Oral Health: The optimal state of the mouth and normal functioning of the organs of the mouth without evidence of disease.Tooth DiseasesHealth Status: The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.Oral Hygiene: The practice of personal hygiene of the mouth. It includes the maintenance of oral cleanliness, tissue tone, and general preservation of oral health.Dental Care: The total of dental diagnostic, preventive, and restorative services provided to meet the needs of a patient (from Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry, 1982).Health Education, Dental: Education which increases the awareness and favorably influences the attitudes and knowledge relating to the improvement of dental health on a personal or community basis.Dental Health Services: Services designed to promote, maintain, or restore dental health.Dental Caries: Localized destruction of the tooth surface initiated by decalcification of the enamel followed by enzymatic lysis of organic structures and leading to cavity formation. If left unchecked, the cavity may penetrate the enamel and dentin and reach the pulp.Public Health: Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.Dental Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to dental or oral health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.Delivery of Health Care: The concept concerned with all aspects of providing and distributing health services to a patient population.DMF Index: "Decayed, missing and filled teeth," a routinely used statistical concept in dentistry.Dental Care for Children: The giving of attention to the special dental needs of children, including the prevention of tooth diseases and instruction in dental hygiene and dental health. The dental care may include the services provided by dental specialists.Mouth DiseasesDental Care for Aged: The giving of attention to the special dental needs of the elderly for proper maintenance or treatment. The dental care may include the services provided by dental specialists.Health Promotion: Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.Health Policy: Decisions, usually developed by government policymakers, for determining present and future objectives pertaining to the health care system.Toothbrushing: The act of cleaning teeth with a brush to remove plaque and prevent tooth decay. (From Webster, 3d ed)Health Services Accessibility: The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.Attitude to Health: Public attitudes toward health, disease, and the medical care system.Mouth, Edentulous: Total lack of teeth through disease or extraction.Health Care Reform: Innovation and improvement of the health care system by reappraisal, amendment of services, and removal of faults and abuses in providing and distributing health services to patients. It includes a re-alignment of health services and health insurance to maximum demographic elements (the unemployed, indigent, uninsured, elderly, inner cities, rural areas) with reference to coverage, hospitalization, pricing and cost containment, insurers' and employers' costs, pre-existing medical conditions, prescribed drugs, equipment, and services.Mental Health: The state wherein the person is well adjusted.Periodontal Diseases: Pathological processes involving the PERIODONTIUM including the gum (GINGIVA), the alveolar bone (ALVEOLAR PROCESS), the DENTAL CEMENTUM, and the PERIODONTAL LIGAMENT.Public Health Dentistry: A dental specialty concerned with the prevention of disease and the maintenance of oral health through promoting organized dental health programs at a community, state, or federal level.Health Behavior: Behaviors expressed by individuals to protect, maintain or promote their health status. For example, proper diet, and appropriate exercise are activities perceived to influence health status. Life style is closely associated with health behavior and factors influencing life style are socioeconomic, educational, and cultural.Preventive Dentistry: The branch of dentistry concerned with the prevention of disease and the maintenance and promotion of oral health.Health: The state of the organism when it functions optimally without evidence of disease.Health Planning: Planning for needed health and/or welfare services and facilities.Tooth Loss: The failure to retain teeth as a result of disease or injury.Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).Health Care Surveys: Statistical measures of utilization and other aspects of the provision of health care services including hospitalization and ambulatory care.Health Services Needs and Demand: Health services required by a population or community as well as the health services that the population or community is able and willing to pay for.Primary Health Care: Care which provides integrated, accessible health care services by clinicians who are accountable for addressing a large majority of personal health care needs, developing a sustained partnership with patients, and practicing in the context of family and community. (JAMA 1995;273(3):192)Dentures: An appliance used as an artificial or prosthetic replacement for missing teeth and adjacent tissues. It does not include CROWNS; DENTAL ABUTMENTS; nor TOOTH, ARTIFICIAL.Health Literacy: Degree to which individuals have the capacity to obtain, process, and understand basic health information and services needed to make appropriate health decisions.World Health: The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.Insurance, Dental: Insurance providing coverage for dental care.Toothache: Pain in the adjacent areas of the teeth.Quality of Health Care: The levels of excellence which characterize the health service or health care provided based on accepted standards of quality.Insurance, Health: Insurance providing coverage of medical, surgical, or hospital care in general or for which there is no specific heading.Pediatric Dentistry: The practice of dentistry concerned with the dental problems of children, proper maintenance, and treatment. The dental care may include the services provided by dental specialists.Health Personnel: Men and women working in the provision of health services, whether as individual practitioners or employees of health institutions and programs, whether or not professionally trained, and whether or not subject to public regulation. (From A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, 1976)Health Services: Services for the diagnosis and treatment of disease and the maintenance of health.Health Expenditures: The amounts spent by individuals, groups, nations, or private or public organizations for total health care and/or its various components. These amounts may or may not be equivalent to the actual costs (HEALTH CARE COSTS) and may or may not be shared among the patient, insurers, and/or employers.Health Status Disparities: Variation in rates of disease occurrence and disabilities between population groups defined by socioeconomic characteristics such as age, ethnicity, economic resources, or gender and populations identified geographically or similar measures.Stomatognathic Diseases: General or unspecified diseases of the stomatognathic system, comprising the mouth, teeth, jaws, and pharynx.Health Education: Education that increases the awareness and favorably influences the attitudes and knowledge relating to the improvement of health on a personal or community basis.Oral Hygiene Index: A combination of the debris index and the dental calculus index to determine the status of oral hygiene.Public Health Administration: Management of public health organizations or agencies.Health Services Research: The integration of epidemiologic, sociological, economic, and other analytic sciences in the study of health services. Health services research is usually concerned with relationships between need, demand, supply, use, and outcome of health services. The aim of the research is evaluation, particularly in terms of structure, process, output, and outcome. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)National Health Programs: Components of a national health care system which administer specific services, e.g., national health insurance.Health Priorities: Preferentially rated health-related activities or functions to be used in establishing health planning goals. This may refer specifically to PL93-641.Ethics, Dental: The principles of proper professional conduct concerning the rights and duties of the dentist, relations with patients and fellow practitioners, as well as actions of the dentist in patient care and interpersonal relations with patient families. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Education, Dental: Use for articles concerning dental education in general.Dental Devices, Home Care: Devices used in the home by persons to maintain dental and periodontal health. The devices include toothbrushes, dental flosses, water irrigators, gingival stimulators, etc.Periodontal Index: A numerical rating scale for classifying the periodontal status of a person or population with a single figure which takes into consideration prevalence as well as severity of the condition. It is based upon probe measurement of periodontal pockets and on gingival tissue status.Patient Acceptance of Health Care: The seeking and acceptance by patients of health service.Rural Health: The status of health in rural populations.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Attitude of Health Personnel: Attitudes of personnel toward their patients, other professionals, toward the medical care system, etc.Environmental Health: The science of controlling or modifying those conditions, influences, or forces surrounding man which relate to promoting, establishing, and maintaining health.Dentists: Individuals licensed to practice DENTISTRY.Dentistry: The profession concerned with the teeth, oral cavity, and associated structures, and the diagnosis and treatment of their diseases including prevention and the restoration of defective and missing tissue.Delivery of Health Care, Integrated: A health care system which combines physicians, hospitals, and other medical services with a health plan to provide the complete spectrum of medical care for its customers. In a fully integrated system, the three key elements - physicians, hospital, and health plan membership - are in balance in terms of matching medical resources with the needs of purchasers and patients. (Coddington et al., Integrated Health Care: Reorganizing the Physician, Hospital and Health Plan Relationship, 1994, p7)Occupational Health: The promotion and maintenance of physical and mental health in the work environment.Geriatric Dentistry: The branch of dentistry concerned with the dental problems of older people.Dental Auxiliaries: Personnel whose work is prescribed and supervised by the dentist.Community Health Services: Diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive health services provided for individuals in the community.Health Care Rationing: Planning for the equitable allocation, apportionment, or distribution of available health resources.Urban Health: The status of health in urban populations.Dental Prosthesis: An artificial replacement for one or more natural teeth or part of a tooth, or associated structures, ranging from a portion of a tooth to a complete denture. The dental prosthesis is used for cosmetic or functional reasons, or both. DENTURES and specific types of dentures are also available. (From Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p244 & Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p643)Public Health Practice: The activities and endeavors of the public health services in a community on any level.Dental Calculus: Abnormal concretion or calcified deposit that forms around the teeth or dental prostheses.Mental Health Services: Organized services to provide mental health care.Dental Anxiety: Abnormal fear or dread of visiting the dentist for preventive care or therapy and unwarranted anxiety over dental procedures.Child Health Services: Organized services to provide health care for children.Gingivitis: Inflammation of gum tissue (GINGIVA) without loss of connective tissue.World Health Organization: A specialized agency of the United Nations designed as a coordinating authority on international health work; its aim is to promote the attainment of the highest possible level of health by all peoples.Women's Health: The concept covering the physical and mental conditions of women.Dental Research: The study of laws, theories, and hypotheses through a systematic examination of pertinent facts and their interpretation in the field of dentistry. (From Jablonski, Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry, 1982, p674)Health Care Sector: Economic sector concerned with the provision, distribution, and consumption of health care services and related products.Community Dentistry: The practice of dentistry concerned with preventive as well as diagnostic and treatment programs in a circumscribed population.School Dentistry: Preventive dental services provided for students in primary and secondary schools.Dental Hygienists: Persons trained in an accredited school or dental college and licensed by the state in which they reside to provide dental prophylaxis under the direction of a licensed dentist.Fluoridation: Practice of adding fluoride to water for the purpose of preventing tooth decay and cavities.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Outcome Assessment (Health Care): Research aimed at assessing the quality and effectiveness of health care as measured by the attainment of a specified end result or outcome. Measures include parameters such as improved health, lowered morbidity or mortality, and improvement of abnormal states (such as elevated blood pressure).Jaw, Edentulous, Partially: Absence of teeth from a portion of the mandible and/or maxilla.Rural Health Services: Health services, public or private, in rural areas. The services include the promotion of health and the delivery of health care.Dental Care for Chronically Ill: Dental care for patients with chronic diseases. These diseases include chronic cardiovascular, endocrinologic, hematologic, immunologic, neoplastic, and renal diseases. The concept does not include dental care for the mentally or physically disabled which is DENTAL CARE FOR DISABLED.Dental Care for Disabled: Dental care for the emotionally, mentally, or physically disabled patient. It does not include dental care for the chronically ill ( = DENTAL CARE FOR CHRONICALLY ILL).Quality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.Schools, Dental: Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of dentistry.Health Manpower: The availability of HEALTH PERSONNEL. It includes the demand and recruitment of both professional and allied health personnel, their present and future supply and distribution, and their assignment and utilization.Public Health Nursing: A nursing specialty concerned with promoting and protecting the health of populations, using knowledge from nursing, social, and public health sciences to develop local, regional, state, and national health policy and research. It is population-focused and community-oriented, aimed at health promotion and disease prevention through educational, diagnostic, and preventive programs.Poverty: A situation in which the level of living of an individual, family, or group is below the standard of the community. It is often related to a specific income level.Community Health Planning: Planning that has the goals of improving health, improving accessibility to health services, and promoting efficiency in the provision of services and resources on a comprehensive basis for a whole community. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988, p299)Comprehensive Dental Care: Providing for the full range of dental health services for diagnosis, treatment, follow-up, and rehabilitation of patients.Health Facilities: Institutions which provide medical or health-related services.BrazilCommunity Health Centers: Facilities which administer the delivery of health care services to people living in a community or neighborhood.Educational Status: Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.Gingival DiseasesDental Plaque Index: An index which scores the degree of dental plaque accumulation.Dental Facilities: Use for material on dental facilities in general or for which there is no specific heading.Regional Health Planning: Planning for health resources at a regional or multi-state level.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Needs Assessment: Systematic identification of a population's needs or the assessment of individuals to determine the proper level of services needed.Dentist-Patient Relations: The psychological relations between the dentist and patient.Health Resources: Available manpower, facilities, revenue, equipment, and supplies to produce requisite health care and services.Societies, Dental: Societies whose membership is limited to dentists.Interviews as Topic: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.Quality Assurance, Health Care: Activities and programs intended to assure or improve the quality of care in either a defined medical setting or a program. The concept includes the assessment or evaluation of the quality of care; identification of problems or shortcomings in the delivery of care; designing activities to overcome these deficiencies; and follow-up monitoring to ensure effectiveness of corrective steps.Pit and Fissure Sealants: Agents used to occlude dental enamel pits and fissures in the prevention of dental caries.North CarolinaHealth Services, Indigenous: Health care provided to specific cultural or tribal peoples which incorporates local customs, beliefs, and taboos.Tooth Injuries: Traumatic or other damage to teeth including fractures (TOOTH FRACTURES) or displacements (TOOTH LUXATION).Dental Prophylaxis: Treatment for the prevention of periodontal diseases or other dental diseases by the cleaning of the teeth in the dental office using the procedures of DENTAL SCALING and DENTAL POLISHING. The treatment may include plaque detection, removal of supra- and subgingival plaque and calculus, application of caries-preventing agents, checking of restorations and prostheses and correcting overhanging margins and proximal contours of restorations, and checking for signs of food impaction.Social Justice: An interactive process whereby members of a community are concerned for the equality and rights of all.Social Responsibility: The obligations and accountability assumed in carrying out actions or ideas on behalf of others.Social Class: A stratum of people with similar position and prestige; includes social stratification. Social class is measured by criteria such as education, occupation, and income.Program Evaluation: Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.Healthcare Disparities: Differences in access to or availability of medical facilities and services.Cariostatic Agents: Substances that inhibit or arrest DENTAL CARIES formation. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)Electronic Health Records: Media that facilitate transportability of pertinent information concerning patient's illness across varied providers and geographic locations. Some versions include direct linkages to online consumer health information that is relevant to the health conditions and treatments related to a specific patient.Medically Underserved Area: A geographic location which has insufficient health resources (manpower and/or facilities) to meet the medical needs of the resident population.Students, Dental: Individuals enrolled a school of dentistry or a formal educational program in leading to a degree in dentistry.Preventive Health Services: Services designed for HEALTH PROMOTION and prevention of disease.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.United States Public Health Service: A constituent organization of the DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES concerned with protecting and improving the health of the nation.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Diagnostic Self Evaluation: A self-evaluation of health status.Vulnerable Populations: Groups of persons whose range of options is severely limited, who are frequently subjected to COERCION in their DECISION MAKING, or who may be compromised in their ability to give INFORMED CONSENT.Oceanic Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the islands of the central and South Pacific, including Micronesia, Melanesia, Polynesia, and traditionally Australasia.Health Occupations: Professions or other business activities directed to the cure and prevention of disease. For occupations of medical personnel who are not physicians but who are working in the fields of medical technology, physical therapy, etc., ALLIED HEALTH OCCUPATIONS is available.Family Health: The health status of the family as a unit including the impact of the health of one member of the family on the family as a unit and on individual family members; also, the impact of family organization or disorganization on the health status of its members.Sickness Impact Profile: A quality-of-life scale developed in the United States in 1972 as a measure of health status or dysfunction generated by a disease. It is a behaviorally based questionnaire for patients and addresses activities such as sleep and rest, mobility, recreation, home management, emotional behavior, social interaction, and the like. It measures the patient's perceived health status and is sensitive enough to detect changes or differences in health status occurring over time or between groups. (From Medical Care, vol.xix, no.8, August 1981, p.787-805)Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Reproductive Health: The physical condition of human reproductive systems.Occupational Health Services: Health services for employees, usually provided by the employer at the place of work.Dental Clinics: Facilities where dental care is provided to patients.Maternal Health Services: Organized services to provide health care to expectant and nursing mothers.Health Benefit Plans, Employee: Health insurance plans for employees, and generally including their dependents, usually on a cost-sharing basis with the employer paying a percentage of the premium.Dentist's Practice Patterns: Patterns of practice in dentistry related to diagnosis and treatment.National Institutes of Health (U.S.): An operating division of the US Department of Health and Human Services. It is concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to health and medical research. Until 1995, it was an agency of the United States PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE.Professional Role: The expected function of a member of a particular profession.Health Plan Implementation: Those actions designed to carry out recommendations pertaining to health plans or programs.Financing, Government: Federal, state, or local government organized methods of financial assistance.Xerostomia: Decreased salivary flow.Rural Population: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.Self-Assessment: Appraisal of one's own personal qualities or traits.Toothpastes: Dentifrices that are formulated into a paste form. They typically contain abrasives, HUMECTANTS; DETERGENTS; FLAVORING AGENTS; and CARIOSTATIC AGENTS.Urban Health Services: Health services, public or private, in urban areas. The services include the promotion of health and the delivery of health care.Halitosis: An offensive, foul breath odor resulting from a variety of causes such as poor oral hygiene, dental or oral infections, or the ingestion of certain foods.Dental Plaque: A film that attaches to teeth, often causing DENTAL CARIES and GINGIVITIS. It is composed of MUCINS, secreted from salivary glands, and microorganisms.Tooth Discoloration: Any change in the hue, color, or translucency of a tooth due to any cause. Restorative filling materials, drugs (both topical and systemic), pulpal necrosis, or hemorrhage may be responsible. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p253)School Health Services: Preventive health services provided for students. It excludes college or university students.Diagnosis, Oral: Examination of the mouth and teeth toward the identification and diagnosis of intraoral disease or manifestation of non-oral conditions.Health Services for the Aged: Services for the diagnosis and treatment of diseases in the aged and the maintenance of health in the elderly.IndiaFocal Infection, Dental: Secondary or systemic infections due to dissemination throughout the body of microorganisms whose primary focus of infection lies in the periodontal tissues.Public Health Informatics: The systematic application of information and computer sciences to public health practice, research, and learning.Health Services Administration: The organization and administration of health services dedicated to the delivery of health care.Policy Making: The decision process by which individuals, groups or institutions establish policies pertaining to plans, programs or procedures.Program Development: The process of formulating, improving, and expanding educational, managerial, or service-oriented work plans (excluding computer program development).Australia: The smallest continent and an independent country, comprising six states and two territories. Its capital is Canberra.State Health Plans: State plans prepared by the State Health Planning and Development Agencies which are made up from plans submitted by the Health Systems Agencies and subject to review and revision by the Statewide Health Coordinating Council.Ethnic Groups: A group of people with a common cultural heritage that sets them apart from others in a variety of social relationships.Curriculum: A course of study offered by an educational institution.Politics: Activities concerned with governmental policies, functions, etc.Self Report: Method for obtaining information through verbal responses, written or oral, from subjects.Mental Disorders: Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.Tooth, Deciduous: The teeth of the first dentition, which are shed and replaced by the permanent teeth.Quality Indicators, Health Care: Norms, criteria, standards, and other direct qualitative and quantitative measures used in determining the quality of health care.Catchment Area (Health): A geographic area defined and served by a health program or institution.Population Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.Reproductive Health Services: Health care services related to human REPRODUCTION and diseases of the reproductive system. Services are provided to both sexes and usually by physicians in the medical or the surgical specialties such as REPRODUCTIVE MEDICINE; ANDROLOGY; GYNECOLOGY; OBSTETRICS; and PERINATOLOGY.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Women's Health Services: Organized services to provide health care to women. It excludes maternal care services for which MATERNAL HEALTH SERVICES is available.Dental Caries Susceptibility: The predisposition to tooth decay (DENTAL CARIES).Health Care Coalitions: Voluntary groups of people representing diverse interests in the community such as hospitals, businesses, physicians, and insurers, with the principal objective to improve health care cost effectiveness.Parents: Persons functioning as natural, adoptive, or substitute parents. The heading includes the concept of parenthood as well as preparation for becoming a parent.Community-Institutional Relations: The interactions between members of a community and representatives of the institutions within that community.Health Records, Personal: Longitudinal patient-maintained records of individual health history and tools that allow individual control of access.Men's Health: The concept covering the physical and mental conditions of men.Health Planning Guidelines: Recommendations for directing health planning functions and policies. These may be mandated by PL93-641 and issued by the Department of Health and Human Services for use by state and local planning agencies.Qualitative Research: Any type of research that employs nonnumeric information to explore individual or group characteristics, producing findings not arrived at by statistical procedures or other quantitative means. (Qualitative Inquiry: A Dictionary of Terms Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1997)Residence Characteristics: Elements of residence that characterize a population. They are applicable in determining need for and utilization of health services.Mentally Disabled Persons: Persons diagnosed as having significantly lower than average intelligence and considerable problems in adapting to everyday life or lacking independence in regard to activities of daily living.Outcome and Process Assessment (Health Care): Evaluation procedures that focus on both the outcome or status (OUTCOMES ASSESSMENT) of the patient at the end of an episode of care - presence of symptoms, level of activity, and mortality; and the process (ASSESSMENT, PROCESS) - what is done for the patient diagnostically and therapeutically.Infant Welfare: Organized efforts by communities or organizations to improve the health and well-being of infants.International Cooperation: The interaction of persons or groups of persons representing various nations in the pursuit of a common goal or interest.Health Maintenance Organizations: Organized systems for providing comprehensive prepaid health care that have five basic attributes: (1) provide care in a defined geographic area; (2) provide or ensure delivery of an agreed-upon set of basic and supplemental health maintenance and treatment services; (3) provide care to a voluntarily enrolled group of persons; (4) require their enrollees to use the services of designated providers; and (5) receive reimbursement through a predetermined, fixed, periodic prepayment made by the enrollee without regard to the degree of services provided. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988)Urban Population: The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.Great BritainLeadership: The function of directing or controlling the actions or attitudes of an individual or group with more or less willing acquiescence of the followers.Organizational Objectives: The purposes, missions, and goals of an individual organization or its units, established through administrative processes. It includes an organization's long-range plans and administrative philosophy.Cooperative Behavior: The interaction of two or more persons or organizations directed toward a common goal which is mutually beneficial. An act or instance of working or acting together for a common purpose or benefit, i.e., joint action. (From Random House Dictionary Unabridged, 2d ed)

