Occupations: Crafts, trades, professions, or other means of earning a living.Occupational Diseases: Diseases caused by factors involved in one's employment.Occupational Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.Industry: Any enterprise centered on the processing, assembly, production, or marketing of a line of products, services, commodities, or merchandise, in a particular field often named after its principal product. Examples include the automobile, fishing, music, publishing, insurance, and textile industries.Employment: The state of being engaged in an activity or service for wages or salary.Social Class: A stratum of people with similar position and prestige; includes social stratification. Social class is measured by criteria such as education, occupation, and income.Health Occupations: Professions or other business activities directed to the cure and prevention of disease. For occupations of medical personnel who are not physicians but who are working in the fields of medical technology, physical therapy, etc., ALLIED HEALTH OCCUPATIONS is available.Occupational Health: The promotion and maintenance of physical and mental health in the work environment.Women, Working: Women who are engaged in gainful activities usually outside the home.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Agricultural Workers' Diseases: Diseases in persons engaged in cultivating and tilling soil, growing plants, harvesting crops, raising livestock, or otherwise engaged in husbandry and farming. The diseases are not restricted to farmers in the sense of those who perform conventional farm chores: the heading applies also to those engaged in the individual activities named above, as in those only gathering harvest or in those only dusting crops.Accidents, Occupational: Unforeseen occurrences, especially injuries in the course of work-related activities.Paternal Exposure: Exposure of the male parent, human or animal, to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals that may affect offspring.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Allied Health Occupations: Occupations of medical personnel who are not physicians, and are qualified by special training and, frequently, by licensure to work in supporting roles in the health care field. These occupations include, but are not limited to, medical technology, physical therapy, physician assistant, etc.Construction Industry: The aggregate business enterprise of building.Educational Status: Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.World War II: Global conflict involving countries of Europe, Africa, Asia, and North America that occurred between 1939 and 1945.Archaeology: The scientific study of past societies through artifacts, fossils, etc.Channel Islands: A group of four British islands and several islets in the English Channel off the coast of France. They are known to have been occupied prehistorically. They were a part of Normandy in 933 but were united to the British crown at the time of the Norman Conquest in 1066. Guernsey and Jersey originated noted breeds of cattle. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p242)Fathers: Male parents, human or animal.SwedenMetallurgy: The science, art, or technology dealing with processes involved in the separation of metals from their ores, the technique of making or compounding the alloys, the techniques of working or heat-treating metals, and the mining of metals. It includes industrial metallurgy as well as metallurgical techniques employed in the preparation and working of metals used in dentistry, with special reference to orthodontic and prosthodontic appliances. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p494)Textile Industry: The aggregate business enterprise of manufacturing textiles. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Dermatitis, Occupational: A recurrent contact dermatitis caused by substances found in the work place.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Odds Ratio: The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Death Certificates: Official records of individual deaths including the cause of death certified by a physician, and any other required identifying information.Agriculture: The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.FinlandQuestionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Workplace: Place or physical location of work or employment.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Work Capacity Evaluation: Assessment of physiological capacities in relation to job requirements. It is usually done by measuring certain physiological (e.g., circulatory and respiratory) variables during a gradually increasing workload until specific limitations occur with respect to those variables.Naval Medicine: The practice of medicine concerned with conditions affecting the health of individuals associated with the marine environment.PaintAge Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.Sex Distribution: The number of males and females in a given population. The distribution may refer to how many men or women or what proportion of either in the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Occupational Medicine: Medical specialty concerned with the promotion and maintenance of the physical and mental health of employees in occupational settings.Dust: Earth or other matter in fine, dry particles. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)History, Ancient: The period of history before 500 of the common era.Workers' Compensation: Insurance coverage providing compensation and medical benefits to individuals because of work-connected injuries or disease.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Nursing, Practical: The practice of nursing by licensed, non-registered persons qualified to provide routine care to the sick.Age Distribution: The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Workload: The total amount of work to be performed by an individual, a department, or other group of workers in a period of time.Social Mobility: The movement or shifting of membership between or within social classes by individuals or by groups.Tanning: A process of preserving animal hides by chemical treatment (using vegetable tannins, metallic sulfates, and sulfurized phenol compounds, or syntans) to make them immune to bacterial attack, and subsequent treatments with fats and greases to make them pliable. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Risk: The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.Congenital Abnormalities: Malformations of organs or body parts during development in utero.Stress, Psychological: Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.Retirement: The state of being retired from one's position or occupation.Ships: Large vessels propelled by power or sail used for transportation on rivers, seas, oceans, or other navigable waters. Boats are smaller vessels propelled by oars, paddles, sail, or power; they may or may not have a deck.Arabia: The great peninsula of southwest Asia comprising most of the present countries of the Middle East. It has been known since the first millennium B.C. In early times it was divided into Arabia Petraea, the northwest part, the only part ever conquered, becoming a Roman province; Arabia Deserta, the northern part between Syria and Mesopotamia; and Arabia Felix, the main part of the peninsula but by some geographers restricted to modern Yemen. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p63)Radiometric Dating: Techniques used to determine the age of materials, based on the content and half-lives of the RADIOACTIVE ISOTOPES they contain.Confidence Intervals: A range of values for a variable of interest, e.g., a rate, constructed so that this range has a specified probability of including the true value of the variable.EnglandIncome: Revenues or receipts accruing from business enterprise, labor, or invested capital.United StatesBeauty CultureMouth Abnormalities: Congenital absence of or defects in structures of the mouth.Great BritainChemical Industry: The aggregate enterprise of manufacturing and technically producing chemicals. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Perfume: A substance, extract, or preparation for diffusing or imparting an agreeable or attractive smell, especially a fluid containing fragrant natural oils extracted from flowers, woods, etc., or similar synthetic oils. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)France: A country in western Europe bordered by the Atlantic Ocean, the English Channel, the Mediterranean Sea, and the countries of Belgium, Germany, Italy, Spain, Switzerland, the principalities of Andorra and Monaco, and by the duchy of Luxembourg. Its capital is Paris.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Epidemiologic Methods: Research techniques that focus on study designs and data gathering methods in human and animal populations.Asbestos: Asbestos. Fibrous incombustible mineral composed of magnesium and calcium silicates with or without other elements. It is relatively inert chemically and used in thermal insulation and fireproofing. Inhalation of dust causes asbestosis and later lung and gastrointestinal neoplasms.Environmental Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.Work: Productive or purposeful activities.WeldingCivilization: The distinctly human attributes and attainments of a particular society.Rural Population: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.WalesPopulation Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.Musculoskeletal Diseases: Diseases of the muscles and their associated ligaments and other connective tissue and of the bones and cartilage viewed collectively.Local Government: Smallest political subdivisions within a country at which general governmental functions are carried-out.Pesticides: Chemicals used to destroy pests of any sort. The concept includes fungicides (FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL); INSECTICIDES; RODENTICIDES; etc.Job Description: Statement of the position requirements, qualifications for the position, wage range, and any special conditions expected of the employee.