Osteochondroma: A cartilage-capped benign tumor that often appears as a stalk on the surface of bone. It is probably a developmental malformation rather than a true neoplasm and is usually found in the metaphysis of the distal femur, proximal tibia, or proximal humerus. Osteochondroma is the most common of benign bone tumors.Exostoses, Multiple Hereditary: Hereditary disorder transmitted by an autosomal dominant gene and characterized by multiple exostoses (multiple osteochondromas) near the ends of long bones. The genetic abnormality results in a defect in the osteoclastic activity at the metaphyseal ends of the bone during the remodeling process in childhood or early adolescence. The metaphyses develop benign, bony outgrowths often capped by cartilage. A small number undergo neoplastic transformation.Chondroma: A benign neoplasm derived from mesodermal cells that form cartilage. It may remain within the substance of a cartilage or bone (true chondroma or enchondroma) or may develop on the surface of a cartilage (ecchondroma or ecchondrosis). (Dorland, 27th ed; Stedman, 25th ed)Exostoses: Benign hypertrophy that projects outward from the surface of bone, often containing a cartilaginous component.Bone Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer located in bone tissue or specific BONES.Scapula: Also called the shoulder blade, it is a flat triangular bone, a pair of which form the back part of the shoulder girdle.Mandibular Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the MANDIBLE.Spinal NeoplasmsOsteochondromatosis: A condition marked by the presence of multiple osteochondromas. (Dorland, 27th ed)AxisRibs: A set of twelve curved bones which connect to the vertebral column posteriorly, and terminate anteriorly as costal cartilage. Together, they form a protective cage around the internal thoracic organs.Cervical Atlas: The first cervical vertebra.Spinal Cord Compression: Acute and chronic conditions characterized by external mechanical compression of the SPINAL CORD due to extramedullary neoplasm; EPIDURAL ABSCESS; SPINAL FRACTURES; bony deformities of the vertebral bodies; and other conditions. Clinical manifestations vary with the anatomic site of the lesion and may include localized pain, weakness, sensory loss, incontinence, and impotence.Chondrosarcoma: A slowly growing malignant neoplasm derived from cartilage cells, occurring most frequently in pelvic bones or near the ends of long bones, in middle-aged and old people. Most chondrosarcomas arise de novo, but some may develop in a preexisting benign cartilaginous lesion or in patients with ENCHONDROMATOSIS. (Stedman, 25th ed)N-Acetylglucosaminyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of N-acetylglucosamine from a nucleoside diphosphate N-acetylglucosamine to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate. EC 2.4.1.-.Neoplasms, Adipose Tissue: Neoplasms composed of fatty tissue or connective tissue made up of fat cells in a meshwork of areolar tissue. The concept does not refer to neoplasms located in adipose tissue.Mandibular Condyle: The posterior process on the ramus of the mandible composed of two parts: a superior part, the articular portion, and an inferior part, the condylar neck.Laminectomy: A surgical procedure that entails removing all (laminectomy) or part (laminotomy) of selected vertebral lamina to relieve pressure on the SPINAL CORD and/or SPINAL NERVE ROOTS. Vertebral lamina is the thin flattened posterior wall of vertebral arch that forms the vertebral foramen through which pass the spinal cord and nerve roots.
Osteochondroma: Osteochondromas or osteocartilaginous exostoses are the most common benign tumors of the bones.ExostosisChondromaBuccal exostosis: A buccal exostosis (also termed alveolar exostosis), is an exostosis (bone prominence) on the buccal surface (cheek side) of the alveolar ridge of the maxilla or mandible. Some consider them a variation of normal anatomy rather than a disease.Bone tumorSnapping scapula syndrome: Snapping Scapula Syndrome, also known as scapulocostal syndrome or scapulothoracic syndrome, is described by a “grating, grinding, popping or snapping sensation of the scapula onto the back side of the ribs or thoracic area of the spine” (Hauser). Disruption of the normal scapulothoracic mechanics causes this problem.Synovial osteochondromatosisCostovertebral angleArcuate foramen: In human anatomy, arcuate foramen, also known as ponticulus posticus (Latin for "little posterior bridge"), refers to a bony bridge on the atlas (C1 vertebra) that covers the groove for the vertebral artery. It is a common anatomical variation and estimated to occur in approximately 3-15% of the population.Myxoid chondrosarcoma: Myxoid chondrosarcoma is a type of sarcoma.Beta-galactosyl-N-acetylglucosaminylgalactosylglucosyl-ceramide beta-1,3-acetylglucosaminyltransferase: Beta-galactosyl-N-acetylglucosaminylgalactosylglucosyl-ceramide beta-1,3-acetylglucosaminyltransferase (, uridine diphosphoacetylglucosamine-acetyllactosaminide beta1->3-acetylglucosaminyltransferase, poly-N-acetyllactosamine extension enzyme, UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine:beta-D-galactosyl-1,4-N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl-1,3-beta-D-galactosyl-1,4-beta-D-glucosylceramide beta-1,3-acetylglucosaminyltransferase) is an enzyme with system name UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine:beta-D-galactosyl-(1->4)-N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl-(1->3)-beta-D-galactosyl-(1->4)-beta-D-glucosyl-(1<->1)-ceramide 3-beta-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase. This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reactionAdipose tissue neoplasm: An adipose tissue neoplasm is a neoplasm derived from adipose tissue.Laminectomy
(1/94) Osteochondroma of the first rib presenting as a prominent clavicle. A report of 2 cases.
