Ocular Physiological Phenomena: Processes and properties of the EYE as a whole or of any of its parts.Dental Physiological Phenomena: Physiological processes and properties of the DENTITION.Digestive System and Oral Physiological Phenomena: Properties and processes of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM and DENTITION as a whole or of any of its parts.Reproductive and Urinary Physiological Phenomena: Physiology of the human and animal body, male or female, in the processes and characteristics of REPRODUCTION and the URINARY TRACT.Musculoskeletal and Neural Physiological Phenomena: Properties, and processes of the MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM and the NERVOUS SYSTEM or their parts.Circulatory and Respiratory Physiological Phenomena: Functional processes and properties characteristic of the BLOOD; CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM; and RESPIRATORY SYSTEM.Integumentary System Physiological Phenomena: The properties and relationships and biological processes that characterize the nature and function of the SKIN and its appendages.Sports Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutritional physiology related to EXERCISE or ATHLETIC PERFORMANCE.Reproductive Physiological Phenomena: Physiological processes, factors, properties and characteristics pertaining to REPRODUCTION.Physiological Phenomena: The functions and properties of living organisms, including both the physical and chemical factors and processes, supporting life in single- or multi-cell organisms from their origin through the progression of life.Elder Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutritional physiology of adults aged 65 years of age and older.Urinary Tract Physiological Phenomena: Properties, functions, and processes of the URINARY TRACT as a whole or of any of its parts.Musculoskeletal Physiological Phenomena: Processes and properties of the MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM.Virus Physiological Phenomena: Biological properties, processes, and activities of VIRUSES.Digestive System Physiological Phenomena: Properties and processes of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM as a whole or of any of its parts.Blood Physiological Phenomena: Physiological processes and properties of the BLOOD.Ocular Hypertension: A condition in which the intraocular pressure is elevated above normal and which may lead to glaucoma.Adolescent Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutritional physiology of children aged 13-18 years.Eye: The organ of sight constituting a pair of globular organs made up of a three-layered roughly spherical structure specialized for receiving and responding to light.Nervous System Physiological Phenomena: Characteristic properties and processes of the NERVOUS SYSTEM as a whole or with reference to the peripheral or the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Toxoplasmosis, Ocular: Infection caused by the protozoan parasite TOXOPLASMA in which there is extensive connective tissue proliferation, the retina surrounding the lesions remains normal, and the ocular media remain clear. Chorioretinitis may be associated with all forms of toxoplasmosis, but is usually a late sequel of congenital toxoplasmosis. The severe ocular lesions in infants may lead to blindness.Cell Physiological Phenomena: Cellular processes, properties, and characteristics.Respiratory Physiological Phenomena: Physiological processes and properties of the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM as a whole or of any of its parts.Skin Physiological Phenomena: The functions of the skin in the human and animal body. It includes the pigmentation of the skin.Prenatal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutrition of FEMALE during PREGNANCY.Plant Physiological Phenomena: The physiological processes, properties, and states characteristic of plants.Bacterial Physiological Phenomena: Physiological processes and properties of BACTERIA.Cardiovascular Physiological Phenomena: Processes and properties of the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM as a whole or of any of its parts.Dominance, Ocular: The functional superiority and preferential use of one eye over the other. The term is usually applied to superiority in sighting (VISUAL PERCEPTION) or motor task but not difference in VISUAL ACUITY or dysfunction of one of the eyes. Ocular dominance can be modified by visual input and NEUROTROPHIC FACTORS.Albinism, Ocular: Albinism affecting the eye in which pigment of the hair and skin is normal or only slightly diluted. The classic type is X-linked (Nettleship-Falls), but an autosomal recessive form also exists. Ocular abnormalities may include reduced pigmentation of the iris, nystagmus, photophobia, strabismus, and decreased visual acuity.Maternal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutrition of a mother which affects the health of the FETUS and INFANT as well as herself.Tonometry, Ocular: Measurement of ocular tension (INTRAOCULAR PRESSURE) with a tonometer. (Cline, et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Refraction, Ocular: Refraction of LIGHT effected by the media of the EYE.Eye Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the EYE.Child Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutritional physiology of children aged 2-12 years.Ocular Motility Disorders: Disorders that feature impairment of eye movements as a primary manifestation of disease. These conditions may be divided into infranuclear, nuclear, and supranuclear disorders. Diseases of the eye muscles or oculomotor cranial nerves (III, IV, and VI) are considered infranuclear. Nuclear disorders are caused by disease of the oculomotor, trochlear, or abducens nuclei in the BRAIN STEM. Supranuclear disorders are produced by dysfunction of higher order sensory and motor systems that control eye movements, including neural networks in the CEREBRAL CORTEX; BASAL GANGLIA; CEREBELLUM; and BRAIN STEM. Ocular torticollis refers to a head tilt that is caused by an ocular misalignment. Opsoclonus refers to rapid, conjugate oscillations of the eyes in multiple directions, which may occur as a parainfectious or paraneoplastic condition (e.g., OPSOCLONUS-MYOCLONUS SYNDROME). (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p240)Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: The processes and properties of living organisms by which they take in and balance the use of nutritive materials for energy, heat production, or building material for the growth, maintenance, or repair of tissues and the nutritive properties of FOOD.Cornea: The transparent anterior portion of the fibrous coat of the eye consisting of five layers: stratified squamous CORNEAL EPITHELIUM; BOWMAN MEMBRANE; CORNEAL STROMA; DESCEMET MEMBRANE; and mesenchymal CORNEAL ENDOTHELIUM. It serves as the first refracting medium of the eye. It is structurally continuous with the SCLERA, avascular, receiving its nourishment by permeation through spaces between the lamellae, and is innervated by the ophthalmic division of the TRIGEMINAL NERVE via the ciliary nerves and those of the surrounding conjunctiva which together form plexuses. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Infant Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutritional physiology of children from birth to 2 years of age.Eye Injuries: Damage or trauma inflicted to the eye by external means. The concept includes both surface injuries and intraocular injuries.Intraocular Pressure: The pressure of the fluids in the eye.Tuberculosis, Ocular: Tuberculous infection of the eye, primarily the iris, ciliary body, and choroid.Tears: The fluid secreted by the lacrimal glands. This fluid moistens the CONJUNCTIVA and CORNEA.Ophthalmic Solutions: Sterile solutions that are intended for instillation into the eye. It does not include solutions for cleaning eyeglasses or CONTACT LENS SOLUTIONS.

