Osteoporosis: Reduction of bone mass without alteration in the composition of bone, leading to fractures. Primary osteoporosis can be of two major types: postmenopausal osteoporosis (OSTEOPOROSIS, POSTMENOPAUSAL) and age-related or senile osteoporosis.Osteoporosis, Postmenopausal: Metabolic disorder associated with fractures of the femoral neck, vertebrae, and distal forearm. It occurs commonly in women within 15-20 years after menopause, and is caused by factors associated with menopause including estrogen deficiency.Bone Density: The amount of mineral per square centimeter of BONE. This is the definition used in clinical practice. Actual bone density would be expressed in grams per milliliter. It is most frequently measured by X-RAY ABSORPTIOMETRY or TOMOGRAPHY, X RAY COMPUTED. Bone density is an important predictor for OSTEOPOROSIS.Bone Density Conservation Agents: Agents that inhibit BONE RESORPTION and/or favor BONE MINERALIZATION and BONE REGENERATION. They are used to heal BONE FRACTURES and to treat METABOLIC BONE DISEASES such as OSTEOPOROSIS.Osteoporotic Fractures: Breaks in bones resulting from low bone mass and microarchitectural deterioration characteristic of OSTEOPOROSIS.Fractures, Bone: Breaks in bones.Diphosphonates: Organic compounds which contain P-C-P bonds, where P stands for phosphonates or phosphonic acids. These compounds affect calcium metabolism. They inhibit ectopic calcification and slow down bone resorption and bone turnover. Technetium complexes of diphosphonates have been used successfully as bone scanning agents.Absorptiometry, Photon: A noninvasive method for assessing BODY COMPOSITION. It is based on the differential absorption of X-RAYS (or GAMMA RAYS) by different tissues such as bone, fat and other soft tissues. The source of (X-ray or gamma-ray) photon beam is generated either from radioisotopes such as GADOLINIUM 153, IODINE 125, or Americanium 241 which emit GAMMA RAYS in the appropriate range; or from an X-ray tube which produces X-RAYS in the desired range. It is primarily used for quantitating BONE MINERAL CONTENT, especially for the diagnosis of OSTEOPOROSIS, and also in measuring BONE MINERALIZATION.Fractures, Spontaneous: Fractures occurring as a result of disease of a bone or from some undiscoverable cause, and not due to trauma. (Dorland, 27th ed)Alendronate: A nonhormonal medication for the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis in women. This drug builds healthy bone, restoring some of the bone loss as a result of osteoporosis.Bone and Bones: A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.Bone Diseases, MetabolicTeriparatide: A polypeptide that consists of the 1-34 amino-acid fragment of human PARATHYROID HORMONE, the biologically active N-terminal region. The acetate form is given by intravenous infusion in the differential diagnosis of HYPOPARATHYROIDISM and PSEUDOHYPOPARATHYROIDISM. (Reynolds JEF(Ed): Martindale: The Extra Pharmacopoeia (electronic version). Micromedex, Inc, Englewood, CO, 1995)Spinal Fractures: Broken bones in the vertebral column.Etidronic Acid: A diphosphonate which affects calcium metabolism. It inhibits ectopic calcification and slows down bone resorption and bone turnover.Bone Remodeling: The continuous turnover of BONE MATRIX and mineral that involves first an increase in BONE RESORPTION (osteoclastic activity) and later, reactive BONE FORMATION (osteoblastic activity). The process of bone remodeling takes place in the adult skeleton at discrete foci. The process ensures the mechanical integrity of the skeleton throughout life and plays an important role in calcium HOMEOSTASIS. An imbalance in the regulation of bone remodeling's two contrasting events, bone resorption and bone formation, results in many of the metabolic bone diseases, such as OSTEOPOROSIS.Bone Resorption: Bone loss due to osteoclastic activity.Femur Neck: The constricted portion of the thigh bone between the femur head and the trochanters.Lumbar Vertebrae: VERTEBRAE in the region of the lower BACK below the THORACIC VERTEBRAE and above the SACRAL VERTEBRAE.Hip Fractures: Fractures of the FEMUR HEAD; the FEMUR NECK; (FEMORAL NECK FRACTURES); the trochanters; or the inter- or subtrochanteric region. Excludes fractures of the acetabulum and fractures of the femoral shaft below the subtrochanteric region (FEMORAL FRACTURES).Raloxifene: A second generation selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) used to prevent osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. It has estrogen agonist effects on bone and cholesterol metabolism but behaves as a complete estrogen antagonist on mammary gland and uterine tissue.Femur: The longest and largest bone of the skeleton, it is situated between the hip and the knee.Osteoclasts: A large multinuclear cell associated with the BONE RESORPTION. An odontoclast, also called cementoclast, is cytomorphologically the same as an osteoclast and is involved in CEMENTUM resorption.Calcaneus: The largest of the TARSAL BONES which is situated at the lower and back part of the FOOT, forming the HEEL.Calcium, Dietary: Calcium compounds used as food supplements or in food to supply the body with calcium. Dietary calcium is needed during growth for bone development and for maintenance of skeletal integrity later in life to prevent osteoporosis.Osteoblasts: Bone-forming cells which secrete an EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. HYDROXYAPATITE crystals are then deposited into the matrix to form bone.Vitamin D: A vitamin that includes both CHOLECALCIFEROLS and ERGOCALCIFEROLS, which have the common effect of preventing or curing RICKETS in animals. It can also be viewed as a hormone since it can be formed in SKIN by action of ULTRAVIOLET RAYS upon the precursors, 7-dehydrocholesterol and ERGOSTEROL, and acts on VITAMIN D RECEPTORS to regulate CALCIUM in opposition to PARATHYROID HORMONE.Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators: A structurally diverse group of compounds distinguished from ESTROGENS by their ability to bind and activate ESTROGEN RECEPTORS but act as either an agonist or antagonist depending on the tissue type and hormonal milieu. They are classified as either first generation because they demonstrate estrogen agonist properties in the ENDOMETRIUM or second generation based on their patterns of tissue specificity. (Horm Res 1997;48:155-63)Glucocorticoids: A group of CORTICOSTEROIDS that affect carbohydrate metabolism (GLUCONEOGENESIS, liver glycogen deposition, elevation of BLOOD SUGAR), inhibit ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE secretion, and possess pronounced anti-inflammatory activity. They also play a role in fat and protein metabolism, maintenance of arterial blood pressure, alteration of the connective tissue response to injury, reduction in the number of circulating lymphocytes, and functioning of the central nervous system.Spine: The spinal or vertebral column.Osteogenesis: The process of bone formation. Histogenesis of bone including ossification.Calcitonin: A peptide hormone that lowers calcium concentration in the blood. In humans, it is released by thyroid cells and acts to decrease the formation and absorptive activity of osteoclasts. Its role in regulating plasma calcium is much greater in children and in certain diseases than in normal adults.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Osteocalcin: Vitamin K-dependent calcium-binding protein synthesized by OSTEOBLASTS and found primarily in BONES. Serum osteocalcin measurements provide a noninvasive specific marker of bone metabolism. The protein contains three residues of the amino acid gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla), which, in the presence of CALCIUM, promotes binding to HYDROXYAPATITE and subsequent accumulation in BONE MATRIX.Hip: The projecting part on each side of the body, formed by the side of the pelvis and the top portion of the femur.RANK Ligand: A transmembrane protein belonging to the tumor necrosis factor superfamily that specifically binds RECEPTOR ACTIVATOR OF NUCLEAR FACTOR-KAPPA B and OSTEOPROTEGERIN. It plays an important role in regulating OSTEOCLAST differentiation and activation.Ovariectomy: The surgical removal of one or both ovaries.Estrogen Replacement Therapy: The use of hormonal agents with estrogen-like activity in postmenopausal or other estrogen-deficient women to alleviate effects of hormone deficiency, such as vasomotor symptoms, DYSPAREUNIA, and progressive development of OSTEOPOROSIS. This may also include the use of progestational agents in combination therapy.Parathyroid Hormone: A polypeptide hormone (84 amino acid residues) secreted by the PARATHYROID GLANDS which performs the essential role of maintaining intracellular CALCIUM levels in the body. Parathyroid hormone increases intracellular calcium by promoting the release of CALCIUM from BONE, increases the intestinal absorption of calcium, increases the renal tubular reabsorption of