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Air Pollutants, Occupational: Air pollutants found in the work area. They are usually produced by the specific nature of the occupation.China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.Architecture as Topic: The art and science of designing buildings and structures. More generally, it is the design of the total built environment, including town planning, urban design, and landscape architecture.Absenteeism: Chronic absence from work or other duty.Health Personnel: Men and women working in the provision of health services, whether as individual practitioners or employees of health institutions and programs, whether or not professionally trained, and whether or not subject to public regulation. (From A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, 1976)DenmarkMaternal Exposure: Exposure of the female parent, human or animal, to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals that may affect offspring. It includes pre-conception maternal exposure.Urban Population: The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.Registries: The systems and processes involved in the establishment, support, management, and operation of registers, e.g., disease registers.Electromagnetic Fields: Fields representing the joint interplay of electric and magnetic forces.Demography: Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.Psychology, Industrial: The branch of applied psychology concerned with the application of psychologic principles and methods to industrial problems including selection and training of workers, working conditions, etc.Carcinogens, Environmental: Carcinogenic substances that are found in the environment.Military Personnel: Persons including soldiers involved with the armed forces.IndiaLife Style: Typical way of life or manner of living characteristic of an individual or group. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)Work Schedule Tolerance: Physiological or psychological effects of periods of work which may be fixed or flexible such as flexitime, work shifts, and rotating shifts.Wood: A product of hard secondary xylem composed of CELLULOSE, hemicellulose, and LIGNANS, that is under the bark of trees and shrubs. It is used in construction and as a source of CHARCOAL and many other products.Marital Status: A demographic parameter indicating a person's status with respect to marriage, divorce, widowhood, singleness, etc.Sick Leave: An absence from work permitted because of illness or the number of days per year for which an employer agrees to pay employees who are sick. (Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary, 1981)Nurses' Aides: Allied health personnel who assist the professional nurse in routine duties.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Censuses: Enumerations of populations usually recording identities of all persons in every place of residence with age or date of birth, sex, occupation, national origin, language, marital status, income, relation to head of household, information on the dwelling place, education, literacy, health-related data (e.g., permanent disability), etc. The census or "numbering of the people" is mentioned several times in the Old Testament. Among the Romans, censuses were intimately connected with the enumeration of troops before and after battle and probably a military necessity. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 3d ed; Garrison, An Introduction to the History of Medicine, 4th ed, p66, p119)HydrocarbonsAnthropology: The science devoted to the comparative study of man.Cause of Death: Factors which produce cessation of all vital bodily functions. They can be analyzed from an epidemiologic viewpoint.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Parents: Persons functioning as natural, adoptive, or substitute parents. The heading includes the concept of parenthood as well as preparation for becoming a parent.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Musculoskeletal System: The MUSCLES, bones (BONE AND BONES), and CARTILAGE of the body.Paleontology: The study of early forms of life through fossil remains.Marriage: The social institution involving legal and/or religious sanction whereby individuals are joined together.Liver Cirrhosis, Alcoholic: FIBROSIS of the hepatic parenchyma due to chronic excess ALCOHOL DRINKING.Pneumoconiosis: A diffuse parenchymal lung disease caused by inhalation of dust and by tissue reaction to their presence. These inorganic, organic, particulate, or vaporized matters usually are inhaled by workers in their occupational environment, leading to the various forms (ASBESTOSIS; BYSSINOSIS; and others). Similar air pollution can also have deleterious effects on the general population.JapanResidence Characteristics: Elements of residence that characterize a population. They are applicable in determining need for and utilization of health services.Emigration and Immigration: The process of leaving one's country to establish residence in a foreign country.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.DelawareMortality: All deaths reported in a given population.Wounds and Injuries: Damage inflicted on the body as the direct or indirect result of an external force, with or without disruption of structural continuity.BrazilJob Satisfaction: Personal satisfaction relative to the work situation.Respiratory Tract DiseasesCoal MiningEngineering: The practical application of physical, mechanical, and mathematical principles. (Stedman, 25th ed)Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Personnel, Hospital: The individuals employed by the hospital.Hair Preparations: Hair grooming, cleansing and modifying products meant for topical application to hair, usually human. They include sprays, bleaches, dyes, conditioners, rinses, shampoos, nutrient lotions, etc.Back Pain: Acute or chronic pain located in the posterior regions of the THORAX; LUMBOSACRAL REGION; or the adjacent regions.Unemployment: The state of not being engaged in a gainful occupation.Career Mobility: The upward or downward mobility in an occupation or the change from one occupation to another.Forestry: The science of developing, caring for, or cultivating forests.MichiganEconomic Recession: Significant decline in economic activity spread across the economy, lasting more than a few months, normally visible in real gross domestic product, real income, employment, industrial production, and wholesale-retail sales. (National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc, www.nber.org/cycles.html, accessed 4/23/2009)Bronchitis, Chronic: A subcategory of CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE. The disease is characterized by hypersecretion of mucus accompanied by a chronic (more than 3 months in 2 consecutive years) productive cough. Infectious agents are a major cause of chronic bronchitis.Nurses: Professionals qualified by graduation from an accredited school of nursing and by passage of a national licensing examination to practice nursing. They provide services to patients requiring assistance in recovering or maintaining their physical or mental health.Human Engineering: The science of designing, building or equipping mechanical devices or artificial environments to the anthropometric, physiological, or psychological requirements of the people who will use them.Cumulative Trauma Disorders: Harmful and painful condition caused by overuse or overexertion of some part of the musculoskeletal system, often resulting from work-related physical activities. It is characterized by inflammation, pain, or dysfunction of the involved joints, bones, ligaments, and nerves.NorwayLeisure Activities: Voluntary use of free time for activities outside the daily routine.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Coal Tar: A by-product of the destructive distillation of coal used as a topical antieczematic. It is an antipruritic and keratoplastic agent used also in the treatment of psoriasis and other skin conditions. Occupational exposure to soots, tars, and certain mineral oils is known to be carcinogenic according to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985) (Merck Index, 11th ed).Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.Health Status: The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.Poisson Distribution: A distribution function used to describe the occurrence of rare events or to describe the sampling distribution of isolated counts in a continuum of time or space.Fossils: Remains, impressions, or traces of animals or plants of past geological times which have been preserved in the earth's crust.Housing: Living facilities for humans.Health Status Disparities: Variation in rates of disease occurrence and disabilities between population groups defined by socioeconomic characteristics such as age, ethnicity, economic resources, or gender and populations identified geographically or similar measures.Czechoslovakia: Created as a republic in 1918 by Czechs and Slovaks from territories formerly part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. The country split into the Czech Republic and Slovakia 1 January 1993.Rural Health: The status of health in rural populations.Healthy Worker Effect: Phenomenon of workers' usually exhibiting overall death rates lower than those of the general population due to the fact that the severely ill and disabled are ordinarily excluded from employment.Physical Exertion: Expenditure of energy during PHYSICAL ACTIVITY. Intensity of exertion may be measured by rate of OXYGEN CONSUMPTION; HEAT produced, or HEART RATE. Perceived exertion, a psychological measure of exertion, is included.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Alcohol Drinking: Behaviors associated with the ingesting of alcoholic beverages, including social drinking.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Education: Acquisition of knowledge as a result of instruction in a formal course of study.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.TurkeyMortuary Practice: Activities associated with the disposition of the dead. It excludes cultural practices such as funeral rites.Germany, West