*  Suppression of the diurnal rhythm of oxygen uptake by eyestalk ablation in the crab Oziotelphusa senex senex Fabricius.

Ocular Physiological Phenomena. Oxygen Consumption / physiology*. From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National ...

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Ocular Physiological Phenomena Added Entry : Riordan-Eva, Paul : Whitcher, John : Vaughan, Daniel, ...

*  Initial cross-sectional results from the Orinda Longitudinal Study of Myopia. - PubMed - NCBI

Ocular Physiological Phenomena. *Risk Factors. Grant support. *R01 EY08893/EY/NEI NIH HHS/United States ... no previous study of refractive error and the ocular components has measured all the ocular components. ... Although investigations of human refractive error development and normal ocular growth have been conducted for the last 50 ...

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Ocular Physiological Phenomena. *Functional Laterality. *Adaptation, Physiological. *Nystagmus, Physiologic. *Vision Disparity ... can account for the variation in saccadic latency observed in many oculomotor phenomena. These phenomena include the gap effect ... Thus tone-evoked ocular saccades typically showed a partial compensation for changes in static head position, whereas noise- ...

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They mediate the sense of hearing.Mice, Inbred C57BLOcular Physiological Phenomena: Processes and properties of the EYE as a ... Mizuo-Nakamura phenomenon. mizuo nakamura phenomenon mizuo nakamura phenomenon the mizuo nakamura phenomenon is a phenomenon ... Bacterial Physiological Phenomena: Physiological processes and properties of BACTERIA.Salamandra: A genus of European newts in ... These changes include physiological (ADAPTATION, PHYSIOLOGICAL), phenotypic and genetic changes.Dark Adaptation: Adjustment of ...
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*  Zebrafish as an animal model in epilepsy studies with multichannel EEG recordings | Scientific Reports

... and they exhibit robust behaviours and physiological phenomena that allow mass drug screening and easy modelling of diseases12, ... and ocular disorders10, 16. In epilepsy studies, seizure events resemble those in human, mouse, rat, and zebrafish17, 18. ... Mogil, J. S. Sex differences in pain and pain inhibition: multiple explanations of a controversial phenomenon. Nat Rev Neurosci ...

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... seasonal rhythmicity of IOP as well as the influences of nocturnal ocular blood flow and sleep on the IOP could be phenomena ... In this context, the circadian (physiological reduction during the night) and ... Melatonin not only protects ocular tissue against free radicals, but also it has a direct effect on the IOP. Several studies ... There is much interest in natural supplements with those who have been diagnosed with glaucoma or ocular hypertension (OHT). In ...