calcium, and increases the renal excretion of phosphates.Bone Diseases: Diseases of BONES.Osteoprotegerin: A secreted member of the TNF receptor superfamily that negatively regulates osteoclastogenesis. It is a soluble decoy receptor of RANK LIGAND that inhibits both CELL DIFFERENTIATION and function of OSTEOCLASTS by inhibiting the interaction between RANK LIGAND and RECEPTOR ACTIVATOR OF NUCLEAR FACTOR-KAPPA B.Densitometry: The measurement of the density of a material by measuring the amount of light or radiation passing through (or absorbed by) the material.Ilium: The largest of three bones that make up each half of the pelvic girdle.Alkaline Phosphatase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC Falls: Falls due to slipping or tripping which may result in injury.Postmenopause: The physiological period following the MENOPAUSE, the permanent cessation of the menstrual life.Radius: The outer shorter of the two bones of the FOREARM, lying parallel to the ULNA and partially revolving around it.Collagen Type I: The most common form of fibrillar collagen. It is a major constituent of bone (BONE AND BONES) and SKIN and consists of a heterotrimer of two alpha1(I) and one alpha2(I) chains.Spinal Injuries: Injuries involving the vertebral column.Osteomalacia: Disorder caused by an interruption of the mineralization of organic bone matrix leading to bone softening, bone pain, and weakness. It is the adult form of rickets resulting from disruption of VITAMIN D; PHOSPHORUS; or CALCIUM homeostasis.Metacarpus: The region of the HAND between the WRIST and the FINGERS.Jaw DiseasesForearm Injuries: Injuries to the part of the upper limb of the body between the wrist and elbow.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Estrogens: Compounds that interact with ESTROGEN RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of ESTRADIOL. Estrogens stimulate the female reproductive organs, and the development of secondary female SEX CHARACTERISTICS. Estrogenic chemicals include natural, synthetic, steroidal, or non-steroidal compounds.Menopause: The last menstrual period. Permanent cessation of menses (MENSTRUATION) is usually defined after 6 to 12 months of AMENORRHEA in a woman over 45 years of age. In the United States, menopause generally occurs in women between 48 and 55 years of age.Bone Development: The growth and development of bones from fetus to adult. It includes two principal mechanisms of bone growth: growth in length of long bones at the epiphyseal cartilages and growth in thickness by depositing new bone (OSTEOGENESIS) with the actions of OSTEOBLASTS and OSTEOCLASTS.Tibia: The second longest bone of the skeleton. It is located on the medial side of the lower leg, articulating with the FIBULA laterally, the TALUS distally, and the FEMUR proximally.Femoral Neck Fractures: Fractures of the short, constricted portion of the thigh bone between the femur head and the trochanters. It excludes intertrochanteric fractures which are HIP FRACTURES.Minerals: Native, inorganic or fossilized organic substances having a definite chemical composition and formed by inorganic reactions. They may occur as individual crystals or may be disseminated in some other mineral or rock. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Fractures, Compression: Crumbling or smashing of cancellous BONE by forces acting parallel to the long axis of bone. It is applied particularly to vertebral body fractures (SPINAL FRACTURES). (Blauvelt and Nelson, A Manual of Orthopedic Terminology, 1994, p4)Mass Screening: Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.Cathepsin K: A cysteine protease that is highly expressed in OSTEOCLASTS and plays an essential role in BONE RESORPTION as a potent EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX-degrading enzyme.Men: Human males as cultural, psychological, sociological, political, and economic entities.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Thoracic Vertebrae: A group of twelve VERTEBRAE connected to the ribs that support the upper trunk region.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Calcification, Physiologic: Process by which organic tissue becomes hardened by the physiologic deposit of calcium salts.Hormone Replacement Therapy: Therapeutic use of hormones to alleviate the effects of hormone deficiency.Anabolic Agents: These compounds stimulate anabolism and inhibit catabolism. They stimulate the development of muscle mass, strength, and power.Osteonecrosis: Death of a bone or part of a bone, either atraumatic or posttraumatic.Back Pain: Acute or chronic pain located in the posterior regions of the THORAX; LUMBOSACRAL REGION; or the adjacent regions.Endocrine System Diseases: Pathological processes of the ENDOCRINE GLANDS, and diseases resulting from abnormal level of available HORMONES.Microradiography: Production of a radiographic image of a small or very thin object on fine-grained photographic film under conditions which permit subsequent microscopic examination or enlargement of the radiograph at linear magnifications of up to several hundred and with a resolution approaching the resolving power of the photographic emulsion (about 1000 lines per millimeter).ThiophenesHip Joint: The joint that is formed by the articulation of the head of FEMUR and the ACETABULUM of the PELVIS.Vitamin D Deficiency: A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN D in the diet, insufficient production of vitamin D in the skin, inadequate absorption of vitamin D from the diet, or abnormal conversion of vitamin D to its bioactive metabolites. It is manifested clinically as RICKETS in children and OSTEOMALACIA in adults. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1406)Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Low Density Lipoprotein Receptor-Related Protein-5: LDL-receptor related protein that combines with FRIZZLED RECEPTORS at the cell surface to form receptors that bind WNT PROTEINS. The protein plays an important role in the WNT SIGNALING PATHWAY in OSTEOBLASTS and during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Bone Demineralization, Pathologic: Decrease, loss, or removal of the mineral constituents of bones. Temporary loss of bone mineral content is especially associated with space flight, weightlessness, and extended immobilization. OSTEOPOROSIS is permanent, includes reduction of total bone mass, and is associated with increased rate of fractures. CALCIFICATION, PHYSIOLOGIC is the process of bone remineralizing. (From Dorland, 27th ed; Stedman, 25th ed; Nicogossian, Space Physiology and Medicine, 2d ed, pp327-33)Femoral Fractures: Fractures of the femur.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)X-Ray Microtomography: X-RAY COMPUTERIZED TOMOGRAPHY with resolution in the micrometer range.Osteocytes: Mature osteoblasts that have become embedded in the BONE MATRIX. They occupy a small cavity, called lacuna, in the matrix and are connected to adjacent osteocytes via protoplasmic projections called canaliculi.Dietary Supplements: Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide dietary ingredients, and that are intended to be taken by mouth to increase the intake of nutrients. Dietary supplements can include macronutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and/or MICRONUTRIENTS, such as VITAMINS; MINERALS; and PHYTOCHEMICALS.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Kyphosis: Deformities of the SPINE characterized by an exaggerated convexity of the vertebral column. The forward bending of the thoracic region usually is more than 40 degrees. This deformity sometimes is called round back or hunchback.Hypogonadism: Condition resulting from deficient gonadal functions, such as GAMETOGENESIS and the production of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES. It is characterized by delay in GROWTH, germ cell maturation, and development of secondary sex characteristics. Hypogonadism can be due to a deficiency of GONADOTROPINS (hypogonadotropic hypogonadism) or due to primary gonadal failure (hypergonadotropic hypogonadism).Spinal DiseasesReceptor Activator of Nuclear Factor-kappa B: A tumor necrosis factor receptor family member that is specific for RANK LIGAND and plays a role in bone homeostasis by regulating osteoclastogenesis. It is also expressed on DENDRITIC CELLS where it plays a role in regulating dendritic cell survival. Signaling by the activated receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.Minority Health: The concept covering the physical and mental conditions of members of minority groups.Cholecalciferol: Derivative of 7-dehydroxycholesterol formed by ULTRAVIOLET RAYS breaking of the C9-C10 bond. It differs from ERGOCALCIFEROL in having a single bond between C22 and C23 and lacking a methyl group at C24.Hydroxycholecalciferols: Hydroxy analogs of vitamin D 3; (CHOLECALCIFEROL); including CALCIFEDIOL; CALCITRIOL; and 24,25-DIHYDROXYVITAMIN D 3.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.