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Occupational hygiene: Occupational (or "industrial" in the U.S.Pocket petRelative index of inequality: The relative index of inequality (RII) is a regression-based index which summarizes the magnitude of socio-economic status (SES) as a source of inequalities in health. RII is useful because it takes into account the size of the population and the relative disadvantage experienced by different groups.WHO collaborating centres in occupational health: The WHO collaborating centres in occupational health constitute a network of institutions put in place by the World Health Organization to extend availability of occupational health coverage in both developed and undeveloped countries.Network of WHO Collaborating Centres in occupational health.QRISK: QRISK2 (the most recent version of QRISK) is a prediction algorithm for cardiovascular disease (CVD) that uses traditional risk factors (age, systolic blood pressure, smoking status and ratio of total serum cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) together with body mass index, ethnicity, measures of deprivation, family history, chronic kidney disease, rheumatoid arthritis, atrial fibrillation, diabetes mellitus, and antihypertensive treatment.Occupational fatality: An occupational fatality is a death that occurs while a person is at work or performing work related tasks. Occupational fatalities are also commonly called “occupational deaths” or “work-related deaths/fatalities” and can occur in any industry or occupation.VCU School of Allied Health Professions: Carnegie Classifications | Institution ProfileSuction excavator: A suction excavator or vacuum excavator is a construction vehicle that removes materials from a hole on land, or removes heavy debris on land.World War II in popular culture: There is a wide range of ways in which people have represented World War II in popular culture. Many works were created during the years of conflict and many more have arisen from that period of world history.Computational archaeology: Computational archaeology describes computer-based analytical methods for the study of long-term human behaviour and behavioural evolution. As with other sub-disciplines that have prefixed 'computational' to their name (e.LihouClimate change in Sweden: The issue of climate change has received significant public and political attention in Sweden and the mitigation of its effects has been high on the agenda of the two latest Governments of Sweden, the previous Cabinet of Göran Persson (-2006) and the current Cabinet of Fredrik Reinfeldt (2006-). Sweden aims for an energy supply system with zero net atmospheric greenhouse gas emissions by 2050.Metallurgy: Metallurgy is a domain of materials science and engineering that studies the physical and chemical behavior of metallic elements, their intermetallic compounds, and their mixtures, which are called alloys. Metallurgy is also the technology of metals: the way in which science is applied to the production of metals, and the engineering of metal components for usage in products for consumers and manufacturers.Doffer: A doffer is someone who removes ("doffs") bobbins, pirns or spindles holding spun fiber such as cotton or wool from a spinning frame and replaces them with empty ones. Historically, spinners, doffers, and sweepers each had separate tasks that were required in the manufacture of spun textiles.Nested case-control study: A nested case control (NCC) study is a variation of a case-control study in which only a subset of controls from the cohort are compared to the incident cases. In a case-cohort study, all incident cases in the cohort are compared to a random subset of participants who do not develop the disease of interest.Certificate of relief from disabilities: A Certificate of relief from disabilities is issued by a state of the United States of America to a person who has committed a felony or misdemeanor but has subsequently shown that he or she has been rehabilitated. The closely related "Certificate of good conduct" is given to a person who has committed two or more felonies and has demonstrated rehabilitation.Chilalo Agricultural Development Union: Chilalo Agricultural Development Union (CADU) is the first comprehensive package project established in Arsi Zone, Oromia Region, Ethiopia to modernize traditional subsistence agriculture. The major components of the package programmes include fertilizers, ameliorated seeds, farm credits, marketing facilities, better tools and implements, and improved storage facilities.Australia–Finland relations: Australia–Finland relations are foreign relations between the Australia and Finland. Diplomatic relations were established on 31 May 1949.Closed-ended question: A closed-ended question is a question format that limits respondents with a list of answer choices from which they must choose to answer the question.Dillman D.Incidence (epidemiology): Incidence is a measure of the probability of occurrence of a given medical condition in a population within a specified period of time. Although sometimes loosely expressed simply as the number of new cases during some time period, it is better expressed as a proportion or a rate with a denominator.Arthur Wilson (Royal Navy officer)Environmental impact of paint: The environmental impact of paint is diverse. Traditional painting materials and processes can have harmful effects on the environment, including those from the use of lead and other additives.Age adjustment: In epidemiology and demography, age adjustment, also called age standardization, is a technique used to allow populations to be compared when the age profiles of the populations are quite different.Occupational Medicine (journal): Occupational Medicine is a peer-reviewed medical journal covering occupational medicine, including occupational health psychology and organizational psychology that is published eight times per year by Oxford University Press. It covers "work-related injury and illness, accident and illness prevention, health promotion, occupational disease, health education, the establishment and implementation of health and safety standards, monitoring of the work environment, and the management of recognized hazards".Mineral dust: Mineral dust is a term used to indicate atmospheric aerosols originated from the suspension of minerals constituting the soil, being composed of various oxides and carbonates. Human activities lead to 30% of the dust load in the atmosphere.Timeline of historic inventionsOffice of Workers' Compensation Programs: The Office of Workers' Compensation Programs administers four major disability compensation