicity, economic resources, or gender and populations identified geographically or similar measures.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Health Care Rationing: Planning for the equitable allocation, apportionment, or distribution of available health resources.Mental Health Services: Organized services to provide mental health care.National Health Programs: Components of a national health care system which administer specific services, e.g., national health insurance.Delivery of Health Care, Integrated: A health care system which combines physicians, hospitals, and other medical services with a health plan to provide the complete spectrum of medical care for its customers. In a fully integrated system, the three key elements - physicians, hospital, and health plan membership - are in balance in terms of matching medical resources with the needs of purchasers and patients. (Coddington et al., Integrated Health Care: Reorganizing the Physician, Hospital and Health Plan Relationship, 1994, p7)Health Priorities: Preferentially rated health-related activities or functions to be used in establishing health planning goals. This may refer specifically to PL93-641.Public Health Practice: The activities and endeavors of the public health services in a community on any level.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Attitude of Health Personnel: Attitudes of personnel toward their patients, other professionals, toward the medical care system, etc.Women's Health: The concept covering the physical and mental conditions of women.Community Health Services: Diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive health services provided for individuals in the community.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Rural Health: The status of health in rural populations.Urban Health: The status of health in urban populations.World Health Organization: A specialized agency of the United Nations designed as a coordinating authority on international health work; its aim is to promote the attainment of the highest possible level of health by all peoples.Health Care Sector: Economic sector concerned with the provision, distribution, and consumption of health care services and related products.Child Health Services: Organized services to provide health care for children.Quality Assurance, Health Care: Activities and programs intended to assure or improve the quality of care in either a defined medical setting or a program. The concept includes the assessment or evaluation of the quality of care; identification of problems or shortcomings in the delivery of care; designing activities to overcome these deficiencies; and follow-up monitoring to ensure effectiveness of corrective steps.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Quality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.Health Literacy: Degree to which individuals have the capacity to obtain, process, and understand basic health information and services needed to make appropriate health decisions.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Rural Health Services: Health services, public or private, in rural areas. The services include the promotion of health and the delivery of health care.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Community Health Planning: Planning that has the goals of improving health, improving accessibility to health services, and promoting efficiency in the provision of services and resources on a comprehensive basis for a whole community. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988, p299)Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Health Facilities: Institutions which provide medical or health-related services.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Health Resources: Available manpower, facilities, revenue, equipment, and supplies to produce requisite health care and services.Needs Assessment: Systematic identification of a population's needs or the assessment of individuals to determine the proper level of services needed.Health Manpower: The availability of HEALTH PERSONNEL. It includes the demand and recruitment of both professional and allied health personnel, their present and future supply and distribution, and their assignment and utilization.Regional Health Planning: Planning for health resources at a regional or multi-state level.Community Health Centers: Facilities which administer the delivery of health care services to people living in a community or neighborhood.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Preventive Health Services: Services designed for HEALTH PROMOTION and prevention of disease.Great BritainProgram Evaluation: Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Electronic Health Records: Media that facilitate transportability of pertinent information concerning patient's illness across varied providers and geographic locations. Some versions include direct linkages to online consumer health information that is relevant to the health conditions and treatments related to a specific patient.Maternal Health Services: Organized services to provide health care to expectant and nursing mothers.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Interviews as Topic: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.Research Design: A plan for collecting and utilizing data so that desired information can be obtained with sufficient precision or so that an hypothesis can be tested properly.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Pilot Projects: Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.Public Health Nursing: A nursing specialty concerned with promoting and protecting the health of populations, using knowledge from nursing, social, and public health sciences to develop local, regional, state, and national health policy and research. It is population-focused and community-oriented, aimed at health promotion and disease prevention through educational, diagnostic, and preventive programs.Reproductive Health: The physical condition of human reproductive systems.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Health Occupations: Professions or other business activities directed to the cure and prevention of disease. For occupations of medical personnel who are not physicians but who are working in the fields of medical technology, physical therapy, etc., ALLIED HEALTH OCCUPATIONS is available.Patient Satisfaction: The degree to which the individual regards the health care service or product or the manner in which it is delivered by the provider as useful, effective, or beneficial.Mental Disorders: Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.Health Services for the Aged: Services for the diagnosis and treatment of diseases in the aged and the maintenance of health in the elderly.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Occupational Health Services: Health services for employees, usually provided by the employer at the place of work.Nursing Assessment: Evaluation of the nature and extent of nursing problems presented by a patient for the purpose of patient care planning.Health Benefit Plans, Employee: Health insurance plans for employees, and generally including their dependents, usually on a cost-sharing basis with the employer paying a percentage of the premium.Cost-Benefit Analysis: A method of comparing the cost of a program with its expected benefits in dollars (or other currency). The benefit-to-cost ratio is a measure of total return expected per unit of money spent. This analysis generally excludes consideration of factors that are not measured ultimately in economic terms. Cost effectiveness compares alternative ways to achieve a specific set of results.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)National Institutes of Health (U.S.): An operating division of the US Department of Health and Human Services. It is concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to health and medical research. Until 1995, it was an agency of the United States PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE.Geriatric Assessment: Evaluation of the level of physical, physiological, or mental functioning in the older population group.Activities of Daily Living: The performance of the basic activities of self care, such as dressing, ambulation, or eating.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Health Planning Guidelines: Recommendations for directing health planning functions and policies. These may be mandated by PL93-641 and issued by the Department of Health and Human Services for use by state and local planning agencies.Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic: Works about clinical trials that involve at least one test treatment and one control treatment, concurrent enrollment and follow-up of the test- and control-treated groups, and in which the treatments to be administered are selected by a random process, such as the use of a random-numbers table.Quality Indicators, Health Care: Norms, criteria, standards, and other direct qualitative and quantitative measures used in determining the quality of health care.Health Plan Implementation: Those actions designed to carry out recommendations pertaining to health plans or programs.Health Services Administration: The organization and administration of health services dedicated to the delivery of health care.Population Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.Psychometrics: Assessment of psychological variables by the application of mathematical procedures.Poverty: A situation in which the level of living of an individual, family, or group is below the standard of the community. It is often related to a specific income level.Catchment Area (Health): A geographic area defined and served by a health program or institution.Educational Status: Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.Family Health: The health status of the family as a unit including the impact of the health of one member of the family on the family as a unit and on individual family members; also, the impact of family organization or disorganization on the health status of its members.Public Health Informatics: The systematic application of information and computer sciences to public health practice, research, and learning.State Health Plans: State plans prepared by the State Health Planning and Development Agencies which are made up from plans submitted by the Health Systems Agencies and subject to review and revision by the Statewide Health Coordinating Council.Politics: Activities concerned with governmental policies, functions, etc.EnglandEvidence-Based Medicine: An approach of practicing medicine with the goal to improve and evaluate patient care. It requires the judicious integration of best research evidence with the patient's values to make decisions about medical care. This method is to help physicians make proper diagnosis, devise best testing plan, choose best treatment and methods of disease prevention, as well as develop guidelines for large groups of patients with the same disease. (from JAMA 296 (9), 2006)Disability Evaluation: Determination of the degree of a physical, mental, or emotional handicap. The diagnosis is applied to legal qualification for benefits and income under disability insurance and to eligibility for Social Security and workmen's compensation benefits.Health Care Coalitions: Voluntary groups of people representing diverse interests in the community such as hospitals, businesses, physicians, and insurers, with the principal objective to improve health care cost effectiveness.Community Mental Health Services: Diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive mental health services provided for individuals in the community.Health Maintenance Organizations: Organized systems for providing comprehensive prepaid health care that have five basic attributes: (1) provide care in a defined geographic area; (2) provide or ensure delivery of an agreed-upon set of basic and supplemental health maintenance and treatment services; (3) provide care to a voluntarily enrolled group of persons; (4) require their enrollees to use the services of designated providers; and (5) receive reimbursement through a predetermined, fixed, periodic prepayment made by the enrollee without regard to the degree of services provided. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988)Urban Health Services: Health services, public or private, in urban areas. The services include the promotion of health and the delivery of health care.Health Services, Indigenous: Health care provided to specific cultural or tribal peoples which incorporates local customs, beliefs, and taboos.Women's Health Services: Organized services to provide health care to women. It excludes maternal care services for which MATERNAL HEALTH SERVICES is available.Healthcare Disparities: Differences in access to or availability of medical facilities and services.Australia: The smallest continent and an independent country, comprising six states and two territories. Its capital is Canberra.Rural Population: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.Reproductive Health Services: Health care services related to human REPRODUCTION and diseases of the reproductive system. Services are provided to both sexes and usually by physicians in the medical or the surgical specialties such as REPRODUCTIVE MEDICINE; ANDROLOGY; GYNECOLOGY; OBSTETRICS; and PERINATOLOGY.Program Development: The process of formulating, improving, and expanding educational, managerial, or service-oriented work plans (excluding computer program development).Chi-Square Distribution: A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.Allied Health Personnel: Health care workers specially trained and licensed to assist and support the work of health professionals. Often used synonymously with paramedical personnel, the term generally refers to all health care workers who perform tasks which must otherwise be performed by a physician or other health professional.Health Records, Personal: Longitudinal patient-maintained records of individual health history and tools that allow individual control of access.Odds Ratio: The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.Survival Analysis: A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.United StatesEnvironmental Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.Qualitative Research: Any type of research that employs nonnumeric information to explore individual or group characteristics, producing findings not arrived at by statistical procedures or other quantitative means. (Qualitative Inquiry: A Dictionary of Terms Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1997)Men's Health: The concept covering the physical and mental conditions of men.School Health Services: Preventive health services provided for students. It excludes college or university students.Adolescent Health Services: Organized services to provide health care to adolescents, ages ranging from 13 through 18 years.Policy Making: The decision process by which individuals, groups or institutions establish policies pertaining to plans, programs or procedures.Feasibility Studies: Studies to determine the advantages or disadvantages, practicability, or capability of accomplishing a projected plan, study, or project.Consumer Participation: Community or individual involvement in the decision-making process.Hospitalization: The confinement of a patient in a hospital.Depression: Depressive states usually of moderate intensity in contrast with major depression present in neurotic and psychotic disorders.Social Justice: An interactive process whereby members of a community are concerned for the equality and rights of all.Mass Screening: Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.Survival Rate: The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Linear Models: Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.Cooperative Behavior: The interaction of two or more persons or organizations directed toward a common goal which is mutually beneficial. An act or instance of working or acting together for a common purpose or benefit, i.e., joint action. (From Random House Dictionary Unabridged, 2d ed)International Cooperation: The interaction of persons or groups of persons representing various nations in the pursuit of a common goal or interest.Residence Characteristics: Elements of residence that characterize a population. They are applicable in determining need for and utilization of health services.Comprehensive Health Care: Providing for the full range of personal health services for diagnosis, treatment, follow-up and rehabilitation of patients.Social Class: A stratum of people with similar position and prestige; includes social stratification. Social class is measured by criteria such as education, occupation, and income.Social Support: Support systems that provide assistance and encouragement to individuals with physical or emotional disabilities in order that they may better cope. Informal social support is usually provided by friends, relatives, or peers, while formal assistance is provided by churches, groups, etc.Health Planning Support: Financial resources provided for activities related to health planning and development.Observer Variation: The failure by the observer to measure or identify a phenomenon accurately, which results in an error. Sources for this may be due to the observer's missing an abnormality, or to faulty technique resulting in incorrect test measurement, or to misinterpretation of the data. Two varieties are inter-observer variation (the amount observers vary from one another when reporting on the same material) and intra-observer variation (the amount one observer varies between observations when reporting more than once on the same material).Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Patient Education as Topic: The teaching or training of patients concerning their own health needs.Postoperative Complications: Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.Stroke: A group of pathological conditions characterized by sudden, non-convulsive loss of neurological function due to BRAIN ISCHEMIA or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Stroke is classified by the type of tissue NECROSIS, such as the anatomic location, vasculature involved, etiology, age of the affected individual, and hemorrhagic vs. non-hemorrhagic nature. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp777-810)Schools, Public Health: Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of public health.Netherlands: Country located in EUROPE. It is bordered by the NORTH SEA, BELGIUM, and GERMANY. Constituent areas are Aruba, Curacao, Sint Maarten, formerly included in the NETHERLANDS ANTILLES.Employment: The state of being engaged in an activity or service for wages or salary.Technology Assessment, Biomedical: Evaluation of biomedical technology in relation to cost, efficacy, utilization, etc., and its future impact on social, ethical, and legal systems.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Nutrition Assessment: Evaluation and measurement of nutritional variables in order to assess the level of nutrition or the NUTRITIONAL STATUS of the individual. NUTRITION SURVEYS may be used in making the assessment.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Self Report: Method for obtaining information through verbal responses, written or oral, from subjects.Referral and Consultation: The practice of sending a patient to another program or practitioner for services or advice which the referring source is not prepared to provide.Urban Population: The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Practice Guidelines as Topic: Directions or principles presenting current or future rules of policy for assisting health care practitioners in patient care decisions regarding diagnosis, therapy, or related clinical circumstances. The guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by the convening of expert panels. The guidelines form a basis for the evaluation of all aspects of health care and delivery.Family Practice: A medical specialty concerned with the provision of continuing, comprehensive primary health care for the entire family.Decision Making: The process of making a selective intellectual judgment when presented with several complex alternatives consisting of several variables, and usually defining a course of action or an idea.EuropePain Measurement: Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.Environmental Monitoring: The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.BrazilDemography: Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.Recurrence: The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.Ethnic Groups: A group of people with a common cultural heritage that sets them apart from others in a variety of social relationships.United States Dept. of Health and Human Services: A cabinet department in the Executive Branch of the United States Government concerned with administering those agencies and offices having programs pertaining to health and human services.State Medicine: A system of medical care regulated, controlled and financed by the government, in which the government assumes responsibility for the health needs of the population.Public Policy: A course or method of action selected, usually by a government, from among alternatives to guide and determine present and future decisions.Health Impact Assessment: Combination of procedures, methods, and tools by which a policy, program, or project may be judged as to its potential effects on the health of a population, and the distribution of those effects within the population.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Proportional Hazards Models: Statistical models used in survival analysis that assert that the effect of the study factors on the hazard rate in the study population is multiplicative and does not change over time.African Americans: Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the black groups of Africa.IndiaRecovery of Function: A partial or complete return to the normal or proper physiologic activity of an organ or part following disease or trauma.Ontario: A province of Canada lying between the provinces of Manitoba and Quebec. Its capital is Toronto. It takes its name from Lake Ontario which is said to represent the Iroquois oniatariio, beautiful lake. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p892 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p391)Patient Compliance: Voluntary cooperation of the patient in following a prescribed regimen.