*  osteoporosis | medicine | Britannica.com

Osteoporosis is the most common metabolic bone disease, and... ... osteoporosis: Disease characterized by the thinning of bones, ... In most cases, osteoporosis can be prevented. The most effective measures for preventing osteoporosis include good nutrition ... Osteoporosis, disease characterized by the thinning of bones, with a consequent tendency to sustain fractures from minor ... Most patients with osteoporosis have no symptoms, though some patients have back pain. As the thoracic vertebrae become ...

*  Osteoporosis Drugs Linked to Rare Fractures

Osteoporosis drugs known as bisphosphonates may increase the risk of rare, but painful thigh bone fractures, and their labeling ... Osteoporosis Drugs Linked to Rare Fractures. Panel Wants Bisphosphonates to Have Labels Warning of Risk of Femur Fracture ... "Many physicians in the world of osteoporosis have suspected this for a while," says Linda A. Russell, MD, an assistant ... Sept 14, 2010 -- Popular osteoporosis drugs known as bisphosphonates may increase the risk of rare, but painful thigh bone ...

*  Juvenile osteoporosis definition | Drugs.com

Definition of juvenile osteoporosis. Provided by Stedman's medical dictionary and Drugs.com. Includes medical terms and ... juvenile osteoporosis. Definition: idiopathic osteoporosis with onset before puberty, leading to pain or fractures, with ...

*  Is Osteoporosis Hereditary? - Osteoporosis | HealthCentral

I have a family member that was diagnosed with osteoporosis. Is it hereditary? Ther... ... There are a variety of reasons that family members can be affected by osteoporosis. This can be simple due to the similar small ... Reader Question: I have a family member that was diagnosed with osteoporosis. Is it hereditary? ...

*  Osteoporosis slideshows | www.healthcentral.com

Find slideshows about Osteoporosis

*  Bear bones hint at treatment for osteoporosis | New Scientist

... a finding that is stimulating the search for new treatments for osteoporosis. ...

*  Osteoporosis - iHerb.com

Osteoporosis indicates loss of bone density. There are many factors that accelerate bone loss, such as smoking, alcohol, low ...

*  Tips for Winter Exercise - Osteoporosis | HealthCentral

Pam is a patient educator and digital health writer who has worked for Remedy Health Media on their osteoporosis web site since ... Pam is also a group leader and moderator with the National Osteoporosis Foundation Inspire online community since 2012, ...

*  Top Ten Osteoporosis Exercises - Osteoporosis | HealthCentral

Top Ten Osteoporosis Exercises When we are diagnosed with osteoporosis we're told to include weight ... ... Sources: Exercises from the National Osteoporosis Foundation 2010. Video from the National Osteoporosis Society, United Kingdom ... Many of us love to dance, so we've included a video below from the National Osteoporosis Society in the United Kingdom on " ... When we are diagnosed with osteoporosis we're told to include weight bearing exercises in our bone loss treatment plan. So what ...

*  Osteoporosis: Health Related News Stories Archive

Osteoporosis: Health Related News Stories Archive

*  orbital cavity - Bone Disease

Osteoporosis risk factors are grouped under two headings:a major osteoporosis risk factor and a minor osteoporosis risk factor. Causes and risk factors of osteoporosis. Major osteoporosis risk factor. Low bone density is the most ...

*  Repositório do Centro Hospitalar de Lisboa Central, EPE: Osteoporosis in Paediatric Patients with Spina Bifida

The prevalence andmorbidity associated with osteoporosis and fractures in patients with spina bifida (SB) highlight the importance of osteoporosis prevention and treatment in early childhood; however, the issue has received little attention. The method for the selection of appropriate patients for drug treatment has not been clarified. Objective: To review the literature concerning fracture risks and low bone density in paediatric patients with SB. We looked for studies describing state-of-the-art treatments and for prevention of secondary osteoporosis. Methods: Articles were identified through a search in the electronic database (PUBMED) supplemented with reviews of the reference lists of selected papers. The main outcome measures were incidence of fractures and risk factors for fracture, an association between bone mineral density (BMD) and occurrence of fracture, risk factors of low BMD, and effects of pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments on ...

*  Deficient Acquisition of Bone During Maturation Underlies Idiopathic Osteoporosis in Men: Evidence From a Three-Generation...

Johansson AG, Eriksen EF, Lindh E, Langdahl B, Blum WF, Lindhal A, Ljunggren O, Ljunghall S 1997 Reduced levels of the growth hormone-dependent insulin-like growth factor binding protein and negative bone balance at the level of individual remodelling units in idiopathic osteoporosis in men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 82:2795-2798 ...

*  ADA Informs Patients About Osteoporosis Medications and O... ( ADA creates brochures with National O...)