programs which provide wage replacement benefits, medical treatment, vocational rehabilitation and other benefits to certain workers or their dependents who experience work-related injury or occupational disease.http://www.The Spirit Level: Why More Equal Societies Almost Always Do Better: The Spirit Level: Why More Equal Societies Almost Always Do BetterUK Hardback edition: The Spirit Level: Why More Equal Societies Almost Always Do Better. London, Allen Lane, 5 March 2009.Imperial Leather: Imperial Leather is a brand of soaps, toiletries and healthcare products manufactured by PZ Cussons. The brand originates in Britain and is now available in a number of other countries including Australia, Denmark, Germany, India, Indonesia, Iran, Kenya, Pakistan, South Africa, New Zealand and the United Arab Emirates.National Birth Defects Prevention Network: The National Birth Defects Prevention Network (NBDPN) was founded in 1997. It is a 501(c)3 not-for-profit volunteer organization whose members are involved in birth defects surveillance, prevention and research.Stressor: A stressor is a chemical or biological agent, environmental condition, external stimulus or an event that causes stress to an organism.Anglican Retirement Villages, Diocese of Sydney: Anglican Retirement Villages, Diocese of Sydney (ARV) is a not-for-profit public benevolent institution formed in 1959. This inception date places ARV as one of the founding entities of the social service now referred to as retirement or seniors living.List of shipwrecks in March 1918: The list of shipwrecks in March 1918 includes ships sunk, foundered, grounded, or otherwise lost during March 1918.RhodolithRed Moss, Greater Manchester: Red Moss is a wetland mossland in Greater Manchester, located south of Horwich and east of Blackrod. (Grid Reference ).Circular flow of income: The circular flow of income or circular flow is a model of the economy in which the major exchanges are represented as flows of money, goods and services, etc. between economic agents.List of Parliamentary constituencies in Kent: The ceremonial county of Kent,Pedicure: A pedicure is a superficial cosmetic treatment of the feet and toenails. It provides a similar service to a manicure.National Cancer Research Institute: The National Cancer Research Institute (NCRI) is a UK-wide partnership between cancer research funders, which promotes collaboration in cancer research. Its member organizations work together to maximize the value and benefit of cancer research for the benefit of patients and the public.Advanced Chemical Industries (ACI): ৳ 238 Million http://www.aci-bd.Perfume: Perfume ( ; ) is a mixture of fragrant essential oils or aroma compounds, fixatives and solvents used to give the human body, animals, food, objects, and living spaces "a pleasant scent."Budic II of Brittany: Budic II (; or ; ), formerly known as Budick, was a king of Cornouaille in Brittany in the late 5th and early 6th centuries. He was the father of Hoel Mawr and is probably to be identified with the Emyr Llydaw ("Emperor of Brittany") and King Nentres who appear in Arthurian legend.Epidemiological method: The science of epidemiology has matured significantly from the times of Hippocrates and John Snow. The techniques for gathering and analyzing epidemiological data vary depending on the type of disease being monitored but each study will have overarching similarities.Asbestos: Asbestos (pronounced or ) is a set of six naturally occurring silicate minerals, which all have in common their eponymous asbestiform habit: long (roughly 1:20 aspect ratio), thin fibrous crystals, with each visible fiber composed of millions of microscopic "fibrils" that can be released by abrasion and other processes. They are commonly known by their colors, as blue asbestos, brown asbestos, white asbestos, and green asbestos.Gas metal arc weldingList of Indus Valley Civilization sites: "'Indus Civilization"' is an ancient civilization.North Wales Narrow Gauge RailwaysProportional reporting ratio: The proportional reporting ratio (PRR) is a statistic that is used to summarize the extent to which a particular adverse event is reported for individuals taking a specific drug, compared to the frequency at which the same adverse event is reported for patients taking some other drug (or who are taking any drug in a specified class of drugs). The PRR will typically be calculated using a surveillance database in which reports of adverse events from a variety of drugs are recorded.Local government areas of Scotland: Local government areas covering the whole of Scotland were first defined by the Local Government (Scotland) Act 1889. As currently defined, they are a result, for the most part, of the Local Government etc (Scotland) Act 1994.Pesticides in the United States: Pesticides in the United States are used predominantly by the agricultural sector,Kellogg RL, Nehring R, Grube A, Goss DW, and Plotkin S (February 2000), Environmental indicators of pesticide leaching and runoff from farm fields. United States Department of Agriculture Natural Resources Conservation Service.MillwrightTemporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studyingLayout of the Port of Tianjin: The Port of Tianjin is divided into nine areas: the three core (“Tianjin Xingang”) areas of Beijiang, Nanjiang, and Dongjiang around the Xingang fairway; the Haihe area along the river; the Beitang port area around the Beitangkou estuary; the Dagukou port area in the estuary of the Haihe River; and three areas under construction (Hanggu, Gaoshaling, Nangang).Alan J. Smith (architect): Alan J Smith OBE (born in 1949) is an English architect who established redboxdesign group, responsible for many notable buildings in England, it is headquartered in Newcastle upon Tyne. The practice has completed projects throughout Europe.Aarhus Faculty of Health Sciences (Aarhus University): The Aarhus Faculty of Health Sciences is a faculty of Aarhus University. The Aarhus Faculty of Health Sciences became a reality after Aarhus University was divided into four new main academic areas which came into effect on 1 January 2011.Disease registry: Disease or patient registries are collections of secondary data related to patients with a specific diagnosis, condition, or procedure, and they play an important role in post marketing surveillance of pharmaceuticals. Registries are different from indexes in that they contain more extensive data.Electromagnetic environment: In telecommunication, the term electromagnetic environment (EME) has the following meanings:May Smith (psychologist)United States Military Academy class ringTamil Nadu Dr. M.G.R. Medical University