*  Management of pulmonary embolism in the home.

... who were treated at home and as outpatients in an ambulatory care program. METHODS: Retrospective descriptive study of patients ... outcomes and treatment complications of patients with pulmonary embolism (PE) ... Outcome and Process Assessment (Health Care). Pulmonary Embolism / complications, nursing*. Recurrence. Retrospective Studies. ... Ambulatory Care / statistics & numerical data. Female. Hemorrhage / etiology. Home Care Services / statistics & numerical data* ...

*  Early NICU discharge of very low birth weight infants: a critical review and analysis.

Early neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) discharge has been advocated for selected preterm infants to reduce both the adverse ... Intensive Care Units, Neonatal / standards*. Length of Stay*. Male. Outcome and Process Assessment (Health Care). Patient ... 19735497 - Individualized developmental care for a large sample of very preterm infants: health, n.... 4058817 - Prenatal care ... Early neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) discharge has been advocated for selected preterm infants to reduce both the adverse ...

*  Bubble continuous positive airway pressure, a potentially better practice, reduces the use of mechanical ventilation among very...

... to reduce bronchopulmonary dysplasia and improve other pulmonary outcomes among ... Outcome and Process Assessment (Health Care). Pneumothorax / prevention & control. Quality Assurance, Health Care. Respiratory ... Infants at both time periods were similar with respect to characteristics and aspects of perinatal care. Pulmonary outcomes ... Nonpulmonary outcomes were also compared. RESULTS: The use of mechanical ventilation declined during period 2. The mean ...

*  Meir Kryger, MD, FRCP(C) > Pulmonary, Critical Care and Sleep Medicine | Internal Medicine | Yale School of...

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*  Transfer of patients--from the spoke to the hub. - Lenus, The Irish Health Repository

Outcome and Process Assessment (Health Care). en_GB. dc.subject.mesh. Patient Transfer/organization & administration/*standards ... Health Care Surveys; Hospitals, University; Humans; Interdisciplinary Communication; Ireland; *Outcome and Process Assessment ( ... Health Care); Patient Transfer/organization & administration/*standards/utilization; Prospective Studies; Regional Medical ... warranting resuscitation room assessment. The rate of Doctor Transfer was 22%. Of the 23 patients that warranted assessment in ...

*  Study on didanosine concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid : Implications for the treatment and prevention of AIDS dementia...

Outcome and Process Assessment (Health Care). Pharmacoepidemiology. Pharmacokinetics. Pharmacology, Clinical. Pharmacy. ...

*  A systematic review and meta-analysis of the relationship between hospital/surgeon volume and outcome for radical cystectomy:...

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*  Lääketiede )|( Medicina )|( Ars medicina )|( Medicine )|( Specialties, Medical )|( Specialty, Medical )|( Medical Specialty )|(...

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*  Aleknagik North, Alaska : Doctors, Physicians, Hospitals, Health Care and Medical Providers : Results 1 - 50

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*  Alternative Medicine : Courtney Beddows Lac Po Box 111952 Anchorage AK 99511 907-260-7878

26 RN - Home Health Ketchikan, AK, USA Utilizes the professional healthcare process of assessment, problem identification/ ... Health Care Hiring, Medical Jobs. Search from millions of jobs nationwide. Find health care employers in your area. *providers ... and satisfaction outcomes. * Acts in a leadership function with process ...... Apply Now>>. 34 Travel Registered Nurse RN Long ... 22 Therapist / Physical Therapist Job in Anchorage, Alaska / Home Health Care Acute Home health Long-term care Outpatient ...

