##### Oddsratios (OR)† and corresponding 95% confidence in | Open-i
Odds ratios (OR)† and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) for human papillomavirus (HPV) positivity by education level ... fig3: Odds ratios (OR)† and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) for human papillomavirus (HPV) positivity by education ... fig3: Odds ratios (OR)† and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) for human papillomavirus (HPV) positivity by education ... Results: Education level was consistently associated with cervical cancer risk (odds ratio (OR) for 0 and >5 years vs 1-5 years ...
https://openi.nlm.nih.gov/detailedresult.php?img=PMC2736843_6605224f3&req=4
##### The Definitive Guide to case study assistance
If we're comparing two groups making use of relative measures, such as relative dangers or odds ratios, and navigate to these ...
http://rowanejxip.blogolize.com/The-Definitive-Guide-to-case-study-assistance-9866156
##### OddsRatio and Relative Risks :: SAS/STAT(R) 13.1 User's Guide
The odds ratio is formed as the ratio of the row 1 odds to the row 2 odds. The estimate of the odds ratio is computed as ... An odds ratio greater than 1 indicates that the odds of a positive response are higher in row 1 than in row 2. An odds ratio ... is the estimate of the variance of the log odds ratio and is the percentile of the t distribution with df degrees of freedom. ( ... The OR option provides estimates of the odds ratio, the column 1 relative risk, and the column 2 relative risk for tables, ...
http://support.sas.com/documentation/cdl/en/statug/66859/HTML/default/statug_surveyfreq_details43.htm
##### There's Nothing Odd about the OddsRatio: Interpreting Binary Logistic Regression - Statistics Solutions
If the odds ratio for gender had been below 1, she would have been in trouble, as an odds ratio less than 1 implies a negative ... To conclude, the important thing to remember about the odds ratio is that an odds ratio greater than 1 is a positive ... There's Nothing Odd about the Odds Ratio: Interpreting Binary Logistic Regression There's Nothing Odd about the Odds Ratio: ... the interpretation of the odds ratio is a little different, but we can use the same logic. This odds ratio is interpreted in ...
##### rs3918242 - SNPedia
The relatively weak odds ratios for carriers of one rs3918242(T) allele was 1.14 (p=0.06), and for (T;T) homozygotes, 1.33 (p= ... yielded a significant odds ratio of 1.25 (CI: 1.07 - 1.48, p=0.007) for the (C;T)/(A;G) combination compared to (C;C)/(G;G) ... the odds ratio for the rs3918242(C;T) genotype was 3.6 for mixed ethnicities (CI: 1.2-11.1, p=0.001), and for Caucasians only, ...
https://www.snpedia.com/index.php/Rs3918242
##### Risk and Odds · Part One
The Odds Ratio is the ratio of the odds of the outcome occurring in the exposed compared to the odds of it occurring in the ... So why use odds ratios at all? Odds ratios are:. *Required when research subjects are selected on the basis of outcome rather ... Risk and Odds. Understand the concepts of risk and Odds Ratio. Risk. *Absolute Risk is the risk of an event occurring in the ... and particularly the concept of odds ratios, are commonly confused. Relative risk tends be much more intuitive than odds ratios ...
http://www.partone.lifeinthefastlane.com/risk_and_odds.html
##### Epidemiology - OddsRatio (OR) | Bean Around The World
Reading odds ratio Video. understanding odds ratios. They suspect that it may have been something they ate, maybe the fish ... Definition The Odds Ratio is a measure of association which compares the Formulae OR = (odds of disease in exposed) / (odds of ... The coefficient and intercept estimates give us the following equation: A Calculating Odds Ratios We will calculate odds ratios ... Thus, for a male, the odds of being admitted are 5. What is p here? Reading odds ratio - Ziel hatten. Find an article Search ...
##### Relation between oddsratio and relative risk | Physics Forums
i am required to show that the odds ratio, 'OR', and relative risk, 'RR', are related by: OR = \frac{RR}{(1-p_{0})} \frac{1}{(1 ... i am required to show that the odds ratio, 'OR', and relative risk, 'RR', are related by:. [tex] OR = \frac{RR}{(1-p_{0})} \ ...
##### oddsratio - Math Help Forum
Math Help Forum is a free math help forum for Calculus, Algebra, LaTeX, Geometry, Trigonometry, Statistics and Probability, Differential Equations, Discrete Math
http://mathhelpforum.com/tags/odds%20ratio/
##### Estimating Common OddsRatio with Missing Data
With informative missingness, estimators based on the estimated cell means do not converge to the correct common odds ratio ... Analytic studies and simulation results show that the Mantel-Haenszel estimators overestimate the common odds ratio but adding ... the biases and variances of the Mantel-Haenszel estimator and modified Mantel-Haenszel estimators of the common odds ratio ... The asymptotic variance formula of the ratio estimators had smaller biases and variances than those based on jackknifing or ...
https://drum.lib.umd.edu/handle/1903/2725
##### OddsRatio and Attributable Risk (Retrospective) - StatsDirect
In epidemiological terms, the odds ratio is used as a point estimate of the relative risk in retrospective studies. Odds ratio ... The odds ratio ((a/c)/(b/d)) looks at the likelihood of an outcome in relation to a characteristic factor. ... Population attributable risk is presented as a percentage with a confidence interval when the odds ratio is greater than or ... A confidence interval (CI) for the odds ratio is calculated using an exact conditional likelihood method (Martin and Austin, ...
https://www.statsdirect.com/help/miscellaneous/risk_retrospective.htm
##### Logistic Regression (Multiple Logistic, OddsRatio) - StatsDirect
Influential data and odds ratios The following are provided under the fits and residuals option for the purpose of identifying ... A bootstrap procedure may be used to cross-validate confidence intervals calculated for odds ratios derived from fitted ... Approximate confidence intervals are given for the odds ratios derived from the covariates. ... Deviance is minus twice the log of the likelihood ratio for models fitted by maximum likelihood (Hosmer and Lemeshow, 1989; Cox ...
https://www.statsdirect.com/help/regression_and_correlation/logistic.htm
##### The OddsRatio Estimates Table :: SAS/STAT(R) 13.2 User's Guide
"Odds Ratio Estimates" table). proc glimmix; class A; model y = A x A*x / dist=binary oddsratio; run; By default, odds ratios ... odds ratio estimates. The odds ratios computed for the covariate are based on differencing this set of least squares means with ... It consists of estimates of odds ratios and their confidence limits. Odds ratios are produced for the following: * ... statement are available to obtain customized odds ratio estimates. For customized odds ratios that cannot be obtained with ...
