Otorhinolaryngologic Neoplasms: A general concept for tumors or cancer of any part of the EAR; the NOSE; the THROAT; and the PHARYNX. It is used when there is no specific heading.Otorhinolaryngologic Diseases: Pathological processes of the ear, the nose, and the throat, also known as the ENT diseases.Bankruptcy: The state of legal insolvency with assets taken over by judicial process so that they may be distributed among creditors.Otorhinolaryngologic Surgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the ear and its parts, the nose and nasal cavity, or the throat, including surgery of the adenoids, tonsils, pharynx, and trachea.
(1/51) Use of wood stoves and risk of cancers of the upper aero-digestive tract: a case-control study.
BACKGROUND: Incidence rates for cancers of the upper aero-digestive tract in Southern Brazil are among the highest in the world. A case-control study was designed to identify the main risk factors for carcinomas of mouth, pharynx, and larynx in the region. We tested the hypothesis of whether use of wood stoves is associated with these cancers. METHODS: Information on known and potential risk factors was obtained from interviews with 784 cases and 1568 non-cancer controls. We estimated the effect of use of wood stove by conditional logistic regression, with adjustment for smoking, alcohol consumption and for other sociodemographic and dietary variables chosen as empirical confounders based on a change-in-estimate criterion. RESULTS: After extensive adjustment for all the empirical confounders the odds ratio (OR) for all upper aero-digestive tract cancers was 2.68 (95% confidence interval [CI] : 2.2-3.3). Increased risks were also seen in site-specific analyses for mouth (OR = 2.73; 95% CI: 1.8-4.2), pharyngeal (OR = 3.82; 95% CI: 2.0-7.4), and laryngeal carcinomas (OR = 2.34; 95% CI: 1.2-4.7). Significant risk elevations remained for each of the three anatomic sites and for all sites combined even after we purposefully biased the analyses towards the null hypothesis by adjusting the effect of wood stove use only for positive empirical confounders. CONCLUSIONS: The association of use of wood stoves with cancers of the upper aero-digestive tract is genuine and unlikely to result from insufficient control of confounding. Due to its high prevalence, use of wood stoves may be linked to as many as 30% of all cancers occurring in the region. (+info)
(2/51) Nodal volume reduction after concurrent chemo- and radiotherapy: correlation between initial CT and histopathologic findings.
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The role of concurrent chemoradiation for treatment of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma is expanding. We sought to evaluate the CT appearance of diseased and normal cervical lymph nodes before and after concurrent chemoradiation and to correlate lymph node volume reduction as revealed by CT with histopathologic findings of resected nodes. METHODS: Using concurrent chemoradiation, we treated seven patients with locally advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Our chemotherapeutic regimen consisted of cisplatin (100 mg/m2 body surface area administered on days 1 through 4 and 29 through 32) and 5-fluorouracil (1000 mg/m2 body surface area, administered on days 1 through 4 and 29 through 32). Radiotherapy was administered twice per day on dosing days 1 through 42 to a total dose of 7200 cGy to the primary tumor and 6000 cGy to the involved lymph nodes. Pre- and post-treatment CT scans were used to calculate lymph node volumes for all CT-positive (size criteria or extracapsular spread or both) diseased nodes (n = 19) and one normal node per patient (n = 7). Volume reduction was determined by CT results and correlated with the histopathologic findings of resected nodes. RESULTS: Average volume reduction (+/- standard error of the mean) for the 19 diseased nodes was 91%+/-4% and for the seven normal nodes was 55%+/-21% (P < .02, two-sided t test). Fifteen of 19 of the diseased lymph nodes showed extracapsular spread before treatment and none of 19 after treatment. The histopathologic findings of resected nodes included persistent tumor in one of the 19 diseased lymph nodes. Six of seven patients remained alive and disease-free, with an average follow-up duration of 24 months. CONCLUSION: Nodal volume reduction of greater than 90% was associated with eradication of tumor as assessed by histopathologic analysis of resected nodes. Serial CT scans obtained both before and after concurrent chemoradiation may be useful for predicting which patients will benefit from adjuvant surgical therapy. (+info)
(3/51) Assessment of metastatic cervical adenopathy using dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging.
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Morphologic assessment by conventional imaging methods of lymph node metastases in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck is, at best, insensitive. Doppler sonography has shown that lymph node metastases exhibit alterations in the number of vessels and blood flow. We assessed the ability of dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging to differentiate normal from diseased nodes in this patient population. METHODS: Twenty-one patients with newly diagnosed squamous cell carcinoma and no previous treatment were studied with the use of a head and neck phased array surface coil. Anatomic imaging included high resolution T1-weighted, fat-saturated fast spin-echo T2-weighted, and contrast-enhanced T1-weighted imaging (0.99-1.32 mm(3) voxels). The dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging was performed by using a 2D fast spoiled gradient recalled sequence with single dose bolus injection of contrast agent. Calculated values included time to peak, peak enhancement, maximum slope, and washout slope for the enhancement. All patients underwent neck dissection as part of their indicated treatment, and imaging results were correlated with pathologic findings. RESULTS: Dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging and pathology comparisons were obtained for 68 nodes. There was significantly longer time to peak (P <.001), lower peak enhancement (P <.05), lower maximum slope (P <.01), and slower washout slope (P <.05) in the tumor-involved nodes compared with the normal nodes. CONCLUSION: Analysis of dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging can differentiate normal from diseased lymph nodes in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. (+info)
(4/51) Discrimination of metastatic cervical lymph nodes with diffusion-weighted MR imaging in patients with head and neck cancer.