*  Alternative Medicine : Better Health Pain & Wellness - Brent W Wells DC 729 Northway Drive Anchorage AK 99508 907-346-5255

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*  European Commission : CORDIS : Publications : Final Report - CLEANHAND (Preventing (...) hospital deaths by securing efficient...

The outcomes of the proposal assessment process are also highlighted, along with the associated potential impact of the device ... A prototype machine, targeting primarily the health-care sector, was therefore designed and constructed. This final activity ... environmentally friendly and verifiable disinfection process). Project ID: 508489 ... in the hygiene and healthcare sectors. The document then presents the exploitable knowledge in the form of a table and closes ...

*  Translational Speech-Language Pathology and Audiology - Books on Google Play

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*  An Assessment of Outcomes in Outdoor Behavioral Healthcare Treatment | SpringerLink

Perspectives on the wilderness therapy process and its relation to outcome. Child and Youth Care Forum, 31(6), 415-437.Google ... Robinson, K. (2000). Outcomes of a partial-day treatment program for referred children. Child and Youth Care Forum, 29(2), 127- ... Follow-up assessments using a random sample of clients found that on average, outcomes had been maintained at 12-months ... Russell, K. C. (2000). Exploring how the wilderness therapy process relates to outcomes. Journal of Experiential Education, 23( ...

*  Confidence intervals for cost-effectiveness ratios: an application of Fieller's theorem.

... is growing rapidly in health care. Two general approaches to analysis are differentiated by the type of data available: (i) ... Health Services Research / economics, methods*. Humans. Models, Economic. Outcome Assessment (Health Care) / statistics & ... Stochastic Processes*. Comments/Corrections. Erratum In: Health Econ 1999 Sep;8(6):559. ... Application of cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) is growing rapidly in health care. Two general approaches to analysis are ...

*  Insurance parity and outpatient care following a psychiatric hospitalization. - PubMed - NCBI

Mental Health Services/utilization*. *Minority Health*. *Outcome and Process Assessment (Health Care) ... Insurance parity and the use of outpatient mental health care following a psychiatric hospitalization. [JAMA. 2008] ... Insurance parity and outpatient care following a psychiatric hospitalization.. Lee B, Xiong GL. ...

*  How Does A Healthcare Assessment Process Work?

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*  Outcomes Assessment Information Set (OASIS)

OASIS is a set of core assessment items for adult home care patients from which quality-based outcome measurements may be ... the University of Colorado's Center for Health Policy Research and is intended to be part of a comprehensive assessment process ... OASIS (Outcomes Assessment Information Set) is a set of core assessment items for adult home care patients from which quality- ... For more information on OASIS issues, please contact one of the following staff at the Division of Health Care Facility ...

*  Efficiency of the Austrian disease management program for diabetes mellitus type 2: a historic cohort study based on health...

... improved healthcare processes in terms of frequency of specific assessments performed as well as improved intermediate outcomes ... DMPs are intended to lead to coordinated or even integrated health care delivery and ultimately better health outcomes for ... Health Syst Transit. 2006, 8/3: 1-247.Google Scholar. *. Kobel C, Pfeiffer KP: Financing inpatient health care in Austria. Euro ... Fireman B, Bartlett J, Selby J: Can disease management reduce health care costs by improving quality?. Health Affair. 2004, 23/ ...

*  Does quality of life assessment in palliative care look like a complex screening program? | Health and Quality of Life Outcomes...

5. QoL assessment should be a continuing process and not a "once and for all" project. ... Outcome assessment Palliative care Complex intervention Background. Quality of life in palliative care. Palliative Care is an ... the palliative care outcome scale. Palliative Care Core Audit Project Advisory Group. Qual Health Care 1999, 8: 219-227. ... World Health Organization (WHO) definition of Palliative Care: World Health Organization (WHO) definition of Palliative Care. ...

*  Waihi Hospital & Rest Home | Ministry of Health NZ

... describe the required support and/or intervention to achieve the desired outcomes identified by the ongoing assessment process. ... and progress towards meeting the desired outcome.. Two of four short-term care plans reviewed did not document evaluation of ... Outcome required. The outcome required by the Health and Disability Services Standards. ... The outcome is partially attained when:. *there is evidence that the rest home has the appropriate process in place, but not ...

*  Memorial Hermann Home Health Services Frequently Asked Questions

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*  Nutrition in Cancer Care (PDQ®)-Health Professional Version - National Cancer Institute

... and what the process will be for referring the patient for a full nutrition assessment.[1] It is also ideal to use a validated ... Support Care Cancer 23 (11): 3249-55, 2015. [PUBMED Abstract]. *Del Fabbro E, Hui D, Dalal S, et al.: Clinical outcomes and ... El Nawawi NM, Balboni MJ, Balboni TA: Palliative care and spiritual care: the crucial role of spiritual care in the care of ... other health care professionals, patients, and families.[11] It is incumbent on physicians and other health care providers to ...

*  Registry of Patients With Acute Dyspnea in the Emergency Department - Full Text View -