(1/1702) Permanent work incapacity, mortality and survival without work incapacity among occupations and social classes: a cohort study of ageing men in Geneva.

BACKGROUND: The objective of this retrospective cohort study was to investigate the burden of disability and death in men, from middle age to age of retirement, among occupational groups and classes in Geneva. METHODS: Men were included if they resided in the Canton of Geneva, were 45 years of age in 1970-1972, and were not receiving a disability pension at the start of the follow-up. The cohort of 5137 men was followed up for 20 years and linked to national registers of disability pension allowance and of causes of death. RESULTS: There was a steep upward trend in incidence of permanent work incapacity with lower social class for all causes as well as for the seven causes of disability studied. Compared with professional occupations (social class I), the relative risk (RR) of permanent work incapacity was 11.4 for partly skilled and unskilled occupations (class IV+V) (95% confidence interval [CI]: 5.2-28.0). The social class gradient in mortality was in the same direction as that in work incapacity although much less steep (RR class IV+V to class I = 1.6, 95% CI : 1.1-2.2). Survival without work incapacity at the time of the 65th birthday ranged from only 57% in construction workers and labourers to 89% in science and related professionals. Unemployment in Geneva was below 1.5% during almost all the study period. CONCLUSIONS: Medically-ascertained permanent work incapacity and survival without work incapacity have shown considerably greater socioeconomic differentials than the mortality differentials.  (+info)