Health,...ADA creates brochures with National Osteoporosis Foundation ... ...CHICAGO March 9 -- Dental patients who have b... ...,ADA,Informs,Patients,About,Osteoporosis,Medications,and,Oral,Health,medicine,medical news today,latest medical news,medical newsletters,current medical news,latest medicine news

*  Plus it

The Advisory Group on Osteoporosis1 was not established to advise ministers on health technology; machinery for that purpose is in place and a separate group has been set up to review this rapidly advancing topic. The remit given to the advisory group was to summarise current knowledge about osteoporosis, to detail ongoing research into the subject, and to identify research priorities. The final version was submitted to wide ranging consultation, including review by several representatives of purchasers and providers of health care, by the Standing Medical Advisory Committee of the Department of Health, and by the NHS Management Executive.. The recommendations of the report were: (a) better coordination of services in osteoporosis management, (b) greater availability of bone densitometry facilities for defined clinical indications, (c) provision of these facilities at the discretion of purchasers at a local level, and (d) the development of guidelines for ...

*  Osteoporosis: who gets it? - Seniors' Health - Canada.com

Seniors' Health: Osteoporosis: who gets it?. All of us will get osteoporosis if we live long enough. Since none of us have a crystal ball to predict our life expectancy, we should all do our best to ensure good strong bones and prevent falls no matter how long we live. Osteoporosis is extremely common. It is estimated that 25% of all women by age 50 have osteoporosis and that this risk doubles to 50% by age 70.

*  Best treatment of osteoporosis - Bone Disease

The major consequence of osteoporosis is bone fracture (brittle bone). Osteoporosis also called weak bone disease by peoples. Reduced bone mineral density leads to bone fragility in the osteoporosis. It's the most important ...


Alderman, B.W. et al. Reproductive history and postmenopausal risk of hip and forearm fracture. Am J Epidemiol 1986; 124(2):262-67. Aloia, J.F. et al. Determinants of bone mass in postmenopausal women. Arch Intern Med 1983; 143:1700-04.. Aloia, J.F. et al. Risk factors for postmenopausal osteoporosis. Am J Med 1985; 78:95-100.. Blaauw, R. et al. Risk factors for the development of osteoporosis in a South African population. SAMJ 1994; 84:328-32.. Caird, L.E. et al. Oral progestogen-only contraception may protect against loss of bone mass in breast-feeding women. Clin Endocrinol 1994; 41:739-45.. Carranza-Lira, S. & Mera Paz, J. Influence of number of pregnancies and total breast-feeding time on bone mineral density. Int J Fertil 2002;47(4):169-71. Chan, G.M. et al. Growth and bone mineralization of normal breast-fed infants and the effects of lactation on maternal bone mineral status. Am J Clin Nutr 1982; 36:438-43.. Cole, D.E.C. et al. Changing osteocalcin concentrations ...

*  Bone Densitometry and Clinical Decision-Making in Osteoporosis | Annals of Internal Medicine | American College of Physicians

During the last 6 years the development of methods that measure bone mineral density accurately at important sites of fracture represents a real advance in care of patients with osteoporosis, a disease costing $7 to $10 billion annually in the United States (1). The bone mineral density of the axial skeleton, formerly only crudely estimated from roentgenograms can now be measured with a precision of 2% to 3% by dual photon absorptiometry for the vertebrae or proximal femur (2) and of 3% to 5% by quantitative computed tomography for the vertebrae (3). Precision is defined as (standard deviation of replicate ...

*  Gessler Corner: Osteoporosis Can Lead to Loss of Independence - News - The Ledger - Lakeland, FL

The literal definition of osteoporosis is porous bones. It is a disease where the bones of the body become weakened. The primary bones that are affected are separated into long bones and spinal column bones. As people age, their bones become more and more porous.

*  New review outlines screening strategies for osteoporosis in yo... ( Nyon SwitzerlandJune 15 2012 -- Much...)

...Nyon SwitzerlandJune 15 2012 -- Much of the research defining oste...An International Osteoporosis Foundation (IOF) scientific working grou...Dr. Serge Ferrari of the University of Geneva andchair of the IOF Work...On the other hand there are young adults who may truly have osteoporo...,New,review,outlines,screening,strategies,for,osteoporosis,in,young,adults,biological,biology news articles,biology news today,latest biology news,current biology news,biology newsletters

*  Stress-Induced Osteoporosis | Latest Health Technology , Healthcare News

Suhasini (name changed) realized it the hard way when at 42 years of age she suffered a fracture of the arm, caused by a minor collapse. Medical investigations revealed she was suffering from osteoporosis and even though she was yet to reach menopause, her bones resembled that of a 60 year old woman.. For almost 20 years, Suhasini has been living a highly stressful daily life experiencing the 'dual role' pressure most urban women are facing today, balancing highly demanding work life with equally demanding needs of the family. Sleep deprivation, lack of rest, persistently raised stress levels and a perpetual fight against time were normal characteristics of her life.. "While some level of stress is normal, when stress becomes chronic and persistently high, it acts on the body and mind in a number of ways. In recent years research has shown that chronic stress accelerates bone loss, a phenomenon described as stress-induced osteoporosis. Firstly, when stress is high, body ...

*  Osteoporosis: what it does to your bones - myDr.com.au

|p|In osteoporosis your bones are thin and brittle, and can break more easily. Find out what causes osteoporosis and how to prevent it.|/p|

*  Osteoporosis Exercises and How to Prevent It | Health Watch Center

Osteoporosis affects over 20 million Americans. Women are four times more likely to develop osteoporosis than men. This disease causes a person's bones to b

*  Osteoporosis Drug Gets a Thumbs Down from FDA Review Panel

Review panel advises FDA against continued use of Calcitonin salmon in treating osteoporosis due to cancer risk and inefficiency of the drug to prevent fractures.

*  Risk of Osteoporosis can be Reduced by Exercise in Early 20s

New research indicates that physical exercise in the early twenties improves bone development and may reduce the risk of fractures later in life.

*  metaphysis - Bone Disease

In following article, we will explain some minor osteoporosis risk factors such as gender, ages, genetics element, menopausal issue in woman and some metabolic diseases that affect the population. Some minor ...

*  A prospective, observational study of denosumab in patients with osteoporosis - AdisInsight

This trial has investigated the effects of denosumab in patients with osteoporosis based on the evaluation of changes in bone density, those in bone metabolism

*  A to Z: Osteoporosis

Mostly affecting older people, osteoporosis is a disease that weakens the bones, causing them to become brittle and easily fractured.

*  Talking to Your Doctor About Osteoporosis | Lifescript.com

You have a unique medical history. Therefore, it is essential to talk with your doctor about your personal risk factors and/or experience with osteoporosis. By...

*  UPDATE 1-Amgen ends marketing agreement with GSK for osteoporosis drug | News Home | Reuters

Amgen Inc said it would end anagreement with GlaxoSmithKline Plc for the marketing ofits osteoporosis drug in some regions outside the United States.

*  Calendar of Programs and Meetings

Osteoporosis is a bone disease defined by low bone mass and deterioration of bone tissue. This leads to bone fragility and risk of fracture (Osteoporosis Canada). The following questions are being asked to get information about other factors in your life ...