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Self-rated health: Self-rated health (also called Self-reported health, Self-assessed health, or perceived health) refers to both a single question such as “in general, would you say that you health is excellent, very good, good, fair, or poor?” and a survey questionnaire in which participants assess different dimensions of their own health.Public Health Act: Public Health Act is a stock short title used in the United Kingdom for legislation relating to public health.Global Health Delivery ProjectHealth policy: Health policy can be defined as the "decisions, plans, and actions that are undertaken to achieve specific health care goals within a society."World Health Organization.Lifestyle management programme: A lifestyle management programme (also referred to as a health promotion programme, health behaviour change programme, lifestyle improvement programme or wellness programme) is an intervention designed to promote positive lifestyle and behaviour change and is widely used in the field of health promotion.Rock 'n' Roll (Status Quo song)Halfdan T. MahlerBehavior: Behavior or behaviour (see spelling differences) is the range of actions and [made by individuals, organism]s, [[systems, or artificial entities in conjunction with themselves or their environment, which includes the other systems or organisms around as well as the (inanimate) physical environment. It is the response of the system or organism to various stimuli or inputs, whether [or external], [[conscious or subconscious, overt or covert, and voluntary or involuntary.Contraceptive mandate (United States): A contraceptive mandate is a state or federal regulation or law that requires health insurers, or employers that provide their employees with health insurance, to cover some contraceptive costs in their health insurance plans. In 1978, the U.School health education: School Health Education see also: Health Promotion is the process of transferring health knowledge during a student's school years (K-12). Its uses are in general classified as Public Health Education and School Health Education.Global Risks Report: The Global Risks Report is an annual study published by the World Economic Forum ahead of the Forum’s Annual Meeting in Davos, Switzerland. Based on the work of the Global Risk Network, the report describes changes occurring in the global risks landscape from year to year and identifies the global risks that could play a critical role in the upcoming year.Behavior change (public health): Behavior change is a central objective in public health interventions,WHO 2002: World Health Report 2002 - Reducing Risks, Promoting Healthy Life Accessed Feb 2015 http://www.who.Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory: right|300px|thumb|Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory logo.WHO collaborating centres in occupational health: The WHO collaborating centres in occupational health constitute a network of institutions put in place by the World Health Organization to extend availability of occupational health coverage in both developed and undeveloped countries.Network of WHO Collaborating Centres in occupational health.Temporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studyingNational Collaborating Centre for Mental Health: The National Collaborating Centre for Mental Health (NCCMH) is one of several centres of the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) tasked with developing guidance on the appropriate treatment and care of people with specific conditions within the National Health Service (NHS) in England and Wales. It was established in 2001.Aging (scheduling): In Operating systems, Aging is a scheduling technique used to avoid starvation. Fixed priority scheduling is a scheduling discipline, in which tasks queued for utilizing a system resource are assigned a priority each.Women's Health Initiative: The Women's Health Initiative (WHI) was initiated by the U.S.Comprehensive Rural Health Project: The Comprehensive Rural Health Project (CRHP) is a non profit, non-governmental organization located in Jamkhed, Ahmednagar District in the state of Maharashtra, India. The organization works with rural communities to provide community-based primary healthcare and improve the general standard of living through a variety of community-led development programs, including Women's Self-Help Groups, Farmers' Clubs, Adolescent Programs and Sanitation and Watershed Development Programs.Generalizability theory: Generalizability theory, or G Theory, is a statistical framework for conceptualizing, investigating, and designing reliable observations. It is used to determine the reliability (i.European Immunization Week: European Immunization Week (EIW) is an annual regional initiative, coordinated by the World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe (WHO/Europe), to promote immunization against vaccine-preventable diseases. EIW activities are carried out by participating WHO/Europe member states.Time-trade-off: Time-Trade-Off (TTO) is a tool used in health economics to help determine the quality of life of a patient or group. The individual will be presented with a set of directions such as:Society for Education Action and Research in Community Health: Searching}}Prenatal nutrition: Nutrition and weight management before and during :pregnancy has a profound effect on the development of infants. This is a rather critical time for healthy fetal development as infants rely heavily on maternal stores and nutrient for optimal growth and health outcome later in life.Healthy community design: Healthy community design is planning and designing communities that make it easier for people to live healthy lives. Healthy community design offers important benefits:Age adjustment: In epidemiology and demography, age adjustment, also called age standardization, is a technique used to allow populations to be compared when the age profiles of the populations are quite different.Resource leak: In computer science, a resource leak is a particular type of resource consumption by a computer program where the program does not release resources it has acquired. This condition is normally the result of a bug in a program.Minati SenSharon Regional Health System: Sharon Regional Health System is a profit health care service provider based in Sharon, Pennsylvania. Its main hospital is located in Sharon; additionally, the health system operates schools of nursing and radiography; a comprehensive pain management center across the street from its main hospital; clinics in nearby Mercer, Greenville, Hermitage, and Brookfield, Ohio; and Sharon Regional Medical Park in Hermitage.Northeast Community Health CentreClosed-ended question: A closed-ended question is a question format that limits respondents with a list of answer choices from which they must choose to answer the question.Dillman D.National Cancer Research Institute: The National Cancer Research Institute (NCRI) is a UK-wide partnership between cancer research funders, which promotes collaboration in cancer research. Its member organizations work together to maximize the value and benefit of cancer research for the benefit of patients and the public.Standard evaluation frameworkQRISK: QRISK2 (the most recent version of QRISK) is a prediction algorithm for cardiovascular disease (CVD) that uses traditional risk factors (age, systolic blood pressure, smoking status and ratio of total serum cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) together with body mass index, ethnicity, measures of deprivation, family history, chronic kidney disease, rheumatoid arthritis, atrial fibrillation, diabetes mellitus, and antihypertensive treatment.Maternal Health Task ForceNon-communicable disease: Non-communicable disease (NCD) is a medical condition or disease that is non-infectious or non-transmissible. NCDs can refer to chronic diseases which last for long periods of time and progress slowly.Psychiatric interview: The psychiatric interview refers to the set of tools that a mental health worker (most times a psychiatrist or a psychologist but at times social workers or nurses) uses to complete a psychiatric assessment.Bio Base EuropeMental disorderRegression dilution: Regression dilution, also known as regression attenuation, is the biasing of the regression slope towards zero (or the underestimation of its absolute value), caused by errors in the independent variable.Basic Occupational Health Services: The Basic Occupational Health Services are an application of the primary health care principles in the sector of occupational health. Primary health care definition can be found in the World Health Organization Alma Ata declaration from the year 1978 as the “essential health care based on practical scientifically sound and socially accepted methods, (…) it is the first level of contact of individuals, the family and community with the national health system bringing health care as close as possible to where people live and work (…)”.

(1/2513) Challenges in securing access to care for children.