http://support.sas.com/documentation/cdl/en/statug/67523/HTML/default/statug_glimmix_details50.htm
##### Validation Study Methods for Estimating OddsRatio in Tables When Exposure is Misclassified
Validation Study Methods for Estimating Odds Ratio in Tables When Exposure is Misclassified. Bijan Nouri,1 Najaf Zare,2 and ... Bijan Nouri, Najaf Zare, and Seyyed Mohammad Taghi Ayatollahi, "Validation Study Methods for Estimating Odds Ratio in Tables ...
https://www.hindawi.com/journals/cmmm/2013/170120/cta/
##### IJERPH | Free Full-Text | Computing Power and Sample Size for Informational OddsRatio
Adjusted traditional odds ratios (TORs) are not collapsible. In contrast, Mantel-Haenszel adjusted IORs, analogous to relative ... measures the post-exposure odds divided by the pre-exposure odds (i.e., information gained after knowing exposure status). A ... desirable property of an adjusted ratio estimate is collapsibility, wherein the combined crude ratio will not change after ... The informational odds ratio (IOR) measures the post-exposure odds divided by the pre-exposure odds (i.e., information gained ...
http://www.mdpi.com/1660-4601/10/10/5239
##### Measuring association using oddsratios | R-bloggers
An important practical issue in interpreting odds ratios is that of how much smaller or larger than 1 the computed odds ratio ... Applying these transformation results to the odds ratio for Bruises yields a new odds ratio of 0.100, with a 95% confidence ... is coded as 0 changes the odds ratio from 0.059 to 1/0.059 = 17.857. Since this number is larger than the odds ratio of 9.972 ... that the log of the odds ratio approaches normality faster than the odds ratio itself does, so this approach yields more ...
https://www.r-bloggers.com/measuring-association-using-odds-ratios/
##### R] Plot of oddsratios obtained from a logistic model
... gepeto geppetto5st at gmail.com Sat Feb 6 19:28:54 CET 2010 *Previous ... Hi all! I am trying to develop a plot a figure in which I would like to show the odds ratios obtained from a logistic model. I ... Next message: [R] Plot of odds ratios obtained from a logistic model ... Next message: [R] Plot of odds ratios obtained from a logistic model ...
https://stat.ethz.ch/pipermail/r-help/2010-February/227280.html
##### Oddsratio - Wikipedia
... and population log odds ratio (LOR): Cohen's h Diagnostic odds ratio Forest plot Hazard ratio Rate ratio Cornfield, J (1951). " ... The odds ratio is the ratio of the odds of an event occurring in one group to the odds of it occurring in another group. The ... compute the odds that the same individual has "A" Divide the odds from step 1 by the odds from step 2 to obtain the odds ratio ... Thus the odds ratio equals one if and only if X and Y are independent. The odds ratio is a function of the cell probabilities, ...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Odds_ratio
##### Believability of relative risks and oddsratios in abstracts: cross sectional study | The BMJ
Believability of relative risks and odds ratios in abstracts: cross sectional study BMJ 2006; :bmj;bmj.38895.410451.79v1 ... Believability of relative risks and odds ratios in abstracts: cross sectional study ... Believability of relative risks and odds ratios in abstracts: cross sectional study ... Believability of relative risks and odds ratios in abstracts: cross sectional study. BMJ 2006; doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj ...
http://www.bmj.com/content/early/2005/12/31/bmj.38895.410451.79
##### Diagnostic oddsratio - Wikipedia
The diagnostic odds ratio is defined mathematically as: Diagnostic odds ratio, DOR = T P / F P F N / T N {\displaystyle {\text{ ... As an odds ratio, the logarithm of the diagnostic odds ratio is approximately normally distributed.[clarification needed] The ... We compute the confidence interval for the diagnostic odds ratio of this test as [9, 134]. The diagnostic odds ratio is ... the diagnostic odds ratio is a measure of the effectiveness of a diagnostic test. It is defined as the ratio of the odds of the ...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Diagnostic_odds_ratio
##### Help with stats interpretation!! OddsRatio in dose-response model - Who Posted?
Math Help Forum is a free math help forum for Calculus, Algebra, LaTeX, Geometry, Trigonometry, Statistics and Probability, Differential Equations, Discrete Math
http://mathhelpforum.com/misc.php?do=whoposted&t=203257
##### Multivariate oddsratios of chronic kidney disease | Zanran
Multivariate odds ratios of chronic kidney disease (subgroup analyses by age and sex)., Multivariate odds ratio for chronic ... Solid thick line represents the predicted odds of CKD from nonparametric logistic regression; dashed lines, 95% confidence ... kidney disease or microalbuminuria based on the presence of components of the metabolic syndrome, Multivariable-adjusted odds ... statistics on Multivariate odds ratios of chronic kidney disease: ...
http://www.zanran.com/q/Multivariate_odds_ratios_of_chronic_kidney_disease
##### Example 88.5 Comparing Two Proportions with a Log OddsRatio Test :: SAS/STAT(R) 13.1 User's Guide
The following statements create and display (in Output 88.5.7) the data set for the log odds ratio statistic and its associated ... The following statements create and display (in Output 88.5.13) the data set for the log odds ratio statistic and its ... This example compares two binomial proportions by using a log odds ratio statistic in a five-stage group sequential test. A ... The following statements use the LOGISTIC procedure to compute the log odds ratio statistic and its associated standard error ...
http://support.sas.com/documentation/cdl/en/statug/66859/HTML/default/statug_seqtest_examples05.htm
##### The cardiovascular effect of incretin-based therapies among type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and network meta-analysis. -...
Odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) was calculated as the measure of effect size. RESULTS: 281 RCTs (76.9% double ... Odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) was calculated as the measure of effect size. RESULTS: 281 RCTs (76.9% double ...
https://www.psych.ox.ac.uk/publications/820778
##### Self-reported cognitive problems in women receiving adjuvant therapy for breast cancer : Sussex Research Online
... psychology Female Great Britain Humans Memory Middle Aged Neuropsychological Tests Nursing Methodology Research Odds Ratio ...
http://sro.sussex.ac.uk/7434/