*  FDA concerned about bone drug - latimes

Federal regulators say a drug from Pfizer Inc. and Ligand Pharmaceuticals Inc. effectively treats osteoporosis, but they are concerned about deaths, blood clots and other problems seen in company

World Osteoporosis Day: World Osteoporosis Day is observed annually on 20 October, and launches a year-long campaign dedicated to raising global awareness of the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of osteoporosis and metabolic bone disease. Organized by the International Osteoporosis Foundation (IOF), World Osteoporosis Day involves campaigns by national osteoporosis patient societies from around the world with activities in over 90 countries.DenosumabQuantitative computed tomographyFRAX: FRAX is a diagnostic tool used to evaluate the 10-year probability of bone fracture risk. It was developed by the World Health Organization Collaborating Centre for Metabolic Bone Diseases at Sheffield University.Chalkstick fracture: Chalkstick fractures are fractures, typically of long bones, in which the fracture is transverse to the long axis of the bone, like a broken stick of chalk. A healthy long bone typically breaks like a hard woody stick as the collagen in the matrix adds remarkable flexibility to the mineral and the energy can run up and down the growth rings of bone.Zoledronic acidAlendronic acidCancellous bone: Cancellous bone, synonymous with trabecular bone or spongy bone, is one of two types of osseous tissue that form bones. The other osseous tissue type is cortical bone also called compact bone.TeriparatideSpinal fractureRisedronic acidDeoxypyridinolineFemoral neck targeting: Femoral neck targeting is the process of calculating the centre of the femoral neck during hip resurfacing surgery.Comis MIHR operative technique This can be done by hand or using electronic aides.Hip fractureOsteoclastCalcaneal fractureCalcium deficiency (plant disorder): Calcium (Ca) deficiency is a plant disorder that can be caused by insufficient calcium in the growing medium, but is more frequently a product of low transpiration of the whole plant or more commonly the affected tissue. Plants are susceptible to such localized calcium deficiencies in low or nontranspiring tissues because calcium is not transported in the phloem.OsteoblastVitamin DSelective estrogen-receptor modulator: Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) are a class of compounds that act on the estrogen receptor. A characteristic that distinguishes these substances from pure receptor agonists and antagonists is that their action is different in various tissues, thereby granting the possibility to selectively inhibit or stimulate estrogen-like action in various tissues.OssificationProcalcitonin: Procalcitonin (PCT) is a peptide precursor of the hormone calcitonin, the latter being involved with calcium homeostasis. It is composed of 116 amino acids and is produced by parafollicular cells (C cells) of the thyroid and by the neuroendocrine cells of the lung and the intestine.QRISK: QRISK2 (the most recent version of QRISK) is a prediction algorithm for cardiovascular disease (CVD) that uses traditional risk factors (age, systolic blood pressure, smoking status and ratio of total serum cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) together with body mass index, ethnicity, measures of deprivation, family history, chronic kidney disease, rheumatoid arthritis, atrial fibrillation, diabetes mellitus, and antihypertensive treatment.EstrogenParathyroid hormone family: The parathyroid hormone family is a family of structurally and functionally related proteins. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is a polypeptidic hormone primarily involved in calcium metabolism.Bone pathology: Bone pathology, also known as orthopedic pathology is a subspecialty of surgical pathology which deals with the diagnosis and feature of many bone diseases. It uses gross and microscopic findings along with the findings of in vivo radiological studies, and occasionally, specimen radiographs to diagnose diseases of the bones.Osteoprotegerin: Osteoprotegerin (OPG), also known as osteoclastogenesis inhibitory factor (OCIF), or tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 11B (TNFRSF11B), is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TNFRSF11B gene. Osteoprotegerin is a cytokine receptor, and a member of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor superfamily.Microdensitometer: A microdensitometer is an optical instrument used to measure optical densities in the microscopic domain.J.Inguinal ligament: The inguinal ligament (Poupart's ligament) is a band running from the pubic tubercle to the anterior superior iliac spine. Its anatomy is very important for operating on hernia patients.Elevated alkaline phosphataseSquittenN-terminal telopeptide: In bone physiology, the N-terminal telopeptide (or more formally, amino-terminal collagen crosslinks, and known by the acronym NTX) is a [that can be used as a biomarker] to measure the rate of [[bone turnover. NTX can be measured in the urine (uNTX) or serum (serum NTX).Peripheral nerve injury classification: Classification of peripheral nerve injury assists in prognosis and determination of treatment strategy. Classification of nerve injury was described by Seddon in 1943 and by Sunderland in 1951.Eudemus (physician): Eudemus () was the name of several Greek physicians, whom it is difficult to distinguish with certainty:Calcium signaling: Calcium ions are important for cellular signalling, as once they enter the cytosol of the cytoplasm they exert allosteric regulatory effects on many enzymes and proteins. Calcium can act in signal transduction resulting from activation of ion channels or as a second messenger caused by indirect signal transduction pathways such as G protein-coupled receptors.Congenital estrogen deficiency: Congenital estrogen deficiency is a genetic condition by which the body is unable to produce or use estrogens.North American Menopause SocietyList of minerals (complete): Mineralogy is an active science in which minerals are discovered or recognised on a regular basis. Use of old mineral names is also discontinued, for example when a name is no longer considered valid.Vesselplasty: Vesselplasty is a surgical alternative in the treatment of vertebral compression fractures (VCFs). It is an image-guided procedure that requires conscious sedations and either general or local anesthesia.Cancer screeningOdanacatibBiomarkers of aging: Biomarkers of aging are biomarkers that better predict functional capacity at a later age than chronological age. Stated another way, biomarkers of aging would give the true "biological age", which may be different from the chronological age.Clay-shoveler fracture: Clay-shoveler's fracture is a stable fracture through the spinous process of a vertebra occurring at any of the lower cervical or upper thoracic vertebrae, classically at C6 or C7. In Australia in the 1930s, men digging deep ditches tossed clay 10 to 15 feet above their heads using long handled shovels.Age adjustment: In epidemiology and demography, age adjustment, also called age standardization, is a technique used to allow populations to be compared when the age profiles of the populations are quite different.Hormone replacement therapy (menopause)Ergogenic use of anabolic steroidsBisphosphonate-associated osteonecrosis of the jaw: Bisphosphonate-associated osteonecrosis of the jaw (often abbreviated as BON, BONJ, or BON of the jaw), also called bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ) (pronounced ) or bisphosphonate-induced osteonecrosis of the jaw (BIONJ), is osteonecrosis of the jaw in a person with a history of bisphosphonate use who undergoes subsequent dental surgery. It may lead to surgical complication in the form of impaired wound healing following oral and maxillofacial surgery, periodontal surgery, or endodontic therapy.BMC Endocrine Disorders: BMC Endocrine Disorders is an open access peer-reviewed scientific journal publishing original research articles in all aspects of the prevention, diagnosis and management of endocrine disorders, as well as related molecular genetics, pathophysiology, and epidemiology.References ==Historadiography: Historadiography is a technique formerly utilized in the fields of histology and cellular biology to provide semiquantitative information regarding the density of a tissue sample. It is usually synonymous with microradiography.Benzo(c)thiopheneHip resurfacing: 155px|right|thumb|The BHRHypovitaminosis DFemoral fractureGlobal Risks Report: The Global Risks Report is an annual study published by the World Economic Forum ahead of the Forum’s Annual Meeting in Davos, Switzerland. Based on the work of the Global Risk Network, the report describes changes occurring in the global risks landscape from year to year and identifies the global risks that could play a critical role in the upcoming year.X-ray microtomography: X-ray microtomography, like tomography and x-ray computed tomography, uses x-rays to create cross-sections of a physical object that can be used to recreate a virtual model (3D model) without destroying the original object. The prefix micro- (symbol: µ) is used to indicate that the pixel sizes of the cross-sections are in the micrometre range.OsteocyteDietary Supplements (database): The PubMed Dietary Supplement Subset (PMDSS) is a joint project between the National Institutes of Health (NIH) National Library of Medicine (NLM) and the NIH Office of Dietary Supplements (ODS). PMDSS is designed to help people search for academic journal articles related to dietary supplement literature.ClomifeneCervical spine disorder: Cervical Spine Disorders are illnesses that are relatively detrimental to ones physical health. These ailments exist in the cervical spine which is made up of the upper first seven vertebrae, encasing and shielding the Spinal cord.Closed-ended question: A closed-ended question is a question format that limits respondents with a list of answer choices from which they must choose to answer the question.Dillman D.