Congressional approval of Title XXI of the Social Security Act, which created the State Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP), is a significant public effort to expand health insurance to children. Experience with the Medicaid program suggests that eligibility does not guarantee children's enrollment or their access to needed services. This paper develops an analytic framework and presents potential indicators to evaluate CHIP's performance and its impact on access, defined broadly to include access to health insurance and access to health services. It also presents options for moving beyond minimal monitoring to an evaluation strategy that would help to improve program outcomes. The policy considerations associated with such a strategy are also discussed.  (+info)

(2/2513) Assessing introduction of spinal anaesthesia for obstetric procedures.

To assess the impact of introducing spinal anaesthesia for obstetric operative procedures on use of general anaesthesia and quality of regional anaesthesia in a unit with an established epidural service a retrospective analysis of routinely collected data on method of anaesthesia, efficacy, and complications was carried out. Data were collected from 1988 to 1991 on 1670 obstetric patients requiring an operative procedure. The introduction of spinal anaesthesia in 1989 significantly reduced the proportion of operative procedures performed under general anaesthesia, from 60% (234/390) in 1988 to 30% (124/414) in 1991. The decrease was most pronounced for manual removal of the placenta (88%, 48/55 v 9%, 3/34) and emergency caesarean section (67%, 129/193) v 38%, 87/229). Epidural anaesthesia decreased in use most significantly for elective caesarean section (65%, 77/118 v 3% 3/113; x2=139, p<0.0001). The incidence of severe pain and need for conversion to general anaesthesia was significantly less with spinal anaesthesia (0%, 0/207 v 3%, 5/156; p<0.05). Hypotension was not a problem, and the incidence of headache after spinal anaesthetic decreased over the period studied. Introducing spinal anaesthesia therefore reduced the need for general anaesthesia and improved the quality of regional anaesthesia.  (+info)

(3/2513) Development of indicators for quality assurance in public health medicine.

OBJECTIVES: To develop structure, process, and outcome indicators within a quality rating index for audit of public health medicine. DESIGN: Development of an audit matrix and indicator of quality through a series of group discussions with public health physicians, from which self administered weighted questionnaires were constructed by a modified Delphi technique. SETTING: Five Scottish health boards. SUBJECTS: Public health physicians in the five health boards. MAIN MEASURES: Indicators of quality and a quality rating index for seven selected service categories for each of seven agreed roles of public health medicine: assessment of health and health care needs in information services, input into managerial decision making in health promotion, fostering multisectoral collaboration in environmental health services, health service research and evaluation for child services, lead responsibility for the development and/or running of screening services, and public health medicine training and staff development in communicable disease. RESULTS: Indicators in the form of questionnaires were developed for each topic. Three types of indicator emerged: "global," "restricted," and "specific." A quality rating index for each topic was developed on the basis of the questionnaire scores. Piloting of indicators showed that they are potentially generalisable; evaluation of the system is under way across all health boards in Scotland. CONCLUSION: Measurable indicators of quality for public health medicine can be developed.  (+info)

(4/2513) Quality: link with effectiveness.

In summary, though the notion of "quality of care" has become fashionable, most of the focus has been on initiatives such as the patient's charter, waiting times, quality of the physical environment, patient centredness in outcomes measurement, etc. Nevertheless, at the heart of quality must be the effectiveness and cost effectiveness of interventions. Without ensuring that health technologies are effective and are delivered appropriately then many of the other dimensions of quality may simply be window dressing. Substantial variations in the rates of procedures, the way in which similar patients are treated, and the degree to which professionals often ignore the best scientific evidence have all been well documented. The NHS needs methods for ensuring that the effectiveness dimension of quality is brought to the fore and becomes a routine part of quality assessment and activity. Clinical autonomy can no longer be an excuse for inappropriate care. The challenge for the future is twofold: to increase the amount of health technology assessment carried out and to develop methods of ensuring that health care converges with this best practice--that is, the promotion of evidence based practice. By introducing evidence based clinical guidelines and associated utilisation review and persuading purchasers to "purchase protocols" rather than just procedures the effectiveness dimension may become more routine, but it will require a radical rethink of the type of data collected and the way in which the purchaser provider split is managed.  (+info)

(5/2513) The feasibility and cost of a large multicentre audit of process and outcome of prostatectomy.

Objective--To determine the feasibility of performing multicentre process and outcome audits of common interventions taking prostatic procedures as an example. Design--Prospective, cohort study. Setting--All National Health Service and independent hospitals in Northern, Wessex, Mersey, and South West Thames health regions. Patients--5361 men undergoing prostatectomy identified by 103 of the 107 urologists and general surgeons performing prostatectomy in the study regions. Main measures-- Rates of participation by surgeons and patients; completeness of clinical data provided by surgeons; patient response rate and completeness of patient derived data; and cost. Results--Most surgeons (103,96%) agreed to participate. Overall, the proportion of eligible patients invited to take part was high (89%), although this was only measured in South West Thames, where dedicated data collectors were employed. Few men (80, 1.5%) declined to participate. Of those surviving for three months after surgery, 82.4% (4226) completed and returned the postal questionnaire. The response rate was higher in South West Thames (86.7%) than in the other regions (80.6%-80.8%). The audit was well received: 91% of patients found the questionnaire easy to complete and only 2.3% of them disapproved. Completeness of data was high with both the hospital and patient questionnaires. Missing data occurred in less than 5% of responses to most questions. The attributable cost was 34.50 pounds per patient identified or 44 pounds for patients in whom either the treatment outcome or vital status was known three months after their prostatectomy. Conclusions--This multicentre audit of process and outcome of prostatectomy proved feasible in terms of surgeon participation, patient identification, and the quantity and quality of data collection. Whether the cost was warranted will depend on how surgeons use the audit data to modify their practice.  (+info)

(6/2513) Admission and adjustment of residents in homes for the elderly.

This paper discusses the relationship between psychological variables, a brief cognitive measure and a behavioural rating scale, and the subsequent adjustment of a group of elderly people newly admitted to a social services home for the elderly. It shows that, in this sample, three groups can be identified: a fairly independent group of people who show no apparent deterioration in functioning during the first year of admission; a more dependent group who show loss of functioning during the same period; and a third group who show an immediate negative effect from admission, and who have a poor outcome. We comment on the lack of evidence in support of a general negative relocation effect, and on the value of the procedures used.  (+info)

(7/2513) Managing asthma care.