(1/18160) Use of wood stoves and risk of cancers of the upper aero-digestive tract: a case-control study.

BACKGROUND: Incidence rates for cancers of the upper aero-digestive tract in Southern Brazil are among the highest in the world. A case-control study was designed to identify the main risk factors for carcinomas of mouth, pharynx, and larynx in the region. We tested the hypothesis of whether use of wood stoves is associated with these cancers. METHODS: Information on known and potential risk factors was obtained from interviews with 784 cases and 1568 non-cancer controls. We estimated the effect of use of wood stove by conditional logistic regression, with adjustment for smoking, alcohol consumption and for other sociodemographic and dietary variables chosen as empirical confounders based on a change-in-estimate criterion. RESULTS: After extensive adjustment for all the empirical confounders the odds ratio (OR) for all upper aero-digestive tract cancers was 2.68 (95% confidence interval [CI] : 2.2-3.3). Increased risks were also seen in site-specific analyses for mouth (OR = 2.73; 95% CI: 1.8-4.2), pharyngeal (OR = 3.82; 95% CI: 2.0-7.4), and laryngeal carcinomas (OR = 2.34; 95% CI: 1.2-4.7). Significant risk elevations remained for each of the three anatomic sites and for all sites combined even after we purposefully biased the analyses towards the null hypothesis by adjusting the effect of wood stove use only for positive empirical confounders. CONCLUSIONS: The association of use of wood stoves with cancers of the upper aero-digestive tract is genuine and unlikely to result from insufficient control of confounding. Due to its high prevalence, use of wood stoves may be linked to as many as 30% of all cancers occurring in the region.  (+info)