(2/1702) Failing firefighters: a survey of causes of death and ill-health retirement in serving firefighters in Strathclyde, Scotland from 1985-94.

During the decade beginning 1 January 1985, 887 full-time firefighters, all male, left the service of Strathclyde Fire Brigade (SFB). There were 17 deaths--compared to 64.4 expected in the Scottish male population aged 15-54 years--giving a standardized mortality ratio (SMR) of 26, and 488 ill-health retirements (IHR). None of the deaths was attributable to service, the major causes being: myocardial infarction--five, (expected = 17.3; SMR = 29); cancers--three (colon, kidney and lung) (expected = 13.6; SMR = 22); road traffic accidents--two (expected = 4.17; SMR = 48) and suicide--two (expected = 4.9; SMR = 41). Amalgamating the deaths and IHRs showed that the six most common reasons for IHR were musculoskeletal (n = 202, 40%), ocular (n = 61, 12.1%), 'others' (n = 58, 11.5%), injuries (n = 50, 9.9%), heart disease (n = 48, 9.5%) and mental disorders (n = 45, 8.9%). Over 300 IHRs (over 60%) occurred after 20 or more years service. When the IHRs were subdivided into two quinquennia, there were 203 and 302 in each period. Mean length of service during each quinquennium was 19.4 vs. 21.3 years (p = 0.003) and median length was 21 years in both periods; interquartile range was 12-26 years in the first and 17-27 years in the second period (p = 0.002), but when further broken down into diagnostic categories, the differences were not statistically significant, with the exception of means of IHRs attributed to mental disorders (14.5 vs. 19 years, p = 0.03).  (+info)