This activity is designed for physicians, medical directors, and healthcare policy makers. GOAL: To provide the reader with the tools needed to monitor and manage the care of all enrollees with asthma. OBJECTIVES: 1. Become familiar with a health maintenance organization (HMO)-wide data collection system. 2. Learn the essential elements of asthma care for patients. 3. Learn how to track the implementation of these elements in various HMO settings.  (+info)

(8/2513) Impact of managed care on quality of healthcare: theory and evidence.

Each strategy for managing healthcare risk has important and unique implications for the patient-provider relationship and for quality of care. Not only are different incentive structures created by different risk-sharing arrangements, but these incentives differ from those in a fee-for-service environment. With fee-for-service and traditional indemnity insurance, physicians have incentives to provide healthcare services of marginal value to the patient; under managed care, physicians have fewer incentives to provide marginally beneficial services. However, the impact of financial arrangements on quality of care remains ambiguous, because it depends on the strategic behavior of physicians with regard to their informational advantage over their patients. Using the framework of an agency theory model, we surveyed the current scientific literature to assess the impact of managed care on quality of care. We considered three different dimensions of quality of care: patient satisfaction, clinical process and outcomes of care measures, and resource utilization. Although we found no systematic differences in patient satisfaction and clinical process and outcomes between managed care and fee-for-service plans, resource utilization appears to be decreased under managed care arrangements. Given the strengths and weaknesses of fee-for-service and managed care, it is unlikely that either will displace the other as the exclusive mechanism for arranging health insurance contracts. Policy makers may be able to take advantage of the strengths of both fee-for-service and managed care financial arrangements.  (+info)


  • Early neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) discharge has been advocated for selected preterm infants to reduce both the adverse environment of prolonged hospital stay and to encourage earlier parental involvement by empowering parents to contribute to the ongoing care of their infant, and thereby reducing costs of care. (
  • Developmentally centered care, use of nutritional supplements pre- and postdischarge, hearing screening programs, evaluation for retinopathy of prematurity, evaluation for apnea and bradycardia events, and cardiopulmonary stability while in a car seat all influence timing of discharge. (
  • Several professional guidelines are summarized, and standards of care as related to discharge of premature infants are reviewed. (
  • Complete data sets at admission and discharge were collected for 523 client self-report and 372 parent assessments. (
  • From experience, many families encounter mistakes by the NHS when it comes to the proper NHS Continuing Healthcare funding assessments prior to hospital discharge. (


  • AIM: To describe the characteristics, outcomes and treatment complications of patients with pulmonary embolism (PE) who were treated at home and as outpatients in an ambulatory care program. (
  • OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this work was to assess a quality improvement initiative to implement a potentially better practice, bubble continuous positive airway pressure, to reduce bronchopulmonary dysplasia and improve other pulmonary outcomes among very low birth weight infants with respiratory distress syndrome. (
  • Pulmonary outcomes compared for the 2 time periods included receipt of mechanical ventilation, duration of mechanical ventilation, pneumothoraces, and incidence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia. (
  • There were no significant differences in other pulmonary or nonpulmonary outcomes, with the exception of mild retinopathy of prematurity (stage I or II), which was more common during period 2. (


  • Insurance parity and outpatient care following a psychiatric hospitalization. (
  • Insurance parity and the use of outpatient mental health care following a psychiatric hospitalization. (
  • Seen from a health insurance provider's perspective, the assessment of the Austrian diabetes DMP shows promising results indicating improved quality of outpatient care as well as overall cost advantages due to the lower hospitalization rates. (

outpatient care

  • Patients enrolled in the diabetes DMP received a more evolved pattern of outpatient care, featuring higher numbers of services provided by general practitioners and specialists (79 vs. 62), more diagnostic services (22 vs. 15) as well as more services provided by outpatient care centers (9 vs. 6) in line with increased levels of participation in medical assessments as recommended by the treatment guideline in 2009. (


  • Infants at both time periods were similar with respect to characteristics and aspects of perinatal care. (


  • Thus, because of the increase in the percentage of low birth weight infants in the US, there remain opportunities to improve on variations in care that will be translated to fewer NICU days in hospitals for selected infants. (
  • Studies had to report on postoperative mortality or survival as an outcome and had to describe multiple hospitals or surgeons. (
  • Many people working in hospitals and care homes often seem unaware of NHS Continuing Healthcare and the requirement for a fair and proper assessment. (


  • The aim of this study is to define a framework to help researchers to develop and evaluate clinical interventions focused on QoL assessment in PC. (
  • A study group of experts in PC and in research methodology was set up to define a framework that would describe the principles of clinical interventions focused on QoL assessment in PC. (
  • The WHO Screening Principles framework was used to outline the eleven essential principles to be considered in developing and/or evaluating clinical interventions focused on QoL assessment in PC. (


  • This publication reports the results of an outcome assessment for adolescent clients who received treatment in seven participating OBH programs that averaged 45 days in length from May 1, 2000 to December 1, 2000. (


  • The OASIS tool was developed for the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) by the University of Colorado's Center for Health Policy Research and is intended to be part of a comprehensive assessment process. (


  • Outdoor behavioral healthcare (OBH) is an emerging treatment that utilizes wilderness therapy to help adolescents struggling with behavioral and emotional problems. (

systematic reviews

  • Two systematic reviews [ 17 , 18 ] concluded that QoL assessment is feasible in clinical trials and has the potential of providing valuable outcomes to further support clinical decision-making. (


  • The automated transmission of the OASIS items is one of the conditions of participation in the Medicare and Medicaid programs for Home Health Agencies as well as Visiting Nurse Associations providing non-maternity, adult home care services. (
  • Considering the current low participation rates in the DMP and the question of further promotion of the program, it is of particular interest for health insurance providers in Austria to assess whether enrollment in the DMP leads to differences in the pattern of the provision of in- and outpatient services, as well as to the subsequent costs in order to determine overall program efficiency. (


  • To assess the hospital/surgeon volume-outcome relationship for radical cystectomy for bladder cancer. (