(2/18160) Body mass decrease after initial gain following smoking cessation.

BACKGROUND: Although smoking cessation is strongly associated with subsequent weight gain, it is not clear whether the initial gain in weight after smoking cessation remains over time. METHOD: Cross-sectional analyses were made, using data from periodic health examinations for workers, on the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and the length of smoking cessation. In addition, linear regression coefficients of BMI on the length of cessation were estimated according to alcohol intake and sport activity, to examine the modifying effect of these factors on the weight of former smokers. RESULTS: Means of BMI were 23.1 kg/m2, 23.3 kg/m2, 23.6 kg/m2 for light/medium smokers, heavy smokers and never smokers, respectively. Among former smokers who had smoked > or = 25 cigarettes a day, odds ratio (OR) of BMI >25 kg/m2 were 1.88 (95% confidence interval [CI] : 1.05-3.35), 1.32 (95% CI : 0.74-2.34), 0.66 (95% CI: 0.33-1.31) for those with 2-4 years, 5-7 years, and 8-10 years of smoking cessation, respectively. The corresponding OR among those who previously consumed <25 cigarettes a day were 1.06 (95% CI: 0.58-1.94), 1.00 (95% CI: 0.58-1.71), and 1.49 (95% CI: 0.95-2.32). CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that although heavy smokers may experience large weight gain and weigh more than never smokers in the few years after smoking cessation, they thereafter lose weight to the never smoker level, while light and moderate smokers gain weight up to the never smoker level without any excess after smoking cessation.  (+info)

(3/18160) Socioeconomic inequalities in health in the working population: the contribution of working conditions.

BACKGROUND: The aim was to study the impact of different categories of working conditions on the association between occupational class and self-reported health in the working population. METHODS: Data were collected through a postal survey conducted in 1991 among inhabitants of 18 municipalities in the southeastern Netherlands. Data concerned 4521 working men and 2411 working women and included current occupational class (seven classes), working conditions (physical working conditions, job control, job demands, social support at work), perceived general health (very good or good versus less than good) and demographic confounders. Data were analysed with logistic regression techniques. RESULTS: For both men and women we observed a higher odds ratio for a less than good perceived general health in the lower occupational classes (adjusted for confounders). The odds of a less than good perceived general health was larger among people reporting more hazardous physical working conditions, lower job control, lower social support at work and among those in the highest category of job demands. Results were similar for men and women. Men and women in the lower occupational classes reported more hazardous physical working conditions and lower job control as compared to those in higher occupational classes. High job demands were more often reported in the higher occupational classes, while social support at work was not clearly related to occupational class. When physical working conditions and job control were added simultaneously to a model with occupational class and confounders, the odds ratios for occupational classes were reduced substantially. For men, the per cent change in the odds ratios for the occupational classes ranged between 35% and 83%, and for women between 35% and 46%. CONCLUSIONS: A substantial part of the association between occupational class and a less than good perceived general health in the working population could be attributed to a differential distribution of hazardous physical working conditions and a low job control across occupational classes. This suggests that interventions aimed at improving these working conditions might result in a reduction of socioeconomic inequalities in health in the working population.  (+info)

(4/18160) Relation between obesity and breast cancer in young women.