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Physiological need of shorter microtubules and equilibrium of local longer to shorter microtubules might also favor microtubule ... A second model of Katanin-mediated microtubule severing includes dynamic instability mechanism and a phenomenon which can be ... Ocular albinism, and the role of Katanin in these diseases is still obscure and seeks further investigations [71]. ... Physiological functioning of Katanin and the resulting microtubule fragmentation is now reported to be important underlying ...

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... let's take the UFO component out of the story for the time being and look closely at the phenomena from a physiological stand ... This apparent movement is typically in the same meridian as that of the ocular deviation and is often, at all events at first, ... Gregory and Zangwell, 1963: "The effects of unbalanced fatigue of the ocular and neck musculature on the auto- kinetic effect ... In an appendix, a speculative model of the ocular control system and some preliminary observations are presented. It is ...

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Finally, a physiological manipulation, the injection of cold water into the left ear of the anosognosic patient provokes an ... This is an example of a remarkable well-known phenomenon termed anosognosia, that is the unaware of the existence of a ... left side reflexed ocular movement) is observed. In such cases, the patients astonishingly admit their paralysis but again ' ... Accordingly, during those years there was a decline of pure neurological approaches to the phenomenon in favor of more ...


POSTURAL DISTORTION PHENOMENA. Postural compensations for either mechanical activity or for structural changes in the skeleton ... 7) ocular muscle malfunction, (8) pathological hiccups, (9) scalenus anticus syndrome, and (10) painful spasms in the ... For this reason, a subluxation is often defined as "the alteration of the normal dynamics, anatomical or physiological ... Such distortion phenomenon is dependent upon the ability of the spine to adjust to any interference in the body's vestibular, ...

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One could argue about the origin of such insight; is this a simulation, is physiological response ocular or not, merely a ... Chris: The word "beautiful" is used in relation to a loose range of phenomena. When we look for beauty in faces, we're doing ... For me it is usually initially ocular - that said, I spend most of my time engaged within visual strata. However, I work very ... These reminders may or may not be based on the ocular; all of this may be happening on a posthuman immaterial wavelength. ...

*  Competition for Neurotrophic Factors: Ocular Dominance Columns | Journal of Neuroscience

1984) Physiological segregation of ocular dominance columns depends on the pattern of afferent electrical activity. Invest ... First, exogenous NTFs interfere with plasticity phenomena. Intraventricular infusion of nerve growth factor (NGF) prevents the ... not physiological, segregation. Of course, anatomical and physiological changes are likely to occur in concert, but because ... 1978) Ocular dominance columns and their development in layer IV of the cat's visual cortex: a quantitative study. J Comp ...

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Why is Ketamine a bad choice for ocular Sx P's? *Increases Intra-ocular P*Dilated, centrally fixed pupils*Nystagmus (esp horses ... Emergence Phenomena (hallucination, out of body, dreams, etc)*Increased salivation (espc in cats and pigs- Tx with ... pKa ~physiological pH * Ketamine: Plasma Protein Binding? Less Protein Binding -> OD in hypoproteinemic P's ...

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Rushton, S., Mon-Williams, M. and Wann, J.P. (1994) Binocular vision in a bi-ocular world: new-generation head-mounted displays ... Mon-Williams, M. and Tresilian, J.R. (1999) The size-distance paradox is a cognitive phenomenon. Experimental Brain Research, ... Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics, 20 (3). pp. 242-251. ISSN 0275-5408 ... A framework for considering the role of afference and efference in the control and perception of ocular position. Biological ...

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(1/604) Evidence for an eye-centered spherical representation of the visuomotor map.

During visually guided movement, visual coordinates of target location must be transformed into coordinates appropriate for movement. To investigate the representation of this visuomotor coordinate transformation, we examined changes in pointing behavior induced by a local visuomotor remapping. The visual feedback of finger position was limited to one location within the workspace, at which a discrepancy was introduced between the actual and visually perceived finger position. This remapping induced a change in pointing that extended over the entire workspace and was best captured by a spherical coordinate system centered near the eyes.  (+info)

(2/604) Hypersensitivity in the anterior median eye of a jumping spider.