(3/1702) Sexual harassment and generalized workplace abuse among university employees: prevalence and mental health correlates.

OBJECTIVES: This study hypothesized that interpersonal workplace stressors involving sexual harassment and generalized workplace abuse are highly prevalent and significantly linked with mental health outcomes including symptomatic distress, the use and abuse of alcohol, and other drug use. METHODS: Employees in 4 university occupational groups (faculty, student, clerical, and service workers; n = 2492) were surveyed by means of a mailed self-report instrument. Cross-tabular and ordinary least squares and logistic regression analyses examined the prevalence of harassment and abuse and their association with mental health status. RESULTS: The data show high rates of harassment and abuse. Among faculty, females were subjected to higher rates; among clerical and service workers, males were subjected to higher rates. Male and female clerical and service workers experienced higher levels of particularly severe mistreatment. Generalized abuse was more prevalent than harassment for all groups. Both harassment and abuse were significantly linked to most mental health outcomes for men and women. CONCLUSIONS: Interpersonally abusive workplace dynamics constitute a significant public health problem that merits increased intervention and prevention strategies.  (+info)

(4/1702) Low mortality rates in industrial cohort studies due to selection for work and survival in the industry.

Occupational groups are often described as being relatively healthy because their mortality rates are lower than those of the national average. Although correct this confuses the issue for those who are interested in assessing the effects of exposure to a particular chemical. In a further analysis of data collected in a study of all men ever exposed to vinyl chloride monomer in the manufacture of polyvinyl chloride in Great Britain, three factors have been shown to contribute to the low mortality rates that were observed. The three factors: the selection of a healthy population for employment, the survival in the industry of the healthier men, and the length of time that this population has been pursued, have been quantified. The mortality experience within five years of entering this industry was shown to be as low as 37% of that expected; for circulatory disease and respiratory disease it was as low as 21%. There was a progressive increase in standardized mortality ratio with the length of time since entry so that the effect had almost disappeared 15 years after entry. To avoid confounding the selection effect with the survival effect the latter was measured by separating men who survived 15 years after entering the industry according to whether or not they were still in the industry after this period. Those who had left experienced an overall standardized mortality ratio some 50% higher than those still in the industry. This effect, although consistent in the age groups between 25 and 74 years and for all cause groups studied, was greatest in those aged between 25 and 44 years and for lung cancer and respiratory disease.  (+info)

(5/1702) Adrenosympathetic overactivity under conditions of work stress.