This study was conducted to assess the relation between body size and risk of breast cancer among young women. A case-control study was conducted among women aged 21-45 years living in three counties in Washington State. Cases were women born after 1944 with invasive or in situ breast cancer that was diagnosed between January 1, 1983, and April 30, 1990. Controls were selected using random digit dialing and were frequency-matched to cases on the basis of age and county of residence. Interviews took place between 1986 and 1992. Body size was evaluated using indices from several different time periods. After adjustment for confounders, a decreased risk of breast cancer was found for women in the highest quintile of body mass index (weight (kg)/height (m)2) as compared with the lowest quintile (for maximum lifetime body mass index, odds ratio = 0.69, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.51-0.94). Age modified the relation between body size and risk of breast cancer. The odds ratio for women in the highest quintile of maximum body mass index who were aged 21-35 years was 0.29 (95% CI 0.16-0.55), as compared with an odds ratio of 1.5 for women aged 36-45 years (95% CI 0.9-2.5) (p for interaction = 0.003). This study supports prior research showing a decreased risk of breast cancer associated with increased body size among premenopausal or young women. More detailed analysis in this study found a strong effect that was limited to the youngest age group (< or = 35 years).  (+info)

(5/18160) Different factors influencing the expression of Raynaud's phenomenon in men and women.

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the risk profile for Raynaud's phenomenon (RP) is different between men and women. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study of 800 women and 725 men participating in the Framingham Offspring Study, the association of age, marital status, smoking, alcohol use, diabetes, hypertension, and hypercholesterolemia with prevalent RP was examined in men and women separately, after adjusting for relevant confounders. RESULTS: The prevalence of RP was 9.6% (n = 77) in women and 5.8% (n = 42) in men. In women, marital status and alcohol use were each associated with prevalent RP (for marital status adjusted odds ratio [OR] 2.3, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.4-3.9; for alcohol use OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.0-5.2), whereas these factors were not associated with RP in men (marital status OR 1.4, 95% CI 0.6-3.5; alcohol use OR 1.0, 95% CI 0.2-4.4). In men, older age (OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.0-5.2) and smoking (OR 2.6, 95% CI 1.1-6.3) were associated with prevalent RP; these factors were not associated with RP in women (older age OR 0.8, 95% CI 0.4-1.6; smoking OR 0.7, 95% CI 0.4-1.1). Diabetes, hypertension, and hypercholesterolemia were not associated with RP in either sex. CONCLUSION: The results indicate that risk factors for RP differ between men and women. Age and smoking were associated with RP in men only, while the associations of marital status and alcohol use with RP were observed in women only. These findings suggest that different mechanisms influence the expression of RP in men and women.  (+info)

(6/18160) Premature morbidity from cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases in women with systemic lupus erythematosus.

OBJECTIVE: To determine rates of morbidity due to cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases among women with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). METHODS: I used the California Hospital Discharge Database, which contains information on all discharges from acute care hospitals in California, to identify women with SLE who had been hospitalized for treatment of either acute myocardial infarction (AMI), congestive heart failure (CHF), or cerebrovascular accident (CVA) from 1991 to 1994. I compared the proportions of hospitalizations for each cause among women with SLE with those in a group of women without SLE, for 3 age strata (18-44 years, 45-64 years, and > or =65 years). RESULTS: Compared with young women without SLE, young women with SLE were 2.27 times more likely to be hospitalized because of AMI (95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.08-3.46), 3.80 times more likely to be hospitalized because of CHF (95% CI 2.41-5.19), and 2.05 times more likely to be hospitalized because of CVA (95% CI 1.17-2.93). Among middle-aged women with SLE, the frequencies of hospitalization for AMI and CVA did not differ from those of the comparison group, but the risk of hospitalization for CHF was higher (odds ratio [OR] 1.39, 95% CI 1.05-1.73). Among elderly women with SLE, the risk of hospitalization for AMI was significantly lower (OR 0.70, 95% CI 0.51-0.89), the risk of hospitalization for CHF was higher (OR 1.25, 95% CI 1.01-1.49), and the risk of hospitalization for CVA was not significantly different from those in the comparison group. CONCLUSION: Young women with SLE are at substantially increased risk of AMI, CHF, and CVA. The relative odds of these conditions decrease with age among women with SLE.  (+info)

(7/18160) Chronic infection with Helicobacter pylori, Chlamydia pneumoniae, or cytomegalovirus: population based study of coronary heart disease.