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Remedy Health Media: About Remedy Health Media , Contact Remedy Health Media , Terms of Use , Privacy Policy ... Ask the Experts > Forum on HIV and Oral Health > Q & A Thrush. Apr 20, 1999 In a recent trip to the doctor I found that I have ... If you have or suspect you may have a health problem, consult your health care provider. ... 2017 Remedy Health Media, LLC. All Rights Reserved. The Body: About The Body , Contact The Body , Site Policies , Content ...

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For instance, oral sores are common in the HIV negative... ... It is important to point out that there are not any oral ... Remedy Health Media: About Remedy Health Media , Contact Remedy Health Media , Terms of Use , Privacy Policy ... Ask the Experts > Forum on HIV and Oral Health > Q & A please please please please answer. Jan 24, 2002 ok here is the deal i ... In a large health and nutritional assessment study of the general population 17% had oral sores due to the herpes virus (cold ...

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Self-rated health: Self-rated health (also called Self-reported health, Self-assessed health, or perceived health) refers to both a single question such as “in general, would you say that you health is excellent, very good, good, fair, or poor?” and a survey questionnaire in which participants assess different dimensions of their own health.Dental Procedure Education System: The Dental Procedure Education System (DPES), is a web-based resource containing a collection of procedures from the dental disciplines. The procedures presented in DPES were developed by individual faculty members at the Faculty of Dentistry, University of Toronto, in collaboration with a group of educational media and technology experts.Dental cariesPublic Health Act: Public Health Act is a stock short title used in the United Kingdom for legislation relating to public health.Global Health Delivery ProjectMallow General Hospital: Mallow General Hospital is a public hospital located in Mallow, County Cork, Ireland.http://www.Lifestyle management programme: A lifestyle management programme (also referred to as a health promotion programme, health behaviour change programme, lifestyle improvement programme or wellness programme) is an intervention designed to promote positive lifestyle and behaviour change and is widely used in the field of health promotion.Health policy: Health policy can be defined as the "decisions, plans, and actions that are undertaken to achieve specific health care goals within a society."World Health Organization.Toothbrush: The toothbrush is an oral hygiene instrument used to clean the teeth and gums that consists of a head of tightly clustered bristles mounted on a handle, which facilitates the cleansing of hard-to-reach areas of the mouth.Rock 'n' Roll (Status Quo song)Bone destruction patterns in periodontal disease: In periodontal disease, not only does the bone that supports the teeth, known as alveolar bone, reduce in height in relation to the teeth, but the morphology of the remaining alveolar bone is altered.Carranza, FA: Bone Loss and Patterns of Bone Destruction.Brian C. Bialiy: Brian C. Bialiy worked on and appeared in the award-winning documentary The Staten Island Catapult.Behavior: Behavior or behaviour (see spelling differences) is the range of actions and [made by individuals, organism]s, [[systems, or artificial entities in conjunction with themselves or their environment, which includes the other systems or organisms around as well as the (inanimate) physical environment. It is the response of the system or organism to various stimuli or inputs, whether [or external], [[conscious or subconscious, overt or covert, and voluntary or involuntary.Journal of Indian Society of Pedodontics and Preventive DentistryTooth loss: Tooth loss is a process in which one or more teeth come loose and fall out. Tooth loss is normal for deciduous teeth (baby teeth), when they are replaced by a person's adult teeth.Behavior change (public health): Behavior change is a central objective in public health interventions,WHO 2002: World Health Report 2002 - Reducing Risks, Promoting Healthy Life Accessed Feb 2015 http://www.who.Halfdan T. MahlerThe Alligator's Toothache: The Alligator's Toothache is a 1962 children's picture book written and illustrated by Marguerite Dorian. It tells the tale of an alligator called Alli and his child-friendly experiences with a painful tooth and a dentist's surgery.Contraceptive mandate (United States): A contraceptive mandate is a state or federal regulation or law that requires health insurers, or employers that provide their employees with health insurance, to cover some contraceptive costs in their health insurance plans. In 1978, the U.School health education: School Health Education see also: Health Promotion is the process of transferring health knowledge during a student's school years (K-12). Its uses are in general classified as Public Health Education and School Health Education.Aging (scheduling): In Operating systems, Aging is a scheduling technique used to avoid starvation. Fixed priority scheduling is a scheduling discipline, in which tasks queued for utilizing a system resource are assigned a priority each.DJ College of Dental Sciences and Research: Divya Jyoti (DJ) College of Dental Sciences and Research is a dental college located in Modinagar in the nagar panchayat of Niwari in Ghaziabad district in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. The founder and chairman is Ajit Singh Jassar.Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory: right|300px|thumb|Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory logo.Outline of dentistry and oral health: The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to dentistry and oral health:WHO collaborating centres in occupational health: The WHO collaborating centres in occupational health constitute a network of institutions put in place by the World Health Organization to extend availability of occupational health coverage in both developed and undeveloped countries.Network of WHO Collaborating Centres in occupational health.Comprehensive Rural Health Project: The Comprehensive Rural Health Project (CRHP) is a non profit, non-governmental organization located in Jamkhed, Ahmednagar District in the state of Maharashtra, India. The organization works with rural communities to provide community-based primary healthcare and improve the general standard of living through a variety of community-led development programs, including Women's Self-Help Groups, Farmers' Clubs, Adolescent Programs and Sanitation and Watershed Development Programs.National Collaborating Centre for Mental Health: The National Collaborating Centre for Mental Health (NCCMH) is one of several centres of the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) tasked with developing guidance on the appropriate treatment and care of people with specific conditions within the National Health Service (NHS) in England and Wales. It was established in 2001.Desquamative gingivitisEuropean Immunization Week: European Immunization Week (EIW) is an annual regional initiative, coordinated by the World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe (WHO/Europe), to promote immunization against vaccine-preventable diseases. EIW activities are carried out by participating WHO/Europe member states.Women's Health Initiative: The Women's Health Initiative (WHI) was initiated by the U.S.International Association for Dental Research: The International Association for Dental Research (IADR) is a professional association that focuses on research in the field of dentistry. The aim of this association by constitution is to promote research in all fields of oral and related sciences, to encourage improvements in methods for the prevention and treatment of oral and dental disease, to improve the oral health of the public through research, and to facilitate cooperation among investigators and the communication of research findings and their implications throughout the world.Utah College of Dental HygieneWater fluoridation in the United StatesClosed-ended question: A closed-ended question is a question format that limits respondents with a list of answer choices from which they must choose to answer the question.Dillman D.Society for Education Action and Research in Community Health: Searching}}Time-trade-off: Time-Trade-Off (TTO) is a tool used in health economics to help determine the quality of life of a patient or group. The individual will be presented with a set of directions such as:Dental Schools Council: The Dental Schools Council represents the interests of UK dental schools as it relates to national health, wealth, knowledge acquisition through teaching, research, and the profession of dentistry.Universities UK http://www.Minati SenPoverty trap: A poverty trap is "any self-reinforcing mechanism which causes poverty to persist."Costas Azariadis and John Stachurski, "Poverty Traps," Handbook of Economic Growth, 2005, 326.Healthy community design: Healthy community design is planning and designing communities that make it easier for people to live healthy lives. Healthy community design offers important benefits:

(1/808) Relationship between oral health and nutrition in very old people.

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the relationship between oral health status and nutritional deficiency. DESIGN: Cross-sectional clinical study. SUBJECTS: 324 institutionalized frail older adults (mean age 85). MEASUREMENTS: Structured oral examination including an evaluation of mucosa, periodontal state, caries prevalence and denture quality. The nutritional status was assessed using serum albumin concentration and the body mass index. Physical dependence was assessed using the Barthel index. To identify oral health disorders associated with markers of malnutrition we performed the Pearson chi2 test separately for edentulous and dentate patients. Subjects with at least one of the identified oral disorders were classified as having compromised oral functional status. RESULTS: About two-thirds of the subjects were functionally dependent and half had either a body mass index <21 kg/m2 or serum albumin <33 g/l. Among the edentulous, wearing dentures with defective bases or not wearing dentures at all were the factors most associated with malnutrition. In dentate subjects, corresponding identifiers were the number of occluding pairs of teeth (five or fewer, either natural or prosthetic), the number of retained roots (four or more), and the presence of mobile teeth. According to these criteria, 31% of the subjects had a compromised oral functional status. This was more frequently found in dependent subjects (37%) than semi-dependent subjects (18%; odds ratio, 2.6; 95% confidence interval, 1.4-4.8). Those with compromised oral functional status had a significantly lower body mass index and serum albumin concentration. CONCLUSION: Specific detrimental oral conditions are associated with nutritional deficiency in very old people.  (+info)