Changes in sensitivity of the photoreceptor cells of the anterior median eye of the jumping spider Menemerus confusus Boes. et Str. have been studied by recording electroretinograms (ERGs) and receptor potentials. The amplitudes of the responses (ERGs and receptor potentials) increase during repetitive stimulation, with a maximum increase at 3-5 s intervals. The sensitivity of the photoreceptor cell is greater for about 60 s following illumination (maximum magnitude at 3-5 s) than it is during complete dark adaptation. This phenomenon, which we call 'hypersensitivity', is lost within one day following surgery in physiological saline. Upon loss of hypersensitivity, the sensitivity decrease during light adaptation is greater than for the normal eye and the small increase of sensitivity following the onset of illumination observed for the normal eye is lost.  (+info)

(3/604) Regulation of mammalian circadian behavior by non-rod, non-cone, ocular photoreceptors.

Circadian rhythms of mammals are entrained by light to follow the daily solar cycle (photoentrainment). To determine whether retinal rods and cones are required for this response, the effects of light on the regulation of circadian wheel-running behavior were examined in mice lacking these photoreceptors. Mice without cones (cl) or without both rods and cones (rdta/cl) showed unattenuated phase-shifting responses to light. Removal of the eyes abolishes this behavior. Thus, neither rods nor cones are required for photoentrainment, and the murine eye contains additional photoreceptors that regulate the circadian clock.  (+info)

(4/604) Residual vision in the blind field of hemidecorticated humans predicted by a diffusion scatter model and selective spectral absorption of the human eye.

The notion of blindsight was recently challenged by evidence that patients with occipital damage and contralateral field defects show residual islands of vision which may be associated with spared neural tissue. However, this possibility could not explain why patients who underwent the resection or disconnection of an entire cerebral hemisphere exhibit some forms of blindsight. We present here a model for the detection of intraocular scatter, which can account for human sensitivity values obtained in the blind field of hemidecorticated patients. The model demonstrates that, under controlled experimental conditions i.e. where the extraocular scatter is eliminated, Lambertian intraocular scatter alone can account for the visual sensitivities reported in these patients. The model also shows that it is possible to obtain a sensitivity in the blind field almost equivalent to that in the good field using the appropriate parameters. Finally, we show with in-vivo spectroreflectometry measurements made in the eyes of our hemidecorticated patients, that the relative drop in middle wavelength sensitivity generally obtained in the blind field of these patients can be explained by selective intraocular spectral absorption.  (+info)

(5/604) The physiological effects of monocular deprivation and their reversal in the monkey's visual cortex.

1. 1127 single units were recorded during oblique penetrations in area 17 of one normal, three monocularly deprived and four reverse sutured monkeys. 2. In all animals most cells outside layer IV c were orientation-selective, and preferred orientation usually shifted from cell to cell in a regular progressive sequence. 3. The presence in layer IV c of non-oriented, monocularly driven units, organized in alternating right-eye and left-eye 'stripes' (LeVay, Hubel & Wiesel, 1975) was confirmed. 4. Early monocular deprivation (2--5 1/2 weeks) caused a strong shift of ocular dominance towards the non-deprived eye. However, even outside layer IV c, neural background and some isolated cells could still be driven from the deprived eye in regularly spaced, narrow columnar regions. In layer IV c the non-deprived eye's stripes were almost three times wider, on average, than the deprived. 5. Later monocular deprivation (11--16 months) had no detectable influence on layer IV c but seemed to cause a small shift in ocular dominance outside IV c. Deprivation for 6 1/4 months in an adult had no such effect. 6. After early reverse suturing (at 5 1/2 weeks) the originally deprived eye gained dominance over cells outside layer IV c just as complete as that originally exercised by the eye that was first non-deprived. 7. The later reverse suturing was delayed, the less effective was recapture by the originally deprived eye. Reversal at 8 weeks led to roughly equal numbers of cells being dominated by each eye; fewer cells became dominated by the newly open eye after reverse suturing at 9 weeks and most of them were non-oriented; reversal at 38 1/2 weeks had no effect. 8. Binocular cells, though rare in reverse sutured animals, always had very similar preferred orientations in the two eyes. The columnar sequences of preferred orientation were not interrupted at the borders of ocular dominance columns. 9. Even within layer IV c there was evidence for re-expansion of physiologically determined ocular dominance stripes. After early reverse suture, stripes for the two eyes became roughly equal in width. Possible mechanisms for these changes are discussed.  (+info)

(6/604) Enhanced NR2A subunit expression and decreased NMDA receptor decay time at the onset of ocular dominance plasticity in the ferret.