(1/3580) Dietary intake and practices in the Hong Kong Chinese population.

OBJECTIVES: To examine dietary intake and practices of the adult Hong Kong Chinese population to provide a basis for future public health recommendations with regard to prevention of certain chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, hypertension, and osteoporosis. PARTICIPANTS: Age and sex stratified random sample of the Hong Kong Chinese population aged 25 to 74 years (500 men, 510 women). METHOD: A food frequency method over a one week period was used for nutrient quantification, and a separate questionnaire was used for assessment of dietary habits. Information was obtained by interview. RESULTS: Men had higher intakes of energy and higher nutrient density of vitamin D, monounsaturated fatty acids and cholesterol, but lower nutrient density of protein, many vitamins, calcium, iron, copper, and polyunsaturated fatty acids. There was an age related decrease in energy intake and other nutrients except for vitamin C, sodium, potassium, and percentage of total calorie from carbohydrate, which all increased with age. Approximately 50% of the population had a cholesterol intake of < or = 300 mg; 60% had a fat intake < or = 30% of total energy; and 85% had a percentage of energy from saturated fats < or = 10%; criteria considered desirable for cardiovascular health. Seventy eight per cent of the population had sodium intake values in the range shown to be associated with the age related rise in blood pressure with age. Mean calcium intake was lower than the FAO/WHO recommendations. The awareness of the value of wholemeal bread and polyunsaturated fat spreads was lower in this population compared with that in Australia. There was a marked difference in types of cooking oil compared with Singaporeans, the latter using more coconut/palm/mixed vegetable oils. CONCLUSION: Although the current intake pattern for cardiovascular health for fat, saturated fatty acid, and cholesterol fall within the recommended range for over 50% of the population, follow up surveys to monitor the pattern would be needed. Decreasing salt consumption, increasing calcium intake, and increasing the awareness of the health value of fibre may all be beneficial in the context of chronic disease prevention.  (+info)

(2/3580) Cyclical etidronate increases bone density in the spine and hip of postmenopausal women receiving long term corticosteroid treatment. A double blind, randomised placebo controlled study.

OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of cyclic etidronate in secondary prevention of corticosteroid induced osteoporosis. METHODS: A double blind, randomised placebo controlled study comparing cyclic etidronate and placebo during two years in 37 postmenopausal women receiving long term corticosteroid treatment, mainly for polymyalgia rheumatica (40% of the patients) and rheumatoid arthritis (30%). Bone density was measured in the lumbar spine, femoral neck, and femoral trochanter. RESULTS: After two years of treatment there was a significant difference between the groups in mean per cent change from baseline in bone density in the spine in favour of etidronate (p = 0.003). The estimated treatment difference (mean (SD)) was 9.3 (2.1)%. Etidronate increased bone density in the spine (4.9 (2.1)%, p < 0.05) whereas the placebo group lost bone (-2.4 (1.6)%). At the femoral neck there was an estimated difference of 5.3 (2.6)% between the groups (etidronate: 3.6% (1.4)%, p < 0.05, placebo: -2.4 (2.1)%). The estimated difference at the trochanter was 8.2 (3.0) (etidronate: 9.0 (1.5)%, p < 0.0001, placebo: 0.5 (2.3)%). No significant bone loss occurred in the hip in placebo treated patients. CONCLUSIONS: Cyclic etidronate is an effective treatment for postmenopausal women receiving corticosteroid treatment and is well tolerated.  (+info)

(3/3580) Dietary isoflavones: biological effects and relevance to human health.

Substantial evidence indicates that diets high in plant-based foods may explain the epidemiologic variance of many hormone-dependent diseases that are a major cause of mortality and morbidity in Western populations. There is now an increased awareness that plants contain many phytoprotectants. Lignans and isoflavones represent two of the main classes of phytoestrogens of current interest in clinical nutrition. Although ubiquitous in their occurrence in the plant kingdom, these bioactive nonnutrients are found in particularly high concentrations in flaxseeds and soybeans and have been found to have a wide range of hormonal and nonhormonal activities that serve to provide plausible mechanisms for the potential health benefits of diets rich in phytoestrogens. Data from animal and in vitro studies provide convincing evidence for the potential of phytoestrogens in influencing hormone-dependent states; although the clinical application of diets rich in these estrogen mimics is in its infancy, data from preliminary studies suggest beneficial effects of importance to health. This review focuses on the more recent studies pertinent to this field and includes, where appropriate, the landmark and historical literature that has led to the exponential increase in interest in phytoestrogens from a clinical nutrition perspective.  (+info)

(4/3580) Walker 256/S carcinosarcoma causes osteoporosis-like changes through ectopical secretion of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone.

We have shown that Walker 256/S mammary carcinoma caused osteoporosis-like changes in young female rats, accompanied by low serum estradiol and hypercalciuria without changes in the serum levels of calcium, phosphorus, and parathyroid hormone-related peptide. In this study, we investigated the cause of bone loss after Walker 256/S inoculation into female 6-week-old Wistar Imamichi rats, focusing on the sex hormone balance in the host animal. Walker 256/S-bearing rats showed characteristic osteoporosis, with a significant increase in spleen weight and a significant decrease in uterine weight by 14 days after s.c. tumor inoculation. In the in vitro bone marrow culture, mineralized nodule formation ability decreased according to the time after tumor inoculation, and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-positive multinucleated cell formation increased at 7 days after tumor inoculation, but it began to decrease at 14 days after tumor inoculation. This indicates that after inoculation with Walker 256/S tumor, the progenitors of osteoblasts and ostroclasts lost their balance in the bone turnover, resulting in bone resorption. On the other hand, Walker 256/S carcinoma expressed luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LH-RH) mRNA, and in Walker 256/S-bearing rats, the serum LH-RH level increased significantly from 3 days after tumor inoculation, whereas in the healthy control rats, this level was very low. Consequently, the serum levels of follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, estradiol, and progesterone were significantly lower in the tumor-bearing rats than in the healthy control rats. Because the LH-RH gene is located in the long prolactin release-inhibiting factor (PIF) gene and mRNA amplified by reverse transcription-PCR in this study contained whole LH-RH and a part of PIF, the Walker 256/S tumor is thought to express PIF. Indeed, the serum prolactin level decreased in tumor-bearing rats. The serum level of growth hormone, one of the other pituitary hormones, was not changed. Moreover, the level of an osteolytic cytokine, tumor necrosis factor alpha, increased in the serum of Walker 256/S-bearing rats, although this may be a result of the immune response of the host animal to tumor growth as well as an enlarged spleen. In conclusion, the Walker 256/S tumor lowers estrogen secretion through ectopical oversecretion of LH-RH, and then osteolytic cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor alpha, increase in tumor-bearing rats, escape the control of estrogen, and activate osteoclasts, resulting in bone loss in a short period.  (+info)