(2/808) An exploration of oral health beliefs and attitudes of Chinese in West Yorkshire: a qualitative investigation.

This qualitative study explores oral health beliefs and attitudes among Chinese resident in West Yorkshire using six focus groups differentiated by age and gender. Focus group discussions took place in community settings led by trained Chinese facilitators. All groups believed that they were susceptible to dental disease, and that bleeding gums and total tooth loss were 'normal'; apart from the elderly, tooth loss was seen as undesirable. The elderly and adult groups believed in traditional remedies and claimed that preventive oral health measures were ineffective. These groups lacked faith in dentists, and for them cost, language difficulties and lack of awareness were the main reported barriers to accessing dental services. Traditional Chinese oral health beliefs remain influential for the elderly and adult UK Chinese. In contrast, teenagers thought that toothbrushing and sugar restriction would help to prevent dental diseases. The appropriateness of the focus group and interview methods for exploring oral health beliefs for the Chinese are discussed, as are implications of the reported intergenerational differences for oral health promotion strategy in the UK.  (+info)

(3/808) Anticipatory guidance in infant oral health: rationale and recommendations.

If appropriate measures are applied early enough, it may be possible to totally prevent oral disease. The American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry recommends that infants be scheduled for an initial oral evaluation within six months of the eruption of the first primary tooth but by no later than 12 months of age. The rationale for this recommendation is provided, although the recommendation itself is not universally accepted. Specific recommendations include elimination of bottles in bed, early use of soft-bristled toothbrushes (with parental supervision) and limitation of high-carbohydrate food intake after teeth have been brushed.  (+info)

(4/808) The impact of molecular genetics on oral health paradigms.

As a result of our increased understanding of the human genome, and the functional interrelationships of gene products with each other and with the environment, it is becoming increasingly evident that many human diseases are influenced by heritable alterations in the structure or function of genes. Significant advances in research methods and newly emerging partnerships between private and public sector interests are creating new possibilities for utilization of genetic information for the diagnosis and treatment of human diseases. The availability and application of genetic information to the understanding of normal and abnormal human growth and development are fundamentally changing the way we approach the study of human diseases. As a result, the issues and principles of medical genetics are coming to bear across all disciplines of health care. In this review, we discuss some of the potential applications of human molecular genetics for the diagnosis and treatment of oral diseases. This discussion is presented in the context of the ongoing technological advances and conceptual changes that are occurring in the field of medical genetics. To realize the promise of this new molecular genetics, we must be prepared to foresee the possibilities and to incorporate these newly emergent technologies into the evolving discipline of dentistry. By using examples of human conditions, we illustrate the broad application of this emerging technology to the study of simple as well as complex genetic diseases. Throughout this paper, we will use the following terminology: Penetrance--In a population, defined as the proportion of individuals possessing a disease-causing genotype who express the disease phenotype. When this proportion is less than 100%, the disease is said to have reduced or incomplete penetrance. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)--A technique for amplifying a large number of copies of a specific DNA sequence flanked by two oligonucleotide primers. The DNA is alternately heated and cooled in the presence of DNA polymerase and free nucleotides, so that the specified DNA segment is denatured, hybridized with primers, and extended by DNA polymerase. MIM--Mendelian Inheritance in Man catalogue number from V. McKusick's Mendelian Inheritance in man (OMIM, 1998).  (+info)

(5/808) Oral health of patients scheduled for elective abdominal aortic correction with prosthesis.

OBJECTIVE: to evaluate the frequency of potential oral foci of infection in patients scheduled for elective abdominal aortic surgery. DESIGN: prospective clinical study. MATERIALS: oral health and dentures of 50 patients (33 males and 17 females, mean age 65 years) were examined before aortic surgery. CHIEF OUTCOME MEASURES: radiographic and clinical examination with special emphasis on identifying acute and chronic oral and ontogenic conditions which may contribute to aortic prosthesis infection. RESULTS: eighty-two per cent of the patients had some oral infection foci. The mean number of remaining teeth in the cohort was 9.3, and 21% of these were potential infectious foci (62% in the patients). Twenty-six per cent of the patients suffered from oral Candida infection. Seventy-four per cent of the patients had total or partial dentures, 45% of which were ill-fitting and needed repair. CONCLUSIONS: oral infectious foci occur frequently in patients needing aortic surgery. Untreated foci may contribute to aortic prosthesis infection. Preoperative oral evaluation and elimination of intraoral infection is recommended for patients scheduled for abdominal aortic repair.  (+info)

(6/808) Chewing gum--facts and fiction: a review of gum-chewing and oral health.