Registered Nurse RN

  • 8 Registered Nurse (RN) - Cath Lab - Alaska - 126286 Alaska, AK, USA DELTA HEALTHCARE PROVIDERS - PERMANENT PLACEMENT Unique to the industry, your Delta Healthcare Providers recruiter has personally visited this facility and has met with the hiring manager. (


  • METHODS: Retrospective descriptive study of patients with PE who were treated in the ambulatory care unit during 2003. (
  • METHODS: An initiative to implement the use of bubble continuous positive airway pressure is described that was based on the adoption of habits for change, collaborative learning, evidence-based practice, and process development. (


  • 13 Ultrasound Tech - 13 Week Contract Anchorage, AK, USA MedPro has significant healthcare leadership experience and we understand what it takes to move your career forward. (


  • Historic cohort study comparing average annual levels of in- and outpatient health services utilization and its associated costs for patients enrolled and not enrolled in the DMP before (2006) and 2 years after (2009) the implementation of the program in Austria. (

clinical practice

  • A procedure of QoL assessment in clinical practice can be defined as a clinical intervention focused on QoL assessment. (


  • Data collected included demographic and clinical data, standard clinical indicators of unplanned admission during treatment program, incidence of major bleeding, recurrent venous thromboembolism (VTE), and death within 3 months of admission into the ambulatory care program. (
  • Although the outcome is good in most patients, a significant proportion will require admission, emphasising the need for a well defined protocol and close medical supervision. (


  • 14 Physical Therapist (PT) - Home Health Ketchikan, AK, USA Our Therapists work in collaboration with the patient care team including Clinical Specialists, Physicians, Nurses, Medical Social Workers, Care Managers, and other health care professionals. (


  • Ambulatory care unit data and medical record information were reviewed. (


  • The Austrian diabetes disease management program (DMP) was introduced in 2007 in order to improve health care delivery for diabetics via the promotion of treatment according to guidelines. (
  • Consequently, diabetes poses a substantial burden on health care systems not only due to the fact of lifelong treatment and the subsequent more frequent use of health care services, but also due to severe long-term sequelae as well as complications associated with unmanaged diabetes, such as adult blindness, amputations of extremities, cardiovascular diseases. (
  • As the treatment of (severe) diabetes usually involves lifelong therapy with anti-diabetic medication and/or the injection of insulin as well as regular monitoring of the patients' health status and subsequent patient involvement, diabetes disease management programs (DMPs) have been developed in most health systems of industrialized countries. (


  • Further study will more closely define at-risk patients and refine the care pathways. (
  • A significant number (43 patients) arrived at the ED without prior notification being received by ED staff, a proportion (7 patients) warranting resuscitation room assessment. (
  • Of the 23 patients that warranted assessment in the resuscitation room 10 were unaccompanied by a Doctor and 5 were unaccompanied by either a Doctor or a Nurse. (
  • There continues to be problems with the quality of care that these patients receive. (
  • Clinicians must be actively involved in the development of regional transfer protocols and interfacility agreements to ensure the safe transfer of patients to definitive care. (
  • Soldotna, AK, USA PACU RN's provide effective communication to patient/family, team members, and other healthcare professionals for all PACU patients. (
  • OASIS (Outcomes Assessment Information Set) is a set of core assessment items for adult home care patients from which quality-based outcome measurements may be derived. (
  • Overall, increases in costs of care and medication throughout the study period were lower for enrolled patients (€ 718 vs. € 1.684), resulting in overall costs of € 5,393 p.c. for DMP patients and € 6,416 p.c. for the control group in 2009. (


  • Translational research has been present and ongoing for decades and yet, in spite of The National Institutes of Health promoting this bench-to-bedside approach since 2006, its adoption by the professions of speech-language pathology and audiology has been relatively scant and mostly individually approached. (
  • For practicing clinicians, researchers, and students taking research seminars, Translational Speech-Language Pathology and Audiology examines the broad fields of laboratory, clinical, and public health research. (

Public Health

  • Medicine & Public Health. (
  • This information is provided by the Division of Health Care Facility Licensure and Certification within the Department of Public Health . (


  • If you select a health category rather than a specific study, doctors who have active studies in that area may contact you to ask if you would like to participate. (
  • Publication bias was assessed and was not detected with hospital volume, although the meaningfulness of this assessment was questionable as there were fewer than 10 studies. (
  • This paper presents a procedure for the statistical analysis of cost-effectiveness data, with specific application to those studies for which effectiveness is measured as a binary outcome. (


  • Does quality of life assessment in palliative care look like a complex screening program? (
  • Palliative Care (PC) is an approach that improves the Quality of Life (QoL). (



  • Follow-up assessments using a random sample of clients found that on average, outcomes had been maintained at 12-months posttreatment. (


  • With regard to contents and the format of the principles, discussions occurred among the study group members through a cognitive process. (

mental health

  • In V. S. Ramachaudran (Ed.), Encyclopedia of mental health . (

Long Term

  • 15 Registered Nurse: Long Term Care Hoonah, AK, USA Protouch Staffing is one of the leading healthcare staffing companies in the US. (

standards of c

  • Interdisciplinary and cross-disciplinary in scope, it aims to expedite the translation of related discoveries into new and improved standards of care. (


  • The outcomes of the proposal assessment process are also highlighted, along with the associated potential impact of the device in the hygiene and healthcare sectors. (



  • The Checklist is the first stage of the NHS Continuing Healthcare assessment. (
  • If you disagree with the outcome of the Checklist, you can request that it is done again or you can also insist that your relative goes through to stage two, the full assessment, anyway. (
  • However, a local authority representative or social worker must be involved in the full assessment (stage two). (


  • However health and social care authorities often provide misleading information to families about the process and the assessment criteria. (
  • We reviewed each of the WHO Population Screening Principles and adapted them to QoL assessment, taking into account the defined criteria. (


  • You should be given reasonable notice of any assessment meetings and full information about the process so you can understand the reasoning for the outcome. (


  • This is because the local authority must look at whether or not the care is beyond the legal remit they can provide. (


  • If a person has sufficient health needs, then the NHS are responsible for covering the entire cost of care including accommodation. (