(5/3580) A high incidence of vertebral fracture in women with breast cancer.

Because treatment for breast cancer may adversely affect skeletal metabolism, we investigated vertebral fracture risk in women with non-metastatic breast cancer. The prevalence of vertebral fracture was similar in women at the time of first diagnosis to that in an age-matched sample of the general population. The incidence of vertebral fracture, however, was nearly five times greater than normal in women from the time of first diagnosis [odds ratio (OR), 4.7; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 2.3-9.9], and 20-fold higher in women with soft-tissue metastases without evidence of skeletal metastases (OR, 22.7; 95% CI, 9.1-57.1). We conclude that vertebral fracture risk is markedly increased in women with breast cancer.  (+info)

(6/3580) Bone densitometry at a district general hospital: evaluation of service by doctors and patients.

OBJECTIVE: To assess doctors' and patients' views about a district general hospital bone densitometry service and to examine existing practice to influence future provision. DESIGN: Three postal surveys: (a) of doctors potentially using the service, (b) of patients undergoing a bone densitometry test during a six month period, and (c) of the referring doctors of the patients undergoing the test. SETTING: Bone densitometry service at South Cleveland Hospital, Middlesbrough and two district health authorities: South Tees and Northallerton. SUBJECTS: All general practitioners (n=201) and hospital consultants in general medicine, rheumatology, obstetrics and gynaecology, orthopaedics, radio therapy and oncology, haematology, and radiology (n=61); all patients undergoing an initial bone densitometry test (n=309) during a six month period; and their referring doctors. MAIN MEASURES: Service awareness and use, knowledge of clinical indications, test results, influence of test results on patient management, satisfaction with the service and its future provision. RESULTS: The overall response rates for the three surveys were 87%, 70%, and 61%. There was a high awareness of the service among doctors and patients; 219(84%) doctors were aware and 155 of them (71%) had used it, and patients often (40%) suggested the test to their doctor. The test was used for a range of reasons including screening although the general use was consistent with current guidelines. Two hundred (65%) bone densitometry measurements were normal, 71(23%) were low normal, and 38(12%) were low. Although doctors reported that management of patients had been influenced by the test results, the algorithm for decision making was unclear. Patients and doctors were satisfied with the service and most (n=146, 68%) doctors wanted referral guidelines for the service. CONCLUSIONS: There was a high awareness of, use of, and satisfaction with the service. Patients were being referred for a range of reasons and a few of these could not be justified, many tests were normal, and clinical decision making was not always influenced by the test result. It is concluded that bone densitometry services should be provided but only for patients whose management will be influenced by test results and subject to guidelines to ensure appropriate use of the technology.  (+info)

(7/3580) Osteoporosis: review of guidelines and consensus statements.

This activity is designed for physicians, pharmacists, nurses, health planners, directors of managed care organizations, and payers of health services. GOAL: To understand current guidelines and consensus statements regarding the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of osteoporosis. OBJECTIVE: List four national or international organizations involved in the development of consensus statements regarding the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of osteoporosis. 2. Discuss the significant differences among different countries regarding the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. 3. List the major risk factors for osteoporosis. 4. Describe the differences in the application of bone mineral density scans, biochemical markers, and ultrasound in evaluating patients with suspected osteopenia and osteoporosis. 5. Distinguish between and briefly discuss therapeutic modalities used in primary prevention, secondary prevention, and treatment of osteoporosis. 6. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of estrogen/hormone replacement therapy. 7. Describe alternatives to estrogen/hormone replacement therapy.  (+info)

(8/3580) Development and validation of a simple questionnaire to facilitate identification of women likely to have low bone density.

The relationship between low bone mass and risk of fracture is well documented. Although bone densitometry is the method of choice for detecting low bone mass, its use may be limited by the availability of equipment, cost, and reimbursement issues. Improved patient selection for bone densitometry might increase the cost-effectiveness of screening for osteoporosis, a goal we sought to achieve by developing and validating a questionnaire based solely on patient-derived data. Responses to the questionnaire were used to assign postmenopausal women to one of two groups: (1) those unlikely to have low bone mineral density (defined as 2 standard deviations or more below the mean bone mass at the femoral neck in young, healthy white women) and therefore probably not currently candidates for bone densitometry; and (2) those likely to have low bone mineral density and therefore probably candidates for bone densitometry. We asked community-dwelling perimenopausal and postmenopausal women attending one of 106 participating multispecialty centers (both academic and community based) to complete a self-administered questionnaire and undergo bone density measurement using dual x-ray absorptiometry. We used regression modeling to identify factors most predictive of low bone density at the femoral neck in the postmenopausal group. A simple additive scoring system was developed based on the regression model. Results were validated in a separate cohort of postmenopausal women. Data were collected from 1279 postmenopausal women in the development cohort. Using only six questions (age, weight, race, fracture history, rheumatoid arthritis history, and estrogen use), we achieved a target of 89% sensitivity and 50% specificity. The likelihood ratio was 1.78. Validation in a separate group of 207 postmenopausal women yielded 91% sensitivity and 40% specificity. Assuming population characteristics similar to those of our development cohort, use of our questionnaire could decrease the use of bone densitometry by approximately 30%. Sensitivity and specificity can be varied by changing the level for referral for densitometry to provide the most cost-effective use within a particular healthcare setting. Thus use of our questionnaire, an inexpensive prescreening tool, in conjunction with physician assessment can optimize the use of bone densitometry and may lead to substantial savings in many healthcare settings where large numbers of women require evaluation for low bone mass.  (+info)


  • In women, normal aging and menopause significantly increase susceptibility to osteoporosis. (britannica.com)

postmenopausal osteoporosis

  • Risk factors for postmenopausal osteoporosis. (llli.org)
  • FAIRFIELD, N.J., August 15, 2005 - Unigene Laboratories, Inc. (OTCBB:UGNE) has received approval from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration ("FDA") for Fortical calcitonin-salmon (rDNA origin) Nasal Spray, its patented nasal calcitonin product for the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis . (drugs.com)
  • This is a pivotal accomplishment for any company in our industry and it will provide the rapidly growing population of postmenopausal osteoporosis sufferers with an additional option for managing the disease. (drugs.com)
  • Fortical is indicated for the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis in women greater than 5 years postmenopause with low bone mass relative to healthy premenopausal women. (drugs.com)