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Metastasis to the regional cervical lymph nodes may be associated with alterations in water diffusivity and microcirculation of the node. We tested whether diffusion-weighted MR imaging could discriminate metastatic nodes. METHODS: Diffusion-weighted echo-planar and T1- and T2-weighted MR imaging sequences were performed on histologically proved metastatic cervical lymph nodes (25 nodes), benign lymphadenopathy (25 nodes), and nodal lymphomas (five nodes). The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) was calculated by using two b factors (500 and 1000 s/mm(2)). RESULTS: The ADC was significantly greater in metastatic lymph nodes (0.410 +/- 0.105 x 10(-3) mm(2)/s, P <.01) than in benign lymphadenopathy (0.302 +/- 0.062 x 10(-3) mm(2)/s). Nodal lymphomas showed even lower levels of the ADC (0.223 +/- 0.056 x 10(-3) mm(2)/s). ADC criteria for metastatic nodes (>/= 0.400 x 10(-3) mm(2)/s) yielded a moderate negative predictive value (71%) and high positive predictive value (93%). Receiver operating characteristic analysis demonstrated that the criteria of abnormal signal intensity on T1- or T2-weighted images (A(z) = 0.8437 +/- 0.0230) and ADC (A(z) = 0.8440 +/- 0.0538) provided similar levels of diagnostic ability in differentiating metastatic nodes. The ADC from metastatic nodes from highly or moderately differentiated cancers (0.440 +/- 0.020 x 10(-3) mm(2)/s, P <.01) was significantly greater than that from poorly differentiated cancers (0.356 +/- 0.042 x 10(-3) mm(2)/s). CONCLUSION: Diffusion-weighted imaging is useful in discriminating metastatic nodes. (+info)
(5/51) Pediatric head and neck lesions: assessment of vascularity by MR digital subtraction angiography.
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Pediatric head and neck lesions can be difficult to characterize on clinical grounds alone. We investigated the use of dynamic MR digital subtraction angiography as a noninvasive adjunct for the assessment of the vascularity of these abnormalities. METHODS: Twelve patients (age range, 2 days to 16 years) with known or suspected vascular abnormalities were studied. Routine MR imaging, time-of-flight MR angiography, and MR digital subtraction angiography were performed in all patients. The dynamic sequence was acquired in two planes at one frame per second by using a thick section (6-10 cm) selective radio-frequency spoiled fast gradient-echo sequence and an IV administered bolus of contrast material. The images were subtracted from a preliminary mask sequence and viewed as a video-inverted cine loop. RESULTS: In all cases, MR digital subtraction angiography was successfully performed. The technique showed the following: 1) slow flow lesions (two choroidal angiomas, eyelid hemangioma, and scalp venous malformation); 2) high flow lesions that were not always suspected by clinical examination alone (parotid hemangioma, scalp, occipital, and eyelid arteriovenous malformations plus a palatal teratoma); 3) a hypovascular tumor for which a biopsy could be safely performed (Burkitt lymphoma); and 4) a hypervascular tumor of the palate (cystic teratoma). CONCLUSION: Our early experience suggests that MR digital subtraction angiography can be reliably performed in children of all ages without complication. The technique provided a noninvasive assessment of the vascularity of each lesion that could not always have been predicted on the basis of clinical examination or routine MR imaging alone. (+info)
(6/51) Estimation of relative blood volume in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas.
PURPOSE: MR based first-pass method can be utilized to obtain hemodynamic information in the head and neck region. The purpose of this study was to estimate the regional relative blood volume (rBV) in head and neck tumors, which is useful for tumor staging and tumor biopsy. METHODS: Eighteen patients with head and neck tumors (17 squamous cell carcinomas, 1 hemangiopericytoma) were studied on a 1.5-T system. Conventional T1-weighted MR images and T2-weighted images and sequential T2*-weighted images were obtained. During repetitive image sequence acquisition, a bolus (0.2 mmol/kg) of gadopentetate dimeglumine was mechanically injected. Image processing of the dynamic raw data was performed on a pixel-by-pixel basis. RESULTS: Regional relative blood volume maps of the head and neck were successfully reconstructed in all (18/18) patients. The regional relative blood volume values within the tumor area of squamous cell carcinoma were 7.0 +/- 2.8, normalized on muscle, whereas the rBV of a single hemangiopericytoma was 11.6. The difference of rBV values of tumor and muscle was highly significant at statistical evaluation (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Relative blood volume imaging of head and neck tumors is valid using MR-based first-pass method. This method provides hemodynamic information which is not available from conventional MR imaging and is promising for further characterization of head and neck tumors (+info)
(7/51) Complex head and neck specimens and neck dissections. How to handle them.
Dissecting surgical specimens from the upper aerodigestive tract is often difficult because of their complicated anatomy. The local environment dictates the routes of tumour spread and surgical margins at risk, and these features differ for various subsites within this part of the body. The examination of surgical specimens of the upper aerodigestive tract should disclose whether postoperative adjuvant treatment is needed and allow the evaluation of preoperatively performed diagnostic imaging. The aim of this article is to provide a concise guideline for the dissection of specimens from this part of the body. (+info)
(8/51) Influence of complementary Viscum album (Iscador) administration on microcirculation and immune system of ear, nose and throat carcinoma patients treated with radiation and chemotherapy.
With the techniques of vital microscopic and reflection spectrometric imaging, representative characteristics of microcirculation and immunology of white blood cells were evaluated before, during and after radiotherapy and chemotherapy of patients suffering from ear, nose and throat carcinomas. Adverse effects of radiotherapy and chemotherapy on the microcirculation and the immune system were decreased and reconstitution processes were accelerated by complementary administration of a standardized mistletoe extract (Iscador). (+info)