OBJECTIVE: To study possible associations between coronary heart disease and serological evidence of persistent infection with Helicobacter pylori, Chlamydia pneumoniae, or cytomegalovirus. DESIGN: Population based, case-control study, nested within a randomised trial. SETTING: Five general practices in Bedfordshire, UK. INDIVIDUALS: 288 patients with incident or prevalent coronary heart disease and 704 age and sex matched controls. RESULTS: High concentrations of serum IgG antibodies to H pylori were present in 54% of cases v 46% of controls, with corresponding results for C pneumoniae seropositivity (33% v 33%), and cytomegalovirus seropositivity (40% v 31%). After adjustments for age, sex, smoking, indicators of socioeconomic status, and standard risk factors, the odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for coronary heart disease of seropositivity to these agents were: 1.28 (0.93 to 1.75) for H pylori, 0.95 (0.66 to 1.36) for C pneumoniae, and 1.40 (0.96 to 2. 05) for cytomegalovirus. CONCLUSIONS: There is no good evidence of strong associations between coronary heart disease and serological markers of persistent infection with H pylori, C pneumoniae, or cytomegalovirus. To determine the existence of moderate associations between these agents and disease, however, larger scale studies will be needed that can keep residual confounders to a minimum.  (+info)

(8/18160) Cytomegalovirus seropositivity and incident ischaemic heart disease in the Caerphilly prospective heart disease study.

OBJECTIVE: To assess the role of cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection in primary ischaemic heart disease. METHODS: Plasma specimens collected during 1979-83 from men in Caerphilly, south Wales, were analysed for IgG antibodies to CMV by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay and latex tests. Incident ischaemic heart disease events were ascertained after five and 10 years from death certificates, hospital records, and ECG changes; 195 incident ischaemic heart disease cases were compared with 216 controls of a similar age drawn from the rest of the cohort. RESULTS: 164 cases (84%) and 180 controls (83%) were seropositive for CMV. Optical density, an indicator of CMV antibody titre, was similar for cases and controls. Among controls, seropositivity was not associated with age, socioeconomic status currently or in childhood, smoking, height, body mass index, blood pressure, total cholesterol, fibrinogen, plasma viscosity, or leucocyte count. The unadjusted odds ratio relating CMV seropositivity to incident ischaemic heart disease was 1.06 (95% confidence interval 0.63 to 1.79) and was little changed (1.11, 0.63 to 1.97) after adjustment for age, smoking, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, and socioeconomic status currently and in childhood. CONCLUSIONS: CMV infection is unlikely to be a strong risk factor for development of myocardial infarction in middle aged men.  (+info)