Serial measurements of urinary adrenaline, noradrenaline, and 11-hydroxycorticosteroid excretion were performed on 32 healthy men under two conditions of work stress; piecework and work on assembly line. A statistically significant increase in adrenaline, noradrenaline, and 11-hydroxycorticosteroids was observed for piecework and assembly line workers compared with salaried and 'ordinary' workers. The results support the assumption that psychosocial factors of an everyday type have significant effects on the sympathoadrenomedullary and adrenocortical function.  (+info)

(6/1702) Dynamic strength of the quadriceps muscle and sports activity.

The study objectives were to examine the dynamic strength of the quadriceps muscle in athletes, and investigate its association with participation in sport. The study comprised 168 active competitive non-pregnant athletes, aged 14-24 years. The dynamic strength of their quadriceps muscle was measured, and they answered a questionnaire about sports activity and occupation. The dynamic strength of the quadriceps muscle was significantly higher in men than in women, and was positively associated with body weight, years of jogging, years of soccer, and weekly hours of basketball. In conclusion, the dynamic strength of the quadriceps muscle seems to be associated with sports activity. The results suggest sport specific adaptation, which may reflect high levels of running and jumping activity.  (+info)

(7/1702) An investigation of factors contributing to styrene and styrene-7,8-oxide exposures in the reinforced-plastics industry.

During the manufacturing of reinforced plastics, large amounts of styrene and trace quantities of styrene-7,8-oxide (SO) are released. Since previous work suggests that inhalation of even small amounts of SO might be an important health risk, we investigated several possible factors contributing to styrene and SO exposure during the manufacture of reinforced plastics. Factors related to job type, worker and the type and quantity of styrene-containing resins were investigated using mixed-effects multiple linear regression models. Overall, SO exposure levels were positively correlated with styrene exposure levels. However, this correlation was statistically significant only among hand laminators who had the highest exposures to both styrene and SO. An important factor for predicting both styrene and SO concentrations was the type of resin used, while the quantity of resin consumed was predictive of styrene but not of SO exposure. Since So exposure appears to be associated with factors other than coexposure to styrene, more effort should be placed on investigating emissions of SO per se. The type of mixed-models regression analysis employed in this study can be used for clarifying the underlying patterns for exposures to styrene and SO as well as for evaluating preventive measures.  (+info)

(8/1702) Comparative personal exposures to organic dusts and endotoxin.

The aims of the study were to provide valid comparative data for personal exposures to dust and endotoxins for different occupations and to calculate comparative data for the contamination of organic dusts with endotoxin. Nine different occupational settings were studied, drawn from the textile, agricultural and animal handling industries. Samples were collected by personal sampling techniques, using the Institute of Occupational Medicine (IOM) sampling head, glass fibre filters and rechargeable sampling pumps. The dust exposures were calculated by gravimetric analysis and using the calculated volume of air sampled were expressed as mg/m3. Endotoxin exposures were measured using a simple water extraction from the collected dusts, followed by a quantitative turbidimetric assay. Results were expressed as ng/m3, using the calculated volume of air sampled. In addition, the levels of the contamination of dusts with endotoxin for individual industries were expressed as ng/mg of collected dust. Two hundred and fifty-nine samples, collected from 9 different industries and across 36 different sites were analysed. This represented a sampling rate of 25% for the total work force. The average sampling time was 4.62 h. For all the dusts collected, a significant correlation between the collected dust and endotoxin was seen (r = 0.7 and p < 0.001). The highest dust exposures occurred during cleaning activities (grain handling: 72.5 mg/m3). The individuals exposed to the highest median level of dust and endotoxin were the animal handlers (poultry handlers, dust: 11.53 mg/m3, endotoxin: 71,995 ng/m3). Weaving and mushroom cultivation had the lowest exposures for dust and endotoxins. The mostly highly contaminated dusts (median values expressed as ng of endotoxin per mg of collected dust) were found in the animal handling (poultry: 1,030 ng/mg, swine: 152 ng/mg) and cotton spinning (522 ng/mg) industries. Processing of cotton and wool fibres was found to reduce the levels of contamination of dusts with endotoxin. In the study, valid comparative data for personal exposures to organic dusts and endotoxins have been presented. The highest exposures were found amongst animal handlers and during cleaning activities. The results highlight that dust exposures are greater in a number of industries than the set exposure standards. In addition, endotoxin exposures are found to be greater than levels at which harmful effects have been demonstrated.  (+info)

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