Enhanced NR2A subunit expression and decreased NMDA receptor decay time at the onset of ocular dominance plasticity in the ferret. The NMDA subtype of glutamate receptor is known to exhibit marked changes in subunit composition and functional properties during neural development. The prevailing idea is that NMDA receptor-mediated synaptic responses decrease in duration after the peak of cortical plasticity in rodents. Accordingly, it is believed that shortening of the NMDA receptor-mediated current underlies the developmental reduction of ocular dominance plasticity. However, some previous evidence actually suggests that the duration of NMDA receptor currents decreases before the peak of plasticity. In the present study, we have examined the time course of NMDA receptor changes and how they correlate with the critical period of ocular dominance plasticity in the visual cortex of a highly binocular animal, the ferret. The expression of NMDA receptor subunits NR1, NR2A, and NR2B was examined in animals ranging in age from postnatal day 16 to adult using Western blotting. Functional properties of NMDA receptors in layer IV cortical neurons were studied using whole cell patch-clamp techniques in an in vitro slice preparation of ferret primary visual cortex. We observed a remarkable increase in NR1 and NR2A, but not NR2B, expression after eye opening. The NMDA receptor-mediated synaptic currents showed an abrupt decrease in decay time concurrent with the increase in NR2A subunit expression. Importantly, these changes occurred in parallel with increased ocular dominance plasticity reported in the ferret. In conclusion, molecular changes leading to decreased duration of the NMDA receptor excitatory postsynaptic current may be a requirement for the onset, rather than the end, of the critical period of ocular dominance plasticity.  (+info)

(7/604) Visual perception: here's mud in your mind's eye.

We appear to be unaware of large changes in our visual scene if our attention is temporarily diverted. This suggests that the rich, complete visual scene that we appear to have may be just an illusion.  (+info)

(8/604) Heterothermal acclimation: an experimental paradigm for studying the control of thermal acclimation in crabs.

A method for the study of the control of the attainment of thermal acclimation has been applied to the crabs, Cancer pagurus and Carcinus maenas. Crabs were heterothermally acclimated by using an anterior-posterior partition between two compartments, one at 8 degrees C and the other at 22 degrees C. One compartment held a three-quarter section of the crab including the central nervous system (CNS), eye stalks, and ipsilateral legs; the other held a quarter section including the contralateral legs. Criteria used to assess the acclimation responses were comparisons of muscle plasma membrane fatty acid composition and "fluidity." In both species, the major fatty acids of phosphatidylcholine were 16:0, 18:1, 20:5, and 22:6, whereas phosphatidylethanolamine contained significantly less 16:0 but more 18:0; these fatty acids comprised 80% of the total. Differences in fatty acid composition were demonstrated between fractions obtained from the ipsilateral and contralateral legs from the same heterothermally acclimated individual. In all acclimation states (except 22CNS, phosphatidylcholine fraction), membrane lipid saturation was significantly increased with acclimation at 22 degrees as compared with 8 degrees C. Membrane fluidity was determined by using 1,3-diphenyl-1,3,5 hexatriene (DPH) fluorescence polarization. In both species, membranes from legs held at 8 degrees were more fluid than from legs held at 22 degrees C irrespective of the acclimation temperature of the CNS. Heterothermal acclimation demonstrated that leg muscle membrane composition and fluidity respond primarily to local temperature and were not predominately under central direction. The responses between 8 degrees C- and 22 degrees C-acclimated legs were more pronounced when the CNS was cold-acclimated, so a central influence cannot be excluded.  (+info)



  • Regulation of Katanin localization, interaction with other proteins influence optimality of microtubule severing and it important to understand models, regulations, and biological functions of microtubule severing by enzymes like Katanin to specify their roles in physiological and pathological conditions. (hindawi.com)


  • is this a simulation, is physiological response ocular or not, merely a manifestation of brain function and cultural intersection, is perceived pleasure an enjoyment born of imagination or does it exist, a sublime and measurable interconnectivity apart from human perception? (literaturwissenschaft-berlin.de)
  • We show that the model exhibits changes in ocular dominance column periodicity in response to changes in interocular image correlations and that the model predicts that changes in intraocular image correlations should also affect columnar periodicity. (jneurosci.org)


  • These phenomena include the gap effect (Saslow M.G. (1967). (lookformedical.com)
  • Special topics may include ocular flow dynamics and electro-chemical-fluidics in cartilage. (wisc.edu)


  • It was originally publicized for its IOP lowering effect via a topical ocular application, but certain problems were encountered in this approach. (fiteyes.com)