• Mantel-Haenszel
• For $2\times 2\times K$ tables, we use Taylor expansion to study the biases and variances of the Mantel-Haenszel estimator and modified Mantel-Haenszel estimators of the common odds ratio using one pair of pseudotables for data without missing values and for data with missing values, based either on the completely observed subsample or on estimated cell means when both stratum and column variables are always observed. (umd.edu)
• Analytic studies and simulation results show that the Mantel-Haenszel estimators overestimate the common odds ratio but adding one pair of pseudotables reduces bias and variance. (umd.edu)
• estimators
• With informative missingness, estimators based on the estimated cell means do not converge to the correct common odds ratio under sparse asymptotics, and converge slowly for the large table asymptotics. (umd.edu)
• The asymptotic variance formula of the ratio estimators had smaller biases and variances than those based on jackknifing or bootstrapping. (umd.edu)
• Binary
• In medical testing with binary classification, the diagnostic odds ratio is a measure of the effectiveness of a diagnostic test. (wikipedia.org)
• Sensitivity and specificity Binary classification Positive predictive value and negative predictive value Odds ratio Glas, Afina S. (wikipedia.org)
• The odds ratio may be viewed as an association measure between binary variables, and it is defined as follows. (r-bloggers.com)
• For simplicity, suppose x and y are two binary variables of interest and assume that they are coded so that they each take the values 0 or 1 - this assumption is easily relaxed, as discussed below, but it simplifies the basic description of the odds ratio. (r-bloggers.com)
• Further, if x and y are two statistically independent binary random variables, it can be shown that the odds ratio is equal to 1. (r-bloggers.com)
• probabilities
• In clinical studies and many other settings, the parameter of greatest interest is often actually the RR, which is determined in a way that is similar to the one just described for the OR, except using probabilities instead of odds. (wikipedia.org)
• Relative risk is different from the odds ratio, although it asymptotically approaches it for small probabilities. (wikipedia.org)
• relative
• It is defined as the ratio of the odds of the test being positive if the subject has a disease relative to the odds of the test being positive if the subject does not have the disease. (wikipedia.org)
• In statistics and epidemiology, relative risk or risk ratio (RR) is the ratio of the probability of an event occurring (for example, developing a disease, being injured) in an exposed group to the probability of the event occurring in a comparison, non-exposed group. (wikipedia.org)
• The PRR is defined as the ratio between the frequency with which a specific adverse event is reported for the drug of interest (relative to all adverse events reported for the drug) and the frequency with which the same adverse event is reported for all drugs in the comparison group (relative to all adverse events for drugs in the comparison group). (wikipedia.org)
• data
• Traditional meta-analytic techniques such as inverse-variance weighting can be used to combine log diagnostic odds ratios computed from a number of data sources to produce an overall diagnostic odds ratio for the test in question. (wikipedia.org)
• From these data we have evidence that the odds of developing oral cancer is around two and a half times higher for heavy smokers compared with lighter (less than 16 per day) or non-smokers of cigarettes. (statsdirect.com)
• outcome
• Diagnostic odds ratios less than one indicate that the test can be improved by simply inverting the outcome of the test - the test is in the wrong direction, while a diagnostic odds ratio of exactly one means that the test is equally likely to predict a positive outcome whatever the true condition - the test gives no information. (wikipedia.org)
• less
• Conversely, odds ratio values less than 1 imply that the variables x and y are more likely to disagree: records with y = 1 are more likely to have x = 0 than x = 1, and those with y = 0 are more likely to have x = 1 than x = 0. (r-bloggers.com)
• This still means that females were at lesser odds of being eaten, as the odds ratio would have been less than 1. (statisticssolutions.com)
• Likewise, the odds of someone with a score of 1 are inverted from there (1/2), or .5, to describe how much less likely they are to be eaten than someone with a score of 2. (statisticssolutions.com)
• desirable
• A desirable property of an adjusted ratio estimate is collapsibility, wherein the combined crude ratio will not change after adjusting for a variable that is not a confounder. (mdpi.com)
• disease
• Multivariate odds ratios of chronic kidney disease (subgroup analyses by age and sex). (zanran.com)
• Multivariable-adjusted odds of chronic kidney disease (CKD) according to body mass index (kg/m2 ) in men. (zanran.com)
• value
• For most types of effect size, a larger absolute value always indicates a stronger effect, with the main exception being if the effect size is an odds ratio. (wikipedia.org)
• The same equation can be used for estimating the odds from an experimentally obtained value of the mean. (wikipedia.org)
• statistics
• In statistics, the odds ratio (OR) is one of three main ways to quantify how strongly the presence or absence of property A is associated with the presence or absence of property B in a given population. (wikipedia.org)
• Difference
• The term effect size can refer to a standardized measure of effect (such as r, Cohen's d, or the odds ratio), or to an unstandardized measure (e.g., the difference between group means or the unstandardized regression coefficients). (wikipedia.org)
• measure
• The odds ratio provides a simple quantitative association measure for these variables that allows us to make these comparisons directly. (r-bloggers.com)
• The odds ratio is a useful measure of association for a variety of study designs. (sas.com)
• Thus
• Thus, for each increase in deliciousness score, the odds of being eaten by a Jaws-like monstrosity increase by a factor of 2 . (statisticssolutions.com)
• Now if the option of a red bus is introduced, a person may be indifferent between a red and a blue bus, and hence may exhibit a car : blue bus : red bus odds ratio of 1 : 0.5 : 0.5, thus maintaining a 1 : 1 ratio of car : any bus while adopting a changed car : blue bus ratio of 1 : 0.5. (wikipedia.org)