We describe and discuss two patients with osteochondromas of the first rib which presented as prominence of the medial end of the clavicle. (+info)
(2/94) Para-articular chondroma and osteochondroma of the infrapatellar fat pad: a report of three cases.
We report three cases of para-articular chondroma and osteochondroma in the region of infrapatellar fat pad. All three lesions were resected and examined histologically. Two of them were primarily cartilaginous with a lobular pattern internally, and one uniformly osseous with peripheral cartilage. We conclude that these lesions are not the same. The former should be designated para-articular chondroma after Jaffe and the latter, osteochondroma. (+info)
(3/94) An extra-articular cause of locking knee.
We report an uncommon case of locking of the knee in a 23-year-old girl. It was due to an osteochondroma at the medial aspect of the proximal tibia. (+info)
(4/94) EXT-mutation analysis and loss of heterozygosity in sporadic and hereditary osteochondromas and secondary chondrosarcomas.
Osteochondromas occur as sporadic solitary lesions or as multiple lesions, characterizing the hereditary multiple exostoses syndrome (EXT). Approximately 15% of all chondrosarcomas arise within the cartilaginous cap of an osteochondroma. EXT is genetically heterogeneous, and two genes, EXT1 and EXT2, located on 8q24 and 11p11-p12, respectively, have been cloned. It is still unclear whether osteochondroma is a developmental disorder or a true neoplasm. Furthermore, it is unclear whether inactivation of both alleles of an EXT gene, according to the tumor-suppressor model, is required for osteochondroma development, or whether a single EXT germline mutation acts in a dominant negative way. We therefore studied loss of heterozygosity and DNA ploidy in eight sporadic and six hereditary osteochondromas. EXT1- and EXT2-mutation analysis was performed in a total of 34 sporadic and hereditary osteochondromas and secondary peripheral chondrosarcomas. We demonstrated osteochondroma to be a true neoplasm, since aneuploidy was found in 4 of 10 osteochondromas. Furthermore, LOH was almost exclusively found at the EXT1 locus in 5 of 14 osteochondromas. Four novel constitutional cDNA alterations were detected in exon 1 of EXT1. Two patients with multiple osteochondromas demonstrated a germline mutation combined with loss of the remaining wild-type allele in three osteochondromas, indicating that, in cartilaginous cells of the growth plate, inactivation of both copies of the EXT1 gene is required for osteochondroma formation in hereditary cases. In contrast, no somatic EXT1 cDNA alterations were found in sporadic osteochondromas. No mutations were found in the EXT2 gene. (+info)
(5/94) Osteochondroma with compression of the spinal cord. A report of two cases.
We report two cases of vertebral osteochondroma. In one patient a solitary cervical lesion presented as entrapment neuropathy of the ulnar nerve and in the other as a thoracic tumour associated with hereditary multiple exostoses producing paraplegia. We highlight the importance of an adequate preoperative evaluation in such patients. (+info)
(6/94) Large bursa formation associated with osteochondroma of the scapula: a case report and review of the literature.
Bursitis or large bursa formation associated with osteochondroma has rarely been reported. A 33-year-old male presented with upper back pain, a rapidly developing mass beside the lateral border of his right scapula and snapping elicited by movement of the scapula. Plain radiograms and CT revealed osteochondroma on the ventral surface of the scapula without any unmineralized component and a huge cystic lesion around the osteochondroma. Aspiration of the cystic lesion showed the presence of sero-sanguineous fluid. MRI following the aspiration showed a thin cartilaginous cap with distinct outer margin and no soft tissue mass around the cap. Pathological examinations confirmed the diagnosis of osteochondroma with the large bursa formation. Clinical examination 19 months postoperatively showed an uneventful clinical course. (+info)
(7/94) Solitary synovial osteochondroma of the knee.
A very rare case of solitary osteochondroma of the knee is reported. The patient presented with a slowly growing retropatellar bony tumour of 4 years duration following a minor trauma. An excisional biopsy with a total patellectomy was performed as the patellar articular surface was unsalvageable. A 20 month follow up revealed no recurrence and a functional knee. A brief review of literature is also presented. (+info)
(8/94) Vascular complications of osteochondromas.
PURPOSE: Osteochondromas are the most common benign tumor of the bone. They are sometimes responsible for vascular complications involving either veins or arteries, principally around the knee. METHODS: We report six cases of such complications. An extensive review of literature through a computerized research was performed. RESULTS: We found 97 cases that were previously reported in the English literature giving sufficient details and providing data on 103 cases for analysis. CONCLUSION: Surgical treatment of vascular complications of osteochondromas is recommended as an urgent procedure to avoid irreversible damages, such as arterial occlusion, embolism, or phlebitis. Prophylactic resection of osteochondromas in the vicinity of a vessel must be performed. (+info)
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