The world market for chewing gum is estimated to be 560,000 tons per year, representing approximately US $5 billion. Some 374 billion pieces of chewing gum are sold worldwide every year, representing 187 billion hours of gum-chewing if each piece of gum is chewed for 30 minutes. Chewing gum can thus be expected to have an influence on oral health. The labeling of sugar-substituted chewing gum as "safe for teeth" or "tooth-friendly" has been proven beneficial to the informed consumer. Such claims are allowed for products having been shown in vivo not to depress plaque pH below 5.7, neither during nor for 30 minutes after the consumption. However, various chewing gum manufacturers have recently begun to make distinct health promotion claims, suggesting, e.g., reparative action or substitution for mechanical hygiene. The aim of this critical review--covering the effects of the physical properties of chewing gum and those of different ingredients both of conventional and of functional chewing gum--is to provide a set of guidelines for the interpretation of such claims and to assist oral health care professionals in counseling patients.  (+info)

(7/808) Oral health and juvenile idiopathic arthritis: a review.

Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) results in significant morbidity that includes an adverse impact on oral health that is generally not well recognized. This review describes current literature which demonstrates poor oral health in children with JIA. The impact of JIA on oral health is probably multifactorial and these factors are discussed. This review emphasizes the role of paediatric dentistry in the multidisciplinary management of JIA and highlights the need for further research.  (+info)

(8/808) Trends in surgical and nonsurgical periodontal treatment.

BACKGROUND: New research is demonstrating that a person's total health is indeed related to his or her oral health. Elimination of all oral infections, including gingivitis and periodontis, is important to overall health. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: This article reviews recent evidence on the systemic and oral connection and discusses these findings as they relate to patient care. The article examines trends in nonsurgical and surgical therapy that will successfully arrest periodontal infections. Opportunities for early diagnosis and prevention will play an increasing role in dental practice in the future as patients understand the importance of oral health to overall health.  (+info)


  • The demographic variables, medical history and oral health behaviors were recorded on a questionnaire. (scielo.br)
  • Additional information was collected using a questionnaire survey regarding knowledge about shokuiku , dietary habits, and oral health behaviors. (mdpi.com)


  • Participating mothers were interviewed regarding child's demographic profile, educational level and socioeconomic status of parents, past medical and dental history of the mother and child, child's feeding habits, and dietary habits and oral hygiene practices of mother and child. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • The Relation Between Pregnancy,Birth Outcome, Feeding , Oral Hygiene Habits and Early Childhood Caries Development. (clinicaltrials.gov)


  • Less than half of parents said their health care provider talked with them about taking their child to a dentist, and 1 in 10 parents said a health care provider noted a problem with their child's teeth at age 1-2. (mottnpch.org)


  • The American Dental Association's 2016 National Children's Dental Health Month campaign is called "Sugar Wars. (mottnpch.org)


  • In addition the effect of these feeding habits on the dental/oral aspects, relevant for the developing dentition. (clinicaltrials.gov)


  • The aim was to determine the relationship of feeding methods and oral Streptococcus mutans count in 3- to 5-year-old children with ECC. (readbyqxmd.com)


  • Dental health problems like childhood caries (cavities in the baby teeth) are the leading cause of chronic disease for young children. (mottnpch.org)
  • Experts recommend that children begin oral health care as early as age 1, or when their first teeth emerge. (mottnpch.org)

Public Health

  • The Oral Health Program has two components - primary health services and the Public Health Dental Clinic. (saskatoonhealthregion.ca)

dental health

  • February is National Children's Dental Health Month. (mottnpch.org)
  • The ADA has free online resources to help educate children on the importance of good dental health. (mottnpch.org)
  • How do you encourage good dental health with your children? (mottnpch.org)
  • Dental health educator coordinators determine the oral health needs of communities, provide health promotion and dental health education, and deliver preventive programs. (saskatoonhealthregion.ca)


  • The pilot study in cooperation with the Woman's Health Center and with the midwives and the breastfeeding counselors of the maternity unit. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The study protocol was approved by the Ethical Committee of Research of the Health Sciences Center of the Federal University of Pernambuco - Certificate of Ethical Committee Approval (CAAE) 04300012500005208. (biomedcentral.com)


  • In addition, sociodemographic and self-reported oral health status were recorded. (hku.hk)


  • Design: Data were collected in two national surveys conducted a month apart, one using the 'weighted' measure and the other an 'unweighted' version of the UK oral health-related quality-of-life measure. (hku.hk)


  • The goal of the Oral Health Program is to promote good oral health for people of all ages within the community. (saskatoonhealthregion.ca)



  • Objective: To determine whether or not self-weighting at an item level contributes to the performance of an oral health-related quality-of-life measure. (hku.hk)



  • A total of 562 students volunteered to undergo oral examinations over a three-year follow-up period, during which the number of cases of dental caries were recorded. (mdpi.com)


  • An oral health study (n = 1303) nested in a birth cohort study was carried out in southern Brazil. (readbyqxmd.com)