  • Osteoporosis , disease characterized by the thinning of bones , with a consequent tendency to sustain fractures from minor stresses. (britannica.com)
  • Sept 14, 2010 -- Popular osteoporosis drugs known as bisphosphonates may increase the risk of rare, but painful thigh bone fractures , and their labeling should be updated to reflect this increased risk. (webmd.com)
  • Still, these thigh fractures are unusual and uncommon, particularly when you view them in the context of more common osteoporosis fractures, such as rib, spine, and arm fractures," she says. (webmd.com)
  • idiopathic osteoporosis with onset before puberty, leading to pain or fractures, with spontaneous remission within a few years. (drugs.com)
  • Each year 400,000 women suffer hip fractures due to weakened bones from osteoporosis. (savannahnow.com)
  • Chronic glucocorticoid excess, either endogenous (ie, Cushing's syndrome) or exogenous, can lead to osteoporosis and fractures. (uptodate.com)

patients with osteoporosis

  • Most patients with osteoporosis have no symptoms, though some patients have back pain . (britannica.com)

standard deviations below

  • Measurements of bone density (bone densitometry) define osteoporosis by a T score of -2.5 (2.5 standard deviations below normal peak bone density based on sex and genetic background) or lower. (britannica.com)

prevent osteoporosis

  • After reading this hub I got some knowledge about how to prevent osteoporosis. (hubpages.com)

bone density

  • Because there is less bone per unit volume, the decrease in bone density of osteoporosis is great. (britannica.com)
  • Those who suffer from osteoporosis generally are not aware that they have an increased bone density loss until they've fractured a bone, as you'll find the symptoms in the early stages can be easy to ignore, if you experience any at all. (hubpages.com)
  • An introductory article on osteoporosis , a disease of reduced bone density and increased probability of fracture, can be found on Wikipedia . (snpedia.com)


  • HIBERNATING bears have a unique ability to stop their bones from degenerating during long periods of inactivity, a finding that is stimulating the search for new treatments for osteoporosis. (newscientist.com)
  • Many of us love to dance, so we've included a video below from the National Osteoporosis Society in the United Kingdom on "Boogie for Your Bones" with choreographer Craig Revel Horwood from the UK TV show, "Strictly Come Dancing. (healthcentral.com)
  • Many elderly women prone to osteoporosis who have been taking Osteo-Trace have had bad falls without breaking any bones. (healthy.net)


  • The gradual progression toward osteoporosis results from changes in the balance between the amount of new bone that is formed within the body and the amount of bone that is resorbed, or broken down and assimilated . (britannica.com)
  • The good news is that the progression of osteoporosis can easily be halted, and even reversed, with a solid plan and dedication. (savannahnow.com)


  • Generalized osteopenia without evidence of osteomalacia is termed osteoporosis. (britannica.com)
  • Osteoporosis", "osteopenia" and "normal bone mineral density" are all conditions that describe various states of bone mineral density. (snpedia.com)


  • A. Osteoporosis affects an estimated 32 million Americans over the age of 50. (savannahnow.com)
  • Osteoporosis is a bone disease that affects about 1 in every 5 women over the age of 50. (hubpages.com)
  • Because osteoporosis affects over 28 million people in the United States alone, there's no denying that there's a need for more knowledge about prevention. (hubpages.com)


  • Risk factors for osteoporosis include many lifestyle choices of a 21st century culture, with no symptoms that would signal one's concern. (savannahnow.com)


  • The prevention and treatment of glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis are presented separately. (uptodate.com)
  • See 'Prevention and treatment of glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis' . (uptodate.com)


  • We look forward to engaging our marketing and distribution expertise to help make this important calcitonin product available to the millions of Americans affected by osteoporosis. (drugs.com)


  • He wrote for HealthCentral as a health professional for Osteoporosis. (healthcentral.com)
  • Pam is a patient educator and digital health writer who has worked for Remedy Health Media on their osteoporosis web site since 2008. (healthcentral.com)


  • It is estimated that approximately one-fourth of the world's population of women over age 60 have some degree of osteoporosis. (britannica.com)


  • Lifestyle choices also influence the development of osteoporosis: risk is higher in people who are physically inactive, have low calcium intake, are very thin, are smokers, or are heavy drinkers, consuming excessive amounts of alcohol. (britannica.com)
  • Risk factors for the development of osteoporosis in a South African population. (llli.org)


  • The most effective measures for preventing osteoporosis include good nutrition and a liberal intake of calcium and vitamin D throughout life, particularly in the early postmenopausal years. (britannica.com)
  • Because calcium and phosphorus are both essential for bone growth, risks of osteoporosis can increase if the body isn't processing enough calcium and phosphorus, which can make the bone tissues weakened over time, generally years. (hubpages.com)
  • When trying to figure out what is the best thing that you can do for yourself in regards to preventing osteoporosis, the simple answer is supplementing a healthy diet with plenty of calcium and phosphorus to ensure healthy bone growth. (hubpages.com)


  • When we are diagnosed with osteoporosis we're told to include weight bearing exercises in our bone loss treatment plan. (healthcentral.com)


  • If you think that you might have osteoporosis, you want to consult your doctor so that you can get proper diagnosis and discuss treatment. (hubpages.com)


  • The recommendations of the report were: (a) better coordination of services in osteoporosis management, (b) greater availability of bone densitometry facilities for defined clinical indications, (c) provision of these facilities at the discretion of purchasers at a local level, and (d) the development of guidelines for osteoporosis management through the royal colleges. (bmj.com)


  • Osteoporosis is the most common metabolic bone disease , and its name literally means "porous bone. (britannica.com)


  • What may cause osteoporosis or hinder the re-mineralization of bone? (savannahnow.com)


  • Both genetic and lifestyle factors contribute to osteoporosis. (britannica.com)


  • The remit given to the advisory group was to summarise current knowledge about osteoporosis, to detail ongoing research into the subject, and to identify research priorities. (bmj.com)


  • Family history, such as the tendency to fracture, is an important factor in osteoporosis. (britannica.com)
  • We are thrilled that the FDA has approved Unigene's Fortical as an important therapy for the osteoporosis market, which in 2004 grew nearly 18% to reach $4 billion," said Mark Evenstad, Upsher-Smith President and Vice Chair. (drugs.com)


  • Osteoporosis is defined as the condition of bone mineral density being 2.5 standard deviations or more below peak young adult level. (snpedia.com)


  • Reader Question: I have a family member that was diagnosed with osteoporosis. (healthcentral.com)
  • There are a variety of reasons that family members can be affected by osteoporosis. (healthcentral.com)


  • Pam is also a group leader and moderator with the National Osteoporosis Foundation Inspire online community since 2012, answering questions and guiding members who are newly diagnosed with bone loss. (healthcentral.com)